The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- April 04, 1891
    Peter Kiolbasa, Polish Candidate for City Treasurer (A Biographical Sketch)

    Great honor has been bestowed upon Poles of Chicago by the largest and strongest political party. Credit for this honor is due to the happy circumstance that the Poles in Chicago have in their midst a countryman who has been able to gain during the thirty-five years' stay in America great importance among the Poles and the deep respect of almost all nationalities in this great metropolis. He gained this importance and respect by meritorious deeds, his excellent character, righteousness, frankness, unusual abilities, and true love for both his native and adopted countries.

    Mr. Peter Kiolbasa was born on Oct. 13, 1838, in Swiba, Silesia, a part of Poland occupied by Germany. When he was seventeen years of age, he and his parents emigrated to America and established their residence in Santa Maria, Texas.


    As a boy endowed with great abilities, he adapted himself very quickly to the new life in the country. In spite of the hard work on the farm that he and his parents had to perform, he succeeded in learning, without a teacher, how to speak, read, and write English correctly. Besides this, he gained a fair knowledge of Spanish. He also continued to improve the German which he had learned in Germany. For some time he was employed as a clerk at Piedras Negras, Mexico, where he had the opportunity to study Spanish and commerce. Later on he passed a State teacher's examination and became the first Polish teacher of the first Polish school in America, at Santa Maria, Texas, where in a short time he gained great popularity and became a favorite of all in that vicinity.

    When the Civil War broke out Mr. Peter Kiolbasa enlisted in the U. S. Army and became a member of the 16th Reg. of Ill. Cavalry. His services were so satisfactory that he was made a corporal, a sergeant, and in a short time he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, and later on to 3that of captain in the 6th Regiment.

    After the Civil War, Mr. Kiolbasa held many positions; he was a desk sergeant in the Chicago Police Department, later on secretary of the Chief of police, and in 1873 he was appointed Collector of Internal Revenue. He held this position eleven years and performed his duties very scrupulously.

    When the United States changed its administration by electing a Democratic President, he and his associates resigned and from that time until now he refused to accept any kind of public office.

    We wish to call the attention of the Poles in America to this, that Mr. Peter Kiolbasa did not forget that he is a Pole, even though he held important positions and was very popular; on the contrary, he associated with Poles and served them whenever and wherever he could; he lived in Polish settlements belonged to as many Polish organizations as he could, 4took active part in conferences and all kinds of activities, promoted the welfare of the Polish element, was devoted to the Polish cause, and above all he did not seek praises, honors, or distinctions, but followed the dictate of his heart and the urge of warm patriotism.

    He served the Poles not only collectively but also individually. His great experience, his extensive connections with different people, his accumulated knowledge, his familiarity with American laws proved to be of great assistance and benefit to his countrymen. The Poles, therefore, went to Mr. Kiolbasa for information, advice, and help. Frequently he had to give advice on family matters, which was some times very amusing, but a practical advice was given by him and on some occasions it was very severe.

    Mr. Peter Kiolbasa does not like to handle anyone with silk gloves; he is not afraid to tell the truth and tells it so plainly and realistically that a person not acquainted with him would have the impression that he is angry.


    He has the frankness of a soldier and tells the truth whenever he thinks it is necessary.

    After his resignation from the Internal Revenue Department, Mr. Peter Kiolbasa enlarged his notary public office, and from that time on he devoted himself to the service of his countrymen. Many people found good advice and consolation in his office; free if they could not afford to pay for it. Many persons saved attorney's fees by applying to Mr. Peter Kiolbasa for legal advice, who rendered them valuable service for a very small compensation. We are certain that among the hundred thousand Poles living in Chicago, there are not a hundred who would not love him or at least respect him.

    His name is known to every Pole in the United States, and no other Pole is so popular, though many of them are richer and hold better positions.


    Besides the Poles in Chicago, Mr. Peter Kiolbasa also has many friends among other nationalities, which he made during his tenure of public office by associating with them, by being their mediator and on account of his noble character. This is the reason why every one is seeking his friendship. His frank and zealous defense of Catholicism has also gained him many friends among Catholics and respect among the enemies of Catholicism. Furthermore, he never denied his principles for any personal reason. Even Germans, especially Catholics, ask for stickers with his name on because they wish to replace Nettlehorst on Harrison's ticket.

    The following incident, which occurred last November, will prove how great is Mr. Kiolbasa's popularity. On account of the coming Archbishop's jubilee, Catholics of many nationalities held a mass meeting, at which they arranged for a big parade and chose a marshall. At that meeting the Catholics bestowed this great honor upon Mr. Kiolbasa, notwithstanding the fact that other nationalities are more numerous.


    It was worth while to see Mr. Kiolbasa supervising the parade through the streets. The reporters were amazed when they heard his command of English, German, Italian, Spanish, French, Polish, Bohemian, and other languages. Greatly astonished they asked: "How many languages does he speak?"

    His manly, handsome, and still young form, mounted on a horse, made a very imposing impression, though he is 52 years old. Americans had seen a form like his eight years before, when the painting "The Turks at Vienna" was exhibited on the two hundredth anniversary of that historical event, and on account of that they called Mr. Kiolbasa the king of Poland.

    He presented a magnificent and imposing appearance; yet he attracted everyone by his simplicity and friendly attitude. This friendly attitude is reciprocated by his sympathizers, who know him well and have a deep affection for him.

    Unfortunately, Mr. Peter Kiolbasa has not been very lucky in the true sense of the word, for he, too, has gone through many hardships. In spite 8of his hard work, he did not accumulate wealth. He experienced very unfortunate mishaps, especially in his own family. His beloved son died at the age of great hope, after receiving a good education, when he showed great abilities and expected a promising future. After his son's death and not so long ago, for it occurred in the last part of last year, he lost his married daughter, and now Mr. and Mrs. Kiolbasa have only one daughter left.

    All Poles sympathize with Mr. Kiolbasa and will give him their support. All Poles, regardless of their political affiliations, or candidates for whom they will give their votes for other offices, will vote for Mr. Kiolbasa by placing his name in the proper place, and thereby make him city treasurer. All Poles will endeavor, by all means, to help Mr. Kiolbasa gain victory in the coming election, which will in turn gain a great honor and innumerable benefits for all Poles living here.

    Great honor has been bestowed upon Poles of Chicago by the largest and strongest political party. Credit for this honor is due to the happy circumstance that the Poles in ...

    IV, I F 1, I F 5, III D
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- November 02, 1891
    Polish Activities Polish Democrats Hold Meeting

    Last night, Polish Democrats held a political meeting at the Polish hall on Bradley Street. Last Monday there was also a political meeting held by Polish Democrats at Walsh's Hall, located at Milwaukee Avenue and Noble Street. As we have already reported, the hall was only half filled. We thought that this happened because many persons were not aware of the meeting. For this reason, in the Saturday issue of our journal, we called the special attention of our readers to last night's meeting. In spite of this, the Polish hall at Bradley Street was only half filled. It is very sad that the Poles are so little interested in politics, in which they should take an active part, because it is for their own good and the good of the working class.

    Mr. August J. Kowalski opened the meeting by inviting Mr. Peter Kiolbassa to 2speak; he was greeted by a storm of applause. The latter made a suggestion, which was accepted, that Francis Wleklinski be made secretary.

    Mr. Peter Kiolbassa began his speech as follows: "Let us vote a straight Democratic ticket and show our strength. Let us remember that there are many intrigants in the Republican party; not only intrigants but also enemies of our faith. With these we must struggle, and we wish to conquer them. Every citizen of Chicago has his privileges, but he also has his obligations. It is the duty of every Pole to vote for a candidate friendly towards us and from whom the working class can expect some help later on. There are candidates on the Democratic ticket who are friendly towards us despite the fact that they belong to a different nationality. These candidates should get every Polish vote." Mr. Kiolbassa's speech was received with a great applause.

    The next speaker was Alderman [Stanley] Kunz of the Sixteenth Ward. He made special reference to the election of aldermen and commissioners by stating 3that five delegates are elected from every precinct and these later on nominate the candidates. Therefore, every Pole should know for whom he is going to vote. The next speaker was Mr. Cooley, who was followed by Mr. Bogle. As both were candidates for trustees of the Sanitary District, their speeches were alike. "All contagious diseases, such as typhoid fever, diphtheria, scarlet fever, etc., are caused by contaminated water. We throw into the river all kinds of rubbish, which flows into the lake from which we drink water. If we construct a sanitary canal to the Mississippi River, the polluted water will be diverted into the river, and this will purify the drinking water and avert many diseases. Secondly, if we construct such a canal, commerce will increase, for the canal will be navigable, and, since transportation by water is cheaper than by railroad, trade would increase." Both candidates assured us that if we elect them drainage trustees, they will force through the provision which provides for the building of this canal.

