The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 16, 1893
    Beet-Planting Meeting in Omaha (Correspondence)

    "The article reprinted in yesterday's edition of Dziennik Chicagoski from the Omaha Bee forces me to explain that I cannot be held responsible for all newspaper exaggerations in respect to the beet-planting project with which I am associated. Everybody knows the methods pursued by the American press--in order to 'boom' a certain matter, newspapers excite the imagination of the people and then publish the most fantastic ideas.

    "Personally, I am usually responsible for what I sign, and at the moment my activity closes with the appeal printed in the Kuryer of Milwaukee, entitled 'An Appeal to the Polish Farmers,' which was also a subject of editorial comment in your Dziennik Chicagoski.

    "At any rate, it is true that I received an invitation from the Chamber of 2Commerce to appear in Omaha at a meeting sponsored by the Nebraska Beet Sugar Association, to be held on Monday, December 18. And because since childhood I understand the planting of beets and the manufacture of sugar from them, as the members of the committee are convinced from conversations held with them previously, therefore I was invited by them to speak at this meeting to urge the American farmers to plant beets on a wider scale.

    "At the proper time I shall also visit another section of eastern Nebraska with a committee of colonists, to consider the proposition made to them to purchase land for beet-planting purposes. It is therefore evident that the project is progressing, and if it does not please somebody's fancy, then I judge, the simplest thing to do would be not to engage in it.

    [Count] Henryk Lubienski."

    Endeavoring to explain the matter in all ways, the above article by H. Lubienski still is not entirely satisfactory. Simply to blame the press 3for exaggerating is a brave thing to do but is not convincing. Even exaggeration has a source. We are convinced that the American newspapers would not willingly publish falsehoods, and in this case the exaggeration is based on the appeal issued by the Beet Sugar Association and the words of Commissioner Utt. As to the advice of not engaging in this matter, we feel it is the duty of a newspaper to take an interest in every public affair that touches upon the public welfare. This matter will be closed next week, when we will publish our final judgment based on material gathered by us.

    "The article reprinted in yesterday's edition of Dziennik Chicagoski from the Omaha Bee forces me to explain that I cannot be held responsible for all newspaper exaggerations in respect to ...

    Polish
    I C, I L
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 29, 1893
    Mr. Lubienski and His Colonies

    The Milwaukee Kuryer Polski (Polish Courier), a weekly paper, has received the following information, dated December 27, from Omaha, Nebraska:

    "After two weeks of parleys between Count Lubienski and the Commercial Club, an agreement has been finally reached whereby a sugar refinery is to be built here next year. Count Lubienski has guaranteed to build the factory and the Commercial Club has agreed to subscribe for $100,000 worth of shares. Lubienski intends to settle two hundred Polish families here. In the Elkhorn Valley another sugar refinery will be built."

    (Translator's note: The Poles in Chicago were vitally interested in thie colonization project.)

    The Milwaukee Kuryer Polski (Polish Courier), a weekly paper, has received the following information, dated December 27, from Omaha, Nebraska: "After two weeks of parleys between Count Lubienski and the ...

    Polish
    I L
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- April 23, 1894
    Outline of the Constitution of the Polish League in the United States, to Be Discussed at the Kosciusko Mass Meeting on May 8, 1894

    [Translator's note: This constitution was adopted with a few changes.]

    Article I

    1. The Polish League is to represent all Poles in the United States of America. Its purpose is to unite all Poles in the name of Christian love and love for Poland, so that they may uplift themselves by engaging collectively in benevolent, educational, and patriotic work. The Polish League--as a combination of moral and physical forces the purpose of which is to promote an interest in nationalistic work--is to be a fraternal alliance standing above all factions.

