The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

Filter by Date

  • Abendpost -- January 02, 1936
    The Blessings of Democracy (Editorial)

    During the last years before the abolition of Prohibition, one often heard the assertion that the Prohibition question had nothing whatsoever to do with politics. This statement, correct in principle but absolutely wrong in actual practice, emanated from those advocates of compulsory abstinence who feared the approaching danger, that one of the great political parties might favor the abandonment of that blessed dryness, and also from those politicians who were fully neutral toward Prohibition but recognized in it a voting factor which might prove fatal in certain political circles.

    Conditions at the time, in so far as Prohibition is concerned, virtually threatened to poison politics in the United States.

    In many instances the qualifications and the character of the candidates 2were not the deciding factors any longer--the sole issue was their attitude toward Prohibition.

    The Anti-Saloon League went so far as to advocate candidates who had been given prison sentences for dishonorable acts, and the opponents of Prohibition often voted for candidates who enjoyed the support of notorious bootleggers and gangsters.

    In regard to the problem of the veterans' bonus, an equally threatening situation seems to be developing. That this question will be discussed in Congress during the coming session has already been established, and it also seems to have been decided that both Houses will pass a bill to provide immediate payment of the bonus. The outcome now depends upon the action of the President, whether or not he intends to veto the act of Congress again. The resolution of the Senate is in itself absolutely senseless, because those veterans who actually need the bonus are already being supported by the government, and the payment of the bonus will only result 3in doing away with the help the veterans are receiving now. The others can afford to wait until the bonus is due in 1945.

    Pat Harrison, chairman of the Senate Finance Committee, remarked recently: "I hope we can devise something which will be acceptable to both sides so that this irritating affair can be eliminated. The question never should have been injected into politics, and the quicker we remove it from that sphere, the better." That is the honorable Senator's highly optimistic view. If he really believes that the question can ever be disposed of, he makes a serious error. If the bonus is paid, another demand will be made. The Veterans of Foreign Wars have already proposed a pension bill, whereby every veteran is to receive a dollar for each day that he was in the service.

    The American Legion was for a number of years very modest in its demands, but eventually it acceded to the views of its competitor, the Veterans of Foreign Wars, and, after all, one cannot blame the Legion for that. Had 4the Legion acted differently most of the veterans would have abandoned it and would have joined the Veterans of Foreign Wars. After all, it is only human for people to follow those who make the greatest promises. It is therefore absolutely impossible to exclude from politics the bonus and other pension questions which now rest so tranquilly, yet ominously, in the lap of the future.

    After all, in a democratic country where the majority rules, the politicians must always face the temptation to buy votes with the aid of governmental appropriations. But the pension does not represent the limit. At first it will be restricted to those veterans who were actually at the front and were honorably discharged. Later an attempt will be made to put the pension on a broader base, which means that those who never smelled powder will also be eligible, the "swivel-chair" soldiers and the office guardsmen; in short, that huge number of veterans who never left the country. Then the widows of the veterans will come in for a share, and why should a grateful nation allow its poor, helpless children to suffer? They, too, will be given paternal 5support as long as Uncle Sam has a nickel in his pocket. One need not be a prophet to predict this. It was always thus, and is bound to be repeated because it represents one of the unavoidable blessings of democracy.

    During the last years before the abolition of Prohibition, one often heard the assertion that the Prohibition question had nothing whatsoever to do with politics. This statement, correct in principle ...

    III D, I B 2
  • Saloniki-Greek Press -- January 02, 1936
    Arcadia Laundry Employees

    The Arcadia Laundry Company is known all over Chicago. It is one of the most successful and progressive companies in the city, and we are proud to say it is owned and managed by Greek businessman. These men are not only reliable business people but they are also very true to their motherland and do everything in their power to encourage the progress of the Greek community.

    Mr. Spyro Salapatas, K. Karambelas, B. Kordonis, and G. Katemis, the directors of the Arcadia, decided to give a dinner in honor of their employees. It took place in the hall of the St. Spiridon Church on the far South Side.

    More than two hundred persons connected with the Laundry were present at the dinner. The chairman and toastmaster was Mr. James Parry, who spoke on the rapid rise of the firm.


    Mr. Salapatas, president of the firm, welcomed the employees and thanked them for their co-operation during the last year.

    After the speeches everyone danced or sang popular Greek music.