    Mr. Kiolbassa spoke once more. He said, "It is reported that someone by the 4name of John P. Farwell is supposed to have said that no foreigner should hold a public office or be allowed to vote. And who made John P. Farwell rich? Foreigners, of course. Who are the biggest swindlers, foreigners or those who were born here? The latter, of course. Who fought for the independence of the United States if not the foreigners? Show us citizens more loyal than the Poles, of whom the majority were born in the old country. They pay their taxes without murmuring, elect their public officials honestly, and when it is necessary to defend the adopted country, a Pole is first to give a helping hand." These words penetrated very deeply into the hearts of the listeners, who expressed their approval at the end of the talk by hearty applause.

    The next speakers were John S. Cooper, candidate for president of the County Board; Mr. Wall, candidate for County Commissioner; Mr. Rolan, Mr. McDonald, and Mr. Kowalski.

    As one of the speakers attacked the Irish and carried it too far, Mr. Kiolbassa 5took the liberty of defending them, for they were recently very friendly towards the Poles and proved it by furnishing a bond for Mr. Kiolbassa in the sum of seven million dollars [see note]. Therefore, we should respect and support the Irish as our friends.

    As it was quite late and neither Mr. De Witt C. Cregier nor Mr. Harrison had arrived, Mr. Kiolbassa adjourned the meeting.

    (Translator's note: According to Mr. Jozwiakowski, one of the editors [of Dziennik Chicagoski], who knew Mr. Peter Kiolbassa, the Irish Catholics--Democrats--wished to show the Republicans that they wanted Kiolbassa, a Catholic, and to prove it they signed a seven-million-dollar bond. It is understood that it was a real-estate bond.)

    Last night, Polish Democrats held a political meeting at the Polish hall on Bradley Street. Last Monday there was also a political meeting held by Polish Democrats at Walsh's Hall, ...

    I F 5, III C, III D, I F 1, I F 6, I C, I M, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 22, 1892
    Contributions Toward the Kosciusko Monument

    At the time when the collection of contributions for the monument of Thaddeus Kosciusko was started, it seemed as though the monument would be completed before the opening of the Fair. Liberal donations flowed in from all parts of the city, and no one surmised that a few months later a chill would visit the initiators, dampening their enthusiasm to such an extent as to render them powerless to warm the spirits of their neighbors. It seemed then that collecting a sum of twenty-five thousand dollars in our Polonia was a question of a month's time, but experience has taught us differently.

    Nearly half a year has passed since the collection was started among the Poles in the United States, yet the total collected amounts to less than three thousand dollars.


    Are we really so poor or is it that we cannot bury the hatchet even for the sake of co-operation? Or, could it be possible that our patriotism is in reality nothing but an empty and meaningless recitation? Anyone can show his patriotism with words. I have never met a Pole in Chicago indifferent to matters of general interest to our people.

    Should not a monument to Kosciusko, a hero of the nation, this apostle of Christianity and martyr to liberty, be a matter concerning us all? Could we find many as great as he in the histories of nations? No. Many are the magnificent monuments we could point out that were erected to perpetuate the memory of men who only brought sorrow to their people. Among them, to mention only a few, we have Napoleon I; Frederick the Great; Catherine, the famous courtesan; and the renegades Rodecki and Paszkiewicz.

    They have magnificent monuments, erected by their victims, the people they once harmed, who were forced to shed their blood and be covered with mourning, all for their leaders' own fame and gratification of desires.


    They have monuments that testify to their greatness and surround them with a halo of fame.

    These monuments were erected by the same people who had been wronged through their deeds--the deeds of the despotic governments of Europe.

    We have in America many monuments of heroes and men of distinction--monuments dedicated to them out of gratitude and respect, not because the people were forced to do it.

    These monuments in Chicago should serve as an example to us, as a stimulus for solidarity. They are a goal toward which we must strive in order to keep pace with other nations.

    Unfortunately, as is the case in most matters of vital concern to us, we are again divided into two groups--one in favor of the monument and the other 4against it. Those in favor announce that this monument--erected through the efforts of the Poles--will elevate them morally in the eyes of their compatriots. Those against. it claim that we have many other matters more important than the monument to attend to--for instance, the hospital, the immigration house, and the hall--and that until they are taken care of it would be unwise to think of a monument. We cannot gainsay this. Yet, if we take into consideration that the monument idea started first, that many citizens have already made donations of $100, $50, $25, etc., and that no one can deny the moral benefits to be derived from it, we cannot but reach the conclusion that the starting of new projects and new collection lists is unreasonable at this time, since it crumbles our forces.

    We are sufficiently well off and, with good will and unity, we could in a few years build the monument, the hospital, the immigration house, and the hall. There would be enough money, if only there were harmony. There would be no need of appealing to the Poles outside of Chicago, if only the ones here were willing to start the work in earnest, laying the foundation of a 5monument that will contribute to the welfare and fame of all the Poles. Is this so difficult? No. With the number of Poles we have in Chicago, each doing his part, no one need be afraid of not being a Croesus. What we really need is unity and order. By this we mean that, since many Poles are in favor of the monument, those who think that the monument is not a bad idea but as yet untimely should admit their mistake in not hitherto proposing something of greater importance, and co-operate with the initiators. After the monument is erected, there will still be enough money to afford a hospital, or an immigration house. So far as the hall is concerned, well, we need not burden Polish generosity, since this hall is a self-paying proposition.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Aug. 23, 1892.

    It is not exaggeration if we say that there are one hundred thousand Poles in Chicago. If all family heads and single individuals would feel themselves morally obligated to co-operate, each contributing twenty-five cents, 6we would have within a week twenty-five thousand dollars--just the sum we need to erect the monument. We do not think that this small amount would throw the budgets of our compatriots out of balance. Week in and week out we spend more than a quarter a week for things that are of little benefit to us. If only for one week we would do without some things that are hardly necessary, we would raise sufficient funds for the monument. After raising this fund, we could raise others for the hospital or for other purposes. We know that there are many Poles among us who merely earn nine dollars a week, and who are burdened with large families. For them it would be rather difficult to donate twenty-five cents for each member of the family without some deprivation. Of course, at a quarter each their donations would amount to more than two dollars, which is rather more than they can afford. However, they could contribute a dime apiece. Others who own property, receive bigger salaries, and have small families ought to give at least a dollar or two apiece, according to their ability and will. As long as each of us is willing to do his share, success will crown our efforts. This will be our best testimony of national 7co-operation and political maturity. It will gain for us the sympathy and respect of the Americans, as well as the satisfaction of having fulfilled our duty.

    Yes, duty. There across the ocean, in our motherland, the people are compelled to contribute for monuments to perpetuate the memory of our tyrants. Our noblemen there have erected monuments of our kings and our learned men. We the public, the peasants--as some people call us with contempt--should dedicate a magnificent monument to the memory of the man who was first to take up arms in our defense.

    Kosciusko fought not only for the independence of Poland, but also for the independence of all nations. He made no distinction between landlord and tenant, between nobility and the man in the city, because he considered all equal and saw in them his fellow men--all heated by one sun at the same time.


    When, in spite of Poland's fall, the nobility and the landowners considered themselves creatures molded of better clay, Kosciusko was the first one to throw off the noble kontusz (an upper garment, formerly worn by the Poles) and to don a peasant szermiega (peasant coat made of coarse cloth), thereby expressing equality. When the constitution of May 3 limited its privileges to the landowners, Kosciusko, on the strength of the power vested upon him by the people, proclaimed in his manifesto liberty, equality, and freedom.

    When the German troops hired themselves to England to slaughter the freedom-seeking Americans, Kosciusko took sides with the oppressed and fought to the last.

    If anybody, it is we who should consider it our duty to dedicate this monument, which will testify to our ancestors that we know how to be grateful to the one who sacrificed himself in our cause.


    Those who have no love in their hearts for their poor motherland and thereby are cold toward her heroes, should be instrumental in Kosciusko's glory from an American point of view. There are two reasons why we should erect the monument: first, Kosciusko fought for the liberty we all enjoy today; second, a monument will beautify the city, a task toward which every decent citizen is expected to do his part, regardless of personal beliefs.

    Let us, then, sacrifice our factionalism on the altar of general welfare; let us not be alarmed because others think of monuments instead of other things we need. Rather, let us consider how much we can donate now--be it much or little--and the Lord will help us get the other things we need.

    The present list of contributions indicates that some Poles have already donated more than once while others remain indifferent. Not all read the newspapers and not all are interested in public life. Some have no knowledge of this project, and some dislike to be inconvenienced by the delivery or mailing of their contributions. These people should be enlightened and encouraged by their friends and acquaintances.

