The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- April 05, 1894
    Appeal to Polish Women in America on Behalf of the Lwow Exposition

    We are requested to publish the following communication: "On March 14, 1894, Section XIX (Women's Work Section) of the Lwow Exposition appointed me delegate for North America. I am instructed to furnish Section XIX with the following material:

    "1. Copies of diplomas and educational essays penned by Polish women.

    "2. Statistical records: a) a list of [the names] of Polish women attending American universities; b) a list of [the names of] Polish women who have received academic degrees from American universities; c) a list of [the names of] Polish professional women, such as physicians, lawyers, professors, etc.

    "3. Products of women's industries and craft work, such as: a) needle work,

    b) women's farm products, c) women's city home products, d) products raised at home, e) list of charitable deeds.

    2

    "As my appointment has arrived just now, after our local committee of the Lwow Exposition has already begun to collect the exhibits of the products produced by women's craft work, there remains only the first two items for me to fulfill, which up till now were not taken under consideration by the Polish-American committee specially organized for this purpose. Therefore, I ask all Polish women in America to send us as soon as Possible the following:

    "a) Copies of diplomas issued by higher institutions of learning or schools of art.

    "b) Printed copies of educational, Journalistic or literary works, such as fiction, poetry, etc.

    "c) Copies of constitutions of women's organizations and societies, social and religious, number of members, and short histories of the organizations or societies.

    "d) Information concerning professional women, their occupation, location 3[of their offices],hours of practice, and official title of the public office.

    "e) Information concerning women's commercial firms, bookkeepers, post-office and railroad clerks, telegraph and telephone operators, etc.

    "f) Information concerning women's benevolent institutions and convents.

    "g) Information concerning Polish women who are attending American universities.

    "Since all material must reach the exposition in the middle of May, all women are requested to send the material as soon as possible. Please send parcels and other material to J. Kodis, 3247 Laurel Street, Chicago.

    "The administration of the Lwow Exposition is of the opinion that our ardent patriotism, which unites us all in the far-flung corners of the world, will stimulate us to this civic duty of participating in the exposition. Let us remember that this is not a question of showing our pride, but of demonstrating the vitality and moral strength of the Polish nation.

    4

    "All Polish-American newspapers are asked to reprint this appeal.

    "Josephine Kodis, Ph. D."

    We are requested to publish the following communication: "On March 14, 1894, Section XIX (Women's Work Section) of the Lwow Exposition appointed me delegate for North America. I am instructed ...

    Polish
    I K, III H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- April 13, 1894
    Polish Women's Central Society of Chicago and the Lwow Fair

    The Polish Women's Central Society of Chicago, whose president is Mrs. Theophilia Samolinski, has sent its history to the Lwow Exposition. The binding of the book is beautiful. The society also donated five dollars for the Polish pavilion.

    Sincere thanks are extended to the donors.

    This society was organized in 1887. Today it numbers 190 members.

    Its motto is: "God, Faith, and Motherland."

    Lectures on Polish and general history are given at its meetings. The society participates in national celebrations and anniversaries.

    The Polish Women's Central Society of Chicago, whose president is Mrs. Theophilia Samolinski, has sent its history to the Lwow Exposition. The binding of the book is beautiful. The society ...

    Polish
    I K, II B 2 g, III H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 04, 1894
    Kosciusko Manifestation

    Yesterday the Poles of Chicago held a Kosciusko manifestation consisting of a parade downtown, a meeting to protest against the partition of Poland, commemorative exercises at the hall of Battery D, singing, recitations, and speeches in English, Polish and Lithuanian. M. P. Brady, Daniel Donahue, T. M. Helinski, censor of the Polish National Alliance, and K. J. Bielinski spoke in English. Reverend Eugene Sedlaczek spoke in Polish and Mr. Stefanowicz in Lithuanian. Lieutenant Governor Gill presided.

    As the program of the parade appeared in Dziennik Chicagoski day before yesterday, we are not including it in this article. All we want to say in regard to it now is that it was carried out according to plan.

