The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

Filter by Date

  • Svobodnaya Rossiya -- October 11, 1923
    The New Russian Emigrants. (Editorial)

    During the last years there have come to the chief centers of America, to New York and Chicago, many new Russian emigrants.

    Formerly, there used to come from Russia to these cities mostly farmers and workers seeking employment, and a small percentage of persons who had been persecuted in Russia because of their political and religious views.

    At present, another class of people is coming; ex-officers, former officials, artists, persons belonging to the liberal professions and students.

    The majority of these people come not directly from Russia, but from those countries to which they had fled during the revolution and the civil war.

    Among these persons there are many former members of the nobility, who could not be reconciled with the new regime and who dream of revolutions and plots.


    There are also many such as have broken with everything that is going on the other shore of the ocean. These people have lost faith in the possibility of new revolutions. They have passed through all kinds of hardships during their travels across Europe, have suffered much, have experienced a kind of rebirth and have come to this country seeking only a peaceful life and work.

    There are also many persons of plebeian origin, persons who have come to foreign countries accidentally; they did not participate in any civil wars; they have occupied a neutral position and have fled from Russia, having been scared by the thunder of the revolution.

    Among all this mass of new emigrants there are many people who can be very useful to the Russian-American colony.

    Among them there are teachers, physicians, engineers, artists.

    Till now, the Russian colony has been poor in representatives of the intelligentsia. There was felt a distinct lack of such persons; and the colony is still feeling this lack.


    The Russian colony must take advantage of the presence in its midst of such educated and intelligent emigrants. Among them there are undoubtedly many who are willing to use the hours of leisure for rendering service to their countrymen.

    These new emigrants have come to this country, being yet full of energy and desiring to work.

    The presence of the best among them is already being felt in some cities as they are participating in the public life.

    Let us help such persons to establish themselves here, in America, and let us try to put to good use their experience and their knowledge.

    During the last years there have come to the chief centers of America, to New York and Chicago, many new Russian emigrants. Formerly, there used to come from Russia to ...

    V A 2, I E, I C
  • Rassviet (The Dawn) -- January 06, 1928
    The Weak Spots of Our Colony (Editorial)

    As was correctly noted in one of the Chicago articles, writes the author of this editorial, we are great egoists. Egoism creates intolerance and disdain for the convictions of others. A typical egoist - and there are many in our colony - is deeply convinced that only his view and understanding of some question or other is correct, and (that) other people's opinions and views are wrong and not worthy of any attention. It is no wonder if people like Milikov, Chernov, Kerensky, Stalin, Trotzky, and other professional politicians are fighting each other, but what good reasons have the Russians in Chicago to quarrel continually with each other? Probably not less than 99% of our colony are proletarians. They often work in the same factories, the same hours, and slave for the same capitalist, and in spite of all, these people in many cases are spending their energy and strength in fighting each other. There are more than 20,000 refugees from Constantinople, mostly cultured people. But even among the more educated part of the Russian colony one does not find any peace and harmony. Such an intolerant attitude 2leads only to a senseless waste of our spiritual powers, time and means. Instead of building and creating with united efforts, we preper to act single-handed.

    The editorial ends with the following words: "When shall we get wise and understand that our internal strife in the colony and this inhuman intolerance dooms our community to fruitless work?"

    As was correctly noted in one of the Chicago articles, writes the author of this editorial, we are great egoists. Egoism creates intolerance and disdain for the convictions of others. ...

    I C, I E, V A 2
  • Rassviet (The Dawn) -- December 01, 1932
    The Death of G. Zinoviev (Editorial)

    In Moscow, G. Zinoviev died suddenly at the age of forty nine. Whether he died from natural causes, or passed away to another universe with the affectionate co-operation of Stalin's agents, the GPU, is not of any particular importance. The large spider gobbled up a small one, and thus ended a drama of life.

    Zinoviev passed into non-existence, castoff, outraged, dishonored, dethroned, just as did L. Trotsky and other oppositionists.

    On the crest of the October Revolution he nearly reached the top of the soviet government Olympus.

    Holding the office of president of the Communist International, Zinoviev 2eagerly spread the flame of the World Revolution, wasting enormous sums of the people's money.