    The Arcadia Laundry Company is known all over Chicago. It is one of the most successful and progressive companies in the city, and we are proud to say it is ...

    II A 2, IV
  • Abendpost -- January 02, 1936
    (No headline)

    the arguments of the WPA'S opponents are not always tenable, and occasionally they are fraught with exaggeration. The objections about increased costs will affect uninformed people who are unaccustomed to independent thinking, but such statements do not stand up under a thorough analysis.

    First, one must consider that financial aid given for a long time without a corresponding return in labor undermines morale. Only too readily do men grow accustomed to idleness, whereafter it is difficult to induce them to resume some useful activity which will support them.

    Besides, one must realize that the increased costs do not only consist of payments to the unemployed; for part of this money is used to buy material, tools, etc., whereby certain branches of industry enjoy a longed-for revival.

    Regarding the utility of certain projects opinions may be divided; many projects, however, probably produce lasting values, and ere long other projects must be started.


    In so far as some of this work is concerned, one might wish for greater efficiency and experience. Yet not all the blame can be heaped upon the WPA administration. First of all, there may have been insufficient time available for the necessary preparations prior to the opening of a project. The intention was to give help quickly to the jobless, and this could only be achieved by slighting the advance work; that is, expert production had to be dispensed with. Here also increased difficulties were encountered through successive changes in the emergency work system. In the beginning the CWA was created, which did much good, but it was abandoned because of the protests of businessmen who regarded it as a competitor. Aid for the unemployed was then shifted to the FERA, and its management of the problem aroused still stronger criticism. Finally the WPA was brought into being, and it is too early to give a final dicision on its activities.

    Among other objections critics declare that it would be preferable to employ only experienced men and to pay them the prevailing wages of their trades. In 4this manner the Government would not compete with private business, and the money thus expended for emergency work would indirectly reach the unemployed. This view is more or less justified, but the results would be forthcoming very slowly in so far as the effect throughout the country is concerned, and it would not solve the problem of providing the necessary aid for the unemployed immediately.

    The contention of the critics that primarily members of the Democratic party are considered cannot be disputed. However, if the Republicans were in power similar accusations would probably be made against that party. Because of our political system we simply cannot extricate ourselves from party politics.

    the arguments of the WPA'S opponents are not always tenable, and occasionally they are fraught with exaggeration. The objections about increased costs will affect uninformed people who are unaccustomed to ...

    I D 2 c
  • Saloniki-Greek Press -- January 02, 1936
    Murder, Wounding and Suicide

    A terrible crime shook the Greek community of Chicago to its very foundations. Last Monday morning Philip A. Mikes, thirty-six years old, living at 2633 North Austin Avenue, shot and killed his wife Penelope, aged forty, and her eighteen-year-old daughter by a previous marriage, wounded her sixteen-year-old son and then committed suicide.

    The dead man, a native of Thrace, Greece, had lived in Chicago for fifteen years and was always quiet and peace-loving. He worked in the Atlas Bank for a number of years, leaving it in 1928. He then became connected with various business firms. Two years ago he brought his sister from Greece and helped her establish herself in Chicago. Soon afterwards he married a divorcee, Mrs. Penelope Vournas, a native of Messinia, and the mother of four children. He established her and the children in a nice apartment, which was later to become the scene of a terrible tragedy.


    Such a thing has never before occured in the Greek Community of Chicago.

    Philip Mikes' marriage was an unfortunate one from the beginning. There was frequent quarreling, which finally resulted in Monday's tragic events.

    It is believed that the cause of the tragedy was the wife's infidelity. The husband had been informed many times in the past of his wife's indiscretions and unfaithfulness. Last Saturday night, when he accused her of this, the wife responded by having him arrested. He was released after paying a twenty-dollar fine. However, his wife insisted upon having him punished by the law for accusing her of infidelity. While she and her two older children were preparing to go to the nearby police station to make another complaint, he kept pleading with her to forget it all and start a new life with the new year. She refused to heed his pleas and infuriated him to such an extent that he shot and killed her and the daughter, and wounded her son. Then he turned the gun on himself, sending a bullet through his breast.


    The first husband of the dead woman deserted her four years ago because of her ill conduct.

    A terrible crime shook the Greek community of Chicago to its very foundations. Last Monday morning Philip A. Mikes, thirty-six years old, living at 2633 North Austin Avenue, shot and ...