    At the time when the collection of contributions for the monument of Thaddeus Kosciusko was started, it seemed as though the monument would be completed before the opening of the ...

    II C, III D, III H, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- October 24, 1892
    Polish National Alliance Opens Museum and Library

    The Polish National Alliance Library and Museum was officially opened to the public Saturday afternoon at three o'clock. The institution was made possible through the gifts of Dr. H. Kalussowski of Washington, D. C., which are to be under the guardianship of the Alliance.

    The ceremonies took place at the Central Committee's headquarters on Noble Street. Besides the directors of the Library, presidents of many societies belonging to the Polish National Alliance were in attendance. There were also several members of the Kosciuszko Guard from Milwaukee, including Captain E. Slupecki. This group came to Chicago as a part of the Wisconsin State Militia to take part in the Columbus Day parade. They voluntarily attended the dedication ceremonies Saturday. Many other guests were also present.

    The group from Milwaukee opened the dedication ceremonies with a military 2salute.

    Adalia Satalecki was the first speaker. He associated the opening of the Library with the four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America by Columbus. The speaker also gave recognition to Dr. Kalussowski for his work, and mentioned the events leading to the opening of the institution. He concluded his speech by urging everyone to support this Library in the name of culture.

    The next speaker was the Secretary of the Polish National Alliance, A. Mallek, who read the speech of Dr. Kalussowski, the donor of the Library, and the proclamation of the establishment of the Library by the Central Committee. According to the statute the newly-opened institution is to be called "The Polish Library and Museum of Chicago, under the guardianship of the Polish National Alliance." Its official staff will be composed of nine directors, two of whom will be Dr. Kalussowski and his 3son, and the remaining seven of whom will be elected; the latter are to hold office for one year. The present directors are S. Kociemski, Dr. Casimir Midowicz, Max Drzemala, A. Blaszyczynski and Mr. J. Pulkowski. The directors choose officers from their own group.

    Later, during the dedication activities, the installation of Mr. Kociemski as president of the Library and guardian of its laws and documents took place.

    A. Koinski, secretary of the Library, then took the speaker's stand. He brought out the importance of culture for our national cause and urged everyone to benefit from the literary treasures of the newly-opened library.

    A letter from Dr. Kalussowski of Washington was read to the assembly; it thanked the directors for their work.


    Dr. Midowicz thanked the visitors from Milwaukee for attending this affair....He averred that the library is the hearth from which radiate the rays of culture and education.....He urged everyone to work for this culture--and predicted the resurrection of Poland through the medium of work and culture!....

    The next speaker was Constantine Mallek of Wisconsin, secretary of Skarbo Naro Dowego (Polish National Fund). Using the Fund as an example, Mr. Mallek pointed out how quickly the drive was amassing money from small contributions. He earnestly pressed everyone to further the development of the new Library through continual and painstaking work.

    Mr. F. Gryglaszewski, present Censor of the Polish National Alliance, was present. He suggested that a register be kept of all persons visiting the Library. Captain Slupecki spoke in the name of his group.

    After the dedication ceremonies everyone visited the collections in the 5Museum and Library.

    The Polish National Alliance Library and Museum was officially opened to the public Saturday afternoon at three o'clock. The institution was made possible through the gifts of Dr. H. Kalussowski ...

    II B 2 a, III B 3 a, II B 2 b, III B 2, III D, III H, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- November 12, 1892
    Wisniewski Appointed Post Office Clerk in South Chicago

    Carol Wisniewski, well known in the South Chicago district, has been appointed clerk of the post office in South Chicago.

    Carol Wisniewski, well known in the South Chicago district, has been appointed clerk of the post office in South Chicago.

    III D, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- October 10, 1893
    Polish Day Celebrated in Chicago Fifty Thousand Poles Participate in Greatest Day in History of American Poles

    Polish Day at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago will be inscribed in the history of the Poles of America in gilded letters. It was truly a magnificent spectacle, the like of which the Poles in America had never seen before. Even the Poles in Europe have not seen anything like it for many, many years. Exiled as we have been to another hemisphere by fate, we have shown that we have lost none of our nationalism or patriotism. We have proved that we exist on this side of the world, and that we are always ready to sacrifice ourselves for Poland. We have shown that here, in this most virile country in the world, we have been able to make a place for ourselves; we have established ourselves on a firm foundation, without having lost any of our national characteristics. Our parade through the streets of Chicago amazed the hundreds of thousands of 2people who witnessed it.

    The celebration at Festival Hall was magnificent; it was imbued with the traditions that united Kosciusko and Pulaski under the same banner with George Washington. On the one hand, our Day reminded America and the world of Poland and its bondage; on the other, it placed us in the proper light before the Americans, showing our strength and the high level of civilization we have attained. There is no Pole whose pulse did not quicken at the sight of so many thousands of people united by a common purpose, so many banners, amidst which the starry blue of the American flag served as a background for Polish white eagles, or at the words reminding us of our misfortunes, our heroisms, predicting a much happier future. The seventh of October was truly a day of triumph and joy for us!

    But we hasten to describe the events of the day, which will long be remembered by American Polonia.


    Huge Colorful Parade

    The first part of the Polish Day program consisted of a huge parade through the city streets. Participants were fearful of the weather during the latter portion of the week. On the Saturday before, the Irish had celebrated their day, which had been utterly ruined by a downpour of rain. On the succeeding day and until Friday, the weather had been unsettled; then on Friday, it rained heavily all day. How many Polish hearts trembled with fear and uncertainty! Undoubtedly, Polish Day would have been held even under pouring rain, but how? The floats, which were the most magnificent spectacle of the parade, would not have been able to appear; instead of thousands of people barely a few hundred would have participated. The whole manifestation, which had been so carefully prepared, would have been well-nigh ruined. But as night fell on Friday, the skies began to clear, and the Poles were a bit heartened. Saturday morning dawned bright and clear, without a cloud in the sky. It was a beautiful day--Polish Day had to be a success.


    The Poles of the Northwest Side gathered on Noble Street, in front of St. Stanislaus Kostka and Holy Trinity churches. In addition to the societies of these two parishes, the societies from St. Hedwig's and St. Josephat's also met here. It was a pleasure to see national and church societies marching side by side, hatreds and rivalries forgotten, a tear of emotion in each eye, joy and brotherhood in each heart.

    The communities from the south of Chicago gathered in St. Adalbert's parish. Two triumphal arches had been erected there, one in front of St. Adalbert's church and the other in front of Pulaski Hall. The colorfully uniformed members of societies from Bridgeport, Town of Lake, South Chicago, and St. Casimir's parish met there.

    It is unnecessary to add that all Polish neighborhoods were decorated with flags and flowers for Polish Day. Town of Lake also had its triumphal arches.


    Finally, at about eight o'clock in the morning, two huge columns moved out toward Wood Street and Jackson Boulevard, (near Union Park), where they joined together under the leadership of Peter Kiolbassa, grand marshal of the parade. The parade then moved east down Jackson Boulevard, watched by throngs of spectators.

    The parade was headed by the Polish policemen of Chicago, who presented an inspiring sight. Then followed Peter Kiolbassa and the marshal of the first division, J. Napieralski. Mayor Carter Harrison rode alone in a carriage, followed by the carriages of the alderman and the Polish Day Central Committee. Then came the military and civil societies of St. Adalbert's parish. The sun, glistening on bright helmets and sabers, heightened the color of the red Krakus uniforms. Three enormous and costly floats from St. Adalbert's parish aroused wonder and admiration. One of the societies from the same parish carried large American flags, the corners of which were held by members. The girls dressed in Cracovian costumes, followed by the float "Poland in Flower," were generously 6applauded by the spectators.

    The societies of St. Stanislaus Kostka parish followed under the leadership of Joseph Paszkiewicz. The first of these was a troop of horsemen, numbering more than a hundred, who aroused the intense admiration of the watching throngs. The spirited horses, the uniforms of the men with their sashes of Polish national colors, presented a truly splendid sight. The float, "Slaughter of the Unites," followed the horsemen; then came the Cadets, the Falcons, and carriages with priests and prominent individuals. The figure of "America" was embodied in a float representing Poles on American soil. The float was followed by military societies, who in turn were followed by countless members of civil societies, both with and without Konfederatki [four-cornered caps], then more floats, more military societies, and finally, carriages. Everything was beautifully decorated with Polish and American flags and floral pieces.

