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Svenska Tribunen -- May 01, 1878How Many Swedes Are There in the U.S?
There are about 200,000 Swedish immigrants in America and about 150,000 persons who were born in the United States of Swedish parents. There are Swedes in every state of the Union, trying to make their living as plain workmen, farmers, merchants, or,- gold diggers. Swedish immigrants are arriving daily, now more than ever in Chicago. Some of them stay here, but many continue their trip to Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas and Minnesota. This immigration is the result of "hard times" in Sweden at present.
There are about 200,000 Swedish immigrants in America and about 150,000 persons who were born in the United States of Swedish parents. There are Swedes in every state of the ...
III G, III A
Svenska Tribunen -- January 21, 1880The First Swede in Chicago
Gustave Flack is supposed to have been the first Swede who settled in Chicago in 1845 or 1846. He established himself as a merchant at the Clark Street bridge, which was the only one in the city at that time. He was born in the northern part of Sweden called Helsingland.
He went back home to Sweden two years later to visit relatives, but died on the journey.
He aroused interest among the people through his letters from America to Helsingland, Sweden. The result of this correspondence was the immigration of Eric Janson and the followers of Bishop Hill.
Gustave Flack is supposed to have been the first Swede who settled in Chicago in 1845 or 1846. He established himself as a merchant at the Clark Street bridge, which ...
Svenska Tribunen -- May 19, 1880The Emigration
EDITORIAL: Large masses of immigrants who, tired of Europe, arrive at our shores every day, is a proof of our nation's prosperity.
Information of American prosperity was spread with such speed to all civilized land that a renewed request to participate in the work of a free and strong people in its efforts for spiritual and economic independence was heard everywhere
The millions here, who have friends there, serve as advertising agents. Their letters, sent home to the old country, contain reports of the impartiality and freedom of American life and of the respect and financial reward honorable work of different kind receives.
Eighty one thousand two hundred sixty two immigrants came to New York during the first four months of this year,as against only 61,901 in the year 1873.2
The reasons for such large masses of men deserting the places where they were born are, of course, different in each case, but we believe that the first and most powerful reason is the certainty of bettering their financial condition in America. That they really can better themselves in a very short time is so apparent that no one acquainted with the facts on each side of the ocean ever dares deny it.
The majority of the immigrants who now arrive are already familiar with living possibilities in America. More than half of them go directly to places in the West, where they intend to settle. Many have sufficient means with which to buy land and necessary farm equipment. A large part of those arriving have been farmers before, but sold that meager sod, from which they could hardly feed themselves and their children, and are now trying to establish better homes in the West of America. These immigrants carry with them about sixty or seventy dollars each. It is estimated, that this year's immigration will go up to 500,000 persons at least, and if this is correct, the capital they will carry with them will probably amount to around thirty to thirty five millions of dollars.3
The question of emigration which seems to be a serious one in Sweden has been brought before the Swedish Parliament. Several speakers mentioned during the discussion in the Second Chamber of the Parliament, that the people fear the law of compulsory enrollment in military camps. This they thought was the cause for many of the sons of Sweden abandoning their native country.
This has lately been denied by several newspapers, both in Sweden and in America. It is not so much the fear of this law, but rather the ill-feeling against the army system in Sweden which is sucking the best from the people and is driving the young Swede to a foreign country to find a home.
It is the unwillingness to slave and to work and sweat only to support lazy people related to the Chief Executive, which causes many a Swede to seek his living in a country whose highest official must take care of his family himself and pay for his own journeys and recreations as common people do, The Swede is longing for a country, where work is respected and paid for where the workman has just as much to say in regard to public welfare as the 4capitalist or the official, where one is "below the line," and where everyone is talked to and treated alike.
He requests that the capital and not the worker should be taxed, that he himself shall decide the amount of taxes, and should choose his own officials in order that they may know that they are the people's servants and not its masters, masters who like to knock down the masses and trample law and humanity under foot.
The Swede requests full liberty of conscience and that absolute right to decide in regard to his religion. Last, but not least, he wants a free press, because this has always proven itself to be a strong bulwark of liberty and an implacable foe of despotism.
These demands are not new. For a long time they have been smoldering as fire under the ashes and the reason they are now in flame is,"the good times" in America.5
As long as the conditions in Sweden were poor there was no relief for the oppressed worker in Sweden. He had to be satisfied with his economical poverty as well as his political helplessness and other bad circumstances.