    But from his endeavors to spread the universal fire, with the exception of piteous sparks and small disturbances, nothing resulted. The Soviet Treasury, however, dwindled.

    At the Kremlin, they finally realized, that Zinoviev was a poor "spiritualist" and unable to produce the spirits of the Revolution.

    The rapid descent of the giddy career of the omnipotent "Leader of the World Revolution" began.

    They removed him from his office as president of the Comintern; demoted him from his position as Governor General of Leningrad. Dark days descended upon Zinoviev.


    Zinoviev had influence at home and abroad; he was known by the proletariat throughout the world; Zinoviev had great ambitions; he even aspired to inherit Lenin's throne, which brought him into conflict with another aspirant, L. Trotsky, and for this reason he sided with him in the battle against Stalin.

    The struggle was led chiefly over every possible thesis and antithesis at the assembly of the Communist Olympus. Zinoviev's thesis, just as his former orders to establish revolutions in various countries at certain set times, had no success. Stalin placed them under cover. Nothing resulted from the thesis opposition.

    The next step of Zinoviev was to go over to illegal opposition which consisted of groups of these or other leaders who were distrusted. Zinoviev jumped from one group to another. He united with Trotsky, Kamenev, Burharin, Rakovsky, Radek, secretly hoping for a palace revolt, and being detected in this, cowardly denied relations with Trotsky, Kamenev and others of the same opinion in order to escape severe punishment.


    After tasting the luxuries of the life of a dignitary statesman, Zinoviev shuddered at the thought of a jail, or exile to "distant lands." He frequently confessed and at the same time, cursed himself. This self punishment by the former "leader of the proletariat of the world," amused Stalin who encouraged Zinoviev to do this by inflicting light penalties.

    The chameleon, Zinoviev, was on the tip of the tongue of the whole-world. He confessed his sins, and swore to be faithful to Stalin until death, and at the same time, went over to the opposition. L. Trotsky described him as a "whipped dog". Zinoviev passed his time in an insignificant statistics' office, working at a position not suited to the former leader and inspirer of the world-wide fire. He recently was found guilty in the so-called Rutin Case, a plot by the Comsomol Party against Stalin. Zinoviev with Kamenev and other oppositionists again were expelled from the Communist party. Once more Zinoviev found himself outside of the noble communist ranks in the position of a simple being.


    Death relieved Zinoviev of the necessity of another confession. His world career is over, no more does another insane man exist, who had dreamt of turning the world upside down, and who caused great harm, suffering and sickness to the Russian people.

    In Moscow, G. Zinoviev died suddenly at the age of forty nine. Whether he died from natural causes, or passed away to another universe with the affectionate co-operation of Stalin's ...

    V A 2, I C
  • Rassviet (The Dawn) -- January 30, 1933
    Siberia before and Now (Editorial)

    Prior to the Russian revolution in 1917, Siberia was known to the world not so much for its spacious territory and its colossal wealth as for its prisons, Katorga.

    Russians and foreigners wrote about Siberia, but these as well as others, in their books, mostly described the Siberian prisons and places of exile.

    It was explained that in reality Siberia was Strana Katorzhan (The country of the exiled). Before the February Revolution in 1917, criminal and political prisoners were sent to Siberia. After the February Revolution all political prisoners were liberated. The prisons ceased to exist, and therefore Siberia ceased to be the "country of the exiled".

    But later, after the bolsheviki strengthened their power, Siberia again became 2what it had been before the revolution--even more than before; prior to the revolution, besides criminals, there were also settlers, natives and various tradespeople in Siberia, but the bolsheviki converted all of Siberia into a penitentiary. The main contingent of exiles and prisoners was composed of peasants, and after them came the intelligentsia: professors, engineers, teachers, and clergymen. There are also a great number of workers. The peasants are placed in prisons to serve terms of from three to ten years for resisting collectivism; the intelligentsia, for disseminating propaganda against the Soviet Government; the workers--for strikes, revolts, disrespectfulness towards bolshevik officials. The population of the prisons in Siberia increased from day to day.

