The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Zgoda -- March 02, 1887
    Attention Polish People

    A big excursion to northern Minnesota to see tracts of land suitable for farming will leave Monday, March 21, at eleven A. M. People wishing to see this wonderful section of land, will please come and see Mr. Stominski.

    The train fare from Chicago is only ten dollars for a round trip, but if you buy a tract of land this amount will be a part of down payment. I am sure, that the people taking this trip will be so satisfied that they will buy at least one acre of land. This section is near town and close to railroads.

    People buying land will be given six years to pay for it. You needn't be afraid to buy this land. No doubt you have read numerous articles about it in the Polish newspapers.

    In this new Polish colony, under the name of "Poznan," there is located the Red Wood Company of Minnesota. Here the land is as low as $6.00 up to $8.00 an acre. At the time of purchase only one dollar an acre is required as a deposit, and the rest payable in six years at 7 per cent interest, minus the $10.00 train fare.


    This is the ideal location in Minnesota for farming, cattle raising, and raising of other domestic animals. All of you have intentions of buying, please do not hesitate, because now is the time to buy, while the prices are low. Furthermore, you are used to working on your own farm and not to this continuous changing of work in the city factories, where they do not guarantee you work in your old age. For information pertaining to the land in Minnesota, write to

    St. Slominski

    666 Milwaukee Avenue

    Chicago, Ill.

    A big excursion to northern Minnesota to see tracts of land suitable for farming will leave Monday, March 21, at eleven A. M. People wishing to see this wonderful section ...

    I L
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- April 23, 1892
    Pleasant Strangers (Editorial)

    Seven months ago, a Jewish welfare organization was organized for the purpose of helping Jewish persons who have come to Chicago, to establish themselves. The city's richest and most influential Jews became supporters of this benevolent society. Headquarters were established at 154 West Lake Street as temporary quarters for the newcomers. Here assistance of every kind was given. Thousands of Jewish people received sustenance for a few days, and then were sent out West where various kinds of employment were offered them. Some of them, in fact, fifteen per cent, declined to be sent out, because they refused to sacrifice themselves to farming, consequently, they remained and continued to receive free board.


    Finally, the patience of the welfare society was exhausted. The idlers were informed by the officials that unless they found work, they would be forced out. And when they did not heed this warning, they were put out, for room had to be made for the incoming strangers.

    Those that were compelled to leave, returned again and insisted upon being permitted to stay at the shelter. When they were refused, a demonstration was started. These reached such proportions that Mr. Loeb, president of the organization, and Mr. Goldstein, director of the employment bureau, were compelled to call the police for help. As the police arrived on the scene, the demonstrators began to break the doors down. Mr. Loeb pointed out a person by the name of Alper as the chief instigator. He was arrested. But Alper was released by the intervention and pleading of his parents.


    Although the police succeeded in dispersing the mob, they soon returned. The police were called anew. This time Captain Kennedy came to investigate. In the meantime, hundreds of persons gathered. The police had to disperse them before they could confront the rioting Jews. They were informed by the police that they could not be readmitted to the shelter. The Jews began to cry, yell, and scream. All claimed vociferously that they were unable to work because of sickness. This was to no avail. At the end, they had to leave. Many found shelter at the police station.

    Seven months ago, a Jewish welfare organization was organized for the purpose of helping Jewish persons who have come to Chicago, to establish themselves. The city's richest and most influential ...

    II D 1, I D 2 c, I L
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- October 08, 1892
    The Myslewski Society to Purchase Land in Michigan

    At a meeting held last Thursday, the Myslewski Society appointed a committee, composed of A. J. Kowalski, A. Szulc, F. Wleklinski, Joseph Marson, P. Okoniewski, and M. Durski, to look over a tract of land in the vicinity of St. Joseph, Michigan.

    The Society plans to buy a large tract of land and parcel it into small farms. It will also build a home for the convenience of its members.

    At a meeting held last Thursday, the Myslewski Society appointed a committee, composed of A. J. Kowalski, A. Szulc, F. Wleklinski, Joseph Marson, P. Okoniewski, and M. Durski, to look ...

    I L, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- October 20, 1893
    Polish-American Participation in the Lwow Exposition of 1894

    Although much has been said and written on the subject of Polish-American participation in the Kosciusko Exposition to be held at Lwow in 1894, it was not until a few months ago that real action was taken in this matter at the initiative of Dr. E. H. Dunikowski.

    A Central Committee was formed here in Chicago, with local committees in New York and Baltimore, and these immediately approached the task of raising funds for the enterprise. As a result of petitions sent by the Committee to the Polish organizations, the Polish Roman Catholic Union and the Polish National Alliance voted three hundred dollars and five hundred dollars respectively toward the erection of a Polish-American pavilion at the Lwow Exposition, and all other organizations promised their full moral support to the Exposition.


    So, as we can see, the foundation has already been laid. Very little progress has been made from this point, however. In truth, the Central Committee did hold a few meetings; it issued notices and appointed subcommittees to prepare dissertations on various subjects which will be presented at the Exposition, but thus far the actual results are insignificant. This, we judge, is not the fault of either the Committee or the public; it is simply that recent preparations for the celebration of Polish Day have absorbed all of our intellectual strength and plumbed the depth of our public's generosity, so that all matters of lesser moment--among others, Polish-American participation in the Lwow Exposition--were relegated to a lower plane.

    Polish Day has passed. The Lwow Exposition is again a matter of first importance, and it should be taken up the more energetically since the time is short and much remains to be done. We have begun this series of articles in order to turn the attention of the public to this important question.

