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Dziennik Związkowy -- December 15, 1910Present-Day Agriculture (Editorial)
Official statistics on the development of agriculture in one of our states show the strange phenomenon, that we have large landowners and small farmers. Formerly in Europe, and especially in Poland, there were two classes of landowners, that is, masters of extensive estates on one hand, and small farmers possessing barely a few acres of land on the other. Here in America, the same state of affairs is becoming more and more evident. The capitalistic class purchases large areas of land and gains profit from them, while, on the other hand, the poorer farmer maintains himself with great difficulty on a small farm of only a few acres. The value of land increases with each year, and many of the smaller farmers are forced to sell their farms to manufacturing and railroad tycoons. The comparatively wealthy middle class of farmers is now gradually becoming extinct. Because of this, we find that only two classes of owners are left, owners of large areas of land on 2one side, and small farmers managing on a few acres of land, and making a meager livelihood out of it, on the other.
The old type of farmer is gradually becoming extinct here. Farmers of that type at one time cut down dense forests, cleared the land, tilled it, and lived from it. But all-powerful Capital is gradually encroaching even upon this category of profits, by buying out the land and changing the small landowners into vassals. Many become greedy for the high price offered them for their land by the capitalists. They, therefore, sell it without thinking of the time when they will become slaves of capitalism. The state of Maine is one example of such conditions, but it is not unique. Similar conditions are prevalent in other agricultural states, where small farms are becoming extinct and large ones are being created. Those who formerly worked for themselves are now tilling the same land but giving the profits to the capitalists. The outlook is none too bright for the future, because capitalism is growing more and more powerful by bringing agriculture under its control. As a result of this, there are more and more poor people who 3will be in complete dependence upon the wealthy capitalist. And so we find that capital has control over trade and commerce and is now spreading its tentacles over agriculture. Such a state of affairs bodes ill for the unpropertied class. Something should be done to prevent this monster of capitalism from strengthening its grasp upon the agriculture of this nation, lest it have everyone and everything under its control.
Official statistics on the development of agriculture in one of our states show the strange phenomenon, that we have large landowners and small farmers. Formerly in Europe, and especially in ...
I L, I D 1 a
Secondary listingsPolish // Attitudes > Economic Organization > Capitalistic Enterprise > Big Business (I D 1 a) ?
Dziennik Związkowy -- November 16, 1911Government Land
A meeting was held the day before yesterday at Mr. J. Kuszewski's hall, corner of Noble and Division Streets, on the matter of government land in Oklahoma, which is now being auctioned. Mr. Mazurkiewicz, who already has bought some land there, called the meeting together, but very few people came--only about eight. Although those present eulogized life on the farm, no concrete decisions were made.
A meeting was held the day before yesterday at Mr. J. Kuszewski's hall, corner of Noble and Division Streets, on the matter of government land in Oklahoma, which is now ...
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Dziennik Związkowy -- December 18, 1911The Immigration Question (Editorial)
From Washington we have been informed by Congressman Adolph J. Sabath, a Chicagoan, that the immigration question is again encountering stormy seas. The opponents of immigration, the dyed-in-the-wool chauvinists, are not neglecting this matter, but continue to work toward stopping the flow of immigration. To accomplish this purpose they use all possible means.
On September 6 the Farmers Educational and Co-operative Union of America held a conference at Shawnee, Oklahoma, at which a resolution was passed, by a tremendous majority, demanding the cessation of immigration. Many such resolutions are now being received by congressmen, all demanding that the necessary steps be taken to close the borders to foreigners.
Congressman Sabath is an ardent defender of the immigrants and has had 2several battles on their behalf with American chauvinists in Congress. He has been able, upon several occasions, with the help of other congressmen, to postpone action on the immigration question, but his opponents are not sleeping on the job. Congressman Sabath has gone to Panama, as a member of a congressional committee, to inspect work on the canal, and will not return until January 4 of next year. He has, however, received the assurance of the Committee on Immigration that it will not take up the immigration question until his return, when he can again enter the battle. We must, therefore, again be prepared to support Congressman Sabath and his favorable disposed colleagues in this battle. It may be that again we will have to send a counter-resolution to various congressmen from Polish electoral districts urging them to defend the immigrants, as we have already done several times in the past. We must be on guard, because the devil does not slumber, but tempts the enemies of the poor immigrants who come here bringing their strength, health, and willingness to work.