    The second great division was led by A. Lisztewnik, who was surrounded by his numerous staff. Next in order was the well-trained Kosciusko Guard, of 7Milwaukee, followed by the Polish National Alliance Central Administration's beautiful float," Third of May". Then came the Central Administration itself, military societies, civil societies whose members wore Konfederatki, and then the floats and societies from Holy Trinity and the South Chicago parishes. Great applause greeted the float furnished by Mr. Meclewski, "Poland in Chains," and the St. Michael Archangel parish float, "Defense of Czestochowa". The members of military societies of both South Chicago parishes distinguished themselves by the splendor of their uniforms. The children's Cadet and "Kosynier" [originally soldiers of Kosciusko's army, armed with scythes] societies, led by L. Machnikowski, evoked great applause from the spectators. The ladies of the Star of Victory Society followed in carriages.

    Town of Lake was prominent in the third great division, which was led by Z. Schmidt. "Wanda" [Polish legendary figure] on horseback and a resplendent troop of mounted Uhlans followed behind the marshal and his staff. The young ladies of Town of Lake, dressed in colorful national costumes, presented a very pretty picture. Farther back, were the St. Hedwig parish float, "Christening of Lithuania," and the societies from Bridgeport and St. Josephat parish, 8with two large floats. The "Cracovian Wedding," and especially the float preceding it, representing a comical Jewish band, caused much merriment. A troop of mounted Uhlans from Bridgeport followed. Societies from St. Casimir's parish and their float, "Resurrection of Poland," brought up the rear of the procession.

    Hundreds of decorated carriages were interspersed throughout the parade. Words cannot describe the color and splendor of the picture. Out-of-town military societies from Michigan City, Indiana, and La Salle, Illinois, participated, while delegates from Buffalo, Cleveland, Red Jacket, etc., were also present. Innumerable flags waved, the jingle of the harnesses of the horses filled the air. Many women were dressed in national costumes or in white.

    The parade, which lasted until about one o'clock, presented the most magnificent spectacle at Michigan Avenue and Twelfth Street, where, in countermarching to turn north, the floats drew up side by side. Mayor Harrison viewed the parade from his carriage on Michigan Avenue. He said that he had never expected the 9Poles to produce so magnificent a demonstration. In his opinion, Polish Day was infinitely more impressive than German or Bohemian Day, to say nothing of the Irish.

    All told, there were sixteen floats in the parade. We list them as follows:

    1. "Washington, Kosciusko, and Pulaski" (furnished by St. Adalbert's parish). Figures of the three men stood in the center of the float upon a platform; behind them was the Goddess of Freedom. In front stood a cannon, beside which were four soldiers. At the very front of the float, were two feminine figures, representing "Peace" and "Triumph".

    2. "John Sobieski after the Victory at Vienna" (St. Adalbert's parish). King John, surrounded by a group of knights, stood upon a platform, several Turks kneeling before him. In the center of the float was a cross, before which stood a figure in white, symbolic of Christianity, which our hero defended.


    3. "Poland in Flower" (young women of St. Adalbert's parish). This was the largest float of all. At the very top, toward the end, sat a regal figure representing Poland. Beside her and on descending levels, were a score or more figures, representing the various provinces and districts in Poland, each bearing the appropriate arms. The float was very effective.

    4. "Slaughter of the Unites" (St. Stanislaus Kostka parish). This float showed a little chapel toward which retreated an old man, a woman with a baby, and a number of children and older people. A wounded man lay on the steps of the chapel, a nun bending over him. In the center of the float stood a cross, at the foot of which knelt an allegorical figure representing "Martyrdom". On the opposite side stood Russian soldiers, their rifles aimed at the unfortunate martyrs to their faith.

    5. "Poles on American Soil" (St. Stanislaus Kostka parish). On a high platform in the center of the float, stood a figure with an eagle, representing "America". On one side of it were figures representing Poles arriving in 11America, on the other, a miner and a blacksmith. In the rear stood a group representing Polish-American citizens, among which were two figures in army uniform. This float was generally admitted to have had the greatest effect.

    6. "Copernicus, or The Polish Parnassus" (St. Stanislaus Kostka parish). A figure representing Copernicus seated under a canopy. Beside him was Kochanowski [father of Polish literature]; above him was Cardinal Hozyusz, a figure placing a wreath upon his head. In the center stood a globe covered with stars. In front were figures representing Mickiewicz [poetry], Chopin, with a gilded harp [music], Grottger [painting], and Kraszewski [Literature.

    Kraszewski was the foremost Polish historical novelist].

    7. "Siberian Mines" (St. Stanislaus Kostka parish). A very gloomy float.

    In the center was some kind of a hut cut into a cliff. On both sides, prisoners with their heads half shaved, wearing drab prison costumes, worked continually with pickaxes, their chains clanging. Beside them, Russian soldiers stood on guard. At the front was a prisoner who had collapsed from fatigue; a 12Cossack stood in position to strike him with the butt of his rifle, while a woman, also a prisoner, knelt, begging for mercy. The float was trimmed with pickaxes, knouts, thorns, and chains.

    8. "Constitution of the Third of May" (Polish National Alliance). This float represented Stanislaus Augustus [last king of Poland] under a splendid canopy, presenting the "Third of May Constitution" to Poland. Around him were grouped the representatives of all classes; an archbishop, noblemen, townsfolk, and peasantry. This float was very colorful and expensive. The figures were grouped by the well-known sculptor F. Baracz [winner of the Kosciusko Monument competition].

    9. "Stephen Batory Receiving the Envoys of Ivan the Terrible" (Holy Trinity parish). King Stephen, in armor, stood upon a platform, receiving the Muscovite envoys, who knelt before him humbly; around them stood Polish knights. The platform rested upon two cannons. This float was extraordinarily effective.


    10. "Poland in Chains" (Meclewski and Piatkiewicz). A woman's figure dressed in white and representing Poland, wearing a crown of thorns, was chained to a cross. At her feet stood three young girls, representing Poland proper, Lithuania, and Ruthenia. Off to one side stood a Prussian and an Austrian soldier carrying arms, and a Russian soldier with a knout. A very tragic picture.

    11. "Defense of Czestochowa" (St. Michael Archangel parish). This float presented a large, accurate model of the Czestochowa Monastery, surrounded by figures of the Polish soldiers who defended it.

    12. "Polish Mother Teaching Her Children to Read, with a Sword at Her Side" (Town of Lake). The interior of a Polish home; the children grouped around their mother, who is teaching one of them to read.

    13. "Jadwiga and Jagello, or the Christening of Lithuania" (St. Hedwig's parish). Jadwiga and Jagello represented in beautiful costumes, upon a throne.


    In the center stood a cross, and before it, the newly christened Lithuanians dressed in white. In front, stood an old man, destroying images of pagan gods.

    14. "Cracovian Wedding" (Two floats, Bridgeport). The smaller of the two presented a Jewish orchestra; the other, an elaborate wedding scene, which included more than a score of people in extremely colorful costumes. Grouping by Baracz.

    15. "Labor" (Bridgeport). The decoration of this float was very costly. In the center stood the Goddess of Prosperity, with the horn of plenty in her hand; around her, peasants at work. In front sat girls making laurel wreaths. It was a very effective picture. Grouping also by Baracz.

    16. "Resurrection of Poland" (St. Casimir's parish). This float was modeled after the painting by Elias. The scene presented a broken prison gate, from which emerged a beautiful figure representing Poland. In the foreground lay the figures of a number of soldiers [Russian, Austrian, Prussian].


    The above description can give but a vague idea of the beauty and effectiveness of the floats described. It should be added that most of the floats were photographed during the parade.

    Parade in Jackson Park and Celebration at Festival Hall

    It was 1:30 in the afternoon before the military societies began arriving at Jackson Park. The ranks were re-formed at the Fifty-ninth Street gate by Peter Kiolbassa, who led the parade through the Fair Grounds.

    The parade moved eastward as far as the lake, then it circled the lagoon and the Hall of Commerce and proceeded to the Administration Building, and from there to Festival Hall. At Liberty Bell, the military societies formed a rectangle; at the Terminal Station, they saluted the Polish flag and arms. Previous to the arrival of the parade, Liberty Bell had been struck three times in honor of Kosciusko. The bell rope was pulled by 104-year-old Michael Adamski, 16of South Chicago, Judge [M. A.] La Buy, and others. The bell was decorated in Polish colors, with an appropriate inscription. Mr. McDowell, president of the Columbian Liberty Bell Committee, delivered a beautiful, though short, address expressing great sympathy for the countrymen of Kosciusko.

    The celebration at Festival Hall was one of the most impressive features of Polish Day. It started somewhat later than had been planned, due to the parade in Jackson Park, and ended after five o'clock.

    After the rendition of the "Third of May" polonaise by the orchestra, S. Slominski, president of the Polish Day Central Committee, formally opened the exercises with a short address. He called upon Judge La Buy to preside, and named F. Jablonski secretary.