    Our task is to discuss the necessary steps to be taken in order that American 3Polonia should present itself properly at the Exposition.

    It is hardly necessary to ask whether we, the Poles of America, must be represented at Lwow. The question was widely discussed in the[Polish] press. Arguments pro and con were presented. The final opinion was that, in spite of everything, our participation in the Exposition at Lwow is indispensable from the standpoint of the Exposition's character and purpose. The Exposition, to be held in the year of the hundredth anniversary of the Kosciusko Insurrection, is to show the results of a hundred years of cultural, intellectual, and industrial efforts of Poles scattered over the whole world--so far as political restrictions will permit. Such was the original idea of its creators, and in the face of this, we, as a portion of the Polish people, are in duty bound to show our brethren in Poland that we are alive and what we are doing. Further arguments on the necessity of our participation in the 1894 Exposition are superfluous; the necessity was definitely established in the name of the public when the two largest Polish organizations voted appropriations for the cause.


    It seems unnecessary also to consider whether or not the Poles here should erect a special Polish-American pavilion. The dignity of our million-and-a-half Polish population demands that we place our exhibit entirely under our own roof and fly our own colors--the Polish and the American flags. This was the point of view of the Central Committee when it issued its appeal for support to the public; the Union and the Alliance were guided by the same viewpoint when they voted funds for a Polish-American pavilion in Lwow.

    The question is: How shall it be done? This problem was discussed at the Central Committee's meetings and the following decisions were reached: The cost of the pavilion will not exceed $2,000; the plans will be made in Chicago by a Polish-American architect in a style used here; construction of the pavilion in Lwow will be directed by Dr. Dunikowski.

    The Central Committee will undoubtedly resume its activity now that Polish 5Day has passed and work in connection with this important event in Polish-American history is finished. Among other things it will procure proper plans, present them to the public, and then send them on to Lwow. There are other questions in connection with this, however, that depend not only upon the energy of the Committee, but upon the good will of the public as well: the question of funds, for example. Construction of the pavilion will cost at least $2,000. We have at present, thanks to the generosity of the Union and the Alliance, $800, but $1,200 more is needed. We are not counting the cost of shipping our exhibit to Poland, which, though it will be covered in part by the exhibitors themselves, will amount to something; or administrative costs, or decoration at the place of exhibit, etc. These last expenses, although they may, parenthetically speaking, easily reach another thousand dollars, are of lesser importance; the Central Committee and people of good will will undoubtedly find the means to defray them. We are primarily concerned with the money needed at the moment--money for construction of the pavilion, which should be collected without delay. Building of the pavilion 6cannot be begun until the necessary funds have been collected; its very size and style depend entirely upon the amount of money collected for the purpose. The most important question, then, is that of collecting the sum of $1,200.

    As we mentioned above, this depends not upon the Central Committee, but upon the public. The Central Committee has done its part in issuing an appeal to all Polish organizations and to the public at large. Two of our large organizations have done their share. It remains now for the other organizations and for the public to show their good will. If the erection of a Polish-American pavilion at the Lwow Exposition is really a matter of honor to [American] Polonia, it should be possible to raise the necessary funds. Times are hard--everybody knows that. But hard times did not prevent us from contributing several thousand dollars to the Polish Day Fund; hard times, therefore, cannot be an unsurmountable obstacle in the realization of this second, equally important task. Hard times may preclude a general appeal to wageearners, who are the first victims of an economic depression, but there are 7hundreds of Polish societies in America which ought to take the matter in hand. There are also many well-to-do people, and people who have not suffered as much as the workingman. We appeal to their generosity.

    The work is already begun; it would be a shame if we were unable to finish it. We repeat: the first requirement toward Polish-American participation in the 1894 Kosciusko Exposition at Lwow is to collect as soon as possible the funds necessary for the erection of a pavilion. We should bear in mind the Latin proverb: Bis Dat Qui Cito Dat [he gives twice who gives without hesitation].

    With this appeal, we conclude our first article. In the next, we will consider the problem: How shall we participate in the Lwow Exposition?

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Oct. 21, 1893.

    Articles on this subject have already appeared in Dziennik[Chicagoski]. In 8these articles we have expressed the opinion that American Polonia can take part in the Lwow Exposition by preparing an exhibit that will give a picture of its religious, intellectual, and social life. Such material must constitute our chief exhibit in Lwow, for the results of industrial and agricultural efforts of the Poles in America are relatively insignificant and can have their place at the Exposition only as an addition. The Central Committee is more or less of the same opinion.

    Let us, therefore, leave the question of industrial products for future articles and turn our attention to the exhibit that will give some conception of our social and intellectual life.

    In the first place, we should note here that the detailed program of the Exposition, which lies before us at this moment, classifies the types of specimens to be exhibited into thirty-four groups, including agriculture, horticulture, fishing, mining, industry, education, communication, inventions, and so forth.


    A majority of the specimens giving an example of our life here can, in truth, be classified in one or another of these groups; some of them, however, could not in any case be classified thus. And so, our classification of the specimens that ought to be sent to Lwow will be based upon an entirely different principle than that of the official plan.

    Our exhibit ought to cover the following subjects: 1. Polish-American religious life; 2. Our school system and efforts toward general enlightenment; 3. The Polish-American press; 4. Polish-American social life, with special emphasis on organizational activity.

    Let us take up the above-mentioned subjects point by point.