    At about 11:30 A.M. two large divisions, one from the North Side and another from the South Side, began to march and met at Jackson and Ashland. The 2division from the North Side had started from Noble and West Division Streets, and the one from the South Side from the vicinity of Pulaski Hall [South 17th Street and Ashland]. From Jackson and Ashland the gigantic parade proceeded through Jackson to Michigan Avenue. The parade, which consisted of at least eight thousand people, was led by a group of Polish policemen in charge of Lieutenant Kandzia. Behind this group rode the chief marshal Peter Kiolbassa, who in turn was followed by carriages of the parade bearing Lieutenant Governor Gill, Mayor Hopkins, and a number of aldermen. The carriages were escorted by mounted Uhlans from Town of Lake. The division from the North Side was led by Lisztewnik, and the division from the South Side by Sigmund Schmidt. Both divisions looked their best. The uniforms worn by the members of military societies, the beautiful banners, the decorations of the marshals, the endless rows of beautifully decorated carriages--all combined to present a very picturesque sight.

    The division from the North Side included the societies from the parishes of St. Stanislaus Kostka, Holy Trinity, St. John Cantius, and St. Hedwig, our 3gallant Cadets, the Krakusy [Crakovian Lancers], the Uhlans, the Guard of the Queen of Poland [Virgin Mary], the Knights of St. Martin, and detachments of Polish cavalry. The division from the South Side included the Krakusy from St. Adalbert Parish, the Hussars of St. Martin, the Knights of St. Martin, the Poniatowski's Sharpshooters, the Scythe Men from Town of Lake, the Knights from Lemont, Illinois, the Polish Falcons (groups from several Polish communities), a group of Polish girls dressed in white and wearing Polish national caps, and decorated carriages bearing the members of two Polish women's societies--Victory Star and Polish Women's Central Society. The Victory Star had a beautiful banner.

    This division was very colorful. The parade, as a whole, was magnificent--so much so that even the American newspapers had a word of praise for it, and a big crowd gathered downtown in order to see it.

    The exercises at the hall of Battery D. began at 2 P. M. with a medley of Polish songs, played by Henzl's orchestra. The meeting was opened in Polish by 4Sigmund Schmidt, who made a good appearance in a Uhlan's uniform. He greeted the audience in a brief and cordial address, in which he emphasized the great significance of the manifestation. "The Kosciusko tradition," he said, "will always be dear to us. Our mother country, groaning in chains, appeals to Kosciusko and is inspired by him."

    Then Peter Kiolbassa introduced the Lieutenant Governor of the State of Illinois, Mr. Gill, who delivered a short address in English.

    "We are gathered here," said the Lieutenant Governor, "for the purpose of commemorating the one hundredth anniversary of Poland's heroic battle for independence. Throughout the whole world, with the exception of the tyrannical domain of the Czar, such manifestations are being held. During the years in which she has been compelled to bear the political yoke, Poland has not forgotten her former splendor--a splendor which placed her in the ranks of the leading nations of the world. No nation has ever been more patriotic than Poland, and very few of them could compare with her as a defender of freedom 5and liberty.

    "Today, the Poles are scattered throughout the world, but the love of freedom lives in their midst, and the hope for restoration of their mother country has not been abandoned by them during these years. On the contrary, this love is continually renewed and its flame is getting brighter, as is demonstrated by this gathering.

    "History teaches us that the Polish nation has produced many great and eminent men, such as Copernicus, the celebrated astronomer, and Sobieski, the savior of Vienna and Christianity. Yet the most famous Pole, the one who gained praises and honors not only in his own country but also in distant lands, is Thaddeus Kosciusko, the valiant warrior, the brilliant statesman, the noble patriot. He was a warrior who rose to great eminence through his own efforts and was inspired by purest and loftiest motives. He was a hero of many wars, a hero who fought against tyranny and oppression in his own country, and also rendered a great service to this country during the Revolutionary War. Honored 6by Washington for being a good soldier, admired by Jefferson for his ability as a statesman, and loved by all Americans for his generosity and patriotism, he devoted the rest of his life to his own country.

    "As commander in chief of the Polish army, he fought against superior forces and won. But in the end the Polish Washington could not accomplish his purpose, and he died as he lived--with the problem of freedom in his mind and heart. Kosciusko was one of the greatest champions of freedom the world has ever known."

    The Lieutenant Governor's speech was followed by the choir of the Polish Singers' Alliance, which sang "Cantata of the Third of May," by Tytus Ernst.

    Attorney Matthew P. Brady, who spoke in English, praised the Polish people in the United States for their love of Constitutional rights.

    "The Polish people," he said, "are ready to fight for freedom, as was Kosciusko 7when he fought for the rights of man. To pay homage to the memory of this great man meets with the approval of the American people, for Kosciusko was one of the founders of the great American Republic. He who respects freedom will also respect the name of Thaddeus Kosciusko.