    II E 2, I B 3 a
  • Rassviet (The Dawn) -- January 04, 1936
    Where People Read More

    The American press informs us that during the economic crisis the consumption of newsprint has increased considerably in all democratic countries. This means that during the depression period the number of newspaper readers has also increased.

    Accounts published by American libraries indicate that during the past year the demand for books also has been increasing very rapidly.

    All this shows conclusively that since the depression began, people have taken a more lively interest in reading, and thus the old adage that "it is an ill wind that blows nobody good" is confirmed once more.

    In the dictatorship countries, on the contrary, the consumption of newsprint during the depression has been reduced. The totals of newspaper circulation in these countries continue to show a drop, for people are interested very 2little in reading government-controlled and much-censored party and official publications.

    Thus, for instance, in England during 1927, consumption of newsprint reached the total of 844,000 tons, and by 1934 it rose to 1,291,000 tons.

    In the United States, due mainly to reduction of advertising space contracted for, and consequent reduction in the number of pages, though not in the totals of circulation, the consumption of newsprint has decreased from 3,778,810 tons in 1929 to 2,680,619 tons in 1934.

    In France, during the year 1927, 235,000 tons of paper were used, and during 1934 the consumption amounted to over 400,000 tons. Like increases in consumption of newsprint during the last few years were observed in all other countries where freedom of the press still exists.

    In England, during the past year, the consumption of paper reached the figure 3of 57.5 pounds per capita of population. The United States took second place in this respect; Australia and New Zealand third; Argentina, fourth; and then followed Holland, France, and the Scandinavian countries.

    In Germany, in a country which always prided itself on the highest percentage of literate people, the consumption of newsprint has fallen, during the National Socialist regime, to 11.6 pounds, and in Fascist Italy, to 3.6 pounds. The last place among civilized nations, as far as consumption of paper is concerned, is occupied by Soviet Russia, where the per capita use of paper is only 2.4 pounds.

    In the dictatorship countries, all newspapers are alike. Thus, for instance, Moscow Izvestia is the official organ of the Soviet government, and Pravda is the official organ of the Communist party, but one is not distinguishable from the other save only in the form and type used. The same is true of all newspapers either in Germany or Italy. For that very reason the 4cultured reader is not interested in such newspapers.

    In countries where freedom of the press still exists many people read not one but many newspapers, and this is the reason why the consumption of newsprint in the free countries is increasing, instead of falling, as is the case in the countries ruled by the dictators.

    The American press informs us that during the economic crisis the consumption of newsprint has increased considerably in all democratic countries. This means that during the depression period the number ...

    I E
  • Rassviet (The Dawn) -- January 04, 1936
    The Russian Independent Mutual Aid Society in 1935 by P.S.

    The days and years pass by really very fast. Unnoticed the year 1935 has gone by carrying away all our joys, sorrows and anxieties of the past year. What will the year 1936 bring forth? What joys, what sorrows has it in store for our immigrant people?

    In the life of the Russian Independent Mutual Aid Society [R.I.M.A.S.] the most important event during the past year was, of course, the introduction of the new forms of insurance.

    Formerly, as everybody knows, we had only the uniform straight-life policies. During the past year, however, we adopted almost all existing forms of insurance. The introduction of these new forms cost the Society a great deal of 2money and involved a great deal of work both for the Executive Board and for our general secretary, Mr. Nicholas Kozak.

    The importance of this innovation is perhaps not fully understood by all the rank and file members, although the step has an all-important bearing on the future life and development of our organization. These new forms of policies are, in their meaning, like a reinforced concrete foundation for a building. They impart to the Society the strength and stability of steel and concrete. Resting on that kind of a foundation, R.I.M.A.S. will undoubredly grow and develop, for the money put in its treasury will be perfectly secure, and the monthly payments much smaller than in any other insurance company.

    Not less important for the Russian people is the fact that the Russian Independent Mutual Aid Society is the only mutual aid organization in Chicago and its vicinity. They can communicate with it in Russian either by mail or by wire, and speak to its officials in Russian. Meetings, conventions, and 3the minutes of all proceedings are carried on in their native Russian language, which is dear to their hearts. Allegiance to their own society and the possibility of addressing others as "brothers" or "sisters" make the Russian people thrown into a strange land less lonesome, more confident in their strength and ability to survive. The moral support it gives is the main service rendered by R.I.M.A.S. to the Russian people. This is quite well understood by the Russian colony in Chicago, and this explains the fact that new members are continually being added to the ranks of the organization. During the year just closed several new branches were organized, and outgrew the old ones in membership.