    1. Polish-American religious life. Beyond a doubt, the Polish churches, of which there are from 170 to 180 or more in America, are the foundation of our national and moral life. A church forms the nucleus of a Polish community;


    national and social activities begin in the parish; here, also, Polish schools arise. It is our duty to give our brethren in Poland a conception of these bulwarks of faith and nationalism. It can easily be done. We can send photographs of every Polish church in America, each bearing a legend explaining the location of the parish, approximate number of families, date of organization, date of erection of the church, cost of construction, founder of the parish, and present pastor. In an exhibit such as this, we can not only give our brethren a clear picture of Polish church life in America, but we can also gather invaluable material on the history of the Catholic Church. Naturally, no one but our clergy can supply the necessary information; they will undoubtedly do so. The expense of exterior and interior photographs of a church will be slight, and the half-hour job of appending the proper information is not a difficult task. The Central Committee has already appealed to the clergy; Dr. Pawlicki and Mr. Maryanski, of San Francisco, have even undertaken to compile the material. We have every reason to expect that the matter will be well taken care of, and the Polish public in Lwow, upon seeing the photographs and reading the inscriptions, will 11come to the logical conclusion that, protected by so many bulwarks of faith and nationalism, we in America will not be lost.

    2. Education and general enlightenment. As we well know, Polish schools are closely bound to the Church. For this reason, we hope that the patriotic Polish clergy will gather specimens which will give some idea of every one of the hundred or more Polish schools in America. Photographs of the school buildings and their interiors, group pictures of the pupils, outlines of courses of study, examples of the pupils work, and models showing how the schools are equipped, gathered from all over the United States, would constitute an exhibit of great interest to our brethren in Poland; it would show that while we work for our living, we do not neglect our younger generation. Naturally, notations would be appended, giving the place where each school is located, the date it was founded, the name of its directors, the number of pupils attending, and so forth. S. Zahajkiewicz, at the Central Committee's request, has promised to compile the material. It is our hope that this section of the Polish-American exhibit will present itself as 12well as possible. True, it will require considerably more work than the religious section, but undoubtedly the nuns and lay teachers of our schools will shoulder part of the burden. In addition to the material on schools, some sort of disquisition on Polish reading rooms and libraries ought to be prepared.

    3. Book publishing and the Polish press. The publishing of books and newspapers is among the more prominent characteristics of the Polish element in America. In spite of their faults, our newspapers characterize us as an active, virile society. Our press will undoubtedly be represented in full at the Lwow Exposition, the more so since the Exposition's program provides a special classification for it under group XXVIII. The program includes in this group, among other things, literary specimens, newspapers, book publishing, and finally, subjects from the field of printing and lithography. Volumes of our newspapers, photographs of the inside and outside of our printing shops and publishing houses, of which we have a few in Chicago, Milwaukee, and Manitowoc, and examples of decorative work done by Polish 13printers and lithographers, would constitute a very interesting collection and would give a good conception of our work in these fields. The Central Committee will complete the exhibit with a general dissertation on Polish journalism in America, which task has been entrusted to one of our local editors.

    4. Social activities, institutions, organizations, and the theater. This will be relatively the most extensive section of the Polish-American exhibit. Only in part can it be classified under the grouping of the Exposition program. Group XXVII includes subjects concerning the development of the Polish theater; group XXVIII, specimens from literary and educational societies; group XXX, gymnastic societies and equipment; group XXI, welfare societies; and group XXXIII, statistics and graphs showing the activity and development of banks, building and loan associations, and insurance organizations. Naturally, the program provides no place for military and nationalistic societies, of which we have so large a number; one way or another, these will also be represented at the Exposition. In the first place, our large 14organizations ought to submit their constitutions, emblems, records, convention photographs and others, and, to make it more complete, their histories and present status. Welfare societies, of which we have several in Chicago, New York, and Manitowoc, might send photographs of their buildings and equipment, records, and written or printed information on their present condition. Falcon societies, though they are still not very numerous, can submit photographs showing their uniforms, their emblems, banners, gymnasiums, etc.; also, information on their present status.

    Military societies, which are so numerous and splendid here, ought to take a prominent place in the exhibit. Group photographs, showing uniforms, arms, medals, awards, even specimens of uniforms and arms, can decorate the walls of the Polish-American pavilion. Reports showing the number of members and type of organization of these societies should interest the Poles in Poland. The remaining societies ought to be represented in some way also, according to their means and individual decisions. Records and regulations of Polish building and loan associations, of which we have about twenty in the United States, would also be a very interesting feature of our exhibit.


    The Polish-American theater, too, can take a prominent place at the Exposition. Photographs of groups taken from plays we have presented here, samples of tickets, playbills, copies of plays written here, and so on, certainly ought to find a place at the Exposition in Lwow.

    As can be seen above, we shall be able to exhibit thousands of interesting specimens which will serve as invaluable material in presenting a view of our religious, nationalistic, and social relations.

    In the next article we will consider the question: How and to what extent can our industrial efforts be represented at the Lwow Exposition?

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Oct. 25, 1893.

    Can it be that the Poles in America have nothing else to show at the Exposition except such an exhibit as we outlined in the last article? This is the question we will answer now, and we can answer without hesitation.


    We say: No. In addition to our civilizational efforts and their results, we American Poles can, if we wish, display at least a small number of items representing our work in such fields as industry, handicraft, agriculture, and so forth.

    It is said of us that we are all laborers. This is true in a general sense, but there are, of course, exceptions. Here and there, we have some very capable artisans among us, who are hidden away in small Polish shops. There are also a great many Polish farmers in Michigan and Wisconsin. There are the Polish inventions which are, from time to time, mentioned in the newspapers. All in all, among these exceptions in a population of a million and a half, we are sure to find a considerable number of items that can be exhibited in Lwow.