Now things on this side of the Atlantic are clad in a brighter dress. A welcome place is open for him here. It is surely hard for every lover of its native land to see old Sweden lose so many of its able citizens, but we believe that it is for the best for that country.
The medicine might taste bitter in the beginning, but in the long run its healing results will be noticeable.
The mighty masters of that country will sooner or later learn to know that all citizens have the same rights. The immigrants will send home reports regarding conditions here. Some may go back to the old country after several years and spread the ideas they have inhaled here.
Perhaps from this emigration, which in Sweden is looked upon with unfriendly 6eyes, will rise a new day in our never to be forgotten native land, and maybe a new form of government, who knows?
EDITORIAL: Large masses of immigrants who, tired of Europe, arrive at our shores every day, is a proof of our nation's prosperity. Information of American prosperity was spread with such ...
III G, III H
Svenska Tribunen -- February 02, 1881Progress Among the Swedish Americans.
EDITORIAL: It is only about 36 years since Swedes began to think of emigration from Sweden to America. Up to that time the great Swedish populace had only heard tell of this country as, "far, far away on the other side of the world," or "at the end of the world," where nobody, except bold adventurers, dared to go, and where all were savages and criminals.
There were only three Swedes in Chicago in 1843 and they were, no doubt, the only ones in the whole of Illinois and the Northwest. Through one of them, Gustaf Flack, Erick Janson and his followers got information about America.
After their arrival in 1845-50 the way was opened, and has been ever since, for hundreds of thousands of countrymen, who, with their descendants now form the many "settlements" in Illinois, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Kansas and Nebraska.
It is wellknown that the majority of these Swedish immigrants have come from the 2less fortunate classes of our old country; that they met with many difficulties at home. Their trials and experiments in this land are not secrets either. It is also well known that they have not desired to "push" themselves forward as other immigrants have done.
Their progress on account of these circumstances has been comparatively slow, but that they have been confident, is shown by the general prosperity among them. The carefulness with which they work for their spiritual welfare and the interest they show in all questions in regard to their new country are evidences of progress. Illinois is the State which was first peopled by Swedes, most of them are settled.
The Swedish population of Chicago has grown from 3 persons in 1843 to about 25,000 and in the State to 75,000.
The first immigrants who arrived were in the depths of poverty, ignorant of everything concerning the history of this land, its qualifications and position 3among the nations. But the Swedes in Illinois of today are counted as the most educated Americanized immigrants.
The Swedes bought 80 acres of land in 1846 and now they own some 400,000 acres. Some of them are owners of 1,000 acres each and farms of 400 to 500 acres are quite common.
The first Swedish church service was conducted 35 years ago in a tent, but the Swedes of this state now worshiping God in 100 different temples, some of them built in the same style and size as in the old country. Chicago alone has 9 Swedish church denominations with just as many churches. There are two great Swedish high schools in this state, many smaller schools, dozens of factories, hundreds of smaller machine shops and thousands of skilful workers.
Books, newspapers and other literature has become widely used and in circulation. This business was started 30 years ago, when "Homeland Songs" were re-printed and continued with the distribution of Luthers' Catechism. We have now in Chicago 4a bookstore, valued at $25,000.00 of this many prominent works have been distributed.
The newspapers have expanded tremendously. Beginning with a little sheet not larger than one of our Sunday school papers, the press has,year by year, grown to such an extent that we now have a dozen large weekly Swedish papers, some of them more widely distributed than any such periodicals in Sweden. At least 40,000 copies of Swedish newspapers are printed and distributed in Chicago every week besides the many monthly and bi-weekly papers.
The Swedes in this State have won many valuable political victories through this press. There are some 15,000 Swedes in Illinois, who have the right to vote and, thanks to them, the Republicans won out.
The Swedes have clearly shown that they are not behind any other nationality in the United States, but it seems that they have not lived up to a certain social standard. The Swedes in America is very willing to affiliate with other church 5denomination and to give generously to the upkeep of the church. He is also politically interested but seems to prefer isolated life. We mean, in other words, that there is not any real sociability among us yet. If the Swedes were more sociable, the Swedish homes would become brighter in the New World, the life happier and the people as a whole be more able to participate in the great work of cultivation, and development of America.