The House Committee on Immigration, in the recommendations which it submitted 3to Congress, expressed itself definitely against immigration, asserting that the majority of the immigrants constitute an undesirable and criminal element, and that many such "criminals" get in who are only a burden and a menace to the country. The Committee recommends the placing of a higher head tax upon immigrants, and the definite barring of adult illiterate immigrants. According to the wishes of the Committee, steamship companies which bring such immigrants here would be fined, and would have to deport these immigrants at their own expense.
With these recommendations the farmers' society is wholeheartedly in accord, and urges Congress to bring them into effect as soon as possible. A frenzied chauvinism has made inroads even among the farmers who until now were peaceful and well disposed toward immigrants. Alone, these farmers are unable to cultivate the tremendous fields which they own, but still they feel an aversion to the poor but hard-working immigrant, who, if he were directed to the farms by Federal or civic agencies, would surely raise the level of agriculture, would cease being a burden in industrial centers, and would assure the farmers an adequate supply of labor.4
These furious chauvinists do not want to understand this; instead, they invent laws making the entry of immigrants more difficult, under the silly pretext that most immigrants are criminals. In truth, native Yankees have among their ranks more actual criminals in one of their larger cities than the immigrants from Europe have in the entire country. This is a fact which the police records prove.
We are prepared in every way for a new battle in defense of the immigrants, and we will be backed by legions of intelligent people who are not prejudiced and blinded, even though they were born and raised in this country. Many congressmen, also, are on our side. We must not allow ourselves to be bested by the enemies of immigration.
From Washington we have been informed by Congressman Adolph J. Sabath, a Chicagoan, that the immigration question is again encountering stormy seas. The opponents of immigration, the dyed-in-the-wool chauvinists, are ...
III G, III B 1, I L, IV, IV
Secondary listingsPolish // Assimilation > Nationalistic Societies and Influences > Effect upon United States Government and State Policies (III B 1) ?
Polish // Attitudes > Agriculture in the United States (I L) ?
Bohemian // Representative Individuals (IV) ?
Jewish // Representative Individuals (IV) ?
Dziennik Związkowy -- December 28, 1911Tardy Advisors (Editorial)
When in the entire country the voice of ever-increasing protest and indignation is being raised against the extortionism of the robbing trusts; when finally the Government, under the pressure of public opinion, has begun court investigations and brought legal action against some of the larger hydras; when even the courts, having recognized the knavery of all sorts of corporations and monopolies, are dissolving them and are placing fines on their creators, then the very creators and fathers of the trusts take the floor and give their "friendly" advice.
Such tardy advisers, and, one can say, false friends of the general public, turn out to be, among other financial potentates and creators of trusts, Andrew Carnegie, the creator and protector of the steel trust, and Elbert H. Gary, president of the trust called the United States Steel Corporation.2
The first of these advisers, the millionaire Carnegie, published an article in the North American Review, in which he advises the government not to dissolve completely all sorts of corporations which do not even violate the antitrust laws, but proposes that they be placed under government control and that an interstate commission be formed to regulate the prices of all agricultural produce and factory products. Carnegie maintains that just as a judge cannot judge himself in any matter whatever, so the farmer and factory worker should not fix the prices of their products, but that these should be decided by an impartial commission, which will figure the costs of the producer, how much profit he should make, and at what prices agricultural produce and factory merchandise should be sold.
Further, Carnegie advises the creation of an "industrial court," which would deliberate the recommendations of the interstate commission and would finally set the obligatory prices, harming neither the producers nor the purchasers. In this vein, more or less, Mr. Carnegie, who now, naturally, no longer cares what the nation and the Government do about the trusts because he has already 3gotten enough money out of the nation and can now play at being a moralist and well-wishing adviser, gives his advice. But why did not this creator and father of the steel trust proffer such advice and recommendations before? Why was he so late about this, when already others have taken up this matter who will know what to do about the trusts and how to correct the conditions, which at present are unbearable, without his help?
In the same general vein as Carnegie, another director of the steel trust, Elbert H. Gary, president of the most powerful corporation in the world, offers his advice. Before the Interstate Commerce Commission, he said that in his opinion the Government should definitely take control of all the commerce and industry in the country, and should itself, through appropriate commissions, regulate the prices of all products. Pretending to be a great friend of the masses, so impudently exploited by all kinds of trusts, he expresses his indignation against the exploiters and recommends that they be gotten after by the law, which would put an end to these robberies, which Mr. Gary has at last deigned to notice.4
But, like Carnegie, Gary does not advise the Government to dissolve the large corporations, declaring that this would be a severe blow to the nations commerce and industry, and that as a result many firms, honestly conducting their businesses, would have to go bankrupt. In his opinion, Government control of corporations will be sufficient to put an end to extortion and abuses.