    From the central districts of Russia and the allied republics there extends a ribbon of trains with prisoners and exiles. All of the transfer points for the prisoners of the Tzar's regime are very busily engaged in reinforcing their stations because of the many new prisons and concentration camps of the O.G.P.U. Organ Gosudarstvennogo Politseyskogo Upravlenia (Soviet Secret Police). The transfer points as well as the prisons are crowded, which condition viciously 3and rapidly breeds epidemics. It occasionally happens that while the prisoners are enroute, they will receive neither food nor water for a period of five days.

    In the prisons and concentration camps, Trudovoy Rezhim (labor regulations) are introduced. The ration in the jails is as follows: 400 grams of black gluish, almost inedible bread with a weak soup of frozen potatoes. The treatment is very barbarous, cruel, and insulting to human dignity.

    The officials of the jails and local police in the concentration camps are the highest law for the prisoners. There is no one to whom one may protest. Writing letters is forbidden. The prisoners in the jails develop a ferocious hatred of the soviet system. Among the prisoners there very often spreads a rumor that if a revolt should arise in Siberia, and the prisoners should be liberated, then hundreds of thousands of mature people, hardened enemies of the hated Soviet Governnent would fight with enthusiasm, rapture and violence, would enlist under the colors of the anti-bolshevik army.


    The criminal fugitives, are treated far better by the authorities and officials of the prisons than are the political prisoners. For example: for attempting to escape, the political prisoners are condemned to death by the firing squad, but for the criminals, their terms of imprisonment are doubled.

    In spite of such difference, the criminals are not supporters of Soviet Government and respect the political prisoners as fighters for the right cause. Many political prisoners receive help from the criminals, such as forged documents, weapons, and money, in order to escape.

    The Soviet Administration stands for no ceremony with anyone who falls under the Zrenie, that is the scrutiny of the soviet or organs of secret service; although it many be only a minor case of suspicion, they will call him an enemy and will be ready to destroy the suspect, if not by direct killing under the guise of capital punishment, then by exile, which is equivalent to a lingering death.

    All of this shows that the bolsheviki restored in Siberia, in the worst forms 5that which existed during the Tzar's regime.

    Prior to the Russian revolution in 1917, Siberia was known to the world not so much for its spacious territory and its colossal wealth as for its prisons, Katorga. Russians ...

    III H, V A 2, I E
  • Rassviet (The Dawn) -- February 11, 1933
    I Cannot Be Silent Invocation of Alexandra Lvovna Tolstoy by Alexandra L. Tolstoy

    In 1908 when the Tzar's Government sentenced several revolutionists to death, the mournful cry burst from the lips of my father, Lev Tolstoy: "I cannot be silent!" And the Russian people have taken up that lamentation and made it a single protest against slaughter.

    At present, when in the North Caucasus region, bloody massacres occur, when thousands of people are shot down and exiled daily and since my father is now deceased, I feel that I should raise my weak voice against these villainies, because I worked for the Soviet Government for twelve years, and during that time I witnessed the development of the terror.

    The world was silent. Millions were banished, and died in prison, in concentration camps in northern Russia. Thousands were shot down in their steps.


    The bolsheviki began with class enemies, religious enemies, clergymen, scholars, professors, and at present reach and turn to the workers and peasants. But still the world remains silent.

    For fifteen years the people have endured slavery, famine and cold. The bolshevik administration exploited the nation, seized bread and other products and sent them abroad, because it was necessary to have trade not only to purchase machinery, but also in order to spread bolshevik propaganda all over the world. But if the peasants hid bread for their own hungry families or protested, prompt retribution was meted out; they were shot down.

    The Russian nation cannot bear it any longer. Mutinies arise here and there, the factories and mills revolt, individual villages, and even whole districts rebel. The starving peasants, by the thousands, run away from the Ukraine where they are threatened with death by starvation, and they leave their homes and farms.

    What did the Soviet Government do about it? It issued decrees exiling hundreds 3of thousands of people from Moscow (one-third of the population); by imprisonment and death they soothe the aroused peasants. Since the era of Ivan the Terrible, Russia has never seen such brutalities. And at present, when the Kuban Cossacks in southern Russia have revolted, the Soviet power has committed dreadful and unprecedented atrocities against the population. Whole families of Cossacks were shot down; 45,000 of them, including women and children, were exiled to Siberia to certain perdition by the order of Stalin.