    2. The object of the Polish League is to defend, support, and foster the Polish 2national cause by open and legal means. The expression "Polish national cause" is understood to include the civil, political, and national rights of the Poles and such tasks as teaching the Polish language, educating the Poles, [preserving Polish] customs, promoting unity, teaching the history of our nation, promoting the development of national characteristics, and, finally, working for the prosperity [of the Poles]

    3. The purpose of the Polish League may be summed up as follows:

    a. To look after the interests of American Poles in an honest manner, especially, in the presence of public opinion.

    b. To promote education by means of books, schools, and publications.

    c. To keep the Poles morally united in a brotherly spirit through mutual and moral influences.

    3

    d. To keep in contact with the mother country--both economically and intellectually.

    e. To improve our material condition through the organization of all kinds of institutions for mutual help.

    f. To help the weak and the poor.

    g. To collect money in America for the Polish National Fund.

    4. The Polish League shall never engage, either directly or indirectly, in any activity against the Holy Roman Catholic Faith or the principles of Christian morality set forth by the Church.

    5. Polish priests, who, through their calling, are engaged in teaching Christian love toward the mother country among the people, especially the youth, 4will have the right to voice their opinions at mass meetings and sessions of the League. They also will have the right of representation in its administration.

    6. Persons belonging to secret societies or organizations condemned by the Church cannot belong to the League. Anarchists, communists, and socialists shall be excluded from the League.

    Article II

    Organization of the Polish League

    1. The Polish League in the United States of America will be a federation.

    2. The League will embrace all Polish communities, parishes, societies, and organizations. Every Polish community, parish, society, or organization will have the right of representation at mass meetings, and in general it will have 5the right to control the affairs of the League in proportion to the number of members from whom it collects and pays a one-cent per capita assessment toward the Polish National Fund.

    3. No community, parish, or organization will lose its autonomy by joining the League. However, they will take upon themselves an obligation to work for the good of the Polish nation under the direction of the Polish League.

    4. Every large Polish community will constitute a district, which will be in charge of a district commission consisting of a president, two vice-presidents, a secretary, and a collector.

    5. District commission will begin to function as soon as they are approved by the League.

    6. If necessary, in order to facilitate its work or enlarge its field of action, 6every district commission can establish agencies and supervise them.

    7. Agencies will be under the district commissions and their personnel will consist of a manager, a secretary, and a collector.

    8. Agencies are nucleuses in direct contact with the Polish people. Their duties will be to promote education and patriotism by means of meetings, speeches, lectures; to enroll new members; to collect special dues and donations for the League; to send these funds to the district commissions, and to carry out all orders given by the district commissions.

    9. Duties of the district commissions:

    a. To see that the orders and decisions of the central board of the League are carried out.

    b. To collect dues in the district.

    7

    c. To inform the central board as to the needs of the district and see to it that the aims of the League are realized in their localities.

    d. To keep proper records.

    10. Collectors are to send accumulated funds at least once a month. When the sum collected exceeds twenty-five dollars, it must be sent at once.

    11. Rules and regulations in regard to the activities of the district commissions and the manner in which they will communicate with other departments will be issued by the central board from time to time.

    Article III

    Financial Organization

    1. The funds of the League are derived:

    a. From the one-cent monthly special assessment imposed upon every member of 8the League. Income from this assessment is to be set aside for the Polish National Fund.

    b. From voluntary monthly contributions and other donations.

    2. Societies, organizations, parishes, and communities shall collect from their members the one-cent special assessment and other contributions. The money thus collected shall be delivered to the local agencies, which shall send it to the district commissions.

    3. The district commissions shall deliver all collected funds to the financial secretary of the League, who will turn them over to the treasurer.

    4. Allocation of the League's funds:

    a. The one-cent special assessment collected from the members of the League is 9to be set aside exclusively for the Polish National Fund of the Polish League.

    b. All administrative and departmental expenses must be covered by voluntary contributions.