    Some of the branches carry on intensive cultural and educational work among the young people, which will help to preserve the Russian language and, consequently, the youth itself for Russia.

    During the past year, R.I.M.A.S. also opened permanent offices where all Russian people can apply for necessary information or in any case of need.


    During the past year the page financed and edited by R.I.M.A.S. has given space to many valuable articles written exclusively by the members of our society. Successful, also, was the fight against the enemies of the Russian people and those of all working people.

    From all that has been said it is clear that during the past year R.I.M.A.S. has accomplished a great deal that is good and useful.

    Let us express the hope that during this new year of 1936, also, we shall continue ceaselessly to go ahead without loss of faith and courage on account of obstacles which we may encounter in our work.

    Let us continue to create those spiritual values which help to lift the Russian community to the height it properly deserves and thereby gain respect of other nations.

    The Independent Society has taken upon itself another new task--the task of 5raising the cultural level of the Russian colony.

    Let us, then, rally around our organization and help it to carry out this noble and beautiful task.

    The days and years pass by really very fast. Unnoticed the year 1935 has gone by carrying away all our joys, sorrows and anxieties of the past year. What will ...

    II D 1, I A 3, III A, IV
  • Sonntagpost -- January 05, 1936
    The German Song in the Metropolis of the West Vereinigte Maennerchoere von Chicago by Karl Kraenzle

    [Translator's note: This is the fourth in a series of articles.]

    A group of certain teetotalers proceeded very clandestinely to fight Sunday pleasures, and our German club festivities were also endangered thereby.

    The Vereinigte Maennerchoere (Allied Male Choruses) also led this fight and sent a delegation with a petition to Edward J. Dunne, mayor of Chicago at that time.

    The Mayor readily perceived how energetically the singers were fighting for 2their liberty and sensed approaching difficulties. Hence he promised the delegation that no ordinances of such a nature would be enacted.

    Nothing more was heard of the league for the promotion of blue laws and it appeared that everything was quiet and peaceful.

    But in 1906, after the hypocrites and heroic moral crusaders had unobtrusively gathered their forces, they ventured forth anew, and this time used stronger tactics.

    The Vereinigte Maennerchoere were again the vanguard in the fight for personal freedom. At their meeting on May 5, 1906, it was decided to send a strong protest, in English, to the Associated Press. All German clubs were requested, moreover, to send delegates to the next meeting of the recently founded branch of the National Alliance. The new branch, however, 3did not consider itself strong enough to complete its task, and other ways had to be found.

    As the Vereinigte Maennerchoere had resolved not to desist until success was assured, they consulted the old Citizens' Alliance, and the latter was willing to take the leadership.

    A special organization was founded and given the rather long name, The United Societies for Local Self-Government. [Translator's note: The Abendpost gives the name in English. It is not explained whether the United Societies for Local Self-Government and also the old "Citizen's Alliance" are American or German organizations.]

    Within a few weeks this newly founded association succeeded in arranging a 4mass demonstration the like of which has not been witnessed before in Chicago.

    Thousands upon thousands filled the hall and crowded adjacent streets, listening to the fiery speeches and inspiring melodies of our singers.

    As a result of this impressive mass demonstration the City Council found itself compelled to make the desired concessions and thus a far-reaching victory was won. The fruits of the victory fell to the clubs, to be enjoyed by them in peace. The Vereinigte Maennerchoere may well be proud of the fact that they started the ball rolling.

    After all, we must note that these festivities represent the lifeblood of the associations and with the surplus derived from their arrangements the rent for the club hall, the salary of a music leader, etc., are paid.


    G. Ehrhorn, F. Amberg

    After the usual concerts and entertainment, a special event took place on November, 1907, when Franz Amberg, founder and organizer of the Vereinigte Maennerchoere as well as the Orpheus Maennerchor, celebrated his golden jubilee as a singer.

    His efforts to promote the cause of German song were untiring, over a period of fifty years! Oblivious to distress and storm, despite dissension and lack of recognition, he secured for German songs a lasting place in this city.

    Often he was compelled to face a bitter fight whenever his enemies, prompted by selfishness and jealousy, endeavored to belittle his life's work, and attempted to deny his just reward. But the man was honest in his convictions and worked unselfishly and faithfully in the interests of German song, and 6the respect which the conservatives of the singing societies accorded him soon silenced his opponents and the "wise guys" who are found everywhere. He labored indefatigably, oblivious to personal gain. His enthusiasm for German folk songs was genuine, and he always gave time and effort in their behalf.