    The program, which appeared in a previous issue of Dziennik [Chicagoski], was executed with practically no changes. Only Bishop Spaulding, who was to have delivered an address in English, was unable to attend because of illness.


    In addition to a very beautiful musical program, three addresses were delivered, one in Polish by Doctor [C.] Midowicz, and two in English, by Judge La Buy and Mayor Harrison.

    We regret that lack of space prevents us from giving Judge La Buy's speech in its entirety; we submit the most important parts of it below.

    Judge La Buy's Address

    "Nearly every nation in the world is participating in this great industrial, commercial, educational, and artistic exposition. One nation is missing, however, and that nation is Poland. Yet, Poland was once one of Europe's foremost nations, a bulwark, a defender of Christianity. During the time when Jews were being driven from nearly every other country, Poland hospitably admitted them within her boundaries. In her many victories against neighboring kingdoms and empires, she was never greedy for either land or gold.


    Poland defended Austria and Germany against the Turks at Vienna, and how have they repaid her?....Sobieski never demanded reward for his services at Vienna. These same nations are responsible today for Poland's absence from this exposition. Poland's rightful place at this exposition has been usurped by three great despotic powers of Europe.

    "After a period of absolute monarchy, which was followed by rule by the aristocracy, a convention or "Sejm" was called in Warsaw in 1778, which proved to be one of the wisest, most discreet, and most sensible bodies that ever deliberated over the rights of man. It was the delegates' intention to prepare a free constitution for Poland. This was just the time when a general movement toward freedom prevailed in all nations. France had shaken off its chains of feudal bondage and unfortunately changed its newly found liberty to a bloody tragedy. Here on the other side of the ocean, George Washington stood at the head of a new and free constitutional government created by his own wisdom and energy. He was aided in this work by our own unequaled patriot, 19Thaddeus Kosciusko. Amid so many historic events which fired the enthusiasm of patriots, the wisdom, sensibleness, and sober judgment of the Warsaw "Sejm" was well-nigh miraculous. The Polish constitution extended civil rights, established religious freedom, and wisely and justly limited the executive powers of the rulers.

    "In the closing years of the eighteenth century, the Polish banner was unfurled in defense of that country's liberty. It fell and rose again; then it fell once more--but never did it fall with disgrace to the nation. The Polish nation was subdued by despotism, tyrannical laws, and untold oppression. Polish exiles settled in other countries under more liberal governments, as in Switzerland, France, England, and finally, in the United States, where two million Poles sought refuge beneath the proud American flag.

    "We are gathered here to thank God for sending that great man, Christopher Columbus, to discover this continent. We American Poles are gathered here to 20declare our allegiance to the laws and government of the American nation. It is well that our ancestors, Pulaski and Kosciusko, helped Washington in his fight for freedom, for we now reap the benefits of that great victory. We are proud of the fact that Polish patriots fought in the battles of Bull Run, Wilderness, Shiloh, Lookout Mountain, and Richmond, in defense of the Stars and Stripes. We are here to congratulate ourselves that we live under the American flag. The American constitution is more liberal than the one accepted in Poland in 1791 [Constitution of the Third of May]; we have civil and religious freedom, which was crushed by tyranny and greed in Poland. We have defended the Constitution of the United States in the past, and we will defend it in the future. Liberty is the common heritage of both Americans and Poles."

    Address by Mayor Harrison

    Mayor Harrison delivered a brilliant address, which we submit in its entirety, reserving comment:


    "Ladies and gentlemen: I was introduced to you as an American, but today I am a Pole. Since the days of my youth, I have admired Poland, and have learned of her tragic history. As a boy, I learned to love Poland. I learned to love Poland for the heroism of Sobieski, who stood as a wall against the Turkish deluge, thus saving Europe from the Crescent, making firmer the foundation of the Cross. I love Poland because it was the motherland of Kosciusko, who fought for the freedom of his own country and was defeated, but who previously had come to these shores to aid in our victorious fight for freedom. (Applause.) I love Poland because of Pulaski, who died in action at Savannah. I love Poland for the victories she has helped us achieve in war--and today I am proud to feel myself a Pole, for I have seen the triumphs that the Poles can achieve in times of peace. (Applause.)

    "Until recently, we had but few Polish citizens, and these were poor people. But they arrived here full of energy, from a land where they had been oppressed. Today, we witnessed....a splendid spectacle.....Nothing of the kind would have been possible in your motherland, in your beloved Warsaw, where the Polish 22language is barred even from the schools. For a century, Poland has been struggling for liberty; for a century now, no Polish child has dared to sing a hymn of freedom. How long would the Czar remain on his throne, how long would he dare trample upon millions of people if it were otherwise, if the children of that country were permitted to learn and sing Polish national anthems?

    "On seeing the street signs once in Warsaw, lettered in two languages--in Polish and, by order of the authorities, in Russian also--I remember thinking immediately of Chicago, which is second to Warsaw in Polish population. Here you can worship God in your own way, you can think and speak in Polish, and no one will deny you the right to do so. I thought to myself of the Poles in Chicago, where no tyrant's guards watch over them. (Applause.)

    "My friends, this exposition was created for the purpose of teaching, of educating; it is the greatest display of human intellect that the world has ever seen You can see here the architect's visions and the dreams of the poet crystallized, 23as if by a magic wand, into a reality that words cannot describe, into something which has never before been seen in any country, in any age. It is a wonderous object lesson, which teaches that only the people rule, while governments should be their servants. The Exposition teaches even more. It shows what can be accomplished by a people living in a free country.

    "That freedom, which is so indispensable here, reflects itself in you. This morning Chicago saw thousands of Poles, joyous, intelligent, respectable; your ladies were beautiful and intelligent; your children were such that I would be proud to be the father of any one of them. (Applause.) I saw many girls and young women on the floats. The sight moved my heart....; the whole parade moved through the streets of our city without mishap. (Applause.)

    "What inference can be drawn from this? The fact that our laws, which permitted the Poles to occupy the city streets to demonstrate their existence to the world, were not made to oppress the people. You have come from a land where 24kings oppress the people in the name of the law, where despots trampled upon you, hanging you, punishing you, all in the name of the law. Here in America, the law is different. Why was your parade permitted to use the streets of Chicago? Because the law here does not molest the people--it protects them. This teaches you that you are the people, you make the laws, you are the rulers. Why should a man resort to violence if the law protects and cares for him? The people make the laws and have the power to change them, for the general welfare.

    "While I stood watching the parade downtown, a man came up to me and asked: 'Why do you, as mayor, permit this sort of thing? Why do you allow the Poles to fill the streets and block traffic, to the inconvenience of other citizens?' I answered: 'How in the name of God and conscience could I refuse the Poles the one most solemn and splendid day they have had in a hundred years?' (Great applause.)


    "It was a great day for me when I saw you marching down the street, delaying the followers of the golden calf in their daily chase; and you did this without police aid, without violence, by the quiet strength of your own dignity. You were Poles and American citizens, and I am sure you are learning to be good citizens. I was convinced of this in April of this year, when you elected me to office. And so I wanted to help you show the world that the American Poles are good citizens who respect the law, who are honest, industrious, and respectable. (Applause.) If this country were in danger, I am certain that an army of at least twenty thousand Poles, led by my friend, Peter Kiolbassa, would be ready to fight for their adopted motherland. (Great applause.)

    "It is a pleasure to talk to you, but everything must have its end, and so does my speech. In conclusion, I thank you for your attention and the good will with which you have received my words."


    Address by Dr. C. Midowicz

    The last address was delivered by Dr. C. Midowicz in Polish as follows:

    "This year the eyes of the whole civilized world are turned upon this 'white city,' this city which houses the great Exposition of the powerful, young United States. Nations enjoying prosperity, having governments of their own, have presented the products of their labor here, staging celebrations and parades in order to attract more attention to their particular exhibits. Thanks to the good will of the city authorities, the flag of our native country, which has no place in Poland, flies here today. We are celebrating, then, a great national holiday--yes, a solemn holiday, for we are gathered here under the eyes of the whole world. We have shown that we exist, in spite of the fact that we have been erased geographically. We will continue to exist as long as a single Polish heart beats and we will settle there where freedom and the rights of man are not denied us.


    "Although from the very beginning we have been an agricultural nation, it can be said that we bore arms from the very cradle of our existence. We fought there where freedom was endangered, either our own or a neighbor's, or when the freedom of mankind was threatened. Thus it is that a people who had learned to love freedom at the very dawn of history, could not but have gathered here to cry: Hail to thee, O Star-Spangled Banner! Hail to thee, O Free Land of Washington! We pay homage to your accomplishments. We have believed in those ideals which form the foundation of your existence, not merely from today but from the very beginning. When you, noble Land, arose to throw off the tyrant's yoke, our motherland produced heroes who came here to help in your struggle.

