The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 04, 1891
    The Speech of Rev. F. Szukalski in Chicago, May 3, 1891 at the Celebration of the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Polish Constitution

    Father F. Szukalski, pastor of the Polish Church at Beaver Dam, Wis. delivered the following speech at a large Polish hall in Chicago on May 3, 1891.

    "Every Pole believes it an honor to love his fatherland. Love of fatherland-that glorious phrase which thrills the heart of every Pole. It awakens all from the slumber of indifference, it revivifies every one who retains a spark of life.

    "In our history, love of fatherland in written into the blood of our noblest countrymen. Our ancestors spared no sacrifice--they forsook their homes, renounced the pleasures of family life, property, friends, freedom, even life 2itself, to endure the hardships of war; they did this because in their hearts burned the holy flame of love for the fatherland.

    "If every native Pole cherishes such love for the fatherland, how much more should we, the exiles, who have lost our beloved fatherland through separation. In the words of our immortal poet Adam Mickiewicz:

    'Oh Lithuania, my country, like life thou art;

    How dear art thou to one's heart

    May be realized only by one

    Who lost thee, and thy beauty.

    I see and desire to sing, for I long for thee.

    "No enemy has ever designed a method of persecution, no tyrant has ever invented a system of torture, no murderer of our brothers has ever conceived of an agony so profound that it could tear out the love of fatherland from 3the heart of a true Pole.

    "Russian deputies separated our families, imprisoned and tortured our countrymen, exiled them to distant Siberia but could not extinguish the spark of patriotism.

    "Countrymen! Love of fatherland is a sacred love which God has implanted in the hearts of men, and which no human power can destroy.

    "No matter how sacred, or holy, or noble a thing may be--a corrupt individual can distort it in order to pursue his own evil designs.

    "Unfortunately, this expression, love for the fatherland was so misused.

    "Let us recall our history previous to May 3, 1791, since we are celebrating today the one hundredth anniversary of that historic day. We remember that those who waited impatiently to tear Poland apart, those who sought to 4betray our fatherland for revenge, those who for profit and for protection of their own interests, delivered Poland into the hands of her oppressors, did so under the guise of patriotism; all of them proclaimed their loyalty to the fatherland. Hugo Kollataj, a Polish political writer of that period, says that they fought for priority in infamy; one tried to outdo the other in the sale of the fatherland.

    "Poninski, Branicki, Karr, Frederik II, Catherine III, Empress of Russia, all posed as patriots--and all of them were plotting the partition of Poland.

    "Today as we commemorate the significant moment when our nation recognizing its weakness, made desperate efforts to purge itself, despite insuperable obstacles, in order to regain the road which might lead to power and national glory, we should remember the reasons for our country's dismemberment-- our fatherland, once powerful enough to decide the fate of Europe, and of 5Christianity. We should consider and analyze the pretexts employed by the enemies of our country for its destruction.

    "I cannot present a complete picture of all the causes and all the means employed, because it is beyond my power and the amount of time at my disposal. I will point out only the most important facts, that we may learn our lesson from them.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, May 5, 1891.


    (continued from previous issue)

    "General knowledge of ancient history, especially of one's native country, has always served as a guide to nations in times of uncertainty.


    "J. Lelewel, a Polish historian, advises all of us to study the history of our country in order to avoid the pitfalls of our ancestors, as well as to profit from the deeds of our illustrious countrymen through knowledge of their achievements.

    "Let us familiarize ourselves with our history, above all with the reasons for our downfall that we may avoid a repetition. Let us know the perfidy of our traitors that we may abhor their infamy and never similarly debase ourselves. Let us acquaint ourselves with the machinations of Poland's enemies and the pretexts used to disguise their evil designs that we may not fall prey to their insidious strategy. We should know also the glorious deeds of our true patriots, who worked always for the betterment of our fatherland, and who spared no sacrifice, that we, encouraged and enlightened by their example, may equally serve our oppressed fatherland. That Poland was once a powerful country, capable of ejecting invading armies, and protecting her people, is an historic fact. That Poland in the course of time lost her power, became weak, 7and was finally enslaved by neighboring powers is also a fact written in the annals of European history.

    "What caused this change? What factors contributed to the stripping of Poland's defenses and placing her in bondage?

    "The causes are many and detailed. Some of them, however, are basic, out of which all others proceed quite naturally.

    "Our famous orator and patriot, Father Skarga, says: 'As our bodies die of internal and external diseases, so do kingdoms fall through domestic disturbance. They too have external enemies who seek to destroy them through wars and invasion.

    Poland also, had internal weaknesses and external enemies.'

    "The internal weaknesses crept into the vital organism of the country and 8undermined it while hostile powers contributed to its downfall, not by conquest, but by assisting the spread of the internal disorder, not by superior force, but by preventing the cure of the destructive disease.

    "What do you think was the basic domestic reason for the fall of Poland? Was it internal unrest? This factor is surely responsible for many of the misfortunes of our fatherland, but it did not undermine the very foundation of its life. Was it the oppression of the people by the nobles? This oppression weakened the country, but it could not dry up the streams from which the life of our nation flowed. Was it the egotism of the Polish magnates? This hindered our national development, but it did not deliver a mortal blow to our fatherland.

    "Discord, oppression of the people and egotism of the magnates contributed to the weakening of our fatherland, but they are not the basic cause of its fall.


    "What then is the real cause? It is unnecessary to name it for every Pole knows it well.

    "The downfall of our fatherland was caused primarily by the apathy towards the Holy Catholic Faith and disregard of its teachings.

    "I am convinced that broadminded and unprejudiced people who know the history of our country recognize that the downfall of our nation was caused principally by the decline of the Holy Faith.

    "Some individuals might say that the decline of faith in Poland is a secondary issue having little connection with its downfall. To these people, faith is always a secondary issue, a thing without special value or significance. I am afraid that they may accuse me of using this solemn moment for religious propaganda. I wish to say to them that my purpose today is to present historic facts.



    (continued from previous issue)

    "Let no one think that this is my personal opinion. Our silver-tongued orator and great Polish patriot, Father Skarga, who took an active part in public life, who know the weaknesses of the Polish government and realized the dangers threatening it, expressed the same opinion. He can hardly be accused of partiality or prejudice since he lived almost three hundred years ago. Here is his opinion expressed at the opening of the Fourth Polish Congress.

    'This Polish Kingdom is founded on the principles of the Holy Roman Catholic Church. It has stood for six hundred years upon this foundation. Thus, it worshipped Christ and believed in His Gospel; thus it respected its spiritual advisers, was obedient to them and to the Holy Teachings; thus, it grew into a great country allying itself with many nations; thus it resisted 11its enemies, and became known to the neighboring powers. This old oak grow in this manner, became strong and no wind could uproot it, because its root is Jesus Christ and His priests. If you undermine this foundation--the old religion and priesthood--the whole structure of the country will be weakened, and downfall will follow.'

    In another place Skarga says:

    'If this kingdom will serve the Church of Christ, He will elevate it and deliver it from any danger, but if it abandons the Church and its service, it will perish.'

    "To those who say that these convictions are obsolete, I reply: glance at the history of our nation, observe it through many centuries and notice when this nation was powerful and when it was weak, when it stood at the peak of its glory and when it was on the decline. You will see that at the time when Father Kordecki, armed with the crucifix, stood at the head of 12Christians defending the fortress of Czestochowa, Poland arose victorious just at the time when her doom seemed imminent, for powerful Christ delivered it from danger. You will see that when Jagiello led his countrymen into the Church of Christ, Polish boundary lines were expanded and the nation grew stronger. You will see that after Sobieski had led his army into the temple of God and together with his men humbled himself before the Lord and had strengthened himself with the bread of life, he attacked the Turkish forces, defeated them, saved Vienna and Christianity from a horrible fate and made Poland famous throughout the world.

    "On the other hand you will see that when heresy and apostasy visited our fatherland, when heterodox men denied Christ, created new gods and idols, presented them to the nation as symbols to be worshipped and defended, when heretics began to scoff at the teachings of the Catholic Church and blaspheme against God, then began the downfall of the nation. You will be convinced 13that when these heterodox men, who formerly had betrayed God and their conscience, began to demand confidence, respect, and official positions in the Polish kingdom, discard and rebellion began; the country could not resist the invaders and its boundary lines shrank. When dissenters, after betraying God, treacherously applied for protection to Poland's enemies and opened her doors to invasion, Poland, weakened by the internal dissension, could not resist, and groaning with pain fell into bondage. The Polish nation became an object of laughter and ridicule.

    "The history of our country indicates that our nation rose to greatness and power when her people served God by respecting and observing the Holy Catholic Faith, that when the people began to abuse the Holy Faith, repudiate the church, and allow heresy to grow, the happiness of the nation dwindled and the strength of our fatherland decreased--finally Poland was crushed and obliterated from the map of Europe.


    "I will speak briefly about the Polish dissenters. Those who betrayed the Holy Catholic Faith in Poland by joining the Protestant Church were called dissenters. The Poles, seeing these people abandon the vows made at the holy baptism, lost confidence in them and removed the from public office. The people had another reason for distrusting them. Morawski, whom no one can of prejudice, says the following: 'Polish dissenters must admit that they earned their dismissal from public offices by their own conduct--by allying themselves with the enemies of the country.' Whoever wishes to sympathize with the dissenters must realize that Poland was a Catholic country, and that the dissenters were newcomers to it. As such they should have contented themselves with that which the government was willing to give. What is more, it is apparent that no one ever persecuted dissenters in Poland. They held their religious services and no one tried to force them 15to adopt the Catholic faith. In other words, Polish dissenters fared better in Poland then in other Catholic countries, and incomparably better than Catholics in non-Catholic countries.