    Is it possible that even now the world will remain silent? Is it true that governments will calmly continue relations with bolshevik murderers in order to strengthen the bolshevik position, and yet by so doing, weaken their own empires just as termites eat into wood?

    Is it possible that the League of Nations will calmly adjudicate questions of universal peace with representatives of the country which, in the progress of state construction, uses bloody terror? Is it true that such idealistic authors as Romain Rolland who so clearly understood the souls of the two greatest pacifists of the contemporary era, Gandhi and Tolstoy, and others, 4such as Henri Barbusse and Bernard Shaw, will continue to glorify the socialistic paradise? By doing so, they are morally responsible for spreading the bolshevik infection and threatening the world with corruption and perdition.

    Is it true that people still believe that the bloody dictatorship of this group of people, who are endeavoning to destroy universal culture, religion and ethics, is called "socialism"?

    Who now is willing to shout all over the world: "I cannot be silent"? Where are you who claim to be Christians, genuine socialists, pacifists, authors, social welfare workers? Where are you who are defenders of love, truth, and the brotherhood of man? Why do you keep silent? Is it possible that you need more proof more evidence from witnesses, more facts? Is it true that you do not hear the cries for help? Or perhaps you think that the happiness of the people can be established by force, murder, or forfeiture of the freedom of the whole nation?

    In my appeal I do not speak to those whose sympathies have been bought with the 5money rifled from the Russian nation! I appeal to all those who still believe in the brotherhood and equality of the people--to religious people, socialists, authors, social welfare and political workers--to wives and to mothers! Open your eyes! Unite together in protest against the tyrants of the defenseless nation of one hundred and sixty millions.

    In 1908 when the Tzar's Government sentenced several revolutionists to death, the mournful cry burst from the lips of my father, Lev Tolstoy: "I cannot be silent!" And the Russian ...

    III H, V A 2, I E
  • Rassviet (The Dawn) -- October 30, 1933
    An Example Worthy of Emulation (Editorial)

    Not very long ago there was much talk in the Russian colony about organizing a Russian farming community. But nothing came of it. Russian immigrants, all born farmers, somehow are unable to leave the stifling cities. Our former farmers are no longer interested in farming, though they know they cannot expect to improve their economic condition in the cities in the immediate future. Those who are unemployed, after using up all their savings, will enter the bread lines.

    But, if Russian farmers do not, in this country, engage in farming, there are others who do. A group of Jews from New York, Philadelphia and Detroit, mostly people of education, but with no agricultural background whatsoever, went into co-operative farming. These people, though not farmers, have shown more courage and industry than our Russian people. They have organized 2a farming community in Saginaw County, Michigan, according to the report printed in the Detroit News. As prospective farmers, these Jews acquired the large Pitcairn estate, which had an area of about sixteen square miles. This large tract of fertile land, with necessary buildings, farming implements, and its own power house, has now become the property of this farming community, registered under the name of the Surprise Co-Operative Farming Community.

    The community consists of seventy families--in all, two hundred and twenty-five persons, men, women and children. Each man pays five hundred dollars as his share in the project, adding one hundred dollars for his wife and a small amount for each child. This group originally comprised but twenty families, but within the last four months it has grown to seventy families. As can be seen from this account, the colony grows fast, despite the fact that the admission is governed by a set of definite rules and regulations. For instance, only persons in perfect health may become members of this farming community, and only those who understand and favor co-operative community life.

    Though the originators of this farming community were predominantly Jews, 3admission is now granted also to non-Jews, and present members of this community represent different nationalities. The management of the community is in the hands of a committee of eleven persons. Mr. I. Grinbaum of Detroit is the chairman, and Joseph D. Cohen, well-known in liberal circles in New York (he seems to have immigrated here from Russia), is secretary.