    "A century has passed, people have come and gone, but the memory remains. That memory touches our hearts, for lo! a hundred years later, the Liberty Bell honor of our great leader, in honor of him who always defended liberty, in honor of that great son of Poland, Kosciusko!


    "We who live in this country, as adopted sons of a voluntarily chosen motherland, wish it the most successful expansion and the greatest glory.

    "Having no political existence, our homeland could not produce an independent exhibit of its products; but Poland was not altogether absent. In a small way, in the field of fine arts, we are here, unveiling the inner depths of Poland's soul, showing the emotions of Poland's children, and how they are able to express them. And in this field, under different conditions, we might have increased our display a hundredfold, for what we have shown is but a small portion, smuggled out of Poland by stealth. One of the conquerors of Poland boasts of a great painting--the work of our countryman Siemiradzki--as one of its outstanding works. Despite its great size and power, it uses the work of an oppressed people as its title to fame. The conquerors of Poland attempted to deny us the right to participate in the art competition, but thanks to the fair-mindedness of the Exposition officials, the attempt was frustrated.....The oppressed were permitted to compete against their conquerors--our existence was admitted, since the products of our work exist.


    "We are gathered here today as representatives of a nation, to pay homage to the progress of this free United States, to express our joy at the remarkable growth of this country, and to assure the American people that, in common with the whole Polish nation, we the immigrants will always do our utmost for the good of America. As citizens who love freedom, we will strive to maintain the honor of its Starry Banner by quiet, persevering, conscientious work, and a deep respect for the law.

    "During the course of today's celebration, the desire to join the United States with another power was expressed. Permitting myself to use a symbolic comparison, I say that no power on earth can conquer the starry blue heaven.....What, if not the peaceful, cloudless blue, should envelop humanity? This symbol of freedom is very dear to the Polish White Eagle. It is our Eagle's desire that the starry blue of America, the blue of freedom, exist forever, and occupy even greater territory. Our Eagle is ready to shatter any cloud which would dim its brightness.


    "A century has passed since two nations arose almost simultaneously in the performance of an immortal work: in America, independence was declared, in Poland, the Third of May Constitution was ratified. In honor of the kindred spirit of these two nations, I raise the cry: Long live the United States of America, and long live Poland!"

    The orchestral and vocal portion of the program was artistically successful. The orchestra, conducted by Mr. Czapek, was thunderously applauded for its rendition of the overture from "Halka" [Moniuszko], "Awakening of the Lion," and "Signals of War," by Wronski. The two numbers sung by the St. Stanislaus Kostka Girls' Choir, under the direction of A. J. Kwasigroch, were also heavily applauded. The girls were dressed in white and carried small Polish and American flags, with which they kept time as they sang "Hail Columbia". Their rendition of Polish songs was even better, if possible. The St. Stanislaus Kostka parish choir, under the direction of Mr. Kwasigroch, sang "Polish Heart". The Polish Singers' Alliance and the Wanda Society, conducted by A. Mallek, also 31sang very well.

    Festival Hall was filled to capacity--from eight to ten thousand people attending. The interior of the hall was beautifully decorated with the Polish colors and arms.

    Polish Day at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago will be inscribed in the history of the Poles of America in gilded letters. It was truly a magnificent spectacle, the ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 28, 1893
    [Pole Honored]

    Mr. A. J. Golenski, a Pole, has been elected member of the board of trustees of the Chicago Mail Carriers' Association.

    Mr. A. J. Golenski, a Pole, has been elected member of the board of trustees of the Chicago Mail Carriers' Association.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 08, 1894
    Frank Kwasigroch Appointed Superintendent of a Post-Office Station

    Mr. Frank Kwasigroch, who was appointed superintendent of the Northwest Side Post-Office Station, Milwaukee Avenue and Elston Street, took charge of his office yesterday. The installation was observed with appropriate festivity. Mr. Kwasigroch's friends -- young Polish politicians from the 16th Ward -- accompanied him to his office in decorated carriages, forming a great parade. At the office, which was decorated with flowers, he was greeted by the personnel of the Post Office. Among the leading citizens who participated in the celebration were Mr. S. Kunz, John J. Dahlman, Mr. Kondziorski, Francis Bieszewski, Francis Kwasigroch, S. Czajka, and J. Grabowiec.

    The installation ceremony was brief and consisted of short speeches.

    Dziennik Chicagoski wishes Mr. Kwasigroch success in his new office. We are positive that with the advantages the office offers him he will help the Poles whenever he can.

    Mr. Frank Kwasigroch, who was appointed superintendent of the Northwest Side Post-Office Station, Milwaukee Avenue and Elston Street, took charge of his office yesterday. The installation was observed with appropriate ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 04, 1894
    Kosciusko Manifestation

    Yesterday the Poles of Chicago held a Kosciusko manifestation consisting of a parade downtown, a meeting to protest against the partition of Poland, commemorative exercises at the hall of Battery D, singing, recitations, and speeches in English, Polish and Lithuanian. M. P. Brady, Daniel Donahue, T. M. Helinski, censor of the Polish National Alliance, and K. J. Bielinski spoke in English. Reverend Eugene Sedlaczek spoke in Polish and Mr. Stefanowicz in Lithuanian. Lieutenant Governor Gill presided.

    As the program of the parade appeared in Dziennik Chicagoski day before yesterday, we are not including it in this article. All we want to say in regard to it now is that it was carried out according to plan.

    At about 11:30 A.M. two large divisions, one from the North Side and another from the South Side, began to march and met at Jackson and Ashland. The 2division from the North Side had started from Noble and West Division Streets, and the one from the South Side from the vicinity of Pulaski Hall [South 17th Street and Ashland]. From Jackson and Ashland the gigantic parade proceeded through Jackson to Michigan Avenue. The parade, which consisted of at least eight thousand people, was led by a group of Polish policemen in charge of Lieutenant Kandzia. Behind this group rode the chief marshal Peter Kiolbassa, who in turn was followed by carriages of the parade bearing Lieutenant Governor Gill, Mayor Hopkins, and a number of aldermen. The carriages were escorted by mounted Uhlans from Town of Lake. The division from the North Side was led by Lisztewnik, and the division from the South Side by Sigmund Schmidt. Both divisions looked their best. The uniforms worn by the members of military societies, the beautiful banners, the decorations of the marshals, the endless rows of beautifully decorated carriages--all combined to present a very picturesque sight.

    The division from the North Side included the societies from the parishes of St. Stanislaus Kostka, Holy Trinity, St. John Cantius, and St. Hedwig, our 3gallant Cadets, the Krakusy [Crakovian Lancers], the Uhlans, the Guard of the Queen of Poland [Virgin Mary], the Knights of St. Martin, and detachments of Polish cavalry. The division from the South Side included the Krakusy from St. Adalbert Parish, the Hussars of St. Martin, the Knights of St. Martin, the Poniatowski's Sharpshooters, the Scythe Men from Town of Lake, the Knights from Lemont, Illinois, the Polish Falcons (groups from several Polish communities), a group of Polish girls dressed in white and wearing Polish national caps, and decorated carriages bearing the members of two Polish women's societies--Victory Star and Polish Women's Central Society. The Victory Star had a beautiful banner.

    This division was very colorful. The parade, as a whole, was magnificent--so much so that even the American newspapers had a word of praise for it, and a big crowd gathered downtown in order to see it.

    The exercises at the hall of Battery D. began at 2 P. M. with a medley of Polish songs, played by Henzl's orchestra. The meeting was opened in Polish by 4Sigmund Schmidt, who made a good appearance in a Uhlan's uniform. He greeted the audience in a brief and cordial address, in which he emphasized the great significance of the manifestation. "The Kosciusko tradition," he said, "will always be dear to us. Our mother country, groaning in chains, appeals to Kosciusko and is inspired by him."

    Then Peter Kiolbassa introduced the Lieutenant Governor of the State of Illinois, Mr. Gill, who delivered a short address in English.

    "We are gathered here," said the Lieutenant Governor, "for the purpose of commemorating the one hundredth anniversary of Poland's heroic battle for independence. Throughout the whole world, with the exception of the tyrannical domain of the Czar, such manifestations are being held. During the years in which she has been compelled to bear the political yoke, Poland has not forgotten her former splendor--a splendor which placed her in the ranks of the leading nations of the world. No nation has ever been more patriotic than Poland, and very few of them could compare with her as a defender of freedom 5and liberty.

    "Today, the Poles are scattered throughout the world, but the love of freedom lives in their midst, and the hope for restoration of their mother country has not been abandoned by them during these years. On the contrary, this love is continually renewed and its flame is getting brighter, as is demonstrated by this gathering.