In our opinion the advice of these gentlemen comes too late and does not in every respect agree with the truth. After all there is in existence today the severe Sherman Antitrust Act, but it has not been put into practice. Courts also exist which are supposed to be the guardians of this law and of justice, but the trusts go on doing mischief unpunished, robbing the masses, and American justice chooses not to see this knavery.
Therefore, there can be no certainty, even under the cloak of Government control and guidance, that the robberies will not continue, until the head of the trust hydra is completely hacked off. After all, this Government is composed in a large proportion of these creators and directors of trusts and their backers.5
Therefore, existing lawless corporations should be dissolved, and all public utilities should be Government-owned, just as the Post Office is Government-owned, and then the workers will not be discriminated against, the cost of living will not be exorbitant, and farmers will not be exploited. There will then be no half-rotten products lying about in refrigerators for several years at a time, no artificially produced stagnations in business and industry, no closing of banks or other things which bring billions of dollars to certain individuals and poverty to other millions of individuals.
Gentlemen, then, such as Messrs. Carnegie, Gary, and their ilk can keep their belated advice to themselves, because the awakening nation will know, all by itself, what to do with the trusts and how to remedy today's unbearable conditions.
When in the entire country the voice of ever-increasing protest and indignation is being raised against the extortionism of the robbing trusts; when finally the Government, under the pressure of ...
I D 1 a, I J, I L
Secondary listingsPolish // Attitudes > Interpretation of American History (I J) ?
Polish // Attitudes > Agriculture in the United States (I L) ?
Dziennik Związkowy -- September 19, 1912Poles Are Good Farmers
Mr. W. J. Lauck, an official of the Department of Labor and Commerce, who is an American that really knows the conditions of various European nations and who takes great interest in the immigrants that arrive in the United States from various parts of the world, especially the immigrants from Poland, has praised the Poles very highly in the American newspapers.
In the last issue of the Times Dispatch of Richmond, Virginia, Mr. Lauck wrote and article under the title of "Men From Poland Are Good Farmers".
In this article the author remarks, that he is greatly interested in the Clover Bottom colony which is located in the state of Missouri, in the very center of Washington County. Four Polish families from Pike County, Illinois, arrived to this locality, which was a wild desert. They bought ground from the owners at six dollars an acre, then began a very hard task of cutting down trees, pulling out stumps, clearing the ground for cultivation.2
In this same year three more Polish families arrived in Clover Bottom from Texas, and the following year eight more Polish families from Texas and nine immigrant families from Poland settled there.
This small colony of Poles combined forces, and changed Clover Bottom from a wilderness to a very benutiful spot. It had taken some time and hard work, before these farms had given them any results, but as time went along they began to reap profits, and today this colony has become one of the best farming sections in the United States.
Many more Polish families who lived in various parts of America settled in Clover Bottom, but did not remain very long, because they were used to the big cities and localities where Polish churches are nearby.
At present there are thirty-six Polish families amounting to two hundred persons in this colony, and following the parents departure from this world, the sons and nephews do the farm work. They love this work and are happy, having achieved prosperity. The Polish language reigns there because some 3of them are unable to speak the English language. In this small colony they live as one happy family, and can serve as an example to farmers of other colonies.
These farms are now in good condition, and their value has increased very considerably.
These Polish settlers built very beautiful homes and gardens; they live a good distance away from the large cities and do not have to worry about employment or income.
Each Polish farm in Clover Bottom amounts to eighty acres; however, from this eighty acre farm a Polish farmer is not only able to support a family, but also saves money. On this same kind of a farm an American farmer would find it very difficult to support a family; also the American farmer would not care to clear wilderness, and would not have the proper farming tools for such work. But a Polish, German, Dutch, Swedish or Bohemian farmer is well trained in farming, and can make a small farm pay, even for the future 4generations.
Mr. Lauck, writing further of Clover Bottom, adds that these Polish farmers, and Polish farmers everywhere, are very useful to America because they know how to produce a large crop of wheat on a small piece of land, while the American farmer could not produce as much wheat on a piece of land five times as large. Such immigrants are needed very much, and we should receive them with open arms to our country, and the government should help them to settle on farms, so they would not destroy their great strength in factories or mines, wher they would perish miserably.
Not very far from Clover Bottom are two none Polish colonies, Cracow, and Owensville, in which sixty-one Polish families occupy farms, and they farm on what the American farmers call very poor land; yet they surprised these American farmers by proving to them, that they are able to earn a living on these farm lands.