    The valiant old gentleman lived to enjoy the honors which he so rightly deserved. His golden jubilee as a singer was celebrated in the form of a banquet on November 21, 1907, and in spite of the extensive preparations which the festival entailed, it was possible to make it a complete surprise for Mr. Amberg. That splendid festival is still vividly remembered by everyone who participated.

    Another genial song leader, who always collaborated with the organizer of the song movement, was also able to celebrate a jubilee soon afterwards.


    The Nestor of the Chicago choral directors, Gustav Ehrhorn, held his golden jubilee as music conductor on April 21, 1909. He surmounted all difficulties and under his leadership the song clubs proved very successful. The clubs showed their esteem and gratitude by giving an imposing concert at Orchestra Hall on November 21.

    The president and the officials of the North American Saengerbund (Singers' Alliance) came from all parts of the country to congratulate Mr. Ehrhorn. He was given a diploma, and thus became an honorary member of the Alliance.

    Franz Amberg was also to be presented with this mark of distinction, but refused definitely to accept it on this evening as he did not wish to rob his old friend and companion-at-arms of the center of the stage. The diploma conferring honorary membership in the Alliance was therefore presented to him at a mass choral rehearsal in the presence of a huge and 8enthusiastic assembly.

    This little episode shows the honest, upright character of the man who will always be remembered as a shining example in matters having to do with the popularization of German songs.

    On June 12, 1910, the singers were confronted with the sorrowful duty of being pallbearers to their founder and president for many years, Franz Amberg. His mortal remains lay in state in the North Side Turner Hall, where he enjoyed so many happy hours among the singers, and thus his countless friends were enabled to express before the bier their final tribute in speeches and song.

    Thus the man whose name was so affectionatly known among----all Germans of our city was brought to his final resting place and buried at Graceland 9Cemetery. A grieving community numbering thousands constituted the funeral procession.

    Welcome Visitors

    Aside from their own regular concerts and entertainments the Vereinigte Raennerchoere were often asked to enrich with German songs the programs of other associations.

    I shall only mention a few of these many requests: On January 12, 1922, January 22, 1914, and January 20, 1918, the singers took an active part in the festivities which were given for the benefit of the local destitute veterans of the German army.

    On Sunday, March 24, 1912, a Goethe festival was given at the Auditorium 10theatre. On this occasion the singers contributed several songs to the celebration in honor of Goethe's poetry.

    The organization also sung at the Land (sic) Exposition at the Coliseum, on Sunday, November 24, 1912, which was celebrated as German Day.

    On July 12, 1913, the singers accepted an invitation to sing at the simple ceremony of laying of the cornerstone for the German Old People's Home Annex.

    Again they were asked to take part in a program, this time in connection with the international Olympic Games at Grant Park on Lake Michigan. Here, also, the singers gladly acceded to the request, appearing on July 6, 1913.

    In May, 1914, the singers of the Alliance participated in the dedication of 11of the Goethe monument at the northern end of Lincoln Park.

    The Illinois Turnbezirk (Turner District) celebrated its fiftieth anniversary on Sunday, May 24, 1915, at Dexter Park Pavilion. The singers of the Alliance were well represented and turned the festival into a veritable jubilee.

    Again, the singers fulfilled their duty by appearing at a patriotic festival. In 1915, during the last week of May, from May 24 to May 31, the hundredth anniversary of the birth of Friedrich Wilhelm von Bismarck, Germany's greatest statesman, was celebrated at the Bismarck Garden. On every evening several of our clubs contributed German songs to the celebration of the festival.

    More dates could be recorded, but these few may suffice to show the reader 12the willingness of the Alliance to help with songs to promote a favorable attitude toward the German people and the German culture.

    [Translator's note: This is the fourth in a series of articles.] A group of certain teetotalers proceeded very clandestinely to fight Sunday pleasures, and our German club festivities were also ...

    II B 1 a, I F 2, I B 1, III C, IV
  • Abendpost -- January 06, 1936
    Roosevelt's Message (Editorial)

    The President broke several traditions when he presented his message to Congress. He delivered the message in person, simultaneously broadcasting it over the radio for the people to hear. He offered no detailed report on the nation's general condition but mentioned briefly that an improvement in economic conditions was manifest everywhere. On the other hand, he used the strongest possible terms in speaking of those who cast aspersions upon him and who resort to frothy virulence.