    5. Care of the funds:

    a. The control of the League's funds, and the issuing of yearly statements, etc., shall be under an executive committee of the League, according to the decision at the mass meeting.

    b. The League's funds shall be entrusted to the treasurer of the League.

    c. Rules and regulations governing the treasury will be prepared by a special committee, which will be chosen at the mass meeting.

    10

    Article IV

    The Polish National Fund

    1. Aim and purpose. The Polish National Fund shall be maintained by voluntary contributions for the purpose of supporting the Polish national cause and the Polish national movement in an endeavor to gain the independence and national rights of Poland.

    2. The object of the Polish National Fund shall be:

    a. To inculcate the principle of self-reliance among the Poles.

    b. To accustom the Polish public to the duty of making contributions toward the national cause.

    c. To provide funds for nationalistic work.

    3. The Polish National Fund shall embrace all funds set aside for nationalistic 11work, regardless of source, as provided by the regulations.

    4. Safeguarding the funds. The money of the Polish National Fund shall be invested in United States bonds.

    5. Protection and control. The Polish National Fund shall be guarded and protected by trustees.

    6. These trustees shall be chosen at the mass meeting and shall consist of trustworthy citizens financially responsible.

    7. The trustees shall have the right to check the funds and examine the financial records of the League at any time. They shall issue quarterly financial statements.

    8. Disposition of the Polish National Fund. The Polish National Fund shall be 12inviolable, its interest as well as the principal, until it reaches the sum of $100,000.

    9. As soon as the Fund reaches $100,000, the interest of the previous year is subject to disposition. The one-cent assessment collected from members shall be continued and added to the Fund.

    10. The problem of the disposition of the Polish National Fund shall be settled at the mass meeting, and the administration of the League, consisting of trustworthy men, shall dispose of it in accordance with the decision reached at the mass meeting.

    Article V

    The Legislative Power

    1. The legislative power is vested in the conventions of the League.

    2. Conventions shall be held every three years at the location chosen by a 13majority of the district commissions six months before they are scheduled to take place. Special conventions may be called by two thirds of the votes of district presidents.

    3. The conventions of the Polish League shall be attended by delegates from Polish communities, parishes, organizations, and societies, in the proportion of one delegate for every one hundred members paying the one-cent special assessment to the League in their respective parishes, organizations, or societies. A community or society with less than one hundred members shall be entitled to send one delegate.

    4. Delegates to the conventions of the Polish League shall be chosen from among pastors of Polish parishes or their assistants, and also from among editors of Polish newspapers in America, who work in the spirit of the League.

    5. The by-laws of the League and the outline of its activities shall be made 14at the conventions.

    6. The officers of the League shall be chosen at the conventions.

    7. All basic problems of the League shall be decided at the conventions.

    8. Rules and regulations for conducting the conventions and for the election of officers shall be prepared by a committee chosen and approved at the last two conventions.

    Article VI

    Executive Department of the League

    1. The central board of the Polish League shall consist of a president, two vice-presidents, a secretary, a treasurer, and ten directors, four of whom must be officers of the central board.

    2. The central board is the executive branch of the Polish League and shall 15attend to all activities of the League, such as protection of Polish immigrants, welfare work, internal and external activities of the League, Polish National Fund and its problems, organization and control of departments, districts, and agencies.

    3. As to immigration, the central board shall endeavor to aid Polish immigrants by protecting them against exploitation and, if possible, by securing them employment. It is also its duty to inform prospective immigrants about conditions in America and the difficulties of traveling, through special appeals and warnings in Polish newspapers published in Europe. In general, the central board shall work for the welfare of Polish immigrants as circumstances will permit.

    4. As to welfare work, the central board shall support all Polish benevolent institutions, such as orphanages, homes for the aged, hospitals, etc.

    5. As to its internal activities, the League will endeavor:

    16

    a. To unite all Poles, reconciling those who are at odds with one another and reproving professional slanderers and intrigants who disrupt national unity.

    b. To defend the honor and the rights of American Poles by legal, verbal, and written means.

    c. To warn our public against wicked and harmful elements.

    d. To voice publicly matters which concern American Poles.

    e. To inform American Poles about the League's affairs, their civic duties, and about the benefits derived by performing them.