    Work is assigned according to the training and the abilities of various members of the community. Among the colonists are blacksmiths, stonemasons, carpenters, butchers, bakers, shoemakers, teachers, journalists, a physician, etc. This is according to the principle that such a community should be completely self-sufficient and independent of the outside world, and should form an economic whole, capable of satisfying all the human needs of its members. Every member of this community does the work assigned to him, and under proper inspection, in order that the work he contributes may be satisfactorily performed. The colony arises at seven o'clock in the morning, and retires at ten in the evening. The colonists go to their work in the various fields in trucks, and these trucks bring them back when the day's work is done. No member receives any pay for his or her work.


    But all share equally in profits from the sale of their products. They all partake of the same meals, served in one common dining hall. The meals are plain, but nourishing and plentiful.

    There are over five hundred children in the community. On reaching its third year of life the child is sent to the community house for children, where it receives proper care; later, it receives training under the guidance of properly qualified persons. The community has decided not to have any church or synagogue. The question of religion has been left to the conscience of each individual member. Last year there were one thousand two hundred acres under cultivation, out of the ten thousand acres of the entire estate.

    The recent city-dwellers, now co-operative farmers, are highly gratified with their new position, according to the report of a Detroit newspaper correspondent. Unemployment no longer scares them.

    The community intends soon to construct a textile factory, and start other industries. The colonists spend their leisure time preparing and presenting 5theatricals, attending meetings, and engaging in sports and in other sensible recreations.

    Not very long ago there was much talk in the Russian colony about organizing a Russian farming community. But nothing came of it. Russian immigrants, all born farmers, somehow are ...

    I L, V A 2
  • Rassviet (The Dawn) -- January 27, 1934
    In the Shelter of the Russian Independent Mutual Aid Society

    The power of any organization is measured not so much by the number of members it may have on its roster as by the potential strength inherent in the quality of its members and in their readiness to respond to the call of their organization.

    Even if we agree with our opponents that our society is not so successful in its work--if, in the words of our opponents, it "has been driven into a blind alley" by the Russian International Mutual Aid Society [Translators note: this is a Communist organization]; then how is it that during our recent Christmas tree celebration there were about two thousand persons present, all members of our organization?

    Everybody knows that a large part of our membership lives outside the city of Chicago, that many members live in other states; despite all this, and despite 2the economic depression and unemployment Union Hall was filled to the walls with the members of the R.I.M.A.S. (Russian Independent Mutual Aid Society) and their families. All of this means that the inner strength of the Independents not only has not "been driven into a blind alley", but has actually increased during these latter years of our struggle for the expansion of our activities. Our organization has become greater and stronger, and shows no signs of growing smaller and weaker.

    The exceedingly important fact is that, among the large crowd present at the Christmas celebration, the younger generation was magnificently represented by a large number of our Russian boys and girls. The gray-haired patriarchs of our colony were also present in goodly numbers.

    There is no doubt that our organization is strong, not only in the quantity but also in the quality of its membership and in the influence it exerts upon the Russian group in Chicago and in other cities.


    Some may say that the Bolsheviks in Chicago draw large crowds to their various doings. Maybe--sometimes. But their affairs are attended not by Russians alone. All groups and individuals, irrespective or nationality who have an "international streak" in them, usually come to all the Bolshevik gatherings; all races, all nationalities, all tongues are there. They are all united in one great idea of remaking the world.....And here in our quarters on Wood street gather the people of one mother, of one race and one tongue, united in one great little idea--not of rebuilding the world but of building and keeping their own little corner of it. The Bolsheviks receive support from all nationalities, and we frequently receive a slap on the face even from our own nationality. In spite of all this, we are able to draw an impressive number of Russian people to our organization. In short, the Russian Independent Mutual Aid Society, with all its branches, is the foundation of all Russian community life in Chicago and vicinity. All the better elements of the Russian colony in Chicago, representing almost exclusively the old Russian peasant immigration to America, is grouped around our organization. And all the elements that still float, without sail or 4rudder, in the sea of the Russian colony, should find their haven in the ranks of our organization.

    The life itself earnestly demands that every Russian in America should enter this haven, over which there is a sign: "The Russian Independent Mutual Aid Society. All those who still do not belong to any organization, and all forward-thinking persons, should hurry into the shelter of our society.

    The power of any organization is measured not so much by the number of members it may have on its roster as by the potential strength inherent in the quality ...