    In unmistakable words he reminded us that in the years following the great war a very small group of bankers and commercial and industrial leaders grabbed economic control of the nation.

    When our economic order failed under their incapable, shortsighted, and selfish 2rule, they temporarily abdicated their leadership, he stated, but now they are attempting to regain power. For this reason, they are waging a merciless fight against the Administration, in which they are supported by their "political puppets," as Roosevelt calls them.

    The underlying dishonesty and mendacity of this onslaught were plainly set forth by Roosevelt, who had submitted a long list of questions to his opponents. Thus far, not a single answer has been forthcoming. In other words: They have merely criticized his measures in the most derogatory manner, but they have not been able to offer definite solutions for the country's problems. Thus Roosevelt disproved with tremendous effectiveness and irrefutable logic the claims of his adversaries who oppose the measures he has adopted for the New Deal.

    The greater part of his speech involved foreign affairs, and here, too, he broke with tradition, because he discussed foreign policy at the beginning of his address. He defended the democratic form of government and emphasized 3that it is to be regarded as an assurance of peace, whereas the autocratically governed countries threaten world peace continually. From the comments of the press, it is generally assumed that the President alluded to Italy and Japan.

    In the case of these two countries Roosevelt's assertion is justified. But if he generalizes and declares that democracy always assures peace and autocracies lean toward war, then history does not corroborate his contention.

    One need only consider the autocratic Germany of today to recognize that the German government has succeeded in maintaining peace at a national sacrifice. Our own country is young in comparison with most European nations. But if we are honest, we cannot deny that our democracy has always had a deeply in-grained propensity to resort to arms. Our Mexican conflict was a pure war of conquest, and no less a man than Lincoln, a Congressman at the time, told the incumbent President that he was guilty of homicide. The Spanish-American War was deliberately provoked, and our participation in the World War was 4absolutely inexcusable, as nearly everybody admits today.

    There is a great omission in the President's philosophical dissertations on history. He considers the form of government as the essential and deciding factor in the foreign affairs of a country. He completely overlooks the fact that economic reasons, as history amply testifies, usually are responsible for wars.....

    His message then considered the impending neutrality legislation. The President explained that neutrality laws are designed in the interest of peace, and that two policies must be considered: first, warring nations must be prevented from obtaining arms, munitions, and other military supplies from the United States; and second, they must not be permitted to buy larger quantities of material of a general nature--which may be used for war purposes--than they obtained in time of peace.

    Perhaps Roosevelt intended through his remarks to induce other nations to 5follow our precedent and, by adopting similar laws, to seek to avoid wars or--shorten them. If he should succeed, a new epoch in international relations would be established which might prove valuable in maintaining peace. But the prospects are well-nigh nil. Through such measures the present causes of war cannot be eradicated; and these must be removed if peace is to be assured.

    The President broke several traditions when he presented his message to Congress. He delivered the message in person, simultaneously broadcasting it over the radio for the people to hear. He ...

    I G, I D 1 a, I J
  • Abendpost -- January 07, 1936
    [The Bonus Bill] (Editorial)

    It appears to be settled that the bonus bill, in some form or other, will be accepted by Congress within the next few days. There will be an overpowering majority in both houses because this is an election year and there will be few members of Congress who can resist the pressure of the veterans among their voters. Similar bills have been passed repeatedly by the Senate or the separate houses but have always suffered shipwreck when they struck the iron will of the presidents. The last similar bill was vetoed by President Roosevelt during the past year, after he had asserted, in 1932, that he would not consent to immediate payment of the bonus--which is due in 1945--unless the budget is balanced and shows a surplus instead of a constant deficit. At present the budget is not balanced, and there is no way of telling when that time will come. If the 2President sticks to his guns then he must also veto the present bonus bill.

    If he does veto the bill, he will undoubtedly lose many votes in the November elections, and, in view of the undeniable fact that the opponents of his economic policy of last year are increasing considerably in numbers, he may possibly make a different decision if Congress presents a bill which offers a compromise between his position and that of the veterans, and provides means to defray the subsequent costs.