    "In Ireland, where the purity of Kosciusko's heart and soul is greatly admired and where he is considered a typical defender of human rights, his name is also respected."

    After Mr. Brady's speech, the Young Ladies' Choir from St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish, directed by A. Kwasigroch, sang "Hail, Columbia." The singing was splendid, and the singers were rewarded with thunderous applause.

    The next speech in English was delivered by Attorney Daniel Donahue, well-known Chicago lawyer.

    "There are people in this world," said Attorney Donahue, "who maintain that 8Poland should not be allowed autonomy, that, she should be governed by the Russian tyrant. Such people are wrong. Russia may shackle Poland and fetter her hands with chains, but she can never subdue her; she can never convince the Poles that they are governed justly and wisely. Russia may draw the blood from the wounds which she has inflicted; she may attempt to cover the marks of her cruelty with the ink of slander, but she will never be able to erase Poland from the rank of the nations of the world, nor will she be able to make slaves of the Poles.

    "In spite of oppression and unfavorable conditions, the sons and daughters of Poland have always preserved in their hearts the spirit of patriotism. This patriotism told the Poles to take part in our last exposition, in spite of all obstacles, and in a manner showing that they are conscious of their nationality and that they are proud of themselves. They exhibited works of art which prove by their beauty, grace, and expression that the Polish people are a nation.

    9

    "When we look at the great energetic, and enlivening patriotism that characterizes the Poles, we cannot help feeling that Poland will be rebuilt within her previous boundaries. When that comes to pass, expectations of Kosciusko--this great, noble, and pure patriot, this champion of Poland's freedom, this brother of Washington who fought also for this country's independence--will be realized."

    Donahue's speech was followed by the recitation of a beautiful poem, "A Dog I Will Be," written by a Polish woman, S. Duchinski, and translated into English by Henrietta Skidmore. The poem was recited with great ardor and understanding by Miss W. Wilkoszewski, who was rewarded with great applause.

    Next on the program was Reverend Eugene Sedlaczek's speech in Polish. This speech, which was the longest, and had been well prepared, brought thunderous applause and moved all listeners very profoundly. We regret that lack of space does not permit us to publish the whole speech, but we will quote a few of its most important passages.

    10

    "A century has passed since the great historical day--a day that can never be obliterated from the memory of a Pole--when Cracow heard one son of Poland take the grave and solemn oath that he would secure the freedom of his country or make the supreme sacrifice in its defense.

    "Would you like to hear the name of this Pole and learn something about his life? What is his name? Well, there is no name for this man, for all names are too small for him. Where was he born? The bosom of our mother country brought him forth; the suffering of our nation was his cradle. He lived in our mother country, the mother country for which our hearts beat and for whose freedom we long so much. Do not ask who he was, because you know whom I mean. He was the soul and thought, and he died. No! He did not die, for had he died our patriotism would be dead too. He did not die, and as long as there is one heart beating for our mother country, as long as that heart continues to beat and as long as there is a Polish mother who remembers our mother country, so long will the lips of our children praise the greatness of this man and repeat his name--Thaddeus Kosciusko.

    11

    "Yes, this great man, this pole-star that shines over the vast horizon of our mother country, was Thaddeus Kosiusko.

    "Alas, the Constitution of the Third of May, which the last king had confirmed under oath and amid salvos of cannon and tolling of bells, became a dead letter after a few months!....This constitution was intended to be a remedy to combat all political evils; it was intended to be a lever that would move the people to action, and a link that would unite all people, regardless of social standing, into one nation based on equal rights and freedom for all. The enemies of freedom, however, foresaw this and resolved to destroy Poland, so that they might sing a hymn of victory over the tomb of a brutally suffocated nation.

    "But Poland was not asleep, and deciding to defend herself she called upon her great son, her faithful Kosciusko, to champion her cause.

    "Kosciusko knew that the freedom of Poland depended on the united efforts of 12all her sons, and so he appealed to them. His call was answered by hordes of freedom-loving people who had grown tired of the yoke of the Russian tyrant.

    "And here the first words of Kosciusko to his countrymen: 'The first step toward abolishing slavery is to dare to be free, and the first step toward victory is to acknowledge our own strength.'

    "'To dare to be free.' Does this mean that we should thoughtlessly unsheathe the sword and attack an enemy who is stronger than we are? Indeed, no! To rush headlong in such a manner is not bravery but madness, for it would be unwise to waste our strength. Kosciusko had the right conception of these words. To dare to be free means to acknowledge our social and national position; it means that we believe that the Polish nation is mature enough to defend its rights.