EDITORIAL: It is only about 36 years since Swedes began to think of emigration from Sweden to America. Up to that time the great Swedish populace had only heard tell ...
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Secondary listingsSwedish // Assimilation > National Churches and Sects (III C) ?
Swedish // Assimilation > Special Contributions to Early American Development (III F) ?
Swedish // Assimilation > Immigration and Emigration (III G) ?
Swedish // Attitudes > Interpretation of American History (I J) ?
Svenska Tribunen -- December 07, 1881Sweden and America.
EDITORIAL. The newspapers in Sweden do not like the emigration to America, because it is, in their opinion, an economic loss to Sweden, and nothing but a profit to America. It may be, but the loss Sweden is supposed to suffer is not so enormous, nor is the profit for America as large as they think it is in our old country.
During these times, when America is prospering and Sweden is economically pressed, the Swedes in America are sending more money home than they brought over here as immigrants.
Some years ago, or in 1877, when the working wages were low in America and many , could only make a scant living, Sweden received about two million Swedish kronen annually from her children in America. Since that time the amount of money sent over to the old country has steadily increased. Our Scandinavian bankers inform us, that their banking business with Sweden has never been so lively as it is now, and that Swedish-Americans have sent homethis year six or seven times as 2much as they did in 1877.
Sweden may, therefore, count on twelve to fifteen million Swedish kronen sent from here this year, which is not to be despised as a sort of financial income for a small country.
A large number of Swedes receive "free tickets" sent from here for their journey to America. The amount of this in aggregate is at least two million dollars.
<p/> EDITORIAL. The newspapers in Sweden do not like the emigration to America, because it is, in their opinion, an economic loss to Sweden, and nothing but a profit to ...
III G, III H
Svenska Tribunen -- June 07, 1882The Emigration from Sweden and the Cause of It. (Editorial)
The Swedish Tribune re-prints an editorial, which has appeared in Dagens Nyheter, a newspaper in Stockholm, Sweden, and which shows that its author is familiar with both Swedish and American matters relative to emigration. He writes: "It was generally known some twenty years ago that exile was the severest punishment a man could get, but we see in our days how thousands of full grown persons joyfully go into exile of their own accord. There are many reasons for this. The means of travel between various countries has surprisingly expanded and distances are not such barriers as they were some thirty years ago. It is, therefore, easier to change from one country to another. Such change does not require large sums of money or any revolution in opinions or habits.
Six million persons have emigrated from Europe to America since 1860 with upward of half a million annually these later years. The Irish number one third of the immigrants and other nationalities the balance, of which the English 2and the Scandinavians are in the majority. No European country, except Ireland, has contributed so much to immigration as the Scandinavian countries, especially Sweden.
Our country is a small country. There were 4,555,668 persons in 1880; 250,000 have emigrated in 1860-1879. The Swedes in America, with the Swedish-American born children, number considerably more - about 300,000, of which one tenth are living in Chicago.
Here, is an official emigration statistical statement:
1860-1879 em. 250,000 1880 " 45,000 1881 " 50,000 1882 " 60,000
or a total from 1860-82 of 405,000.
The immigrants belong to the working class and are mostly from the country.3
Nearly half of the immigrants are between 20 and 30 years of age.
The author of this interesting articles writes what he observed in Gothenburg, where all the emigrants gather from all parts of Sweden before they go aboard the big ocean steamers, which leave that city every Friday for New York. About 2 to 3,000 persons arrive every week at Gothenburg. The people, he continues, behave very nicely and are well dressed. They have much to take care of in Gothenburg: rent a room, buy their tickets and also some dishes, mattress, trunk and other necessary things for their journey.
Then comes the big day for their departure, when they all gather at Gustaf Adolf's Market place. From here they march to the harbor where they are taken out in small vessels to the big steamers of the Wilson Line. The regular boats are Romeo and Orlando. Soon all are aboard, men, women, young and old, children and babies. A couple of hundred spectators are standing on the shore, mostly from the working class, wondering when their time for such a departure will come.4
Some of the wealthy merchants of the city stop for a moment on their way to their offices. What they think, we do not know, but a lady of their class talks freely, and thinks that the emigrants are fooligh in leaving their native country, "where they have it so nice, to meet an unknown fate in such a land as America."