    III B 2, III B 3 b, III A, III E, V A 2
  • Rassviet (The Dawn) -- March 17, 1934

    It is now time to look with open eyes at the old Russian colony in America. The opinion prevails that the old Russian immigrants have made praiseworthy progress both individually and as a group during their stay in this country. This opinion, however, does not correspond with the facts. Illiteracy among the Russian group is still so overwhelming that it would be disastrous to try to hide this fact or to continue any self-deception. It is true that a part of our Russian group struggled hard against illiteracy and won the battle, but this part is so small that it cannot even be noticed in the large mass of our illiterate people. We have to look with the microscope in order to find those individuals among our old Russian immigrants who know how to read and write. The great majority of the old Russian immigrants have remained as untutored and ignorant as they were when they came to America more than a score of years ago. The cultural level of these people has not been raised to any marked degree. They occupy the lowest rung on the social ladder and will continue to hold this unenviable position so long as they remain unschooled and ignorant.


    It is customary to put the blame for the ignorance of the people of a given country on the existing social order and on the system of government in that country, on the grounds that it does not provide sufficiently for the education of its citizens. It must be said that this is not the whole truth, as this idea in many cases does not conform to reality. In our times every country maintains schools which enable every man to learn how to read and write. Even czarist Russia, lagging behind in public education, had elementary schools in even the smallest provincial town and in many villages, and every man who really wanted to learn the rudiments of grammar and writing could do so.

    It was one thing for the Russian peasant to remain illiterate when he lived in a small town or in a village in Russia, where he could get by without any education whatsoever, but quite another thing when he found himself in America. City life in America is vastly different from the bucolic life of the Russian village. Here it is absolutely indispensable to know how to read and write; without this knowledge it is impossible to turn around or make a single step in any direction. Nevertheless, an overwhelming majority 3of the Russians in America have not acquired a knowledge of reading and writing.

    Illiterate people cannot truly understand and appreciate the value of education, which opens the world to the eyes and to the mind. The illiterate man, no matter how much he may be endowed by nature, will never be able to develop his natural abilities. The ability to read and write is the foundation of all future development and future attainments of a person in any field of endeavor.

    The system of government, unfavorable social conditions and other reasons cannot be solely responsible for the ignorance of the people. Even with the best and most liberal system of education, there will be people who cannot read and write, if they have no desire to acquire that knowledge. This is exactly the position of the Russian immigrants in America. In every city in America, large or small, there are well-equipped American schools which offer everyone an opportunity to learn how to read and write the English language. But have we taken advantage of this opportunity? No. We have 4fallen into the habit of thinking that we have done all we can, and usually we blame circumstances for all our failings, our shortcomings and our ignorance.

    In order to raise the educational and cultural level of our people, it is necessary that the people themselves, individually, make the greatest effort to improve their minds. No one can learn how to read and write without determination and personal effort. The illiterates are not only those who are absolutely unable to read and write, but also those who can read and write a little but who cannot speak correctly or write correctly. Almost all so-called literate people in our group are persons who stopped in the middle of the road--between illiteracy and a creditable knowledge of the art of reading and writing.

    It is not difficult, when there is a will, to overcome illiteracy, this great handicap to a better life for so many of our people. In two years every man can acquire a complete knowledge of reading and writing by devoting to study only spare moments from his work and other activities. If our 5Russian people would spend as much time in learning to read and write as they spend in drinking and playing cards, we would have no illiterates among our group. We also often hear the statement that it is too late now to begin such an arduous task. This is not true, as our group consists mostly of middle-aged people, and this period of a man's life is quite suitable for acquiring new knowledge. If a person has only enough interest and enough determination, the "too late" excuse will disappear.

    Leo Tolstoy once said that only education can raise the human race to its proper place in the universe, and free it from darkness and deep-rooted ignorance. And general enlightment can be achieved only after the complete overcoming of illiteracy. The art of reading and writing serves as a means of further development of our intellectual faculties.

    All you illiterates, strive now to acquire a knowledge of reading and writing. Our times require it.