    5. As to its external activities, the League will endeavor to keep in spiritual contact with the mother country, creating sympathy here for our oppressed countrymen and helping them by all means in emergencies.

    17

    Article VII

    1. The central board of the Polish League will organize and control two permanent departments, namely, the Educational Department and the Welfare Department.

    2. The Educational and Welfare departments shall consist of five members each, namely, a president, two vice-presidents, a recording secretary, and a financial secretary.

    3. The duties of the Educational Department shall be:

    a. To promote education in the Polish schools by standardizing their educational system and textbooks.

    b. To publish inexpensive books suitable for the common people, establish reading rooms, libraries, trade schools, and hold public lectures.

    18

    c. To settle all personal disputes that may arise in the League by arbitration or honor courts.

    4. The duties of the Welfare Department shall be:

    a. To interest the Poles in agriculture; b. to organize the workingmen; c. to establish employment offices; d. to encourage Polish business.

    5. All decisions made by these departments shall be approved by the central board of the League before they may be carried out.

    6. Every member of the central board must furnish a bond, the amount of which shall be decided at the convention. This shall apply also to the members of the League's treasury.

    7. No officer of the League shall receive any remuneration for his services.

    19

    8. Office expenses of the League shall be paid from its funds.

    9. The problem of investing the League's funds and securing a charter for it will be entrusted to competent experts of this country.

    10. The central board of the League will determine the rules and regulations to be followed by district commissions and agencies.

    11. All members of the central board, departments, district commissions, and agencies must be Poles who are citizens of the United States (or at least they must have first papers). They must be patriotic, moral, and of good character and have an unblemished past.

    (Editor's note: The foregoing outline of the constitution of the Polish League, which we have the honor of presenting to the Polish public in the United States, is nothing else but the material that will be submitted for consideration at 20the Kosciusko mass meeting. Whether this outline will be accepted, rejected or changed, wholly or in part, depends on the mass meeting, that is, on the delegates legally chosen by the Polish people in the United States of America.)

    [Translator's note: This constitution was adopted with a few changes.] Article I 1. The Polish League is to represent all Poles in the United States of America. Its purpose is ...

    Polish
    III B 2, II B 2 g, I A 1 a, II D 10, II D 8, II D 5, II D 4, II D 1, III H, III G, III C, I L, I E

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 08, 1896
    The Project to Colonize Poles in the State of Washington Is Progressing (Editorial)

    From the Buffalo Przeglad Tygodniowy (Weekly Review) we have gained a quite interesting bit of information regarding the plan of a group of Poles to settle in the State of Washington, on the Pacific Coast.

    This matter, which originated in Buffalo, has excited a lot of our citizens in Chicago.

    "On New Year's Day," writes the Przeglad, "a meeting was held in Kosciusko hall, at which this matter was thoroughly discussed.

    "According to the lengthy reports of the delegates, it seems that this state offers conditions that will assure the Polish settlers independence within a 2short time. It was therefore decided to prepare the way for colonization at once. The first party of settlers will leave Buffalo this month.

    "Mr. Jurek, 283 Detroit Street, is in charge of this party. Further information can be obtained at the office of Przeglad Tygodniowy.

    "The publisher of Przeglad, Mr. Wrzesinski, has departed for the state of Washing ton, where he will join the delegaies and travel over the entire state; as a trained agriculturist he will be able to choose the most appropriate place for our future Polish settlers."

    It is evident that the project is progressing. It is now necessary that it be placed on a firm and sound basis, both in the legal and business sense.

    We wish there was more frankness regarding this matter.

    To date all we know of it is from random articles in the Przeglad. We do not know:

    3

    In what legal form was the project organized? who is the head of the entire undertaking? What are the conditions?