The anchor is now lifted and the big steamer starts slowly forward. A jubilant hurrah is heard from the crowd aboard and the people on the shore depart. At least three steamers leave in the same manner every Friday, carrying emigrants to America, week after week, month after month. Sweden has, through this emigration, lost one eleventh of her population during the last twenty years.
Now comes the question: Will these removals of a great per centage of the people decrease the population in general; increase too much the population of women, cause a considerable reduction of the most productive groups of the working men's class and bring about great economic and social disturbance? Yes, to a certain extent. According to reports from various places, this condition exists in Sweden. All farm hands in one parish emigrated except those on the priest's farm.5
Out of twenty young men in another parish, who were supposed to be enrolled in compulsory armies, only six came on a certain day for that purpose. The other fourteen had emigrated. Small farmers are compelled to abandon their places for lack of farm hands, or to hire fifteen year old lads or seventy year old men. Instead of hiring strong young unmarried workers, the farmers must now be satisfied with poor married ones with large families. As these married men cannot get higher wages than the unmarried farmhands, it is probable that they and their families must depend upon charity.
The emigration causes also considerable economic loss in cash money for the country, amounting to several million Swedish kronen. But all this is nothing compared with what the loss to the nation in the intellectual field is. This we will not admit perhaps, as the emigrants are recruited from the poorer classes of society.
Let us then hear what the American government says in an official statement relative to the benefit America is gaining from the emigration;
"The emigration of Scandinavians, who already own properties in the North-western states, is very noticeable in general, and although this movement 6does not go further back than a few years, it is now considerable and grows speedily.
These immigrants are industrious, economical, moderate. They ought to be specially welcomed. It is, however, impossible to get any exact idea regarding the value to the country by the arrival of the foreigners. Their culture, their good taste, their artistic talents, and their good taste, their artistic talents, and their aptitude for inventions make them dominating figures. A Swedish immigrant, known by the name of John Ericson, arrived in New York in 1839 from London. What value has he not been to America?
When, however, one considers that emigration has assumed such proportions that Sweden has in three years lost nearly as many people as there are in its capital, the cause must be of a general nature.
The Swedish working man emigrates because he cannot see how it is possible to live on a yearly income ranging between 400 and 700 Swedish Kronen; There is no possibility of earning any extra income, when he must work twelve hours 7daily for this small amount. This wage is hardly enough for an unmarried man, but with great economy he might get some knowledge of the conditions under which he is living. This will be impossible if he is married, and he can scarcely participate in social life.
Then comes the good news from friends in America, that they can make a good living on ten hours work and that a common worker is not prevented from obtaining the education necessary to participate in society life of the community.
He, therefore, longs to go to America. There he can hope to attain peace and comfort in his old age through hard work, which will be impossible here. That is the reason why the young emigrants pack their trunks and start for the land on the other side.
The small wage is not the only cause, though it is the main cause of the emigration. There are other reasons, namely: social ones, for according to the writer:-8
The worker in Sweden feels ill at ease not because of ill will, but because of a sort of mercy from his boss who allows less strictness and makes him feel that he is incapable of achieving anything very well. He is more satisfied with the strictness of his American foreman, when the motive is just, than when his faults have been overlooked.
He knows that the American worker is more respected socially, even if the requirements for good work are higher than here, and he submits to these strict demands, because it increases his self respect. He, therefore, emigrates.
Even people with small capital emigrate. They go along all right in the old country all by themselves, but they emigrate for the sake of their children, when they understand that they can't give them any other future than that of a common worker. They have found out from experience that work does not ennoble a common worker, and they fear that it is not going to be any better here in the old country as long as the authorities do not even try to find out the real cause of the emigration. Something must be wrong in the make-up of society.9
They, who are satisfied with their existence in Sweden - any they are many - may say, that these emigrants are asking too much and are spreading discontent among the working class.
The emigrants opinion ought not to be depreciated, because when such opinions are spread, they will be taken up by the younger workers and cause them to emigrate.
It is very difficult to predict the future of emigration. If low wages are the principal cause for the emigration, then it is clear that it is going to decrease when this cause ceases. It can, therefore, be taken for granted, that the emigration caused by low wages will regulate itself. It will, however, never stop until the conditions for securing a decent living in Sweden are on the same level as those in America, and that is going to take a long time.