    "Yes! We should defend our rights, for, even though we do not exist as a nation we still have our national spirit, of which no tyrant can deprive us.

    13

    After all, nations have been created by God, and no man can do more than change their form of government temporarily. Every nation is just like a note in the devine harmony that vibrates through the history of the world; it is like a star in the great constellation of God's ideas about humanity. Woe unto us if we fold our arms and do nothing for our unfortunate mother country! Woe unto us if we do not show Poland our love, for, as Bossuet puts it, 'He who does not love his native land, to which he belongs, is his own enemy and the enemy of all humanity.' And, since this feeling is stronger in the Polish race than in any other, I will add that a Pole who does not love his native land, or who does not try to regain his national rights, does not love anything or anyone but himself. I fear such a man.

    "In Kosciusko we see an example of love for the mother country. In him we see the ardent patriot, the hero who unsheathes his sword not to attack the enemy but to defend his country.

    "This is no time for armed resistance, it is true, but let us not forget that 14there are natural laws in obedience to which even a trampled worm defends itself instinctively. If this instinct is natural, then why are we not justified in defending ourselves? Let us have courage, countrymen!

    "Kosciusko has left us the axiom that the first step to victory is to know our strength, but never has the truth of this axiom been so much disregarded as it is today. Today some of us are indifferent and depressed. There are many among us who have given up hope and think that we must submit to the enemy just because he has taken our rights away from us. For God's sake, banish these thoughts from your minds. Away with doubts! We should be more confident of our strength.

    "Over there, in our own country, our compatriots, who have been deprived of their religious rights and language, must renounce their most sacred right--the right to govern themselves. Crushed and persecuted, our countrymen across the sea wait from day to day for the hour of their freedom, yearn, and suffer--without rights, without citizenship: Little Poland [Galicia], 15Lithuania, Zmudz, Ukraine, Wolyn, and Podole can hardly breathe under the heavy shackles of tyranny. The double eagle of the Czars has her talons deeply sunk into the flesh of Poland. The sons of Poland are living under the threat of the gallows and Siberia.

    "And yet, the Polish nation has not perished and is far from being lost. Poland suffers, no doubt, but she is still a country, an entity. Gagged, shackled, and oppressed, she is still alive.

    "How can we remain indifferent before such suffering, perseverance, will power? Why shouldn't we here in a foreign land recognize our strength, banish our doubts, and co-operate? Let us create a barrier against which the hatred of our enemies will be shattered.

    "Countrymen, our cause is a sacred cause, for Poland lives! She is being murdered, blood is being shed, but she lives, and this blood, these massacres, confirm this fact.

    16

    "A nation with a past such as ours, one which has endured a hundred years of oppression without giving up hope of being free again, has a right to political existence--and it is for this reason that Poland will be resurrected.

    "For a hundred years we have trodden the thorny path of penance. Thousands of the sons of Poland have suffered agonies in the dungeons of the Czars and in the cold mines of Siberia--those tombs for the living. Our mother country has been washed in an ocean of tears and blood. The penance is coming to an end--there shall be resurrection!

    "What are we to do in order to hasten this resurrection? First of all we must get rid of dissension, we must co-operate with one another,and we must respect the opinion of other people. There are many things which require unanimous agreement if we expect to accomplish them. Solidarity is the acme of devotion and love because it requires one person to forego his own opinion in order to follow the will of the majority. People who don't believe in solidarity when the good of all is concerned do not love humanity but only themselves, and 17their personal ambitions always come first.

    "Over there beyond the silvery Vistula, from the tombs of the Polish kings at Wawel, from the stronghold of Krakus [legendary founder of Cracow], the voice of Kosciusko, the commander, is calling us. Make a vow that this work will begin today, that from this day on every Pole--young and old, fathers and sons, mothers and daughters--will avoid everything that may tend to disrupt national unity. To disrupt national unity is against the Constitution of the Third of May.

    "Vow solemnly that from today on you will try to remove the obstacles that frustrated the work and endeavors of our forefathers.

    "Vow that you will not be indifferent to the national cause and that you will work earnestly and sincerely for the freedom of our mother country.

    "Vow that, for the sake of the cause of the mother country, you will forget 18all personal differences and get rid, above all, of the accursed envy which caused the traitors of our country to involve us in wars.

    "Finally, vow that you will be unselfish to the extent of sacrificing something every day on the altar of our mother country's welfare and for the sake of the Lord of Hosts, who blessed our forefathers and inspired them to elevate the Polish nation above other nations of this earth for centuries."