    Such secrecy can only throw a certain shadow on the undertaking.

    We consider the question of settling Poles in a properly chosen state as very important. The state of Washington, as our own investigations have proven, is one of the best places for this purpose.

    We therefore look on this project to direct Polish settlers there with a great deal of sympathy and curiosity.

    But we also wish that it be placed on such a basis as to assure a permanent and successful future. We have seen many similar projects, partly senseless and soon discarded, conceived for the purpose of taking advantage of our people. Only truth and constructive criticism can convince us that this particular project has a sound and healthy foundation.

    From the Buffalo Przeglad Tygodniowy (Weekly Review) we have gained a quite interesting bit of information regarding the plan of a group of Poles to settle in the State of ...

    Polish
    I L, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 09, 1896
    Dr. Stupnicki Is Leaving for Washington

    The colonization project for Poles on the Pacific Coast has created quite a lot of interest here in Chicago.

    A group of Polish citizens under the directorship of Dr. Stupnicki have become interested in it.

    Dr. Stupnicki, accompanied by another person, will travel to the states of Washington and Oregon, to investigate conditions for settlers. The doctor will spend several weeks there and on his return will share his findings with those interested in this project.

    Dr. Stupnicki has also promised to send our paper a report.

    The colonization project for Poles on the Pacific Coast has created quite a lot of interest here in Chicago. A group of Polish citizens under the directorship of Dr. Stupnicki ...

    Polish
    I L
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 11, 1896
    [Pacific Coast States Attracts Poles]

    A Polish Colonization Society has been organized in Bridgeport (Chicago district). It will send three delegates to investigate conditions for colonization in the states of Washington and Oregon.

    A Polish Colonization Society has been organized in Bridgeport (Chicago district). It will send three delegates to investigate conditions for colonization in the states of Washington and Oregon.

    Polish
    I L
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- June 12, 1897
    The Approaching Polish National Alliance Convention (Editorial)

    The same motives that underlie the projects of a new daily, Dziennik Narodowy (National Daily), and a new Immigration Home have undoubtedly influenced the bosses of the Polish National Alliance to propose that certain individuals be appointed to "seek suitable places for Polish Colonization."

    Every would-be official, every candidate for such office, every ex-official, and every would-be patriot who out of virtue makes this his career is at the same time a real estate agent. Everyone of them has organized and is organizing various kinds of Polish colonies under a legion of names, such as Posen, Cracow, Warsaw, Czestochowa, and Pacanow. Whether Czestochowa or Ryczywol, the name does not matter. The fact is, however, that these names were given for sentimental reasons to worthless colonies (and we are not telling everything2). The agents, using these established Polish names coupled with a hundred fancy lies, have confused and tricked the people, setting them up on sandy plains, marshes, and pathless tracts where wolves howl from hunger. By exploiting the people's naivete and goodness, the agents only succeeded in jeopardizing their own reputation and credit. Some of them have disappeared from the American scene, while others who stayed on have lost their prestige and no one believes what they say, even though they boast of the title of ex-censors and hire halls during national exercises sponsored by the Polish National Alliance to further their aims.

    The credit of the agents has been damaged beyond repair; however, not all have followed in the footsteps of those [who left] Chicago, Buffalo, Milwaukee, and other cities for Canada, London or Johannesburg--some are still vegetating in our midst, even if they no longer can make money from their gold-3giving farms. It is the opinion of some of the Polish National Alliance leaders that the former should come to the rescue of some of the agents.

    Therefore the Polish National Alliance has strapped on its insurance organization another load: the building of Poland on Pacanow or Ryczywoc [proposed Polish colonies]. A beautiful picture is going to be painted: the railroad companies are going to supply service to these colonies, which are not far from large cities. The truth, however, is that these barren fields have never been inhabited by man, that the colonizing commissioners are going to be paid from the Polish National Alliance treasury, that they are going to receive rich rewards from the railroads for providing slaves, who are going to be promised free grants for the little effort of cultivating them. Under this new veil of pseudo patriotism we cannot see anything in this large scale organization of Polish colonies but individual gains, which has nothing in common with the general idea.