It is probable that the wages are not going to rise as long as old folks and children can substitute and be satisfied with the same pay the strong worker finds too low.
When the organization of the work in Sweden is such that it is more important to 10maintain low wages, then there will always be substitutes as long as they last. When these substitutes are gone the wages will be corrected and there will be demands for skilful workers. Hence emigration will continue until the supply is nearly gone.
The risk for the emigration will be less when a greater part of the Swedish population has moved over to America, because it will be much easier for the immigrant to get a job with his own countrymen or through them. Relatives and friends are also a mighty strong power, together with free tickets which are sent home.
It is, therefore, probable that the emigration is going to continue for some years to come, but it is also possible that good years and favorable times would stimulate business to a certain extent and so help to better the wage condition and thereby decrease considerably the emigration problem.
The Swedish Tribune re-prints an editorial, which has appeared in Dagens Nyheter, a newspaper in Stockholm, Sweden, and which shows that its author is familiar with both Swedish and American ...
III G, III H, I H
Secondary listingsSwedish // Assimilation > Relations with Homeland (III H) ?
Swedish // Attitudes > Social Problems and Social Legislation (I H) ?
Svenska Tribunen -- June 21, 1882Immigration
Scandinavians, familiar with the immigration problem, report that an average of 1,200 Scandinavians arrived daily in Chicago, during the month of May this year. Most of them continued their journey westward and only a few of them settled in Chicago. It is expected that the Scandinavian immigration will be much greater next year.
More than half of this year's arrivals have been travelling on free tickets paid for in advance and sent home to the old country by relatives and friends in America. It is expected that the American-Scandinavians are going to pay out $1,500,000 towards this, this year. At least 60,000 Swedes are expected here this year and they will settle mainly in Kansas,Nebraska,Iowa,Minnesota, 2Missouri and Dakota. The majority of the newly arrived are young men and women.
Not less than 3,500 Scandinavians arrived one evening in Chicago last month. From here they all took different routes and went various places. Extra railroad are running westward night and day, filled with immigrants, but the railroad companies are nevertheless handicapped because they do not know how to accommodate the enormous crowds without delay.
Scandinavians, familiar with the immigration problem, report that an average of 1,200 Scandinavians arrived daily in Chicago, during the month of May this year. Most of them continued their journey ...
III G, III H
Svenska Tribunen -- July 05, 1882Returning Immigrants.
Editorial: A couple of years ago, when "bad times" in the United States persuaded a couple of hundred Swedes in America to return to their native land. Some of them are merely going for a visit but others intend to remain there. The papers in Sweden published articles and stories about "the misery in America" and the foolishness of emigrating.
Yes, when everything was turned upside down in the Great Republic, it was then natural that our fellow-editors in Sweden tried to make adverse criticism about the returning immigrants and their circumstances. These newspaper men thought that America could never have achieved what is now evident. They did not understand the conditions here. They imagined that America now was powerless and lay as a dead giant, who had fallen trying to do a miracle.2
One of the latest newspapers from Stockholm prints a curious article concerning recently returned immigrants. All of them have advised people not to emigrate according to this paper. One said that he had been away a year, and returned poor, with broken health.
Finnish man, who had been in America ten years, could not save more than $350 in spite of very careful living.
It is sad, of course, to return poor and with broken health, but what had our man expected in America? People with good health usually do not become sick here, but if some one has bad health before he emigrated he cannot expect a change for the better through emigration, and nobody should expect prosperity in one year. This man ought not to be any detering example.
But the Finnish man! He could not save more than $350 in ten years. That was not much, that is true. But how much would he have been able to save by staying 3in Finland during the same period? Three Hundred Fifty Dollars are about 1,800 Finnish Marks. He would need at least twenty years in his native land to save up such a sum as a farm hand; especially when, if he has a family, as this man had.
We do not critise the Stockholm paper because it was not familiar with American affairs. But two Swedish-American papers, one in New York, and one in Chicago have re-printed the stories without corrections or explanations. In view of the fact that this comes from American papers the articles ought to present this country in a favorable light; that the Swedish-American press should be commanded to give correct information regarding the United States.
Thousands read our Swedish-American papers, both here and in Sweden.
When a paper here re-prints misguided reports from papers in Sweden, without correcting them, it feels guilty.