    This speech was followed by the song "Poland the Beautiful," sung by the Moniuszko Choir, directed by Mr. Henzl.

    The next speaker was T. M. Helinski, censor of the Polish National Alliance. "In the lives of nations and individuals, " said Mr. Helinski, "there are moments which decide their fate and future for many years. For Poland her great moment came in the year of 1794, one hundred years ago, when, under Kosciusko, she revolted against Russia. The name of Kosciusko, the unequaled hero, is dear to all lovers of freedom throughout the world because it stands 19for all that is held noble. We honor him today, not only because he fought for unfortunate Poland, but also because his sword defended our adopted country and because he, together with other champions of freedom, helped secure for us the right to gather here without being molested by the tyrants."

    Then Mr. Helinski described some of the events that took place during Kosciusko's year (1794) and pointed out that one of the most important characteristics of the Poles is their love for freedom and their willingness to make any sacrifice for it. "Such was," said Mr. Helinski, "the character of Kosciusko, our leading star, without whose memory our people would be like a man groping in the dark."

    Comparing the fate of Poland with that of Ireland, he said: "Poland fell because she was too noble, because her conception of freedom was too broad, because she was not suspicious of her neighbors' evil designs. But after one hundred years of bondage, Poland has proved that she has vitality, that she has a future, that she will be free.

    20

    "We feel that we should explain to the American people the reason why we honor the name of Kosciusko. We do it as American citizens. By honoring his memory we wish to prove that we understand and appreciate the meaning of American freedom. We worship the freedom of America, and it is only natural that we should desire it for our countrymen abroad."

    After Mr. Helinski's speech, Mrs. Rose Kwasigroch recited Cornelius Ujejski's "Kosciusko's Funeral." The poem, which was recited in Polish in a masterful way, aroused great enthusiasm in the audience.

    The church choir from St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish, under the direction of A. Kwasigroch and consisting of a male choir and the St. Cecilia's Young Ladies' Choir, sang a medley of songs about Kosciusko. Our beautiful singers from the St. Cecilia Young Ladies' Choir, as well as the singers from the male choir, surpassed themselves this time. Their singing was enrapturing and the medley was excellent. Mr. Kondziorski and Miss R. Zukowski sang the vocal solos.

    The music over, Mr. Clemens Bielinski delivered a speech in English. "We are 21gathered here today," said Mr. Bielinski, "for the purpose of paying homage to a man dear to us, a man whose memory will never be obliterated from the minds of the Poles and Americans, a man whose deeds live and will live long after his and our death, and a man who will receive in the future still greater honors from our descendants.

    "Washington is regarded with the greatest reverence in this country. Ireland is proud of the deeds of her prominent sons. England, Germany and France honor their heroes and have special days set aside for this purpose. And so Poland today glorifies one of the greatest patriots, one of her dearest sons, Thaddeus Kosciusko.

    "If he could only be among us today, so that he could encourage us and fill our hearts with patriotism, just as he did at the square of Cracow one hundred years ago, when in the presence of his people he swore that he would serve Poland.

    "He fulfilled his promise, and we may say about him with Longfellow:

    22

    Lives of great men all remind us

    We can make our lives sublime,

    And, departing, leave behind us

    Footprints on the sands of time.

    Mr. Bielinski concluded his address by calling our attention to the very favorable circumstances in which we find ourselves as free American citizens, not oppressed or persecuted by anyone. For this freedom we are indebted to Washington and Kosciusko, for they fought for it.

    The next number on the program was a song, "W Maju" (In May), by two choirs--the Szopen and the Wanda--under the direction of A. Mallek. The singing was splendid and the choirs received a great deal of applause.

    Judge Dunne's speech was received with great enthusiasm.

    "I have heard it said, " said Judge Dunne, "that the Poles and the Irish, as 23well as other naturalized citizens of this country, are much too prone to keep alive the traditions and memories of the heroes of their native lands. It has been said that the naturalized citizen, when he takes the oath of allegiance to this republic, swears undivided allegiance to the land of his adoption. This is true. None of us can gainsay it. But the naturalized citizen, as he lifts his hands to Heaven and pledges his fealty to the land of his adoption, does not and should not forget the glorious traditions of his country and the important heroes who suffered in bygone days for humanity and human rights. The Pole who would be unmindful of the glorious record of Kosciusko, the Irish who would cease to think of the heroism of Robert Emmet, or the Hungarian who would forget the services of Kossuth in the course of humanity, has neither the sentiment nor the patriotism to remember the glorious services of Washington, Jefferson, or Lincoln. There was never yet a good husband who was forgetful of the mother that gave him birth.