    4

    Let us admit that we are blinded by pessimism and that we err. Furthermore, let us assume we favor this undertaking, that all the proposals of the censor are important and possible. Let us also assume that the Dziennik Narodowy, once it begins to be published, will support itself; that the Alliance Immigration Home will also be self-supporting once it gets started, and that the Polish colonizers, after great difficulties, will gather a handful of people willing to settle on Alliance colonies.

    How much will these experiments cost? The Dziennik Narodowy alone will swallow $15,000 for the first year. The Immigration Home will take twice as much, while the colonizing venture will take as much as the newspaper scheme.

    From where is the Polish National Alliance going to get these sums unless it taps the insurance funds? These funds are being exhausted now that the veteran members are dying off and new blood from the youth is difficult to recruit as a result of high premiums.

    5

    This latter predicament is not so dangerous, since there is still money on hand and the Alliance headquarters are not mortgaged. A crisis could be stemmed if one arose. But what of the Dziennik Narodowy, the Immigration Home, and the Alliance colonizing Agency during a crisis? Are they going to represent assets which will serve as collateral for loans?

    If this is your judgment, then you are playing with a worthless enterprise which will not be of benefit to anyone, but will endanger the Polish National Alliance morally as well as materially--with inevitable bankruptcy.

    The same motives that underlie the projects of a new daily, Dziennik Narodowy (National Daily), and a new Immigration Home have undoubtedly influenced the bosses of the Polish National Alliance ...

    Polish
    I C, II B 2 d 1, II D 2, I L
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 07, 1904
    The Polish Daily News. Polish People Migrating to Washington.

    Today the first group of Polish people are migrating to the states of Washington and Oregon. They will receive free, tracts of land which they are to cultivate and live on. The reason for this migration is; the working man cannot make a living in the over populated city, there is a lack of work, and the wages were cut.

    The Polish people were raised on farms, therefore they are more adapted to farm life. Many more are following their example.

    A group of Poles will leave every month for Washington and Oregon, to start small town or communities best suited for themselves. In charge of this migration movement are Mr. Ossowski and Mr. Bednarek.

    Today the first group of Polish people are migrating to the states of Washington and Oregon. They will receive free, tracts of land which they are to cultivate and live ...

    Polish
    I L, I D 2 c
  • Narod Polski -- August 23, 1905
    The Farmer

    Gospodarz - The Farmer, a periodical devoted to Polish farmers in America. The seventh number has just been released and contains the discussions: "The Preserving of Eggs," "The Raising of Calves," "Potatoes in Poland," "Wood Ashes," "The Family Hearth" and many others, and further "Political Review" and a very rich portion of literary works. Address of the distributor: S. J. Napieralski, 1513 W. 22nd St., Chicago, Ill.

    Gospodarz - The Farmer, a periodical devoted to Polish farmers in America. The seventh number has just been released and contains the discussions: "The Preserving of Eggs," "The Raising of ...

    Polish
    II B 2 d 2, I L, IV
  • Dziennik Związkowy -- April 19, 1909
    To Farms

    Just recently the Daily Alliance suggested the colonization of our people upon the vast acreage that is lying idle, and is begging for the mighty arm of the farmer to take out from it, the treasures of the mother-earth, for she is the only nourisher of the millions of people inhabiting this planet. A few weeks ago this paper had several special features and articles pertaining to this, and, today it not only points this out again, but emphasizes it to be of vital importance.

    History teaches us, that Poland was once the important grain center of all Europe; the products obtained by the work of her own farmers, fed practically half the world. Agricultural conditions in Poland in the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were primitive, yet she was able to dominate the farming industry.