    The President has always objected to cash payments on the veterans' certificates prior to maturity. But now he may consent if, in satisfying the demands, the bill substitutes bonds for cash. The fear prevails that cash payments produce inflation; after all, more than two billion dollars are involved. If the amount of money in circulation is suddenly increased by this influx, then it may create an inflation. An additional 3two billion dollars will probably not bring about this inflation which they fear, however. But Congress probably will adopt other solutions for the certificate question, in order to insure the President's approval. Should he, however, persist in his veto, then it is obvious that Congress will pass the bill regardless of his opposition.

    This definite prospect does not alter the fact that the demands of the veterans are justified by present conditions. The time is ripe for the extraction of money from the Government; of funds which, according to contractual stipulations, are not due until nine more years have elapsed. But the veterans are stubbornly insistent on obtaining this reward now, not caring whether this admission of their influence upon elections conjures up dangers of an inflation. As extenuating circumstances they [the veterans] can refer only to the fact that the Administration has, within the last years, spent billions and billions for every conceivable purpose and that, in its opinion, an additional two billions would not matter.


    If one judges from all precedents and experience involving the veterans of every war, one may deduce with considerable accuracy that payment of the bonus nine years before it is supposed to mature will not in any way prevent further demands from the veterans.

    It has developed almost into a hereditary right that veterans should ask for more--whenever Congress acceded to their previous requests. It will not be different now. After the bonus is paid, it will have to be paid again and again in various ways. No country has found wars more expensive than the United States. Even the death of the veterans does not liberate the State from their demands. Then young widows make their appearance who often married the hoary warriors for this purpose alone, and ask--who knows for how long--pensions for themselves and possibly for their children. After each war the demands of the veterans were akin to a wringer with perpetual motion. It goes round and round until the last widow of the youngest World War veteran has gone to her eternal rest in the next century.

    It appears to be settled that the bonus bill, in some form or other, will be accepted by Congress within the next few days. There will be an overpowering majority ...

    I H, I G
  • Rassviet (The Dawn) -- January 08, 1936
    Baptish for Members of Rnov

    Thoughtful, active men in the Russian colony many times warned the rank and file members of RNOV (The Russian People's Society of Mutual Aid) that they are faced with the danger of losing their Russian identity and their Russian name, but members of RNOV did not pay attention to these warnings, and did not take any steps to preserve their independence or to unite with other Russian Mutual aid societies similar in aims and membership. Whether because of their political illiteracy, or for some other reason, members of RNOV meekly followed in the footsteps of the Bolshevik adventurers and never resisted their scheming plans and intentions.

    As a consequence of this a curious action was taken the other day, which perhaps passed unnoticed by many, rank and file members of RNOV, for the event was not accompanied by any clamor or outcries which are a concomitant to any Bolshevik action.


    The action taken essentially means that members of RNOV have been baptized in conformity with the Bolshevik ritual. Heretofore this Society was connected with the Bolshevik organizations, but unofficially and, therefore, was able to preserve at least a semblance of independence. But the other day it lost its identity entirely. Prior to that time the Novy Mir [Translator's note: A Bolshevik newspaper in New York] published a page headed as follows: "Mutual Aid Official Section of the Russian People's Society of Mutual Aid in America". Further on followed the address of the main office of RNOV.

    However, in its issue of January 3, the heading of the page was changed. The words "Mutual Aid" remain, but RNOV has disappeared. Instead of sending their newspaper articles to the headquarters of RNOV, the contributors are advised to address them, "International Workers' Order, Attention of the Russian section".

    The Bolshevik newspaper refrains entirely from explanation of the change, but from the change in heading alone one can infer that RNOV has ceased to exist as an independent organization, as a Russian mutual aid society, and has become 3merely an adjunct of the International Workers' Order, whose headquarters is located, not in a proletarian district, but on fashionable Fifth avenue in New York.

    Whether the baptismal rites were performed with the consent of the members of RNOV or by a decision of the leaders, the newspaper does not explain. Whatever it might be, the members of RNOV have the experience of an unpleasant occurrence against which they were repeatedly warned by public-spirited Russians. They were unable or unwilling to remove from their midst the Bolshevik adventurers, and unite with other Russian kindred organizations. Now they find themselves thrown into an order not known to them, where they will have no weight or voice, for, knowing that they could not preserve their independence, the Bolshevik leaders will regard all members of RNOV as so much human dust.

    Thoughtful, active men in the Russian colony many times warned the rank and file members of RNOV (The Russian People's Society of Mutual Aid) that they are faced with the ...

    II D 1, I E