    "The dissenters were not satisfied with fair treatment, they wanted power. In the pattern of King Frederick of Prussia and Catherine, Empress of Russia, they wanted to persecute Christians of Catholic faith. When their plan was frustrated they applied for help to Poland's worst enemies betraying our fatherland by furnishing Frederick and Catherine with an excuse for intervention in Poland.

    "The method of electing monarchs and the policy of 'Liberum Veto' constituted another seed of dissension which contributed to Poland's downfall. Because of the system of eligibility, the death of a Polish king was a signal for all kinds of disturbances. Every magnate had his favorite candidate for the throne whom he tried to elect by fair means or foul. Consequently the country was divided into factions which fought each other. This created discord 16and disorder--brought injustice to the country and weakness.

    "The question of a king's eligibility created dissension not only among the Poles but among neighboring powers. When a king died, neighboring countries sent representatives who supported their own favorite. These representatives gave more than more verbal support. They used bribery, encouraged drunkenness among the electors, affiliated with one or another faction and went so far as to call for military intervention.

    "Thus regal eligibility divided the country into factions and permitted the entrance of foreign troops who persecuted the people. It gave neighboring powers too much influence; quite often a Polish king cared more for the country which supported him than for indigenous Polish interests.

    "The evil caused by this system of monarchial election was continued further by the policy of 'Liberum Veto,' a privilege granted to every member of the Polish Diet. This privilege gave him the right to break up a parliamentary 17session by saying 'Liberum Veto,' I object, thereby destroying all constructive measures passed by that legislature. 'Liberum Veto' placed the entire country at the mercy of one man.

    "Neighboring countries realizing that they needed only one disruptor at the Polish Parliament in order to obstruct legislation, did not hesitate to employ these means to the detriment of Poland. They used to bribe members of the Diet and thus gain influence. Such contemptible wretches were Poninski, Rzewuski and others. There was no order in Poland, and the Diet was helpless despite the aid given by the noble patriots since the paid agents of Prussia or Russia could always defeat them.

    "The third internal cause of Poland's downfall was the lack of education among the nobles and the lower classes. This lack of education became a weapon in the hands of those who desired to destroy Poland. Ignorant masses were easily misled, and the voters unaware of their country's real interests sold it out to those who paid more for their votes. The nobility, whether 18they cared for their country's welfare or were merely protecting their own interests, obeyed their masters' orders. Thus Poland was divided into as many quarreling elements as there were magnates and wealthy nobles.

    "These weaknesses created an unhealthy situation in Poland; however they were not as bad as conditions prevailing in other countries at that time. The support given by the majority of the people, and the heroism of the patriots more than made up for the weakness in the governmental structure.

    "The nation, from sad experience, realized that foreign governments had overpowering influence in its own government; it knew also that the germs of destruction must be removed or the country would be annihilated. And so the nation began to strengthen its governmental structure. Honest patriots sought to remove the system of regal eligibility, to abolish the 'Liberum Veto,' and to educate the people.



    (continued from previous issue)

    "The Polish nation recognized its weaknesses, realized the dangers threatening it, and wanted to rectify the situation. It had men of great ability; Kollataj, Malachowski, Potocki. It had ardent patriots; Rejtan, Korsak and Bochuszewicz. Such a nation could have regenerated itself and would undoubtedly have done so.

    "But to mankind's eternal disgrace and the damnation of all Europe, this regeneration was prevented by the three monarchs who at that time disgraced the thrones of Europe. Frederick II of Prussia, Catherine II of Russia, and Maria Theresa of Austria.

    'These three constituted a Satanic trinity, opposing the Holy Trinity, a mockery of all that is sacred.


    'Frederick, whose name signifies a "friend of peace," was Satanic in his constant pursuit of war, although he had the audacity to mock Christ by calling himself the "King of Peace." Frederick tried to make the old order of knighthood an object of derision by creating an evil fraternity called the "Order of the Black Eagle." He gave this order, a Latin motte "Suum Cuique," literally, to each his own. The members of this order were Frederick's servants who robbed and plundered.

    'Catherine, whose name means "purity" in Greek, was a most impure woman, although like shameless Venus, she called herself a virgin, Catherine called a legislative council apparently to make a mockery of it, since she corrupted the laws and destroyed the rights of the people.

    'Thus Catharine announced that she was protecting freedom of conscience while at the same time she forced millions of people to change their religion.


    'As if to mock at humility and holiness, Maria Theresa, who bore the name of the most meek and immaculate Mother of our Savior, was a proud she-devil who carried on a war for the purpose of conquering a foreign country. She was ungodly, although she prayed and went to confession because she enslaved millions of people.

    'The names of these three, Frederick, Catherine and Maria Theresa, are three blasphemies; their lives-- a series of criminal acts.'

    "These three saw Poland's weakness and decided to enrich their countries by robbery. When they saw that Poland was overcoming her weakness, they sought to prevent it. When that plan failed, they contrived to partition the country into three parts, for thus it would be easier to keep her in bondage.

    "What means were used to destroy Poland? Did they attack her by force? No, they could not do that for the Poles would see the danger, cease their internal strife, and unite to repel the enemy. Our enemies decided to avoid 22this. They devised a plan by which the Poles themselves would effect Poland's destruction.

    "During the absence of a monarch and before the election of King Stanislaus August, there were, the usual disturbances in Poland. This was a splendid opportunity for the Russian Czarina and the Prussian King who already plotted the partition of Poland. Whoever knows anything about this intrigue must admit that such infamy cannot be duplicated in the history of the world.

    "The Poles were divided into factions; hostile neighbors hired agents to encourage discord and insurrection, or at the very least to ensure the election of a candidate sympathetic to the interests of a foreign country at the expense of Poland.

    "Stanislaus August, a favorite of Catherine, Empress of Russia was elected as king. As was expected, Russian influence became stronger every day.


    A conference was held at which bribed members of the Polish Diet granted Catherine the right to protect Poland. Under the threat of bayonets, the dissenters were given equal rights. Those members of the Diet who opposed these measures were seized and exiled to Russia by the Czarina.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, May 11, 1891.


    (continued from previous issue)

    "The Czarina had been looking for a pretext which would allow her to dominate Poland. She meddled in Poland during the election but that ended with the coronation of the king. She tried to promote an insurrection in Ukrainia which would justify the entrance of Russian troops into Poland, but the plan failed. Hark, whom she had sent to Ukrainia for insurrectionary purposes, 24could not accomplish anything.

    "But now she had a pretext which would last until Poland was partitioned--the alleged disorders in Poland. Accordingly, the Czarina sent Repnin to Poland to establish order, or rather disorder in Poland. He had a hundred thousand Russian soldiers in Warsaw and he knew how to handle the situation. For some he had Rubles, honor and distinction--for others violence, bayonets and knouts. Those who opposed Russian rule, were dealt with in the fashion of the Cossacks; those who tried to reform the government or improve the conditions were either exiled or discredited in the eyes of the ignorant nobility. If anyone advocated the abolition of 'Liberum Veto,' he was accused by Russian hirelings of trying to establish an autocracy and eliminate the privileges of the nobility. The ignorant people believed these agents. Whoever proposed a hereditary throne for Poland was decried by Muscovites as a traitor trying to deliver a free kingdom into the hands of a tyrant, as a betrayer seeking the enslavement of free citizens, and so on.


    "But Catharine was supposed to be the personification of all that was essential for the welfare of Poland. 'On demand of the Poles' she accepted the difficult task of Poland's protectress and announced that she would not tolerate any one who opposed liberty in Poland. She defended the system of Polish monarchial eligibility which opened the way to the throne to every noble, and permitted every magnate to support his candidate. The Czarina defended the policy of "Liberum Veto,' since it gave every member of the Diet an opportunity to accept graft.

    "The duped Poles believed these slanders and lies, and through insurrection helped their enemies to destroy the fatherland.

    "The behavior of these enemies of Poland was a complete fraud. Proclaiming their pride at having become the "protectors" of Polish independence, they plotted its overthrow. Declaring firm patriotism, the traitors secretly bargained with the enemies of Poland to obtain a large reward for their perfidy. Frederick and Catherine who persecuted Catholics in their own 26countries, posed in Poland as the protectors of dissenters.

    "When the Russian soldiers in Poland began to exceed themselves, the Poles awakened to the treachery of Catherine and Frederick. A conference was held for the purpose of adopting a plan to save Poland, but it was too late. The enemy was too powerful. The country was surrounded by enemy forces, and the nation could not unite itself for action. There was no leader, and dissension reigned throughout the country.

    "Furthermore the Russians had succeeded in stirring up an insurrection in Ukrainia and Wolyn, and then attacked Poland with a great army. About a hundred thousand Poles fell at that time; the nation was horror-stricken.

    "Such were the blessings brought by Frederick and Catherine to Poland. They would have destroyed Poland completely but Russia's war with Turkey intervened.


    "Thanks to the Russo-Turkish war, the Polish nation again raised its standard of fidelity to God, of liberty and equality for which it endures exile and imprisonment.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, May 12, 1891.