Mr. Lauck further writes that Polish immigrants are good farmers, industrious 5people, energetic and economic, they are greatly needed and the gates of the United States should be open at all times for such immigrants.
Mr. W. J. Lauck, an official of the Department of Labor and Commerce, who is an American that really knows the conditions of various European nations and who takes great ...
I L, V A 2, III G
Secondary listingsPolish // Miscellaneous Characteristics > Foreign Origins > Social and Occupational (V A 2) ?
Polish // Assimilation > Immigration and Emigration (III G) ?
Dziennik Zwiazkowy -- September 16, 19131,000 Delegates Expected at Polish National Alliance Convention
With 700 delegates already in the city, and 500 more expected to arrive during the morning, the annual convention of the Polish National Alliance will open at 8:30 a. m., Monday.
The Polish National Alliance, incorporated in the State of Illinois, is the largest Polish organization in the world. It has a membership of 101,000. Representatives of all chapters will attend the convention.
Plans for the purchase of about 100,000 acres of land, to be used for the colonization of immigrants, will be one of the most important matters to come before the delegated. For two or three years the purchase of this land has been advocated as a means of raising the standard of living among Poles, but thus far the association has been without sufficient funds. It has, however, found means now for financing the project, and plans to make available to Polish immigrants small farms, at about $8. an acre. We believe that within a comparatively short time the entire tract will be taken ever by countrymen, and that it will be 2possible to erect a modern system of schools and churches.
Another matter to be considered is the rewriting of the constitution, because several clauses contained therein are ambiguous and may be misconstrued, causing embarrassment in case of litigation.
The reports of the seven different department will be one of the most interesting features of the convention. The Alliance is working to educate Polish immigrants and to quality then to command higher wages and make then better American citizens. The result of accomplishments along these lines will be given in reports from the departments of education, immigration, colonization, women's auxiliary, general aid, publication and insurance.
Another feature of importance will be the report of the Polish National Alliance college of Cambridge Springs, Pa. A. hotel was purchased by the Alliance for $175,000 and converted into a Polish school, the first of its kind in the United States. A tract of 125 acres adjoins the college The tuition fees is $100. a year, and students are trained as thoroughly as in many American institutions. Each member of the Alliance 3pays a monthly assessment of five cents toward the maintenance of this college. An assessment of two cents per capita also maintains the immigration building in New York, where all immigrants are directed to place which will give them the best opportunities.
Ten thousand dollars was appropriated at the last convention to assist Polish boys and girls who wish to enter American universities, but are without sufficient means. Best of wishes, delegates.
With 700 delegates already in the city, and 500 more expected to arrive during the morning, the annual convention of the Polish National Alliance will open at 8:30 a. m., ...
III B 4, III B 2, II B 2 f, I A 1 d, III G, I L
Secondary listingsPolish // Assimilation > Nationalistic Societies and Influences > Activities of Nationalistic Societies (III B 2) ?
Polish // Contributions and Activities > Avocational and Intellectual > Intellectual > Special Schools and Classes (II B 2 f) ?
Polish // Attitudes > Education > Secular > Special Endowments (I A 1 d) ?
Polish // Assimilation > Immigration and Emigration (III G) ?
Polish // Attitudes > Agriculture in the United States (I L) ?
Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 12, 1921Dr. Zaluski Writes about the Polish People in America
In one of the daily papers published in Warsaw, we have found an article written by Dr. Zaluski who has been among our people in America, and recently returned to Poland.
Dr. John Zaluski, while in the United States, through his contact with prominent Poles, became familiar with many vital statistics concerning their number and activity. He has carried all this information back to his native country and written about the Polish emigrants in America.
According to the article, one of the most important facts revealed is that there are over three million Poles in the United States. They populate two sections of the country. The first group spreads throughout the large cities of the north central and northeastern states. They are found in large numbers in the cities of Chicago, Milwaukee, Toledo, Detroit, Cleveland, and Buffalo. The total number in these cities reaches nearly two million. A majority of them are engaged in 2industry and the remainder in farming.
"The second group," writes the doctor, "is found in the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania; namely, Pittsburgh and Philadelphia. There are about a million Polish people in this state. The third center is New York. Over a half a million Poles are located here. The Polish people in general are well organized."
"When I asked upon what foundations the Polish people are organized, I have found out that it was the parish churches," writes Dr. Zaluski. He states: "The foundations of the organized Polish emigrants in America are the parish churches of each Polish community. It must be remembered that the parish is not only the church, school, and shelter, but also the medium that advocates national activities and obligations. Its influence also reaches the life in the home.