    As a matter of fact, we do not insist that such an exhibit is absolutely essential. It will depend entirely upon the good will of those who are able to produce it. The desire for such an exhibit exists, however, for in New York and Brooklyn, Polish industrialists and artisans have declared themselves 17in favor of participation. We will review the official program of the Exposition and show what sort of exhibit could be prepared to display the modest results of our work.

    The very first group takes in farming, farm products, farm buildings, dairy farming, and agricultural schools and societies. Polish-American farmers could easily participate by exhibiting seeds, sheaves of grain, or other products; finally, they could exhibit model farms and farmhouses. Such an exhibit would, in some respects, be very instructive to farmers in the old country.

    Group II is concerned with horses, and group III with livestock--our farmers could not possibly exhibit anything in this field. Group IV, however, takes in gardening and apiculture. It is quite likely that a few apiarists might be found among our farmers (a few Polish priests keep bees, it is said), who would like to exhibit model beehives and examples of implements used here in America. Perhaps nothing could be exhibited in the forestry division (group V), but our hunters who frequent the north woods of Wisconsin 18and Michigan may surely have some trophies for exhibit--skins, if not stuffed specimens--under group VI, hunting.

    Among the Polish people living in Milwaukee and in other cities on Lake Michigan, there are whole colonies of fishermen, some of whom even own their own steam [fishing] boats. Models of the equipment and boats used in their trade, and a collection of fish caught in Lake Michigan would make a very fine exhibit. Our brethren in Baltimore who engage in oyster fishing plan to submit to this section at least photographs of fishing scenes.

    Although thousands of Poles are employed in the coal mines of Pennsylvania and other states, we have practically nothing which might be exhibited under group VIII (mining). However, the Polish gold mine in California, if it begins its operations soon, and two or three other mines which are owned or partly owned (according to the newspapers) by Poles, may be able to supply a few items in this field. Photographs of our people in mining clothes should be submitted. Group IX deals with the oil industry; we have nothing to submit for this section.


    Group X is concerned with milling, starch, distilling, yeast, brewing, etc. The two Polish breweries in Detroit and the Polish distillery in Buffalo could be represented in this section. It may be that there are similar enterprises in other Polish colonies.

    Group XI, concerned with other consumers' products, will probably find no exhibitors from America.

    The succeeding groups are concerned with various branches of trades and industry. We pass on to group XIV, which includes tinsmithing, locksmithing, goldsmithing, blacksmithing, founding, and watchmaking. There are many Poles working at these trades in America--there are even Polish shops in Chicago and other cities. We have no doubt that at least a few of them will be represented at the Exposition. The same applies to group XV, which includes barrel-making, cabinet-making, and sculpture. We know of many capable cabinet-makers, sculptors, and barrel-makers here in Chicago, in New York, Brooklyn, and Buffalo; we have even seen their work on exhibit at the Columbian Exposition; their work can well be displayed in Lwow.


    Group XVI is concerned with types of carriages; here it would be worth while to send a model of the American light carriage, the so-called "buggy," as an example to the Poles in the old country.

    We cannot submit anything under weaving (group XVII), but a very interesting exhibit can be prepared in the men's and women's tailoring trades and in upholstery; there are a great many capable Polish people in America working at these trades. The same can be said for group XVIII (shoemaking). We could also prepare an exhibit with such items as Polish-made cigars and chemical and drug preparations (group XX).

    Finally, group XXIV, which includes all types of women's handicraft, will find many exhibitors among our ladies.

    The remaining sections are less interesting to us. They take in such subjects as inventions, of which we have already spoken, music, etc. We are not concerned with such sections as those including machinery manufacture, paper-making, and electrotechnics--industries in which we have no part.


    However, we may be interested at least indirectly in the following groups: XXV (ancient art), to which a few American Poles might contribute, and XXVI (architecture, building, and household furnishings). To this last group, it would be proper to submit models of our buildings, models of workingmen's homes, and models showing how houses are moved, a procedure unknown in Poland. Group XXIII, which is concerned with ethnographical matters, should not be neglected.

    Such is our idea of a workable outline of the exhibit we can prepare for the Polish-American pavilion at the Lwow Exposition. What sort of exhibit will be prepared remains to be seen. It depends upon the energy and good will of those who work in the fields of handicraft and industry.

    Although much has been said and written on the subject of Polish-American participation in the Kosciusko Exposition to be held at Lwow in 1894, it was not until a few ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- November 06, 1893
    Polish Farm Settlement Association Holds Meeting

    About a hundred and fifty people interested in a Polish co-operative agricultural settlement gathered at the restaurant hall near Milwaukee Avenue at three o'clock yesterday [Sunday] afternoon. Henry Lubienski was called upon to preside over the meeting, and he in turn, named I. Machnikowski secretary.

    John Wrzesinski read a carefully prepared report giving an account of the tour made by himself and Lubienski through Nebraska, Wyoming, and Colorado, the object of which was to find a suitable site for the settlement. The speaker gave a competent estimate of the land costs and economic conditions in a number of the places visited; he pointed to the benefits which could arise from establishing the settlement in eastern Nebraska, where the beet sugar industry has begun to develop.

    Lubienski confirmed the facts stated in Wrzesinski's report and discussed the most expedient methods of acquiring farms; he expanded on the possible profits 2from the cultivation of sugar beets, either for the two beet sugar refineries already existing in Nebraska, or a new one which could be established. [He said that] this can only be successful through co-operation, and that if a greater number of Polish colonists agree to settle on the same site, the costs will be much smaller and much better terms can be arranged. Many attractive propositions have been offered.