Editorial: A couple of years ago, when "bad times" in the United States persuaded a couple of hundred Swedes in America to return to their native land. Some of them ...
III G, III H, I H
Svenska Tribunen -- July 05, 1882Thoughts in Regard to the Swedish Emigration
EDITORIAL: Swedes are worried about the enormous emigration from Sweden to America. The latest Swedish papers tell us that the King himself has taken a hand in the matter. He has called his Governorstogether for the purpose of concerning the matter. Each Governor has called prominent men into conference in his state to discuss the best way of managing the emigration of so many young Swedish working men.
At a farmers meeting in Vexio, Smaland, Sweden, a speaker mentioned the emigration question and said frankly that it is very easy to acquire land in America. This is reason enough for poor farm workers to emigrate. Another speaker said that it is every person's right and duty to go where there are better opportunities to make a good living. The emigration would decrease if wealthy land owners would let people rent land cheap and for a long period. Other speakers said that the free tickets sent home to relatives and friends encouraged the emigration; that political 2reasons were connected with the emigration, that the taxes were too high and that small farmers and farm hands should be given better opportunities. The Governor then spoke. "If the strong young men really knew the conditions in America, the emigration would not be so lively," he said.
It should be very gratifying to know what the Governor really meant by this statement. "The real conditions," Yes, if Sweden knew about them the emigration would increase much more and to such dimensions that the King would be forced to call together his Parliament in extra session.
The Swedes in America are, with a few exceptions, really happy when they compare their present situation with the one they had in their native country.
The statistics in Sweden show that the people who emigrate are farm-hands and servants, young men and women. How much is the wage of a common Swedish farm-hand? Perhaps 150 Swedish knonen a year. Here he has $300.00 a year. And a maid in Sweden? Maybe 60 to 75 Swedish kronen a year and here $150.00 to $200.00 or more. The same proportions exist between the Swedish and the American worker.3
The farmers make up 1/5 of the emigrants. How do they fare? Ask to see the history of the states of Illinois, Minnesota, Kansas, Iowa. Swedes, who came here with two empty hands twenty years ago are now owners of prospering farms of 200, 300, 400, 500 and in some cases up to 1,000 acres. The Swedes possess in the State of Illinois 400,000 acres at least.
Our countrymen are now very well acquainted with these conditions, and the knowledge of it is one of the causes for the emigration.
There are also other reasons. The Nordic masses are now aroused by the knowledge of their own power and value. They feel the need of more air and light. The tunes of the American liberty song have been heard in old Sweden touching the hearts of many, who only have been listening to mystical Swedish Folk songs and the Swedish hero poems.
The emigration can not be regulated with wrong pictures of America. It can only be stopped by modern reforms in Sweden, political, as well as social reforms, which can ease the people's burden, ease the caste situation, caused by extreme wealth and poverty.4
At the meeting mentioned in this editorial, it was suggested to set up some competition with America. However, competition between the big and wealthy America and the comparatively poor Sweden is inconceivable.
But Sweden can and ought to be just as good as America in one way and that is in the field of liberty, and healthy, political reforms.
EDITORIAL: Swedes are worried about the enormous emigration from Sweden to America. The latest Swedish papers tell us that the King himself has taken a hand in the matter. He ...
III G, III H, I H
Svenska Tribunen -- July 05, 1882Red River Valley Land.
The following advertisement appears in the Swedish Tribune, Chicago, for the 5th of July, 1882.
Red River Valley - 100 miles wide and 300 miles long, with a layer of black soil as thick as a man is tall, watered by the powerful Red River and its numerous small tributaries, its shores covered with large timber forest - can give 160 acre homes to 120,000 families. Would you like to be one of them? Think it over. It is an important question for you and your family. Our phamplets gives complete information regarding the new Scandinavia in the Red River Valley and will be mailed free to any one in America or in Europe.
Commissioner of Emigration,
St. Paul, Minneapolis and Manitoba R.R.,
St. Paul, Minn.
James B. Power,
The following advertisement appears in the Swedish Tribune, Chicago, for the 5th of July, 1882. Red River Valley - 100 miles wide and 300 miles long, with a layer of ...
III G, I L
Secondary listingsSwedish // Attitudes > Agriculture in the United States (I L) ?
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