    It is now time to look with open eyes at the old Russian colony in America. The opinion prevails that the old Russian immigrants have made praiseworthy progress both individually ...

    I A 1 a, V A 2
  • Rassviet (The Dawn) -- July 12, 1934
    Douglas Park Club Grows in Power

    The Russian-American Club of the 25th Ward held its regular meeting on July 6 at 1345 South Washtenaw Avenue on the West Side. About fifty persons, both men and women, were present at the meeting. The Russian-American Democratic League was represented by Mr. V. A. Kishun.

    Mr. Chopko, the chairman, presented a short report on the life and activities of the club. He said that the club had more than two hundred members, and that it had organized its youth circle, consisting of some sixty young men and women. The adult members of the club hold their meetings once a month, while the young members meet weekly.

    After reading the reports and concluding other routine matters, Mr. Chopko introduced Mr. V. A. Kishun, chairman of the executive committee of the Russian-American Democratic League. Mr. Kishun made a lengthy speech in which he explained in detail the aims of the Russian-American Democratic League, its meaning and its usefulness to the Russian group in general and 2to Russian-American youth in particular.

    Then Mr. N. Novin and Mr. I. F. Erin, both also representing the League, gave further explanations of that organization's future aims, and of its great moral importance to the sons and daughters of the Russian-American people and its influence on their future. They also congratulated the Russian-American Club of the 25th Ward on its good work and on the fine results it has already achieved. Several members of the club also spoke. They praised the good work of the Russian-American Democratic League and urged their co-members to increase still further their efforts toward co-operating with the League and to continue the expansion of their club.

    One fact must be noted with particular satisfaction, and that is the number of women members of the Club who participated in the meeting. We are informed that the women members of the club are especially active in many of the club's activities.

    The young people's department is well developed and is gaining strength every 3day. Besides giving healthful recreation to our sons and daughters, it also gives them a good training for their future duties as useful citizens of this great country of our adoption, our second fatherland. The youth department of the club is especially useful in preventing many of our Russian boys and girls from being absorbed by the "street" with all its baneful influences upon their character and their future life.

    Before adjourning the meeting, the members took up the question of organizing a picnic. They decided unanimously to hold a large picnic before the end of July, and elected a special committee of ten persons to arrange all the details and to set the date of the outing.

    It may be noted here that the Russian-American Club of the 25th Ward consists of former peasants and workers exclusively. Not a single member of the so-called intelligentsia is to be found in this organization. These simple men, however, are able to conduct the affairs of the club very smoothly and efficiently, and to advance the aims of the club rapidly.


    All praise and honor to you, members of the Russian-American Club of the 25th Ward, for your excellent work! You serve as a good example for all Russian organizations in Chicago.

    The Russian-American Club of the 25th Ward held its regular meeting on July 6 at 1345 South Washtenaw Avenue on the West Side. About fifty persons, both men and women, ...

    III B 2, V A 2, III E, I K, IV
  • [Interview] -- November 19, 1936
    Interview with Eugene Moravsky

    In the opinion of Mr. Moravsky the present Russian colony consists mostly of naturalized Russian-American citizens and is a permanent settlement in Chicago. Mr. Moravsky doubts very much whether any number of them would want to return to their native land if given the opportunity. It is very interesting to note, Mr. Moravsky thinks, that the Russian colony in Chicago of today is a mixture of different Slavic nationalities and is not pure Russian. He gives the following reason: Most of the Russians who came to Chicago prior to the revolution of 1917 were single males who emigrated to the United States in search of better living conditions. Very few women came to the shores of America in years gone by. Most of those newcomers after settling in Chicago, with the oncoming of the revolution of 1917, have found it very difficult to return to Russia, and made up their minds to remain here as permanent citizens. A majority have been naturalized.

    Inter-marriages have played a big part in the life of the Russians in Chicago. Not finding his own nationality of the opposite sex, he was forced to intermarry with other Slavic nationalities such as Poles, Bohemians, Rumanians, Czecho-Slovakians, etc.

    In the opinion of Mr. Moravsky the present Russian colony consists mostly of naturalized Russian-American citizens and is a permanent settlement in Chicago. Mr. Moravsky doubts very much whether any ...

    III A, V A 2