    The speaker also mentioned [the fact that] the Reverend Jakimowicz, a pastor of Omaha, was favorably inclined toward the project and had rendered the delegates many important services; he spoke of the friendly information and advice given by Prasecki and Knota, two farmers who have lived at St. Paul, Nebraska, for a long time.

    J. Rybakowski supported this colonization plan. Machnikowski asserted that he knows of a few score families who are ready to move to the colony and who possess the necessary means.

    [S. F.] A. Satalecki agreed as to the competency of Wrzesinski's report and 3spoke in favor of turning the attention of the Poles to farming as an escape from the poverty which threatens them in the overpopulated American cities. The speaker believed in the possibility of establishing a sugar refinery which would be the property of the settlers themselves. They could soon pay off the debts on their land from the profits of beet production and could then share in the profits from sugar refining. The speaker regarded this idea as a sound and useful one.

    P. C. Broel warned that the Association should make agreements with the railroads as to freight charges, in order to prevent later exploitation [by the railroad companies].

    Rudzinski spoke of his experiences with sugar beet production in Poland, where the farmers rapidly became prosperous wherever the beet sugar industry developed. He made a motion that a new delegation be dispatched to Nebraska for the immediate purchase of the necessary land.

    The gathering accepted this motion and the meeting was adjourned. The next 4meeting will be held on Saturday, November 11, at seven o'clock in the evening, at the same place.

    Twenty-three new names were added to the membership list of the Polish Farm Settlement Association in addition to the original fifteen.

    About a hundred and fifty people interested in a Polish co-operative agricultural settlement gathered at the restaurant hall near Milwaukee Avenue at three o'clock yesterday [Sunday] afternoon. Henry Lubienski was ...

    I D 2 b, I L, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- November 13, 1893
    Meeting Concerning the Projected Polish Colony in Nebraska

    A meeting[in the matter of the Polish colonization project]was held Saturday at Fiszer's Polish restaurant near Milwaukee Avenue. In the absence of H. Lubienski, the meeting was opened by I. Machnikowski. He explained that Lubienski, accompanied by [S.F.A.] Satalecki and Majewski, had gone to Nebraska to purchase land for the colony. He then called upon Mr. Wrzesinski to preside over the meeting; the appointment was unanimously approved by the gathering.

    The chairman named Machnikowski secretary and then addressed the meeting at length on the aims of the project. His arguments, supported by statistics and experiences of his own from the old country, were favorably received. When he had finished, he asked other members of the gathering to take the floor.

    Mr. Hewel's question as to whether persons who do not possess any ready 2cash can take part in the colonization, was answered in the affirmative by the chairman. Mr. Wozniak asked whether there are any limitations on the acreage that each settler can possess. The chairman explained that the smallest farms will probably be about forty-five acres, and that, as a matter of fact, each settler can purchase as much land as his capital allows, although a certain limit as to the largest number of acres will probably be set. Such a limitation will be made in order to prevent too great a difference between the richest and the poorest farmers.

    As to farm buildings, the chairman explained, in answer to Mr. Kotecki's question, that the Association will probably foot all construction costs, and each farmer will repay this in yearly installments according to the size of his farm. In reply to another question, Mr. Machnikowski stated that beets bring from six to eleven times as much profit as wheat.

    Mr. Korejwo inquired about the conditions on which land may be acquired. The chairman replied that twenty-five per cent of the value of the land will 3be payable down, while the balance will be payable in rates spread over several years. The aim of the Association to be formed will be twofold: first, acquisition of its own land; and second, establishment of its own sugar refinery. Railroad companies have already promised to co-operate with the Association.

    The discussion, though in general harmonious, was disturbed by J. Rybakowski, who made personal attacks on individuals concerned with the Association's affairs. He foresaw exploitation by a few, impoverishment, and abandonment of the farms. The chairman refuted his arguments. Mr. Broel explained that Mr. Rybakowski's outburst was caused by his removal from the committee that went to Nebraska; the[real-estate]agent had denied him a railroad ticket on the grounds that he is an anarchist. Mr. Rybakowski did not deny this and thereafter kept his silence.

    Twenty-four new members joined the Association.

    I. Machnikowski, secretary.

    A meeting[in the matter of the Polish colonization project]was held Saturday at Fiszer's Polish restaurant near Milwaukee Avenue. In the absence of H. Lubienski, the meeting was opened by I. ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- November 23, 1893
    Regarding Sugar Beet Plantations in the United States (Correspondence)

    Mr. Henry Lubienski has endeavored to explain to us, in a number of articles printed in Dziennik Chicagoski, how we Poles could start a new industry here in America, enhance our own and the nation's welfare, and give employment to thousands in this time of industrial depression.

    The industry referred to by Mr. Lubienski is the planting of white sugar beets and the manufacture of sugar therefrom.

    The writer of this article read all of the previous articles of Mr. Lubienski and was heartened to think that the Poles would show the world something new, 2that they would outdo the Americans in business. I was glad because, in the series of articles suggesting this new industry, arguments presumably thoroughly understood were quoted, and the entire project was so beautifully represented, that the writer felt that he could not believe everything Mr. Lubienski wrote. Others thought likewise. There were a few who became so heartily interested, that they seriously considered investing their own capital and their own labor, and depending on this new industry to enrich them.

    This matter become one of interest to the public, and I wish therefore to write a few lines regarding it. Before those that are employed throw away their positions, or those that are temporarily unemployed leave this city that in the rust has given them a good living, before some of you sink your small fortunes into a new undertaking, we believe it the duty of the Polish press to thoroughly debate the question and bring out its good and bad points.