    "The adopted citizen may well and truly love his adopted country, and still have a love and reverence for the dear old land of his origin. And if a time comes, 24which I hope may be far distant, when this country of your adoption shall sound the bugle blast to arms for the defense of her laws or her liberties, I prophesy that that gallant and ardent race which today throughout the world is celebrating the memory of Kosciusko will as cheerfully and readily respond to the call of duty as did Kosciusko when he gladly risked his life for the cause of liberty at Saratoga, as did Pulaski when he gave up his life at Savannah.

    "Some say that the Polish cause is lost, that Poland has ceased to exist, that she cannot be resurrected, that her body has been not only laid on a dissecting table but already dissected by her three neighbors--three robbers. I do not believe it. The spring grass may be trampled, but as soon as we remove the foot it rises again. A mountain spring may be stopped, but in time it breaks through the artificial obstruction and flows on again. The Polish nation may be persecuted and murdered, but the Polish spirit will always live. God rules the world and there is still justice, and the day will come--if not in a few decades then in a hundred years--when the smoldering embers of the 25Polish nation will burst into flame, and another Kosciusko will lead a united Polish people to victory and restore his beloved country to the place it deserves among the happy and satisfied nations of the world. That this day is not very remote I am positive. This hope is shared by millions of people who sympathize with the Polish cause."

    Mr. Anthony Stefanowicz addressed the audience in Lithuanian and explained the significance of the celebration. He was applauded heartily by those who understood Lithuanian.

    The several Polish choirs that took part in the celebration were assembled together under the direction of Mr. Constantine Mallek, himself a distinguished vocal soloist, and sang a Polish patriotic song. When the music had subsided, Attorney Max A. Drzymala read a resolution, which was thereupon adopted with great enthusiasm at the suggestion of Lieutenant Governor Gill.

    Copies of the resolution, which was printed in English and contained a special 26introduction about the historical mission of Poland, were distributed among the audience. The resolution reads as follows:

    "We, United States citizens of Polish extraction, gathered in the hall of Battery D, in Chicago, Illinois, on May 3, 1894, for the purpose of commemorating the one-hundredth anniversary of the Kosciusko Insurrection and the one-hundred-and-third anniversary of the Constitution of the Third of May, 1791, do solemnly protest against the partition of Poland and denounce this partition as the most fragrant violation of the laws of God and man in the annals of mankind.

    "We further declare that it is our belief that every nation is entitled to the natural and inherent right of self-government, and that the subjugation of one nation by another for the purpose of territorial aggrandizement is contrary to all principles of justice and humanity and a violation of all rules of international law, as well as a perpetual menace to modern civilization.

    27

    "We solemnly protest against Russia's inhuman persecution of Poles during the last century, and we particularly express our condemnation and abhorrence of the atrocious massacres and destruction of religious edifices committed in 1893 by Russian officials in Kroze and in other places in Poland for the purpose of compelling the Poles to change their ancient faith.

    "We declare and promise that we will always be faithful to, and ready to fight in defense of, those great principles of human liberty for which Thaddeus Kosciusko fought one hundred years ago, and upon which the Government of the United States is founded.

    "Therefore, we appeal to all lovers of justice and liberty for sympathy and aid for the cause of unhappy Poland, until the unparalleled crime of 1795 is redressed and Poland is restored to her former place among the nations of the world."

    The program was concluded with "God Save Poland," which was sung by everybody 28in the hall. It was a splendid manifestation worthy of Kosciusko.

    Many articles and photographs in connection with the manifestation have appeared in the American newspapers, and in tomorrow's issue we will reprint some of them.

    Yesterday the Poles of Chicago held a Kosciusko manifestation consisting of a parade downtown, a meeting to protest against the partition of Poland, commemorative exercises at the hall of Battery ...

    Polish
    III B 3 a, II B 1 a, III B 2, III A, III D, III F, III H, I G, I K, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 16, 1895
    Plans for Polish Women's Patriotic Club Are to Be Discussed at Meeting

    Mesdames H. Lebkowska, W. Chodzinska, and M. Olbinska are organizing a Polish Women's Patriotic Club. The first meeting will be held Sunday, January 20, at Brigham Street. One of the important functions of this club will be to collect contributions for the Kosciusko monument.