"There are about seven hundred Polish parishes in America. And the organization of nationalism among the Polish people by the church is nothing special, for this 3is the general practice of the Catholic Church. The life of the parish is the foundation of national life."
"The spirit of the Polish-American citizens is one of great understanding. The Polish spirit is constantly improving its horizon relative to its mission in America, and knows the great value of the individuality within its ranks. From a national point of view, this is an unusually favorable condition," he stipulates.
"It is also of interest to know that beyond the parish there are other forms of organization which add to the completeness of community life; namely, social clubs and political groups. But even these cannot hold meetings without having the parish play some part in it. As it happens many times it is the parish which possesses the auditoriums, halls, public buildings, etc."
"Who among the emigrants returns to Poland?" To this he replies:
"The freedom of Poland is one of the most important factors that has motivated 4the emigrant to return to his native country. The ones that are going back are those who were held back because of the War. However, this re-emigration is not very great. A greater number are awaiting the settlement of political and industrial conditions in the new republic. This number is separated into two groups: the wealthy emigrants and the early, patriotic emigrants (the oldtimers). On their return, they will take an active part in the affairs of Poland."
"This element," he writes further, "will be one of great value, for it will be instrumental in attracting American capital."
"What influence did the World war have on the Poles in the United States?" Dr. Zaluski asserts that forty-two thousand Polish-Americans volunteered when the American government called for one hundred thousand volunteers. Out of the total only three thousand were Jews. This is comparitively a small number considering the fact that Jewish emigration was as great, if not greater than the Poles to America.
"What about the interest in the fatherland? In reality, the Polish people in 5America are keeping in close contact with the affairs in Poland. A warm feeling of patriotism is expressed by a great many."
[Newspaper Editor's note: The facts as presented by Dr. John Zaluski are true in every form.]
In one of the daily papers published in Warsaw, we have found an article written by Dr. Zaluski who has been among our people in America, and recently returned to ...
I C, II A 2, III H, III D, I L, I C
Secondary listingsPolish // Contributions and Activities > Vocational > Industrial and Commercial (II A 2) ?
Polish // Assimilation > Relations with Homeland (III H) ?
Polish // Assimilation > Participation in United States Service (III D) ?
Polish // Attitudes > Agriculture in the United States (I L) ?
Jewish // Attitudes > Own and Other National or Language Groups (I C) ?
Dziennik Zjednoczenia -- February 05, 1927Agriculture in America Is Facing Ruin (Editorial)
The public is fully aware of present conditions and the importance of American agriculture; and is amazed at the indifferent attitude of the United States Congress. Statistics pertaining to agriculture, collected by the Department of Commerce, prove unquestionably that agricultural activities, instead of increasing, are gradually decreasing, and, that with the continual increase in population, America will find herself in a grave situation if some remedy is not found in the near future.
For example, let us take the State of Louisiana, where statistics are complete. In the last five years, the total farm population in this state has been decreased by 90,000 people. In the same period, the mortgage debts with which the farmers have been burdened, have increased $10,000.000, while the farmlands value are but $2,000,000, Lousiana differs from other southern states which depend on cotton raising, because it possesses vast sugar-beet plantations, it has rich soil, and is noted for its rice and tobacco growing, from which a prosperous industry has been developed. However, if agricultural activities decrease in a state like Louisiana, then what are conditions in other agricultural states. Congress displays malicious irony toward this important situation. Manufacturers receive $4,000,000,000 annually for tariff protection.2
Financiers of banks established a solid foundation by creating the Federal Reserve System; railroads have the assurance of a large profit, through the passage of the Esch-Cummins bill; merchant marine companies gained monopoly of transporation on American waters; various laws and limitations of immigration were intended to improve labor conditions; and states desiring to improve their roads, can secure the aid of our government.
Agriculture is the most important branch of industry; but yet in spite of its great importance it seeks aid in vain. Every proposed law, designated to increase agriculture created an objection, that points to an economic vision, that is unhealthy, unconstitutional and impractical. Perhaps agriculture would be surrounded with the protection it has earned, if farmers would unite, and organize, as, for example, the manufacturers do. Our practical employers take in consideration the power, that may build or destroy their interests; finding themselves secure under the jurisdiction of the United States Government, they do not concern themselves over the possibility of a great shortage of agricultural products, which would eventually, necessitate the purchase of such products from abroad.
The public is fully aware of present conditions and the importance of American agriculture; and is amazed at the indifferent attitude of the United States Congress. Statistics pertaining to agriculture, ...
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