    The word Poland, when translated from the Polish, virtually means field-land, 2pointing out that farming was the first important industry, to which perhaps only the Hollanders could approach.

    Under the stone-ax fell the virgin forests, woods were removed, arid land was made fertile; the plough-share and hook-plough was used to till the soil; and into it was sown the seed for the crops. The crop was always abundant. After satisfying her wants, millions of bushels of wheat and other grains were shipped to Danzig, and from there all over the world. In return there was gold, of which Poland was not lacking. The great industries of today were not known; mining was undeveloped, commercial trading was unknown and thousands of workers were not lost in the steel or rail mills, or in the dark dungeons of the coal and mineral mines. Speculation in stocks or banking was yet to come. Despite all this Poland was rich in the exchange of exported grain for gold. Poland garbed herself in silks, diamonds, gold and silver.

    3

    She also had copper and zinc kitchenware and other utensils that could be found in the poorest peasant home. It became a byword that Paris styles, goods of Holland, Hungarian wine, and Polish wheat were the most important commodities on this globe. Poland did not boast of horses as did England or Arabia; she did not have the dairy cows of Switzerland or Holland, or the poultry of Persia and Spain, but she had a good breed of hogs, and cattle. Every Polish nobleman, whenever he went to some affair or on a journey, took with him several pack-horses. He never lacked in any smoked or dried meats.

    Polish farmers did not know poverty as do people of industrial countries today. Poland did not export machinery, silks or other products, but created her wealth from wheat, oats, and rye; on large pastures fed various breeds of cattle, horses, and hogs; trees were over abundant with fruits and beehives overflowed with honey from which well known liqueurs were made. Various beers and whiskeys were brewed and distilled.

    4

    Malt and barley were plentiful. Foodstuffs were not adulterated with preservatives. All its meats, wild or domestic, were tasty, due to its abundance of good food for the animals.

    Poland was a great agricultural country, overflowing with its fruits. Every peasant, even of the poorest class, did not know hunger. His silo was always filled, his cellars stocked with prepared foodstuffs and in the stys, barns, and coops there were plenty of hogs, cattle, and poultry.

    Polish hospitality was well known, not only because the welcome was heartfelt but because there was always something to treat the guests with. The table was covered with cloth, of native cotton. Upon it was a large loaf of bread, and salt from Poland's famous mines. Glasses were filled with drink, and jars displayed golden honey and beer. All this was lavished upon guests and servants as well.

    There was enough for everybody. In one of the historical centers, thousands 5of people who came to elect a King were fed. Christenings, weddings, funerals, and many other festal ceremonies lasted many days. Upon these occasions many kinds of bakery goods, including cakes, breads, cookies, and tarts were actually poured upon the table. The butchers killed thousands of animals for the cooks. The guests could remain half a year.

    That was how the Polish farmers thrived at one time. Time has changed all this today. When industry and commerce supplanted farming and when Polish people lost their freedom, the Polish farmers lost their land. This caused thousands of acres of land, fertile for centuries, to grow wild. High taxes were imposed upon the farmers. This paralyzed the growth of agriculture. Countless hundreds of people, who knew only farming, were forced to seek a living elsewhere, although at one time conditions of this kind were unknown. Drinking spread among the people and the Jewish financiers took control of what remained. Our country lost her power; with it agriculture greatly declined. The first and greatest means of livelihood was lost. But no matter what has happened, the Polish farmer still produces farm products, to feed 6millions. And today we have Polish people, especially from villages and smaller towns, who understand farming and every phase of agriculture. Farming is imbeded deep in the soul and heart, of the Polish people. They are the true masters for tilling the soil. To this day they occupy themselves in this most important field.

    Why should not we interest ourselves in agriculture and thus take advantage of the land that is offered?

    Just recently the Daily Alliance suggested the colonization of our people upon the vast acreage that is lying idle, and is begging for the mighty arm of the farmer to ...

    Polish
    I L