    (continued from previous issue)

    "Now the question arises, What did the history of our nation teach us? What did the treachery of our enemies teach us? The misfortunes caused by the system of the eligibility of kings and the policy of 'Liberum Veto' will certainly be of value some time in the future when Poland is reborn.

    "Our history furnishes other valuable lessons. It reveals the fact that the decline of faith was the basic cause of Poland's downfall. Early in 28its history Poland was protected from the German invasions by the Roman Catholic Church, and from that time on our nation was closely identified with that Church. Our enemies destroyed Poland under the pretext of protecting those who had repudiated the Roman Catholic Church. The Catholic faith is so woven into the Polish nation that whoever attempts to separate nationality from faith will distort his ideas of nationality, and lose his faith.

    "Our history shows that the lack of education among the people was one of the names employed by our enemies to destroy Poland. Unenlightened masses could not distinguish between a patriot and a hypocrite. Citizens should know their duty towards their country. Only when our nation returns to the Church and brings forth great men will there be a regeneration of Polish nationalism and a resurrection of Poland."

    Father F. Szukalski, pastor of the Polish Church at Beaver Dam, Wis. delivered the following speech at a large Polish hall in Chicago on May 3, 1891. "Every Pole believes ...

    III H, III B 3 a, V A 1, V A 2, III A, III C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 04, 1891
    Poles Celebrate Proclamation of Their Constitution (1791) Commemoration of the Hundredth Anniversary of the Polish Constitution of May the Third

    Although the main festivities to commemorate the Polish Constitution of the Third of May (1791), begin today and end tomorrow at Bradley Hall, the parishes held their own celebrations yesterday for their members. Last night's celebration at the new St. Stanilaus Kostka's hall was held for the members of this parish, and it served as an introduction to other celebrations which will take place at this hall.

    Last night's festivity however, deserves special attention. It brought us joy and, as it happens quite often, some sadness. Let us hope that the joyful moments will remain with us forever as pleasant memories and spiritual upliftment, and that the unpleasant ones will be obliterated from our minds and changed for the better.


    It was a beautiful Sunday morning of May, right after a gloomy Saturday, and the holiday spirit was everywhere. Even a stranger in a Polish neighborhood must have noticed that this was not a simple Sunday observance but some unusual national holiday. Almost all buildings were beautifully decorated, and thousands of flags, Polish and American, fluttered from the roofs and the windows. Large portraits of Polish patriots decorated the sides of many buildings and here and there one could see large portraits of George Washington, father of our country, with appropriate inscriptions. The streets were filled with people, almost everyone wearing some kind of medal, badge or tricolor ribbon indicating that he or she was a participant of the celebration.

    The Church of Saint Stanislaus Kostka, the interior of which was beautifully decorated with Polish and American flags and with all kind of national emblems so as to indicate that the church solemnities were connected with a great national holiday, was filled to capacity at every Mass. At 10 a.m. a High Mass was said in honor of the Fatherland. For this Mass the large 3temple of God could not accommodate the people who came to worship God. The great masses of the faithful raised their imploring voices to the Holy Virgin, mother of God, Queen of the Crown of Poland, asking her for the liberation of Poland. These devotional prayers and supplications filled the hearts of the faithful with holy joy and gave them assurance that a nation having such Queen still lives and has a future, even if at present it must experience great difficulties.

    Soon after the noon hour, the church yard and surrounding streets were filled with throngs of people, and the entire parish presented a picturesque sight. A very solemn vesper service was going to be celebrated in honor of church societies. The members of these organizations, dressed in their full regalia and with banners, formed themselves in lines ready to march into church. Here alone could anyone form an idea of the great number of the faithful belonging to this parish. Not only some non-members but also many members of the societies could not find a place in the church, as pews and aisles and all standing room were filled with 4people. The Knights of the Blessed Virgin, garbed in their picturesque uniforms, stood at the aisles. Societies could be distinguished by their uniforms or banners. Standard-bearers stood at both sides of the altar.

    During the vesper services, which began at 3 p.m., the Reverend Felix Zwiardowski, who came from Texas, delivered a patriotic sermon. After the sermon, a litany was sung to the Blessed Virgin of Loreto, to whom, as Queen of Poland, an appeal was made. The litany was followed by the blessing of the Holy Eucharist.

    The evening celebration began at 8 p.m. at the beautifully decorated Polish hall, and the entire program was adapted to the occasion.

    Quite often, especially in America, no attention is paid to the object of the commemoration; hardly or no mention is made in speeches of that which is commemorated. The subject is rather avoided or at best an 5attempt is made to connect the object of commemoration with a problem that has nothing to do with it. Some persons have no idea of what a commemoration is; they think that a program composed of a few numbers, including patriotic singing, constitutes a great commemorative celebration. We should discuss practical questions, especially those which can be applied to our immigration and those which point out how we may imitate - the examples of those whom we commemorate. We take for granted that at an occasion such as a commemoration, all speeches, theatrical plays, and songs should remind the participants of that which is commemorated.

    Yesterday's program was devoted entirely to the Polish Constitution of the Third of May declared in 1791.

    The speakers did their best to give an accurate description of this historical event. Reverend F. Szukalski, a priest from Beaver Dam, Wis., in his very interesting discourse based on historical facts, described 6how the Polish Constitution of the Third of May came into existence, explaining the causes of the sad partition of Poland. Mr. B. Klarkowski, the teacher, said in his enthusiastic talk that the constitution was accepted by the people because in spirit it is part of us. Reverend V. Barzynski read and explained the Constitution. Mr. Vincent Jozwiakowski, a young Pole, delivered a very enthusiastic speech to the young people, pointing out the great significance of the Polish Constitution and what they can learn from it. A variety of entertainment proper for the occasion was given between the speeches. A first-class orchestra played Polish compositions. This orchestra played at the Mass and will play again Tuesday at the solemn Mass to be officiated by the Archbishop of Chicago. Several members of the orchestra are Poles. Well-trained choirs, accompanied by the orchestra, sang Polish songs and compositions suitable for the occasion. One of the compositions was the "Hymn of the Third of May," specially composed for this occasion by the well-known poet Mr. S. Zachatkiewicz. The school choirs, composed approximately of eighty girls and fifty boys under Mr. A. Kwasigroch, parish organist, sang beautifully.


    It may be said that the celebrants paid close attention to the speeches, and enjoyed the musical selections a great deal. Miss Rose Kiolbassa, who delighted her listeners with her beautiful voice and displayed a great talent, was rewarded with great applause. Miss Kiolbassa distinguished herself at the choir by her clear alto voice. She was equally good at the piano and finally, to top it all, she won the hearts of the public with a superb recitation. Her success was so great that she was given applause and showered with flowers.

    This important and beautiful celebration was concluded with the singing of "God Save Poland."

    Mr. Peter Kiolbasa, who was the chairman of the committee in charge of the celebration, shared the platform of the hall occupied by the clergy and the presidents of the societies.

    And now let us direct our attention to the sad lack of interest shown last 8night during the celebration. At occasions such as last night's, the large Polish hall can hardly accommodate those who wish to participate, yet last night the hall was half filled. It is true that the public behaved wonderfully, that they were enthusiastic, yet it was sad to see that the hall was only partly filled. Perhaps some were tired by the all day celebration in the morning and the afternoon; perhaps some prefer to attend the general celebration which will take place tomorrow; and perhaps to some the prices seemed too high.

    [The Polish Constitution was declared on May 3, 1791.

    "In this historical document Poland guaranteed to all Poles, regardless of class or rank, peasant or merchant, laymen or clergy, equality, freedom of conscience, and a share in the government. This Constitution was to be revised every twenty-five years. It was an ideal constitution, a forerunner of democracy, later used as a model by nations who deemed it necessary to perfect their government. Burke, Lafayette and Washington believed it to be the best of all known constitutions." From the book Poland and her People. Transl. note.]

    Although the main festivities to commemorate the Polish Constitution of the Third of May (1791), begin today and end tomorrow at Bradley Hall, the parishes held their own celebrations yesterday ...

    III A, III B 3 a, III C, III H, IV
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 05, 1891
    Poland's National Festival

    The main event of yesterday's great Polish festival, the third day of its celebration, was given in the large hall of St. Stanislaus School, corner Noble and Bradley Streets.

    On May 4, 1791, the Polish constitution was proclaimed; it provided that "every man who enters Poland shall be regarded as a free man". Since this noteworthy courageous statement was made, one hundred years have elapsed and the Poles of America, and especially Chicago's Polish population, excelled in its display of patriotism by giving a great parade and numerous celebrations.

    The festival which was given yesterday at St. Stanislaus Hall was highly elevating, and the words we heard there will undoubtedly leave a permanent impression in the hearts of every Pole. The hall was profusely decorated and in conformity with the mailed invitations which announced that "every friend of liberty is welcome", we noted next to the American and Polish banners, also the German, Swiss and the Irish colors.


    Amongst the multitude which filled the spacious hall, the young girls of St. Stanislaus School, dressed in white with red bands fluttering from their waists, made a most pleasing appearance; also two companies of Polish military clubs joined in their parade uniforms.

    At the beginning of the festival, the orchestra played a march, which was followed by a short opening address by the Rev. J. T. Szukalski. After the singing of the national hymn, "Columbia", Judge Moran, who accepted the presidency for the festival, spoke to the assembly. He congratulated the Poles upon their love for their native land, and complimented America for its fortunate possession of such a diligent, energetic, law-abiding and liberty-loving people as the Poles.