    Mesdames H. Lebkowska, W. Chodzinska, and M. Olbinska are organizing a Polish Women's Patriotic Club. The first meeting will be held Sunday, January 20, at Brigham Street. One of the ...

    Polish
    I K, III B 2, II C, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 11, 1895
    Polish Hospital Receives Support

    The Sisters of Nazareth, administrators of the Polish Hospital, wish to acknowledge the following contributions:

    Prince Joseph Poniatowski Society of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish, $10; Woman's Sodality of St. Adalbert Parish, $10.

    Dr. Kuflewski is on the staff of the hospital, and may be consulted from 9:30 to 10:30 A. M. daily.

    The Sisters of Nazareth, administrators of the Polish Hospital, wish to acknowledge the following contributions: Prince Joseph Poniatowski Society of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish, $10; Woman's Sodality of St. Adalbert ...

    Polish
    II D 3, III C, I K
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 13, 1895
    Women's Sodalities Make Contributions for a New Pulpit at St. Stanislaus Kostka Church

    The following groups from the Third Order of the Women's Sodalities of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish have made donations for a now pulpit for the church:

    Rose No. Amount
    34 $4.00
    35 $2.50
    7 2.75
    18 1.10
    33 1.75
    19 1.30
    16 1.12
    12 1.40
    36 .75
    4 .75
    2
    15 .75
    2 .10
    20 .70

    Sincere thanks are extended to all groups for their contributions.

    Reverend Eugene Sedlaczek, C. R.

    The following groups from the Third Order of the Women's Sodalities of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish have made donations for a now pulpit for the church: <table> <tr> <td>Rose No.</td> ...

    Polish
    III C, I K
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- September 26, 1895
    More Donations for St. Hedwig Parish Fair (Summary)

    The St. Hedwig Parish Fair Committee wishes to acknowledge contributions from twenty-seven persons and organizations. Twelve of these contributions were in cash, amounting to forty-five dollars; the other donations were in the form of merchandise.

    Branches of the St. Hedwig Parish Women's Sodality contributed as follows:

    Rose 19 $4.00
    Rose 14 6.00
    Rose 11 6.00
    Rose 21 5.50
    Rose 8 6.50

    The National Brewing Company gave two barrels of beer. Francis Lorenz gave one ten of coal.

    2

    The committee extends sincere thanks to the kind donors.

    The St. Hedwig Parish Fair Committee wishes to acknowledge contributions from twenty-seven persons and organizations. Twelve of these contributions were in cash, amounting to forty-five dollars; the other donations were ...

    Polish
    III C, I K
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 14, 1896
    A New Society in South Chicago (Correspondence)

    I wish to announce that a new society, to be known as Zorza Poranna (Sunrise) Ladies' Society, was organized here yesterday.

    The object of the society is to promote education among its members and provide sick benefit payments. The Zorza Poranna Society will arrange entertainments, recitals, concerts, theatrical performances, and national celebrations; in short, everything that will serve to awaken the national spirit and help elevate the moral and mental outlook of its members. At present there are thirty-nine Polish women entered on the membership roll.

    At the first meeting, which was held on Sunday, January 12, in a hall at 8247 Superior Avenue, the following officers were elected. Mrs. M. Zagorski, 2president; Mrs. Chmielewski, vice-president; Mrs. K. Obarski, secretary; Miss M. Czerwinski, recording secretary; Miss Follmer, treasurer.

    The next meeting will be held on Sunday, January 29, at the home of the president.

    There is no doubt that this society of Polish women is necessary, and we sincerely hope that our ladies will join in the greatest possible number.

    W.

    I wish to announce that a new society, to be known as Zorza Poranna (Sunrise) Ladies' Society, was organized here yesterday. The object of the society is to promote education ...

    Polish
    I K, III B 2, II D 3
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 25, 1896
    From St. Hedwig's Parish

    [We have received the following correspondence, with a request for publication in the Dziennik Chicagoski.]

    The St. Hedwig's Ladies Society was organized in December, 1895, in the parish of the same name, for the purpose of mutual enlightenment and of supplying moral and material help to the Polish women in St. Hedwig's Parish. Particularly, the object of the Society is the nurturing of the Polish spirit and the upkeep of national traits.