    "History teaches us that the Polish nation has produced many great and eminent men, such as Copernicus, the celebrated astronomer, and Sobieski, the savior of Vienna and Christianity. Yet the most famous Pole, the one who gained praises and honors not only in his own country but also in distant lands, is Thaddeus Kosciusko, the valiant warrior, the brilliant statesman, the noble patriot. He was a warrior who rose to great eminence through his own efforts and was inspired by purest and loftiest motives. He was a hero of many wars, a hero who fought against tyranny and oppression in his own country, and also rendered a great service to this country during the Revolutionary War. Honored 6by Washington for being a good soldier, admired by Jefferson for his ability as a statesman, and loved by all Americans for his generosity and patriotism, he devoted the rest of his life to his own country.

    "As commander in chief of the Polish army, he fought against superior forces and won. But in the end the Polish Washington could not accomplish his purpose, and he died as he lived--with the problem of freedom in his mind and heart. Kosciusko was one of the greatest champions of freedom the world has ever known."

    The Lieutenant Governor's speech was followed by the choir of the Polish Singers' Alliance, which sang "Cantata of the Third of May," by Tytus Ernst.

    Attorney Matthew P. Brady, who spoke in English, praised the Polish people in the United States for their love of Constitutional rights.

    "The Polish people," he said, "are ready to fight for freedom, as was Kosciusko 7when he fought for the rights of man. To pay homage to the memory of this great man meets with the approval of the American people, for Kosciusko was one of the founders of the great American Republic. He who respects freedom will also respect the name of Thaddeus Kosciusko.

    "In Ireland, where the purity of Kosciusko's heart and soul is greatly admired and where he is considered a typical defender of human rights, his name is also respected."

    After Mr. Brady's speech, the Young Ladies' Choir from St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish, directed by A. Kwasigroch, sang "Hail, Columbia." The singing was splendid, and the singers were rewarded with thunderous applause.

    The next speech in English was delivered by Attorney Daniel Donahue, well-known Chicago lawyer.

    "There are people in this world," said Attorney Donahue, "who maintain that 8Poland should not be allowed autonomy, that, she should be governed by the Russian tyrant. Such people are wrong. Russia may shackle Poland and fetter her hands with chains, but she can never subdue her; she can never convince the Poles that they are governed justly and wisely. Russia may draw the blood from the wounds which she has inflicted; she may attempt to cover the marks of her cruelty with the ink of slander, but she will never be able to erase Poland from the rank of the nations of the world, nor will she be able to make slaves of the Poles.

    "In spite of oppression and unfavorable conditions, the sons and daughters of Poland have always preserved in their hearts the spirit of patriotism. This patriotism told the Poles to take part in our last exposition, in spite of all obstacles, and in a manner showing that they are conscious of their nationality and that they are proud of themselves. They exhibited works of art which prove by their beauty, grace, and expression that the Polish people are a nation.


    "When we look at the great energetic, and enlivening patriotism that characterizes the Poles, we cannot help feeling that Poland will be rebuilt within her previous boundaries. When that comes to pass, expectations of Kosciusko--this great, noble, and pure patriot, this champion of Poland's freedom, this brother of Washington who fought also for this country's independence--will be realized."

    Donahue's speech was followed by the recitation of a beautiful poem, "A Dog I Will Be," written by a Polish woman, S. Duchinski, and translated into English by Henrietta Skidmore. The poem was recited with great ardor and understanding by Miss W. Wilkoszewski, who was rewarded with great applause.

    Next on the program was Reverend Eugene Sedlaczek's speech in Polish. This speech, which was the longest, and had been well prepared, brought thunderous applause and moved all listeners very profoundly. We regret that lack of space does not permit us to publish the whole speech, but we will quote a few of its most important passages.


    "A century has passed since the great historical day--a day that can never be obliterated from the memory of a Pole--when Cracow heard one son of Poland take the grave and solemn oath that he would secure the freedom of his country or make the supreme sacrifice in its defense.

    "Would you like to hear the name of this Pole and learn something about his life? What is his name? Well, there is no name for this man, for all names are too small for him. Where was he born? The bosom of our mother country brought him forth; the suffering of our nation was his cradle. He lived in our mother country, the mother country for which our hearts beat and for whose freedom we long so much. Do not ask who he was, because you know whom I mean. He was the soul and thought, and he died. No! He did not die, for had he died our patriotism would be dead too. He did not die, and as long as there is one heart beating for our mother country, as long as that heart continues to beat and as long as there is a Polish mother who remembers our mother country, so long will the lips of our children praise the greatness of this man and repeat his name--Thaddeus Kosciusko.


    "Yes, this great man, this pole-star that shines over the vast horizon of our mother country, was Thaddeus Kosiusko.

    "Alas, the Constitution of the Third of May, which the last king had confirmed under oath and amid salvos of cannon and tolling of bells, became a dead letter after a few months!....This constitution was intended to be a remedy to combat all political evils; it was intended to be a lever that would move the people to action, and a link that would unite all people, regardless of social standing, into one nation based on equal rights and freedom for all. The enemies of freedom, however, foresaw this and resolved to destroy Poland, so that they might sing a hymn of victory over the tomb of a brutally suffocated nation.

    "But Poland was not asleep, and deciding to defend herself she called upon her great son, her faithful Kosciusko, to champion her cause.

    "Kosciusko knew that the freedom of Poland depended on the united efforts of 12all her sons, and so he appealed to them. His call was answered by hordes of freedom-loving people who had grown tired of the yoke of the Russian tyrant.

    "And here the first words of Kosciusko to his countrymen: 'The first step toward abolishing slavery is to dare to be free, and the first step toward victory is to acknowledge our own strength.'

    "'To dare to be free.' Does this mean that we should thoughtlessly unsheathe the sword and attack an enemy who is stronger than we are? Indeed, no! To rush headlong in such a manner is not bravery but madness, for it would be unwise to waste our strength. Kosciusko had the right conception of these words. To dare to be free means to acknowledge our social and national position; it means that we believe that the Polish nation is mature enough to defend its rights.

    "Yes! We should defend our rights, for, even though we do not exist as a nation we still have our national spirit, of which no tyrant can deprive us.


    After all, nations have been created by God, and no man can do more than change their form of government temporarily. Every nation is just like a note in the devine harmony that vibrates through the history of the world; it is like a star in the great constellation of God's ideas about humanity. Woe unto us if we fold our arms and do nothing for our unfortunate mother country! Woe unto us if we do not show Poland our love, for, as Bossuet puts it, 'He who does not love his native land, to which he belongs, is his own enemy and the enemy of all humanity.' And, since this feeling is stronger in the Polish race than in any other, I will add that a Pole who does not love his native land, or who does not try to regain his national rights, does not love anything or anyone but himself. I fear such a man.

    "In Kosciusko we see an example of love for the mother country. In him we see the ardent patriot, the hero who unsheathes his sword not to attack the enemy but to defend his country.

    "This is no time for armed resistance, it is true, but let us not forget that 14there are natural laws in obedience to which even a trampled worm defends itself instinctively. If this instinct is natural, then why are we not justified in defending ourselves? Let us have courage, countrymen!

    "Kosciusko has left us the axiom that the first step to victory is to know our strength, but never has the truth of this axiom been so much disregarded as it is today. Today some of us are indifferent and depressed. There are many among us who have given up hope and think that we must submit to the enemy just because he has taken our rights away from us. For God's sake, banish these thoughts from your minds. Away with doubts! We should be more confident of our strength.

    "Over there, in our own country, our compatriots, who have been deprived of their religious rights and language, must renounce their most sacred right--the right to govern themselves. Crushed and persecuted, our countrymen across the sea wait from day to day for the hour of their freedom, yearn, and suffer--without rights, without citizenship: Little Poland [Galicia], 15Lithuania, Zmudz, Ukraine, Wolyn, and Podole can hardly breathe under the heavy shackles of tyranny. The double eagle of the Czars has her talons deeply sunk into the flesh of Poland. The sons of Poland are living under the threat of the gallows and Siberia.

    "And yet, the Polish nation has not perished and is far from being lost. Poland suffers, no doubt, but she is still a country, an entity. Gagged, shackled, and oppressed, she is still alive.

    "How can we remain indifferent before such suffering, perseverance, will power? Why shouldn't we here in a foreign land recognize our strength, banish our doubts, and co-operate? Let us create a barrier against which the hatred of our enemies will be shattered.

    "Countrymen, our cause is a sacred cause, for Poland lives! She is being murdered, blood is being shed, but she lives, and this blood, these massacres, confirm this fact.