    The regular festival speech was given by the bishop, Rev. I. W. Spalding of Peoria, and his masterly, limitless perceptions, his effective and convincing arguments and citations, deserve recognition as a work of profound importance. The speaker gave a chronological account of the history of mankind as far back as the Aryan and Semitic tribes; from the latter we inherited religion, from the former, culture and progress in the arts were given to the human race. In a fascinating manner he mentioned the importance of the Poles upon culture and ended his enthusiasm 3creating speech by referring to Copernicus, a Catholic priest and Pole, whose scientific knowledge and discoveries in astronomy proved to be epochal. Speaking of Poland in regard to its former political position, Bishop Spaulding quoted the reasons which led to Poland's dissolution. The main cause was to be found in its geographical location; it had no natural boundaries, but was wedged between two monarchies, who had to sacrifice this bulwark of liberty. Our own America should thank Providence that oceans separate it from warring kingdoms and Czarist empires. Finally, the speaker considered the school question. He spoke with enthusiasm and declared that the teaching of one's hereditary language in the public schools is a serious thought which can not be eradicated anymore.

    Great applause interrupted nearly every sentence of this highly interesting part of his discourse.

    W. J. Onahan, former city comptroller, gave a short talk on the accomplishments of the Poles as American citizens.

    Among the musical offerings, we must first mention the duet of Mrs. and Miss Kiolbassa, which was given a tumultous welcome in recognition of its excellence.


    The church choir (ladies, gentlemen), which sang Polish national songs and the patriotic composition, "The Song of our Land", also gave us a magnificent presentation. The school children intoned "The Star Spangled Banner", which was followed by a mass-chorus which sang the prayer; and so this memorable celebration came to a glorious end.

    The Committee consisted of Mr. P. Kiolbassa, Rev. Barzynski, and others.

    <p/> The main event of yesterday's great Polish festival, the third day of its celebration, was given in the large hall of St. Stanislaus School, corner Noble and Bradley Streets. ...

    III B 3 a, III H, I C, III C, I A 2 b, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 13, 1891
    The Speech of Mr. Boleslaus Klarkowski, at the Polish Hall in Chicago, on May 3, 1891

    Greetings to all who persevere in a holy cause, for you are the evidence and the expression of a living fatherland, in word and in action.

    "I see how over Poland,

    The spirit of the Constitution shines,

    Causing fear in the hearts of tyrants,

    In the victims, hope."

    Let us respect the past if we desire to be respected in the future. There are moments in the lives of nations, the memory of which is preserved from age to age, from life to life, from generation to generation. Today's celebration represents such a moment in the life of the Polish nation. It 2reminds us of our century of bondage, during which there was not a moment when we were free from persecution, not a moment during which we could breath freely, gather our thoughts, cool our indignation; yet it also unites us with the happy past. No power can silence the pulsation of the Polish heart. Suffering is a creative power, a life-giving element, and the memories of the splendid past and our historical fame are the seeds of a new life.

    By today's gathering, we will convince our enemies and friends that no nation in the entire Christian world could observe so many beautiful national celebrations as ours. The Polish nation guarded Christianity for many centuries, and shed rivers of blood in its defense, and during that time it experienced many times both glory and suffering, which assured not only our immortal name, but also earned for the nation the right to be free and independent. By today's gathering, we will prove that this noble heart of the nation, which 3pulsated for every honest cause, has not been silenced, has not been deadened, even now when it is almost crushed. We will prove that nations with a great past do not perish, that, on the contrary, their future is assured. We will prove that we have a great and glorious past, unblemished by aggressions or betrayals. We have always carried high before us a standard with a white eagle and a torch of light.

    The Third of May, 1791, forever a memorable day in our history, was one of those tremendous moments when God, the Creator of all, stirred the dormant vitality of the Polish nation so that it might not perish forever.

    We behold the Polish nation, intoxicated, helpless, lulled asleep by the reign of kings belonging to the Sas family, arising and undertaking the work of regeneration. By a strange phenomenon, not recorded in the history of any other nation, the pleasure-loving nobles found in themselves enough energy to take vigorous action in defense of faith and the freedom of the 4country, enough conscience to limit their privileges in favor of other classes, and enough vitality to hand down these feelings to their children by a testament--that is, by proclaiming the Constitution.

    That solemn moment, which made us all equal, abolished the loathsome liberum veto, ended religious wars, strengthened the king's throne, and reconciled the peasant with the noble and the townsman, all being given an equal chance to aspire for high offices, both civil and ecclesiastical. It strengthened national defenses, and the Polish people acquired rights, not by bloodshed, as in France or Germany, but by a voluntary reform, an act of the diet, the senate, and the king.

    All true Poles, regardless of age, class, or religion, were filled with ineffable happiness. The aged thanked God for the privilege of seeing the end of disorders, and the young were grateful that their fatherland would be 5independent, orderly, and safe from now on, that it would occupy again the prominent place among European nations that it had in times past. All felt that they were children of one mother.

    All who were able followed the king to St. John's Church, and here took oath that they would defend the constitution to their last drop of blood. The oath was sincere, as was proven when Kosciusko's army, which was formed of peasants armed with scythes, stood side by side with knights and nobles at Raclawice.

    The Polish Constitution of the Third of May was praised by brilliant and grave minds, not only at home, but also abroad. It was a great work, created by sincere desire, not blemished by personal interests, but a work of nobility and solemn import, for its aim was justice and the general welfare. It was also laying the groundwork for the general prosperity and betterment of future generations, without oppressing the present one.


    Thanksgiving services were held everywhere, and more than a hundred thousand oppressed people came to Poland from other countries, and found refuge there. Pope Pius VI was very happy that the Poles were entering a better way of life by proclaiming a Constitution, and ordered a three-day service at St. Stanislaus Polish National Church in Rome. France, England, and Holland, greeted our Constitution gladly and with great admiration. The French called the Poles "a model nation," and the pride of the eighteenth century, Mr. Burke, the famous English orator, expressed the highest praise for the Polish Constitution, in these words: "Humanity, as a whole, should be proud and glad because of this great achievement, which is one of the noblest and finest benefits ever granted to humanity."

    Finally, this great work had the distinguished honor of being accomplished without bloodshed, without arrests or incarcerations. No one was exiled, no one suffered any loss, no one was disgraced. On the contrary, all were elevated. A group of the finest noblemen in the world stood at the head of the 7free Polish citizenry. Hollanders received the news of our Constitution with great enthusiasm, and, to prove their admiration, fashioned a gold medal and sent it to Warsaw.

    But, in the meantime, Russia stood against the declared Constitution, and found help in three Polish magnates. Their names were Szczesny Potocki, Xavier Branicki, and Severus Rzewuski. They founded a federation at the city of Targowica, in the Ukraine, for the purpose of abolishing the beneficial Constitution and creating, with the help of Russia, disorders throughout the country. Immediately, Catharine, the Czarina of Russia, invaded Poland with a hundred thousand well-trained men, commanded by Kachowski and Kreczetnikov. The Poles sent only a poorly-equipped army of thirty thousand, commanded by Prince Joseph Poniatowski, beside whom stood Thaddeus Kosciusko. In spite of Prince Poniatowski's victory at Zielence, and the famous retreat of Thaddeus Kosciusko at Dubienko, the King of Poland, Stanislaus August, as commander-in-chief of the Polish forces, made a secret agreement with Catharine, and 8ordered his army to retreat. Now the Russians advanced on Warsaw without interruption, and, when the Prussian forces joined them, the King of Poland, Stanislaus August, delivered Poland as a prey to her enemies. He disavowed and abandoned the Constitution of the Third of May, which had been established with his co-operation, and which he had so solemnly promised to uphold. He joined the confederates of Targowica, and at the diet held at Grodno, in 1793, he signed the Second Partition of Poland thereby abolishing the Constitution of the Third of May.

    After the Second Partition, the Poles, realizing the danger of a complete downfall of our fatherland, formed a secret confederacy for the purpose of expelling the enemies and restoring the Constitution. The eyes of the entire nation were centered upon Kosciusko, who had gained fame in the American Revolutionary War, and in the battle at Dubienko, where he had displayed the abilities of a great commander. He was a noble man. Moved by the great 9injustices which our fatherland was suffering, he unsheathed his sword, and cried out: "God, let me fight for my country once more."

    The Poles would have prepared themselves for a rebellion had it not been for the order for the reducing and eventual disbanding of the Polish army. The first command for starting a rebellion was given by General Madalinski, who received orders for disbanding his division of uhlans, numbering seven hundred. The intrepid general attacked the Prussians and defeated them.

    Now the action could not be postponed any longer. Kosciusko was proclaimed chief commander of all military forces, and on April 1, 1794, left Cracow, and met six thousand Russians at the village of Raclawice. Four thousand Polish insurrectionists, the majority of whom were peasants armed with scythes, lances, and axes, routed the invaders of our fatherland, the foes of the Constitution.


    After this victory, the insurrection spread throughout all of Poland. Warsaw was incited and freed by Kilinski, the shoemaker; Lithuania was freed by General Jasinski; Greater Poland (the western part) by Dabrowski, Zmudz, and Kurlandja. A bright gleam of hope dawned over Poland. It seemed that with a few more bloody battles the sun of freedom would shine on the silvery waves of the Vistula, the Niemen, and the Dnieper.