    I hereby stand ready to debate the issue, and at once proclaim that I am thoroughly opposed to the views expressed in the articles written by Mr. Lubienski. I believe the planting of sugar beets is not profitable and that it is not the proper thing for us to do for the following reasons:

    This sugar beet proposition is not new to us here in America. Its long history can teach us a lot. Every American knows that the farming of sugar beets or sugar cane in the United States and the manufacture of sugar therefrom have been considered unprofitable after innumerable experiments, after the expending of millions of dollars by the United States Government and yet more millions by private corporations.

    In order to give impetus to a new industry that would supply a need in the country, the United States Government imposed a high duty on all sugar imported from the South, and for many years urged that private capital be 4invested in this undertaking. Wet, after many long years of experimentation, the net result has been that not oven one tenth of the needs of the population could be supplied in this manner.

    Convinced then that the United States is unable to furnish a sufficient supply of sugar for the needs of the population, the Republican Administration then in power (in the year 1890), abolished the sugar tariff completely. To safeguard those who were urged to invest in this sugar industry, so that they would not lose the money they invested, the Government allowed them a "bounty" of two cents a pound, which left the situation much the same as before, with the tariff imposed.

    Now comes the question, why shouldn't the farming of sugar beets and cane in the United States be as profitable as it is in other countries, notably in Russia and Poland, in Germany, Spain, and Central and South America?


    Beet raising in these countries requires painstaking care and fertile soil. But in Russia the tariff on sugar is higher than it was in the United States, and considerably higher than our own "bounty". The price of sugar is higher, and the labor, which everybody knows is so backbreaking in the cultivation of beets, is beyond comparison cheaper there than in the United States. Russia and oland, moreover, possess soil that is more suitable than that in Nebraska, and farthermore drought in Russia or Poland is practically unheard of, while in Nebraska it is a common summer occurrence. what holds true of Russia and Poland can also be said of other countries in Europe.

    Let's get back to America. Of every hundred pounds of sugar consumed here, 90 percent is imported from the South, mainly from Cuba. It arrives in its raw state, and is refined here.

    The Cuban climate is ideal for sugar beet raising, as it is in Venezuela, 6Central America, Jamaica, San Domingo, (where a certain Pole owns considerable acreage planted in sugar beets), and Porto Rico.

    Cuban soil is so well adapted to sugar beet planting that it is sufficient to hoe and replant it one every ten years. It is a fact that the tenth year crop is as good as the first year crop is in Louisiana. The Cuban first year crop is fourfold that of Louisiana. Since the abolition of slavery in Cuba the plantations are worked by "Patrocinadas Par El Dueno," which means that the former slaves remain with their former masters, but get a couple of dollars a month over the former wage paid the slaves, which amounted to about six dollars a month in paper money, equivalent to three dollars in gold.

    Chinese labor under contract has been working here for many years. Labor in Cuba is, therefore, beyond comparison cheaper than the labor of free 7citizens of the United States, While the crops are many times greater.

    The Cuban situation is repeated on the west Indies and in Venezuela. So how can it be Possible, considering these facts and the additional fact that a "bocoy," meaning a barrel weighing about 1500 kilograms or 3000 pounds, can be sent from Cuba to the United States at a cost of only one dollar, or 300 pounds for one cent? We repeat, how can it be possible for us in the United States to compete with the South?

    Americans who have lost fortunes in both are convinced there is no chance for competition. I share in their belief. If, however, Mr. Lubienski will find laborers willing to work for less than one-fourth of what a Negro earns in the South, and if he is able to persuade some capitalist to invest in his project, then perhaps he will succeed in part. personally, I would prefer that other than Polish capital would be interested, other labor than 8Polish, and hands that are equally black after as before washing--and I would feel sorry for them also, because after all they belong to the human race.


    Editorial Comment

    We submit this article, which criticises the arguments of Mr. Henry Lubienski in his articles on sugar beet farming in America, which appeared in Dziennik Chicagoski, believing that you should hear and understand both sides.

    The organizing of new Polish colonies is of too great importance not to be debated from all angles before being carried into effect. We published Mr. Lubienski's articles in Dziennik Chicagoski because they presented a 9really wonderful opportunity and were based on many painstaking calculations and figures.

    We made no personal comment on these articles, preferring to leave the matter of criticism in more competent hands. This correspondence deals directly with the arguments advanced by Mr. Lubienski in his articles. We hope that the project planners will deign to answer, and that from a comparison of the two viewpoints some inkling of truth will appear.

    If this beet farming project is based on lasting economic foundations, it will withstand the most violent criticism; if it does not, then we will be saved from the ugly consequences of an economic mirage.

    To understand the question better we wish some competent person person would accurately 10inform us as to the following:

    1. How many workers and what kind of labor is necessary to farm one acre of sugar beets, and how many acres could be tilled by a Polish family of five people--husband, wife, and three children--excluding the time for other household duties and attendance at school of children under 14 years of age? 2. How would the earnings of such labor for equivalent acreage compare with the earnings of a laborer on a beet farm owned by another person? The answers to these two questions will prove whether Mr. L. M's criticism is justified. The answers will show whether an average Polish family can till the acreage, planted in beets, sufficient to guarantee the profits as submitted by Mr. L. in his articles. Or will it be necessary to hire outside labor to help in farming ten acres (see Mr. L's article)? And finally, will the earnings be equal to those earned by an average farm hand in the United States, or will it be like the cheap pay of a Negro in Cuba?