    The following were elected officers of the Society: Mrs. Maryanna Osuch, president; Mrs. Catherine Szczepanski, vice-president; Mrs. Lillian Wolski, recording secretary; Mrs. Ladislawa Kortas, financial secretary; Mrs. Rosalie Glowczewski, treasurer; ways and means committee, Mrs. Apolonia Korzeniewski, Anna Czapski, and Joan Kliwer, trustees, Mrs. Mary Anna Sakwinski, and Mary Anna Konczykowski.

    2

    The regular meetings are hold in the school hall of St. Hedwig's Parish the last Sunday of every month.

    Please address all correspondence to:

    Lillian Wolski, recording secretary,

    1107 North Leavitt Street.

    [We have received the following correspondence, with a request for publication in the Dziennik Chicagoski.] The St. Hedwig's Ladies Society was organized in December, 1895, in the parish of the ...

    Polish
    III C, I K
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 18, 1896
    The Egg Will Teach the Chicken (Editorial)

    There will soon be a shortage of clients in our Polish-American communities, according to the number of lawyers opening offices throughout the city. [Translator's note: This rather obscure reference pertains to the fact that the Church was in existence long before the current crop of lawyers, who were offending many persons by attempting to modernize the social order established and sanctioned by the Church]

    The Catholic Church, through nineteen centuries, has carefully watched over youth, but Sztandar (Standard), the organ of the Polish Young Men's Alliance, is making new discoveries in the field of caring for young people. They do this under the pretext of enlightenment.

    This paper is quoted as follows: "The only salutary method is to influence 2our maidens to join the young people's organizations, together with the young men. Let us throw aside the wrong conviction that such societies are the cause of the spread of immorality among young people. Be certain, mother and father, that their first aim is to teach the gospel of morality."

    The above paragraph (slightly abbreviated) can be read in the February 15th issue of the Sztandar, on the first page, sixth column.

    It pleased God, our Creator, to divide vegetation and animals into genders, male and female, as well as the human race. But, God endowed the human being with a brain and free will, whereas other creatures are governed by instinct only. Therefore, social contacts between male and female human beings depend on the laws of correct understanding, enlightened by God's graces: Faith, Hope, and Love.

    The Catholic church has always condemned the seeming indifference toward maidenly modesty and simplicity, which will suffer from mutual social contacts 3of both sexes without strict parental supervision.

    This is not the way, Sztandar!

    Not that! To send our daughters to watch the turners drill, to send our daughters to young men's meetings, so that they may sit on the same bench and discuss matters together, to snatch our daughters in the evening and late at night from under the watchful eye of the mother, is to commit an act of social suicide.

    No Catholic, in fact no respectable person, loving the flower of innocence in his child, could ever agree to such evil suggestions.

    The modernized girl turners and their lawyers forget the simplest supreme truth--that what God has made, no human is able to change.

    Our reformers of Polish maidens forget the old-time Polish saying, which told 4Mr. Krupa, who wished to fight the crusaders, that "Krupa is worrying needlessly, because he cannot be made over into a lamb"--and no woman can be made over into a man.

    To what did the pagan spirit of the maidens bring them during the times of the Roman emperors?

    They began with dancing, then passed on to gymnastics, and acquired a love for heavyweight drilling. But these exercises were too innocent to please them, according to the article of Reverend Niedzialkowski in the Warsaw paper Rola. Their souls were soaring to greater heights. They began to drill as the gladiators did. They dressed up in breast plates and helmets, wore soldiers' footwear and knee protectors, put on the gloves of contestants, and began exercising, first with a wooden pole, then an iron one. If the neighbor's dog's barking disturbed the slumber of a maiden before noontime, the terrible amazon would appear, with lightning in her eyes, on the neighbor's lawn, and unsparingly would mete out what she considered justice to the wrongdoers, 5both dog and master. In her pursuit for publicity and emancipation, she played with tame lions and tigers. Truly, there was no diversion to which the animal nature of the human being did not resort, and with which the emancipated maidens did not become enamored, just to fill that spiritual void emptied of faith and graces.

    The Sztandar evidently wishes a return of those pagan practices.

    The demoralization is to spread to the schoolchidren at an age when they need the most careful attention and Christian education. As many an old woman thinks that face powder will bring back her maidenly blush, so do our progressives believe that they can substitute, for the Christian graces, sugar-coated secret meetings between the youth of both sexes.

    This is not the way!

    This should be sufficient to settle the matter. The writers lie, and lie, until 6they eventually convince somebody. The smarties!

    F.

    There will soon be a shortage of clients in our Polish-American communities, according to the number of lawyers opening offices throughout the city. [Translator's note: This rather obscure reference pertains ...

    Polish
    I K, III C