    But God foreordained a different destiny for Poland. Just at the time when the Russians were beginning to lose hope, Prussia and Austria came to them as helpers. Kosciusko, attacked unexpectedly at Maciejowice, in spite of his stubborn resistance, bravery, and manliness, received a sword thrust in the head and fell senseless, covered with blood. The Polish army suffered irretrievable defeat.

    Warsaw was plunged into dismal despair after the defeat at Maciejowice. The 11hearts of all Poles were filled with sadness. It seemed that the capital city was dead. No, only hope, shaken by a crushing defeat, was dying.

    But this was not the end of misfortune. On November 4, 1794, the Russian general Suvarov captured Praga, a suburb of Warsaw, plundered it of everything, and murdered twenty thousand people. In his cruelty, he did not spare women, children, the aged, or cripples. The suburb of Warsaw was bathed in blood, and the waters of the silver Vistula were colored with blood of our fatherland's children, defenders of freedom and of the Constitution.

    Then the Third Partition took place, and Poland, the bulwark of Christendom, through her own fault, and because of the superior forces of her enemies, Russia, Prussia, and Austria, was deprived of her political independence.

    But the Polish spirit was indestructible. It was not crushed, and it may 12be said that its consciousness and its life have just begun. We were divided, but not destroyed, thanks to the Constitution of the Third of May. We appear to our enemies as an apparition of a nation which was buried a hundred years ago. The principle of the Constitution entered into the blood and life of our nation. The spirit of the Constitution rooted itself so deeply in our hearts that it is a thousand times stronger after its abolition. It became our patron, our guiding genius, our protector, a leading star shining brightly over Polish glory, and holding up before us the same banner under which we will cut down the ranks of the enemy.

    We are indebted to the Constitution for the right to regard ourselves as one nation, though we are ruled by three alien powers. We are indebted to the Constitution for our ability to command the sympathy and support of more and more followers from all classes. The Constitution has passed into our times, and has been handed to us without losing anything of its value. It lives in our thoughts and endeavors, and it has become a part of our souls. We should 13be grateful to the Constitution for not being dwarfed to nothingness. To the Constitution we are indebted for all the virtues which protect us from a complete downfall. All of us were nourished with its idealism. The fundamental principle of the Constitution will remain unaltered, regardless of the change in the conditions of our lives, because it is not the property of one class, but of the entire nation. Through it, our fathers transmit to us unshakeable faith in divine justice; it speaks to us of the immortal hope which we can not renounce; it speaks to us of love for the country which should rule our hearts. Four generations were brought up with this leading thought; they lived with it, fought and died for it, handing it down to us with sacrifice of blood. In it our fathers adjure us not to yield to temptations or doubt, not to deviate from the hard road of duty. The Constitution united us into one bond of brotherly love and unity, a bond which enables us to look confidently into the future. Although our enemies succeeded in partitioning our country, and tried to devour us, yet, thanks to the Constitution, we will not let them digest us.


    We come to earth by the will of the Almighty--no other will can destroy us. God was with our fathers for eternities when they were with Him, and He will be with us if we will be with Him. Affairs of nations are God's eternal laws, His natural laws. We may transgress against nations, struggle with them, enclose them in boundary lines, force them into silence, and even shackle them, but they cannot be destroyed. The creative power which calls nations to life is stronger than all destructive agents. Only ignorance, blinded by power, will set before itself a task which it cannot accomplish. Let us gather our material and moral forces, let us not lose the smallest opportunity in the struggle for progress and the rights to which we are entitled as members of the family of nations--and the victory will be assured. Great thoughts and sacrifices were never crushed by bayonets. Great work may be accomplished only by a great sacrifice. Victory is assured to us as long as the spirit of the Constitution lives within us, and as long as the vacancies in the ranks of martyrs are filled by the new ones.


    Nations live with the love of the country, and fall and perish when that source of life dries up. The Constitution supplied the Polish nation with that life-giving principle, and showed the way for its mission. Poland's mission once was to defend faith, but today her calling is to defend Christianity against false progress.

    The partitions of Poland occurred when we were not in harmony with God, but as soon as we began to arise from our fall, the Constitution of the Third of May dawned upon us, kindled the light of faith, and renewed the covenant with God. Poland rests with God, and shall find herself in God. Besides this, the Constitution represents a great thought, a thought that the kingdom of this world is a part of God's plan; that we should devote ourselves to it not because it is necessary and beneficial, but because it is commanded by God. Not only in Heaven, but here also, God manifests His power, and as He has followers in the church, so has He workers in every country, through whom He performs wonders.


    The love of this truth, this thought, these aims glimmering in the nation, this mission,is a kind of affection called patriotism. This love, as any other love, manifests itself in deeds. For this reason, our nobility has sacrificed its privileges on the alter of patriotism, and has given us the Constitution of the Third of May, which would unite separated members, draw them together like a center of gravity, so that they might become one nation, one indivisible body. Our nobility has proven that its patriotism is what it should be, active and sacrificial. Such patriotism is demanded from us by the Constitution.

    It is necessary for everyone to elevate himself to this holy feeling, and, for the good of the country and humanity, not only admire the Constitution, but take an oath of allegiance to it. He must defeat the enemy by the power and the glory of his sacrifices. God and the fatherland--devotion to these must dwell always in our minds and in our hearts. Let us go forth in this devotion hand 17in hand, and we shall not feel unhappy, for there is no higher happiness, and no higher love, than this. Let us begin our work, let us not desert the banner carried by our noble, brave, and pious ancestors. Above all, let us not interrupt that which they have started. To retard the march of progress is a disgrace.

    We share with God the mastery of life and death over our fatherland. If the fatherland should actually perish, it will not be because we are oppressed by tyrannical governments, but because we, as Poles, allowed it to pass into oblivion. If this happens, we are not worthy of having a fatherland. Is there any one among you who is willing to be a murderer of his fatherland? I will say no, a thousand times no. You Polish mothers, especially, are guardians of national virtues in foreign lands. Please do not forget to plant into the soul of your son or daughter these few words:


    "For the sake of your fathers and forefathers, whose blood you bear, of whom you are a descendant and heir; for the sake of God, Whose glory you should defend, and by Whom you shall be judged; I command you to cherish your native tongue and to keep the faith of your fathers."

    If you will do this, Polish mothers, no one can deprive our fatherland of its life, even if all the powers of the world try to help Russia and Prussia. Our prophetic poet is right when he says:

    "Our Fatherland shall not perish,

    As long as its women have feeling,

    For from their breasts flows the venom

    Which poisons our enemies."

    Misfortunes and persecutions should not discourage us. Let us not despair. God is powerful, and He may say: "Arise, Poland, the time has come to fight 19for faith and freedom. You are cleansed with tears, hard labor, and hardships. Arise, Bulwark of Christendom, at the crisis, and lead the peoples to reason. Show them the true road, the road of love and brotherhood."

    Let us bear our hardships patiently, and change them into penance, and our regeneration will soon be effected. If our final destruction should come, if misfortunes should crush us, let us not be the cause ourselves. We should not pave the way for the murderers who are trying to send us to our graves. We must wait patiently for God's mercy. It will come if we desire it, and if we are worthy of it.

    We should not concern ourselves about the extent of our suffering; let us consider rather how we suffer, how we are benefited by suffering, what lesson we derive from it for the future, how we are ennobling ourselves through it, and how we are paying the debts of the past. We should learn that creative work, which builds up wealth and increases our stores of knowledge, is the 20only means of earning us the right to be a nation.

    I am positive that all of you will work in this direction. Let every one do whatever he can according to his ability. The strength of a nation can be compared to the strength of a chain--it depends on the individuals as the chain depends on the single links. Poland has no boundary lines of her own; she has only three enemies, and one aim--independence. In order to attain this goal, we must unite. Let us sow good seed so that we can have a good harvest.

    We did not come to America for the purpose of quarreling among ourselves or splitting into factions. Let us leave this function for our enemies. Above all, we should build Poland within us, with the conviction that whatever is desired by the people will be accomplished in the end.

    It is time to forget the sad memories of the past. Poles! From now on, 21let there be no differences among us, let us be brothers, sons of one fatherland. The past should inspire us with faith, hope, and love. Let the spirit of the Constitution of the Third of May spread throughout the United States, and unite all our hearts, casting out from them all indifference and selfishness. Let the spirit of enlightenment and freedom which inspired the makers of the Constitution lead us on, so that we may hand down to our successors perseverance in the face of difficulties. Our patriotism must be great if it is to be effective. Otherwise, it cannot be a life-giving principle.

    We should stand firmly by the faith and tongue of our ancestors. By the banner [of the white eagle] we should swear to serve and defend them. This is a duty, an honor, a future salvation, an anchor, a life principle of the Polish nation, woven a century ago by the Constitution into one indivisible unit. Let us preserve these pure, unblemished national relics. No one, under any pretext, should be permitted to wrest them from us, for without them we will perish.


    Poles, this burden is your duty today, like a dear heritage left by your fathers. Grasp in your tired, worn, but honest hands the bloodstained national banner, and raise it high, hoping that you will win victory. To action! We should not forsake the banner carried by our noble, brave, and pious ancestors, but we should have faith in our rights and in the ultimate triumph of justice and truth. True Polish nationality should awaken in every one of you. Only those who are willing to die should fight. Let us die, if necessary, for truth, for freedom, for progress. We shall not die in vain, but in fulfilling the mission allotted to us by God. Let us stand by the testament of our fathers--the Constitution of the Third of May.