    If the latter should be true, then Mr. L. M. would be justified. Otherwise his correspondence would not withstand constructive criticism and would not be justified. We therefore leave this matter open for further discussion, believing that a matter of such importance, which is intimately associated with the lives of many of our Polish families, cannot be put into execution without due thought, debate, the clarification of misunderstood points, and a positive and complete statement that the project is based on a firm and rational foundation.

    Mr. Henry Lubienski has endeavored to explain to us, in a number of articles printed in Dziennik Chicagoski, how we Poles could start a new industry here in America, enhance ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- November 27, 1893
    Colonization Meeting (Correspondence)

    On Saturday, November 25, about one hundred people gathered in the Warsaw restaurant ball, at 779 Milwaukee Avenue, to hear reports from Mr. Lubienski, S. F. A. Satalecki, and Majewski about their trip to Nebraska for the purpose of choosing an appropriate spot for colonization purposes.

    Mr. Henry Lubienski presided and Mr. K. Sawicki was secretary.

    Mr. Lubienski discussed at length the various projects submitted to the delegates for Polish colonization purposes. In a fertile locality in eastern Nebraska close to a railroad track and only two stations away from an existing sugar factory, a syndicate of citizens of this county has offered 2,800 acres near the city for a factory, with the stipulation that the factory must be completed in 1895. Additional land was reserved to increase acreage, that 2is, to be planted in sugar beets. We cannot divulge the name of this locality because we want to be sure that we will be able to buy this additional acreage at fifteen to twenty dollars an acre. The delegates made a formal agreement that they would take the chance of locating additional capital with which to build a sugar factory, providing a sufficient number of farmers would assure a greater crop of beets. At present they offer each one forty acres on terms of payment at the rate of twenty dollars per acre of beets for six years.

    Possession may be had March 1, and as soon as a sufficient number volunteer, a committee of these future farmers will travel to the spot to convince themselves of conditions and to make proper plans for settling down.

    Mr. Satalecki and Mr. Michael Majewski confirmed the statements made by Mr. Lubienski and, describing their impressions, said they were certain that our colonists would find it worth while and profitable in this new industrial and farming business.


    Mr. Ignacy Machnikowski said the future company should help the Polish colonists to build their own homes and to get properly settled on the free and purchased lands.

    Messrs. K. Sawicki and Jablowski insisted that the free lands be given in proportion to the number of acres purchased by those actually farming.

    Mr. Broel disagreed with them, stating that the free land was granted providing a factory was built, and not to the colonists directly, who can, if they wish, become stockholders in the factory. Receiving 2,800 free acres will help in the purchase by cash of a larger acreage for sugar beets.

    The payments for the land of five dollars per ton of beets are very reasonable. At least one hundred and fifty families should visit the chosen spot. Planting beets on only one fourth of the farm, or on ten acres, they could easily earn six hundred dollars, and after paying one hundred fifty dollars annually 4in payment for the land, they still would have four hundred and fifty dollars.

    Mr. Panek mentioned that the colonists ought to be protected so that they could make their payments in cash and not with beets, in case the factory was not built or was closed.

    Messrs. Gerzkiewicz, Ciesielski, and Lacki explained that from their own experience they know that planting of sugar beets near a factory, and using the waste from the beets as food for their own cattle, is of considerable help to the farmer and enriches him quickly.

    Mr. Lubienski then closed the meeting by advising future colonists to sign up with Mr. Michael Majewski at once. Details of the agreement with the colonists will be announced in the press.

    On Saturday, November 25, about one hundred people gathered in the Warsaw restaurant ball, at 779 Milwaukee Avenue, to hear reports from Mr. Lubienski, S. F. A. Satalecki, and Majewski ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- November 28, 1893
    Polish Farming Colonies (Correspondence)

    The dream of creating a new Poland beyond the sea is old. When the Russians, Germans and Austrians conquered Poland and partitioned it among themselves, the Poles were not permitted to speak or read in their native tongue, or to speak freely, or to organize Polish societies. When they were being oppressed and ruined, both in a spiritual and material way, it was natural that many were forced to flee their country. The Poles thought that those who migrated would settle together on some lands beyond the seas where they would create a new fatherland which would eventually join hands with the old country in as close ties as possible. In the meantime they hoped to live in freedom and continue to propagate the Polish race.

    Fifty years ago, and even later, it was an easy matter in America to buy or 2get grants of hundreds of thousands of acres, but our countrymen at that time were preoccupied with thoughts of a new Poland, and even though they meant well they were not practical. There was no adequate commumication between Europe and America, and above all the Poles did not take the initiative, but just sat around stolidly in their various small settlements, because at that time there was no enlightenment; also there were not so many Poles and not so many burdens to carry, and one could not sail the ocean so often and so cheaply.

    To-day things have changed a lot. Only in the Far West here in North America can one still purchase a great unbroken parcel of land. Brazil and Argentina are not to be thought of, because there the governing heads change continually, the administrations are bad, and the countries cannot possibly grow. And, then again, the conditions for creating new Polish colonies here in America are growing more favorable. There are many Poles in America, and new immigrants are arriving from Europe, because over there they have a 3superabundance of population caused by social and political problems rather than by the natural growth of the population.

    Militarism and officiousness cause excessive burdens, and the Poles are tired of German and Russian rule. They are actually being forced to flee across the sea. The sailings across the ocean are speedier and cheaper now, and the Poles are becoming accustomed to traveling either short or long distances to improve their living conditions.