    Our poet, Sigmund Krasicki, in his prophetic poem, "Before the Dawn," said:

    "In one union, in one spirit,

    Like the links in the chain,

    The Lord tied fathers with their sons.

    Before this chain breaks,


    All will be well with them.

    From our blood and by our fault,

    Before this century has passed,

    One of the best nations will arise.

    You should bless the fault of our fathers."

    Greetings to all who persevere in a holy cause, for you are the evidence and the expression of a living fatherland, in word and in action. "I see how over ...

    III B 3 a, III A, III C, III H, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 27, 1891
    An Appeal of the Polish Immigrants to European Nations On the Hundredth Anniversary of the Declaration of the Polish Constitution (Editorial)

    A hundred years ago, on May 3, 1791, Poland, after the first partition, threatened by the second, surrounded by enemies eager to crush her, arose and proved to the world by a memorable act that she was still alive.

    This memorable act was the declaration of the new constitution, which was in reality the first firm step leading to urgent reforms. These reforms were to remedy all faults and inefficiencies of the social and political organization of the country.

    Alone, betrayed by perfidious Prussia, Poland fell once more a prey to the combined forces of Prussian and Russian monarchs. Prussian armies could not 2move to France for the purpose of suppressing the rise of freedom before helping Russia to quarter Poland again. France refused and defeated the Prussians, and it is said that this defeat was due to the weakening of the Prussian army in a fight with Kosciuszko. Poland, however, was too weak, and in spite of the heroic efforts of the leader of the nation, she was removed from the map of Europe by the third partition in 1795.

    Poland was not restored after that fateful date. The crime of the partition of Poland was not expiated either by the creation of the Duchy of Warsaw by Napoleon or by the short existence of the Congressional Poland. On the contrary, the act of the Congress of Vienna, which was held in 1815, ratified the partition of Poland under a liberal form. The conscience of Europe is still burdened with this crime of the murder of a country as an offender or as an accessory [to the commission of an offense]; and this crime still stands in the way of a permanent peace in Europe.

    Although Europe has not fulfilled her duty toward Poland and herself, Poland 3may rightfully say that she has remained loyal to her historic mission. Europe was either unable or did not care to resurrect a country which was indispensable for her own safety. She did not even care to remove the black blot created by the political bondage of a nation numbering twenty millions, a bondage which obstructs the tendency of the modern world toward progress and freedom and constitutes at the same time an invincible obstacle to their realization. On the other hand, Poland, after her partition, has proved her solidarity with civilized nations and has produced undeniable evidence of her vitality and her desire to be independent.

    Sons of Poland have fought on all battlefields of both hemispheres in the ranks of the defenders of freedom. In our native land Poles raised their national banners three times in the attempt to regain independence--in 1830, in 1846-1848, and in 1863. At each insurrection they encouraged the reforms adopted by the Constitution, confirming the principles of civil and political freedom for all classes and also freedom of religion. Besides this they not only proclaimed the emancipation of the peasants but also granted to them the right to own property.


    The Poles were conquered by superior forces and only for a short time. They never lost hope in the future and are trying to develop their nation, in spite of difficulties, by taking active part in the mental activities of European civilization.

    Even today, after a hundred years of oppression and in spite of being torn into three parts, Poles constitute one nation united by language, literature, tradition, and the hope of a better future. As on May 3, 1791, of which we celebrate the hundredth anniversary, either publicly or secretly throughout entire Poland and in foreign lands, so at this moment they are united in a common thought, as if they wished to say to Europe and to the rest of the world:

    "Poland is not lost and shall not be lost."

    Polish immigration should become an audible echo of this silent call of our countrymen who are compelled to hold their tongues. For this reason the 5Polish immigrants declare solemnly, peaceably, and with dignity befitting the cause which will be triumphant because it is eternally right, in the presence of independent nations and conquering countries, that the Polish nation will not renounce any of its rights; that it protests very vigorously against all the injustices of which it has been the victim since 1772, and which it still suffers; and that in its own interest and in the interest of all Europe the Polish nation will endeavor with all its might to precipitate the moment in which it will gain freedom and independence, when it will be able to resume anew and continue further the reformative work of its ancestors interrupted a century ago.

    A hundred years ago, on May 3, 1791, Poland, after the first partition, threatened by the second, surrounded by enemies eager to crush her, arose and proved to the world ...

    III H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- June 02, 1891
    Education (Editorial)

    In the last issue of Nowe Zycie (New Life), which under its new editor has abandoned its extreme socialistic principles, we find a lengthy article with the above title. The editor evidently desires to engage in a mild and peaceful controversy on the question of the basic principles of education. The editor will probably favor us with other articles. His article refers to the question discussed in Zgoda a few weeks ago, but it differs so much from the one in Zgoda in the expounding of theories that it not only encourages controversy but even makes it very pleasant.

    The article in Nowe Zycie attacks parochial schools. We shall not pretend that the editor of Nowe Zycie has read our discussions with Zgoda, which appeared in our paper; we shall therefore refrain from referring to them, and shall once more answer his arguments very briefly.

    The author points out that it is the duty of every Pole coming to this country 2to become a good American; however, he should also remain a good Pole. Of course, this applies equally to other nationalities such as the Irish, the Germans, the French, the Bohemians, the Swedes, etc. On this point we agree with the author of the article. To prove our stand, we recall the many statements appearing in our paper to the effect that any newcomer who stays here and is not interested in our form of government and has no desire to adopt and defend its principles is unworthy of receiving any benefits from our institutions.

    A person may be a good American and also a good Pole, since it is possible to reconcile being the one with being the other. The author will surely agree with this statement; therefore it need not be argued. We Poles should be good Americans by conviction, because the United States is at present the most advanced country in the world, and because, in addition, we owe this nation a debt of gratitude. We should also be good Poles by conviction because on the one hand it is cowardly to renounce one's oppressed and downtrodden nationality and on the other hand it is honorable to profess allegiance to such a nationality, to take active part in the protests against the most abominable political crimes perpetrated against it, and to try to punish the guilty and 3establish justice.

    According to the opinion of the author, a person may be a patriotic American and still feel that he is a good Pole, or, in other words, being the one does not interfere with being the other. If this is true, then neither the duty to be a good American nor the duty to be a good Pole should stand in the way of those Poles who were brought up as Catholics and who desire to remain loyal to their faith when they come to this country. Only a strong religious influence can preserve morality among those who have freed themselves from bondage, and morality is a very important factor in a country where people rule themselves.

    Let us suppose, for the present, that the author of the article agrees with the theory that our descendants should be good Americans, good Poles, and religious persons. Now, let us take the author's reasoning under our consideration.

    The article reads: "One of the fundamental principles of the United States Government--a principle which is a guarantee of our freedom--is the separation of Church and State. In the parochial schools, especially those which are 4Catholic, church matters and obedience to the Pope are the most important subjects, and they are driven into the young minds of the pupils. Other subjects are considered as less important and as secondary to religious matters."

    We cannot understand how anyone can make such statements without presenting some proofs, such as a list of the courses of study taught in the parochial schools, or an account of the system of teaching, or the contents of schoolbooks.

    If the author had looked over the schoolbooks used, or if he had read the outline of subjects taught in the parochial schools, he would not make such statements. If we look at the list of subjects taught in Catholic colleges we shall be convinced that the subjects taught in the public schools are also taken up in Catholic colleges. That parochial schools teach religion in addition to other subjects is true, but for this reason the study period is prolonged by one hour. Of course the study of religion does not occupy a secondary place in Catholic colleges, but neither are other subjects regarded as secondary to the study of religion.


    Furthermore, well-equipped parochial elementary schools have the same equipment as well-equipped public schools. That not all parochial schools are properly equipped is true, but on the other hand we must admit that neither are all public schools exemplary. But when a certain principle is involved we must confine ourselves to the well-equipped schools of both sides.

    And now as for "obedience to the Pope." This common objection voiced by the opponents of Catholicism and disproved so many times refers only to the dogmas or the doctrines of faith which are decided by the Pope. These doctrines of faith, especially of the Catholic faith, do not contradict the principles of the Constitution of the United States. Therefore, they cannot be opposed to these principles. One of the precepts of the Catholic Church (and this precept is known and observed by every faithful Catholic) says that we should acknowledge and obey civil authority ("Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's"). Moreover, a priest always prays for the ruler of the country at every mass.

    The author asks: "Will a child educated in these schools know the difference 6between the Church and the State?" Indeed, such a child will know this because he has learned it, whereas in the public schools nothing is taught on the matter. The indifference with which a child is educated in the public schools inoculates his mind with a false conviction that the country will not permit him to profess any particular religion, whereas in the parochial schools the child learns that State and Church are two different things, and that we should obey both the State and the Church in their different spheres. The child also learns that one may be a good Catholic and a good American at the same time.

    The author continues: "Can such a child be as liberal as the Constitution of the United States, after he has grown up and become a citizen?" Certainly, because the Constitution of the United States does not permit atheism, and allows the citizen of this country to profess the faith which he considers as the best. The parochial schools have actually adopted the principles of the American Constitution, which they put into practice by teaching us principles of religion, thus protecting us from atheism. The public schools, on the other hand, have no opportunity for teaching or applying these principles.


    These and similar questions are answered by the author himself as follows: "It is not necessary to answer these questions for history has already answered them. It suffices to mention the history of the Polish National Alliance in the United States."

    The history of the Polish National Alliance has not, as yet, come to an end. The next convention will reveal how sad its condition is. Its history, however, has nothing to do with the question of schools and education.

    The following statement is evidently a conclusion reached by the author of the article: "Only public schools can provide us with the assurance that our children will at least learn what is taught in the parochial schools and, in addition, how to understand and properly appreciate the institutions of our country."

    The textbooks, the courses, the satisfactory results of entry examinations taken by the pupils of the parochial schools at higher institutions of learning, among them the United States Military Academy at West Point--all of these prove that in the parochial schools the students learn at least as much as 8pupils do in the public schools, and that they do learn how to understand and properly appreciate our institutions.

    But the foregoing statement may be reversed to read: "Only the parochial schools can provide us with the assurance that our children will at least learn what is taught in the public schools, and, in addition, will learn the principles of religion and their native tongue." The author should not maintain "that no one prohibits the establishment of special schools at which only the Polish language and Polish history, but no religion, would be taught." Should we send our children to two schools?

    Let us accept the principle that the study of religion, of the native tongue, and of the language of the country are not secondary subjects. We will then recognize the importance of the parochial schools, because if any of these subjects is considered to be of secondary importance in the upbringing of our children, then the latter will not grow up into citizens of whom we should be proud.

    In the last issue of Nowe Zycie (New Life), which under its new editor has abandoned its extreme socialistic principles, we find a lengthy article with the above title. The ...

    I A 2 a, I A 1 a, III H, III G, I J
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- June 19, 1891
    Dziennik Chicagoski Six Months Old (Editorial)

    A few days ago, a half year passed since the first issue of Dziennik Chicagoski was delivered into the hands of the reading public.

    Time has convinced us that a Polish daily newspaper is necessary in Chicago, that it is supported by the public, and that it will be necessary to enlarge its size in the next half year. This necessity is felt already, but at present this is an impossibility, and it would be unjustifiable to demand that a newspaper increase its expenses after a half year's existence, when the income is still small, for the paper sells for less than a penny, on the basis of yearly subscription.

    Our journal is too small for fulfilling the desires of most of our readers satisfactorily. In the last six months we tried to find what are the wishes 2and needs of our readers, and have endeavored to adjust ourselves to them. Our difficulty lies in selecting and rejecting the material for publication, of which we have a great number, and this is very embarrassing.

    In order to satisfy most of our readers, we decided to arrange our articles and publish some of them every day, besides the telegrams and local news. This will be continued until the size of our paper increases which will enable us to change our plan.

    In the future, news from Poland obtained from European papers will be published on Mondays and Thursdays. Articles on American politics will be published on Tuesdays. On Wednesdays, we will publish articles concerning Poles and their affairs in America. On Fridays, articles on science and literature will be published, and on Saturdays excerpts from Polish journals edited in America, and other material, such as correspondence, etc.

    This system will be adopted next week. However, it will be necessary to 3deviate from this course occasionally, and devote the entire issue to some cause or important incidents. We are introducing this program for the purpose of determining whether or not our readers are in favor of it. As stated before, we will be glad to receive correspondence from our readers and comply with their wishes and requests, if possible.

    A few days ago, a half year passed since the first issue of Dziennik Chicagoski was delivered into the hands of the reading public. Time has convinced us that a ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 04, 1891
    Conference of Polish Editors (Editorial)

    Plans for a meeting of Polish newspaper editors are nearing completion. More and more journals are favoring the undertaking, and there is hope that such a meeting will soon take place.

    Many Polish journals have already expressed their opinions as to the proper subject of discussion at such a conference. Some of these opinions are amusing, like the one expressed by Przyjaciel Ludu (Friend of the People), which was corrected by Kuryer Polski of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Nowe Zycie (New Life) has also made comments upon the proposed meeting. In fact, only a proportionately small number of journals is indifferent to this undertaking or opposed to it. We too will take the liberty of making a few remarks.

    Such a conference cannot in reality be brought about by an editorial campaign in the newspapers. We know that some newspaper editors do not read any paper other than their own; they would be surprised to find that a plan for such a 2conference exists. We also know of others who probably would take part in such a conference, but who do not wish to be inconvenienced by taking any part in the arrangements for it.

    It will be necessary to send, as soon as possible, to the editorial staffs of all Polish newspapers, either invitations to this conference or questionnaires about it. But who should send these invitations? Who should sign them? We know very well that there exists among us a form of jealousy in respect to these matters.

    Therefore, we suggest that the editors of Kuryer Polski, originators and vigorous supporters of this plan, contact two other newspapers, to be chosen by themselves--though we suggest that they choose the oldest ones--and ask them for permission to use the signatures of their editors on letters which will be sent out by the editors of Kuryer Polski, whose own signatures will, of course, also appear.

    It would be advisable to explain in these letters the object of this conference and the necessity of holding it. These letters may also deal with other matters of interest pertaining to the conference.


    The purpose of the conference, if it is to be effective, must be twofold; that is: the conference must present both a general and a specific program.

    The general object of the proposed conference has been explained by the originators of the plan as follows: to promote a better understanding and a closer personal acquaintanceship among editors; to remove venomous controversy (without, of course, altering a newspaper's policies on political issues and on other matters where decent controversy is not only permissible but often beneficial and sometimes necessary); and to establish the principle that the editorial and administrative staffs are two different departments (although quite often they are conducted by the same persons), in that the object of the second staff is the bringing of material gain to the publishers of the newspaper, while the object of the first is the bringing of moral benefit to the readers and honor to the Polish element in America.

    Besides devoting itself to the achievement of its primary purpose, the conference should, in our opinion, take up other matters. We will name some of them. First, provision should be made for the mutual exchange of newspapers.


    Second, editors should agree that in reprinting newspaper articles they will list the source and the date of the article's first publication. In our opinion, an additional and very important issue is that of spelling and terminology. There are many expressions which the editors of our journals must invent on their own responsibility. Every language changes and improves according to growing needs. American conditions, being different from European ones, sometimes create difficulties for even the most able and experienced writer when he tries to decide what expression he should use for describing something or other; often the same and identical thing is referred to in several different ways by different persons.

    Unfortunately, Polish grammarians and linguists have not been aware of these needs and have not been able to solve the problem; therefore, the Polish Press Alliance in America should, as a matter of duty, make itself an authority on this subject, in order to maintain and increase the value of the Polish language to the Polish people of America.

    There is also another issue which, in our opinion, is important enough for consideration at the conference of editors. The object of newspapers is to 5acquaint the public with matters concerning the community, and also to awaken national spirit. These issues concern not only us here in America but also our countrymen in Europe. Our journals publish in every issue news from our fatherland in Europe, but no such practice is followed by European papers. European papers rarely publish anything about the life of the Polish element in America; when they do, the information is not reliable, and is written in a manner which betrays either false or insufficient knowledge of our conditions. It is our duty to remedy this situation in some way, either by sending a large quantity of our newspapers to the publishers of European journals, or by corresponding with European editors whenever circumstances make it possible, or finally by any other practical means which may be suggested by the conference.

    Plans for a meeting of Polish newspaper editors are nearing completion. More and more journals are favoring the undertaking, and there is hope that such a meeting will soon take ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 08, 1891
    Ameryka (Editorial)

    One of our readers has asked us to comment on the statement, made recently in St. Louis by the editor of Ameryka, to the effect that "Ameryka is the best Polish newspaper in this country". The reader asks if it is true, as claimed, that Ameryka aids in the intellectual development of its readers, that it publishes only the truth, that it is entirely patriotic, and that other newspapers are supported by millionaires for the purpose of oppressing the poor people and keeping them in ignorance. He asks us also to verify the allegation that Ameryka is a socialist journal.

    That Ameryka is a socialist journal is quite true, and we are certain that the editor will admit the fact himself. Not long ago, this journal published a series of articles written from a viewpoint of extreme socialism, a viewpoint rightly considered dangerous by people of deep religious convictions.


    That the journal in question publishes fables and clumsy falsehoods which no one can believe, can be proven by an article which appeared in Ameryka recently, and to which we replied in our paper. In that article, there was a false statement concerning a publishing company which publishes a daily newspaper, a large weekly on Sundays, and many books. The article claimed that this company employs in its printing establishment only orphans from the orphan asylum, and keeps them under the supervision of a person who "does not know how to hold a stick in his hand" and who works every day, including Sunday, till 11 P.M., at a salary of eight or ten dollars a week.

    That Ameryka is not a Polish patriotic newspaper but rather Russian in its sympathies can be substantiated by the fact that, not long ago, Ameryka offered its readers portraits of the czar and czarina of Russia as a premium for a subscription to a certain Russian newspaper. This indicates very clearly to what extent this journal is "the most intelligent and the best".

    Furthermore, Ameryka has no respect for our laws, for it sends indecent stories 3through the United States mail, in direct violation of the law. For a long time after laws had been passed forbidding lottery advertisements in the press, Ameryka continued to publish such advertisements, until the law finally intervened and put a stop to it.

    It is evident that Ameryka has no respect either for the laws of the United States or the feelings of the Poles.