    So there now is greater necessity than ever for the creation of colonies in groups, for the following reasons:

    1. It is most important that the Polish people do not perish, meaning those leaving the fatherland and the future generations. It is not in our power to restore Poland, but it is our duty to see that Poles continue to exist, 4because if a majority of Poles should become Germanized, Russianized or Americanized, then God even if He should desire it, would not know for whom or from what to restore Poland. To insure that all Poles sailing across the ocean remain forever Polish, our advice is to form groups of Polish colonies, so that the Poles may live for each other only, and not permit any strangers to enter their fold. If our people cross the ocean in a haphazard manner, if they intermingle with other nationalities, if thousands of Poles settle among millions of strangers, then everything about them will be strange, and additional new generations will be lost to our nation.

    2. The Polish nation is dedicated, as if by God's decree, to farming, which is the foundation on which other industries are built, and is a most worthy occupation. The basis of Polish colonies should be farming, with which, afterwards, business and industry would join hands. The Polish people employed in large city factories lose their simple and honest traits.

    Polish settlers can buy land cheaply and even without a cash payment but 5not indiscriminately. Later on, as part of the plan of settling Polish colonists in groups, this land can be paid for by time payments, and with mutual help, settlements can be built, with many Poles living along a highway but with no greater distances between them than those that separate them in Germany and Austria today.

    3. With Poles occupying the entire territory, they will have their own officials and schools, and their own bishops.

    4. All persons, especially the Poles, have the yearning to become owners of a strip of land. In cities they can buy a house, but the value of this house is not permanent, because it loses value in time, especially if built of wood.

    5. The surest way to welfare is farming and farmlands. The proof of this is evident in today's depression here in America. Hundreds of thousands of 6workers are without jobs, merchants and businessmen without any incomes because there is no business, and this condition is due to the understanding between the speculators and the capitalists; because of speculations, we have a surplus of factories and finished goods. Such depressions in commerce and business recur in cycles time and again. The powerful rich may survive, but the small man may lose everything he has saved. The farmer, even though he may not reap a profit, cannot lose entirely for he will always have something to eat, and if he has no debts nothing worse can befall him.

    These are the reasons why Poles should settle in group colonies.

    When groups of people gather to perform a certain act they need leaders, especially leaders who are honest and wise and will devote their time not for personal gain but for the welfare of the Polish nation and the Polish people. We do not advise anyone to leave their country until such leaders appear to 7lead them. It is not sufficient to say that nothing bad is known of a man; the man must have previously demonstrated his honesty,and he must be well known as a leader.

    The Poles are easily deceived and become over-enthusiastic when some person begins praising a certain locality and the soil and the crops, instead of first convincing themselves as to the actual facts. A Pole will believe anything, especially about land where milk, sugar and honey presumably flow and mountains of gold are promised. The Israelites did not enter the promised land without first sending scouts to inspect it. The German colonists in Brazil and elsewhere did likewise. Poles migrated blindly to Brazil, and thousands perished there.

    In North America the Poles were exploited terribly; they performed the hardest labor and were shipped to the least desirable farming localities. Hundreds of Poles suffered privation, and thousands of Polish dollars were lost. Many 8examples could be cited.

    So here is my advice: group colonization should be consummated, but this should be done wisely and carefully; follow the experienced leaders, those who have been settled here many years, and whose characters and abilities are an assurance of the success of the venture.

    Reverend Stanislaus Radziejewski

    The dream of creating a new Poland beyond the sea is old. When the Russians, Germans and Austrians conquered Poland and partitioned it among themselves, the Poles were not permitted ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 12, 1893
    A Meeting Regarding Colonization

    On Sunday, December 10, at 4 P. M., there was a meeting at Mr. Krascewski's hall. Mr. [H.] Lubienski was called upon to act as chairman and Mr. Wrzesinski as secretary.

    The chairman submitted an appeal from the sugar industrialists to the Polish workers and then introduced Mr. Gryglaszewski of Minneapolis.

    Mr. Gryglaszewski, after describing briefly the history of Polish colonization, pointed out that only farming could assure the Poles of a welfare cannot be shaken by financial and economic fluctuations.

    Ending his explanation, he stated that over sixty families in Minneapolis had authorized him to announce that they also were willing to colonize.

    Then the chairman called on Mr. [Vincent] Wrzesinski to report on his last trip 2to northeastern Canada, where an American Mormon company had invited him in order to give an opinion as to whether that locality is good for Polish colonization purposes. Mr. Wrzesinski gave a brief description of the situation in these various localities--their climate, farming and economic conditions--and stated that the country there was suitable for farming, but only for those possessing large financial resources and able to raise cattle, horses and sheep on a large scale.....

    The terms for settlers were then discussed. Mr. Grzeskowiak made a motion that the terms be made easier for the farmers. The chairman assured him that his demand would be acted on as favorably as possible. Mr. Rakowski spoke in favor of planting beets. Mr. Rys suggested that no definite acreage be devoted to beets, but to leave this to the discretion of the farmer himself, and, furthermore, that there should be a guarantee against loss by the farmer in case the real-estate company should become bankrupt. The chairman assured him that the farmers could modify their contracts so as to allow them to pay in cash if the company should become bankrupt. Mr. Broel was of the opinion that certain 3stipulations could be embodied in the contracts that would insure the farmers against loss of their farm investment. Mr. Sawicki inquired how much capital should a prospective farmer have, and the chairman explained that about five hundred dollars would be necessary, although a smaller amount might prove sufficient.

    After a few other speeches, the chairman adjourned the meeting. The next meeting will be held on Thursday, December 14, at seven in the evening, in the same hall.

    A committee will then be selected, which will make a trip to the lands in question and inspect them.

    On Sunday, December 10, at 4 P. M., there was a meeting at Mr. Krascewski's hall. Mr. [H.] Lubienski was called upon to act as chairman and Mr. Wrzesinski as ...

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