    One of our readers has asked us to comment on the statement, made recently in St. Louis by the editor of Ameryka, to the effect that "Ameryka is the best ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 14, 1891
    Audiatur Et Altera Pars (Editorial)

    In the last issue of Zgoda, [Organ of the Polish National Alliance in America], we read a reprint of an article which had appeared originally in Kuryer Lwowski (Lemberg Courier), and to which was attached the signature of a Lemberg attorney, Mr. Joseph Maczewski.

    The article was answered by a Polish priest from Chicago, whose communication we are publishing below. We are publishing their answer verbatim, although on a few minor points we do not exactly agree with our esteemed correspondent. These are, however, unimportant details which, in view of the importance and courage of the answer as a whole, we see no reason to discuss.

    From the nature of the letter which was attached to the answer, we sense a certain doubt as to whether the Lemberg attorney could actually have written 2such an article. We, however, have no doubts. That a journal like Kuryer Lwowski was pleased to publish such an article can be easily comprehended by every one who has read the Kuryer lately. That a Lembergian should write such an article is nothing unusual, if we take a certain circumstance probably connected with it into consideration. The entire article indicates very clearly that its author obtained his knowledge of our conditions from only one journal--Zgoda--to which he has probably subscribed for a number of years. All statements made in his article had previously appeared in Zgoda and have been refuted and disproven hundreds of times, in spite of which, however, they have never been withdrawn. The reader of this one journal must have formed a one-sided opinion, which he himself probably believes to be true.

    If, before writing the article in question, "Mr. Attorney" had been guided by the principle "audiatur et altera pars," if his attitude, in other words, had been that of a judge rather than that of a lawyer, and if he had read 3other journals besides Zgoda--especially Wiara I Ojczyzna, which explains these very matters--he certainly would have been more careful in writing articles on overseas conditions. As an attorney, Mr. Maczewski defends only one side and has gathered material necessary only for that side. In a short time a wise judge will undoubtedly be found among our countrymen in Poland who will give an impartial judgment on this matter.

    The answer sent by a Chicago priest reads as follows:

    "Our Quarrels: An Answer to Mr. J. Maczewski

    "According to Zgoda, No. 32, Mr. J. Maczewski, an attorney of Lemberg, Poland, has published in Kuryer Lwowski a lengthy article describing conditions in 'American Polonia,' as the Polish element in the United States is called. We will present the article as it is written.


    "I. In the first place, Mr. Maczewski praises the emigrations which took place after the Polish insurrections in Russia in 1831 and 1863, and maintains that 'these insurrectional emigrations constitute a noble and very patriotic foundation for further Polish emigrations.' Our esteemed attorney even states that large Polish settlements are being established in Virginia, etc.

    "The foregoing statement is not true. No evidence of such settlements, large or small, or of any existing foundation of Polish insurrectional emigration, can be found in the United States. If there is such evidence, we would like to be informed as to the state, the county, the post office, the number of settlers, and the fruits of the ardent patriotism.

    "2. The esteemed attorney further maintains that Polish immigration in America, amounting to at least a million and a half souls, consists of common 5people, and that they emigrated for economic reasons and on account of religious and linguistic persecution in their native land.

    "If we look at the facts we will discover that there is some truth and much falsehood in this assertion. I know from experience that a very small number of common people crossed the ocean on account of religious persecution. This also applies to linguistic persecution. Polish emigrants, with the exception of Uniats (United Greeks), never suffered religious persecution, and if there was any linguistic persecution they never felt it.

    "The principal, and indeed the only factors stimulating emigration are poverty, a desire for material gain, a dislike of military service, and a fear of imprisonment for a political crime, this last being confined chiefly to the so-called intelligentsia. Visit the sections inhabited by the Poles in Chicago, Milwaukee, Detroit, and Cleveland; visit Polish farm settlements; contact every person, and make a statistical record of the causes of emigratiom. Then 6you can estimate the part played by religious or linguistic persecution.

    "Our esteemed attorney is also misinformed as to the number of Poles in America. I have at home Hoffman's Directory, which, among other things, gives the exact number of Polish parishes and priests in the United States. Finally, I know personally almost all the Polish priests in Chicago. I know more or less exactly the size of Polish settlements, and I maintain, leaving the exact figures to future investigation, that there are only half a million Poles in the United States. These half-million Poles will assimilate; they will remain in the United States forever. These half-million Poles do not live here for any sentimental reasons, but because they can gain a better livelihood. To this Mr. Attorney may say, 'They are lost in materialism.' I answer, 'No!'

    3. Although Polish-Americans are perhaps a little too much concerned with 7money, they have no lack of loyalty either to their religious faith or to their nationality. Though they have no desire to return to their fatherland, they decorate Polish settlements in America with Catholic churches and Polish schools, in order that these settlements may resemble their native land. This emphasis on religion and education, coupled with the fact that a proportionately small number of priests emigrated, accounts for the great shortage of Polish priests in America.

    "4. And now, a few words about priests. No one can expect that out of the Polish population in America, which amounts to half a million people and is made up of various and distinct elements, united only by language, there could arise an exemplary and perfectly disciplined clergy, especially when the clergy came from many parts of the world and was under the jurisdiction of many different bishops. Such a demand is beyond the power of human strength to fulfill. That there were intrigues among the Polish clergy, sometimes for good and sometimes for evil, is quite natural. Mr. Maczewski surely knows that a priest 8does not sin by trying to get a better parish. Finally, everyone, clergyman or layman, who is acquainted with our conditions, knows very well along what thorny road a priest must pass during the organization of a parish.

    Any assertions about the stunned peasant, frightened by fire and brimstone and horned devils, are fiction. Our peasant may properly be said to be afraid of the devil, in the sense that he fears God and believes in eternal reward and eternal damnation. The 'educated' people, however, ridicule the devil while they live, and only when their last hour comes do they call for the priest that he may save them from the devil's grasp by prayers, sacraments, and an aspergillum. I earnestly beg our attorney friend to prove by statistical records a single case in which a Polish parish priest in America has dishonestly squeezed money from a peasant, by threatening him with fire and brimstone, whether he wanted the money for the Church, for a school, or for himself. Our attorney friend should know that our people make contributions 9because they are convinced of the truthfulness of their faith and the necessity of their schools.

    "5. 'Woe!' said Jesus to those who set a bad example, but bad examples have always existed and always will exist; they will of necessity be found even among the Polish clergy in America. Where Mr. Attorney gets his information about the excesses which he describes, such as broken ribs, etc., is a mystery to me. It is possible, but I would rather be a Doubting Thomas and say: 'I will not believe till I put my finger on the broken ribs!'

    "The principal accusation of Mr. Maczewski is his allegation that an extreme greediness characterizes the Polish priests in America. To this I reply: (1) Many Polish priests in America live in great poverty, and all of them experience hardships when they are organizing a new parish. (2) Polish priests in America receive less for religious services then other priests, and also less than is prescribed by the Baltimore Council. If this statement is 10not true, please refute it statistically. All our priests receive a rigidly prescribed salary, and as far as other income is concerned, most of them carry unselfishness to an almost sinful extreme. Exceptions to this are very few.

    "6. Concerning the freethinkers, I wish to state that experts acquainted with our conditions confirm the fact that there are many freethinkers among the members of the Polish National Alliance, not defined as such by the fancy of a naughty priest but by the regulations of the Roman Catholic Church. If necessary, I can supply the name and the address of a lodge of the Polish National Alliance in which freethinkers are particularly prominent. To demand the silence of the priests on the activities of the Polish freethinkers among the faithful Catholic people would be equivalent to demanding a denial of the value of the Catholic faith.

    "The statement that a Catholic priest and the Catholic faith are one is true.


    Faith cannot exist on earth without priests, and, although a priest is not an embodiment of faith, he is always its best defender and propagator. In the circles favorable to the Polish National Alliance it is permissible to treat the Catholic faith with great respect and at the same time blaspheme against the priests abominably.

    "7. I will not discuss the assertions made by our esteemed attorney regarding the good will of the Polish National Alliance towards Polish schools, etc., because these institutions are under the exclusive protection of the clergy. The priests organized Polish people into societies, religious, fraternal, educational, etc., before any lodge of the Polish National Alliance existed. The Polish Roman Catholic Union, under the protection of the [order of the] Sacred Heart of Jesus, is the outcome of these societies, and has, not four thousand, but seven thousand members. No one can say anything definite about the number of members of the Polish National Alliance,because a few weeks ago Zgoda itself, apparently for the purpose of covering up a theft committed 12by a certain Mr. Morgenstern, who was formerly in charge of the organization's funds, admitted that its previous statements as to the number of members had been fictitious.

    "Therefore, all nonsense about poor, ignorant people being oppressed by the priests, or about the ideal, angelic love for the fatherland and the Roman Catholic Church attributed to the members of the Polish National Alliance, is an insult to human intelligence. Has any one in Poland ever heard about the results produced by the work and sacrifice of the members of the Polish National Alliance for our fatherland? I beg the esteemed attorney to point out to me any beneficial effects, in the old country, of the activities of the Polish National Alliance.

    "The Polish National Alliance must base its claims to prestige on two facts: first, that some widows and widowers, most of whom had left the Church, have received a few hundred dollars toward their support; and second, that, when 13disorders have occurred in various parishes, the members of the Polish National Alliance and their journals have distinguished themselves by their hatred of the Roman Catholic Church."

    In the last issue of Zgoda, [Organ of the Polish National Alliance in America], we read a reprint of an article which had appeared originally in Kuryer Lwowski (Lemberg Courier), ...

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