    "A nation with a past such as ours, one which has endured a hundred years of oppression without giving up hope of being free again, has a right to political existence--and it is for this reason that Poland will be resurrected.

    "For a hundred years we have trodden the thorny path of penance. Thousands of the sons of Poland have suffered agonies in the dungeons of the Czars and in the cold mines of Siberia--those tombs for the living. Our mother country has been washed in an ocean of tears and blood. The penance is coming to an end--there shall be resurrection!

    "What are we to do in order to hasten this resurrection? First of all we must get rid of dissension, we must co-operate with one another,and we must respect the opinion of other people. There are many things which require unanimous agreement if we expect to accomplish them. Solidarity is the acme of devotion and love because it requires one person to forego his own opinion in order to follow the will of the majority. People who don't believe in solidarity when the good of all is concerned do not love humanity but only themselves, and 17their personal ambitions always come first.

    "Over there beyond the silvery Vistula, from the tombs of the Polish kings at Wawel, from the stronghold of Krakus [legendary founder of Cracow], the voice of Kosciusko, the commander, is calling us. Make a vow that this work will begin today, that from this day on every Pole--young and old, fathers and sons, mothers and daughters--will avoid everything that may tend to disrupt national unity. To disrupt national unity is against the Constitution of the Third of May.

    "Vow solemnly that from today on you will try to remove the obstacles that frustrated the work and endeavors of our forefathers.

    "Vow that you will not be indifferent to the national cause and that you will work earnestly and sincerely for the freedom of our mother country.

    "Vow that, for the sake of the cause of the mother country, you will forget 18all personal differences and get rid, above all, of the accursed envy which caused the traitors of our country to involve us in wars.

    "Finally, vow that you will be unselfish to the extent of sacrificing something every day on the altar of our mother country's welfare and for the sake of the Lord of Hosts, who blessed our forefathers and inspired them to elevate the Polish nation above other nations of this earth for centuries."

    This speech was followed by the song "Poland the Beautiful," sung by the Moniuszko Choir, directed by Mr. Henzl.

    The next speaker was T. M. Helinski, censor of the Polish National Alliance. "In the lives of nations and individuals, " said Mr. Helinski, "there are moments which decide their fate and future for many years. For Poland her great moment came in the year of 1794, one hundred years ago, when, under Kosciusko, she revolted against Russia. The name of Kosciusko, the unequaled hero, is dear to all lovers of freedom throughout the world because it stands 19for all that is held noble. We honor him today, not only because he fought for unfortunate Poland, but also because his sword defended our adopted country and because he, together with other champions of freedom, helped secure for us the right to gather here without being molested by the tyrants."

    Then Mr. Helinski described some of the events that took place during Kosciusko's year (1794) and pointed out that one of the most important characteristics of the Poles is their love for freedom and their willingness to make any sacrifice for it. "Such was," said Mr. Helinski, "the character of Kosciusko, our leading star, without whose memory our people would be like a man groping in the dark."

    Comparing the fate of Poland with that of Ireland, he said: "Poland fell because she was too noble, because her conception of freedom was too broad, because she was not suspicious of her neighbors' evil designs. But after one hundred years of bondage, Poland has proved that she has vitality, that she has a future, that she will be free.


    "We feel that we should explain to the American people the reason why we honor the name of Kosciusko. We do it as American citizens. By honoring his memory we wish to prove that we understand and appreciate the meaning of American freedom. We worship the freedom of America, and it is only natural that we should desire it for our countrymen abroad."

    After Mr. Helinski's speech, Mrs. Rose Kwasigroch recited Cornelius Ujejski's "Kosciusko's Funeral." The poem, which was recited in Polish in a masterful way, aroused great enthusiasm in the audience.

    The church choir from St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish, under the direction of A. Kwasigroch and consisting of a male choir and the St. Cecilia's Young Ladies' Choir, sang a medley of songs about Kosciusko. Our beautiful singers from the St. Cecilia Young Ladies' Choir, as well as the singers from the male choir, surpassed themselves this time. Their singing was enrapturing and the medley was excellent. Mr. Kondziorski and Miss R. Zukowski sang the vocal solos.

    The music over, Mr. Clemens Bielinski delivered a speech in English. "We are 21gathered here today," said Mr. Bielinski, "for the purpose of paying homage to a man dear to us, a man whose memory will never be obliterated from the minds of the Poles and Americans, a man whose deeds live and will live long after his and our death, and a man who will receive in the future still greater honors from our descendants.

    "Washington is regarded with the greatest reverence in this country. Ireland is proud of the deeds of her prominent sons. England, Germany and France honor their heroes and have special days set aside for this purpose. And so Poland today glorifies one of the greatest patriots, one of her dearest sons, Thaddeus Kosciusko.

    "If he could only be among us today, so that he could encourage us and fill our hearts with patriotism, just as he did at the square of Cracow one hundred years ago, when in the presence of his people he swore that he would serve Poland.

    "He fulfilled his promise, and we may say about him with Longfellow:


    Lives of great men all remind us

    We can make our lives sublime,

    And, departing, leave behind us

    Footprints on the sands of time.

    Mr. Bielinski concluded his address by calling our attention to the very favorable circumstances in which we find ourselves as free American citizens, not oppressed or persecuted by anyone. For this freedom we are indebted to Washington and Kosciusko, for they fought for it.

    The next number on the program was a song, "W Maju" (In May), by two choirs--the Szopen and the Wanda--under the direction of A. Mallek. The singing was splendid and the choirs received a great deal of applause.

    Judge Dunne's speech was received with great enthusiasm.

    "I have heard it said, " said Judge Dunne, "that the Poles and the Irish, as 23well as other naturalized citizens of this country, are much too prone to keep alive the traditions and memories of the heroes of their native lands. It has been said that the naturalized citizen, when he takes the oath of allegiance to this republic, swears undivided allegiance to the land of his adoption. This is true. None of us can gainsay it. But the naturalized citizen, as he lifts his hands to Heaven and pledges his fealty to the land of his adoption, does not and should not forget the glorious traditions of his country and the important heroes who suffered in bygone days for humanity and human rights. The Pole who would be unmindful of the glorious record of Kosciusko, the Irish who would cease to think of the heroism of Robert Emmet, or the Hungarian who would forget the services of Kossuth in the course of humanity, has neither the sentiment nor the patriotism to remember the glorious services of Washington, Jefferson, or Lincoln. There was never yet a good husband who was forgetful of the mother that gave him birth.

    "The adopted citizen may well and truly love his adopted country, and still have a love and reverence for the dear old land of his origin. And if a time comes, 24which I hope may be far distant, when this country of your adoption shall sound the bugle blast to arms for the defense of her laws or her liberties, I prophesy that that gallant and ardent race which today throughout the world is celebrating the memory of Kosciusko will as cheerfully and readily respond to the call of duty as did Kosciusko when he gladly risked his life for the cause of liberty at Saratoga, as did Pulaski when he gave up his life at Savannah.

    "Some say that the Polish cause is lost, that Poland has ceased to exist, that she cannot be resurrected, that her body has been not only laid on a dissecting table but already dissected by her three neighbors--three robbers. I do not believe it. The spring grass may be trampled, but as soon as we remove the foot it rises again. A mountain spring may be stopped, but in time it breaks through the artificial obstruction and flows on again. The Polish nation may be persecuted and murdered, but the Polish spirit will always live. God rules the world and there is still justice, and the day will come--if not in a few decades then in a hundred years--when the smoldering embers of the 25Polish nation will burst into flame, and another Kosciusko will lead a united Polish people to victory and restore his beloved country to the place it deserves among the happy and satisfied nations of the world. That this day is not very remote I am positive. This hope is shared by millions of people who sympathize with the Polish cause."

    Mr. Anthony Stefanowicz addressed the audience in Lithuanian and explained the significance of the celebration. He was applauded heartily by those who understood Lithuanian.

    The several Polish choirs that took part in the celebration were assembled together under the direction of Mr. Constantine Mallek, himself a distinguished vocal soloist, and sang a Polish patriotic song. When the music had subsided, Attorney Max A. Drzymala read a resolution, which was thereupon adopted with great enthusiasm at the suggestion of Lieutenant Governor Gill.

    Copies of the resolution, which was printed in English and contained a special 26introduction about the historical mission of Poland, were distributed among the audience. The resolution reads as follows:

    "We, United States citizens of Polish extraction, gathered in the hall of Battery D, in Chicago, Illinois, on May 3, 1894, for the purpose of commemorating the one-hundredth anniversary of the Kosciusko Insurrection and the one-hundred-and-third anniversary of the Constitution of the Third of May, 1791, do solemnly protest against the partition of Poland and denounce this partition as the most fragrant violation of the laws of God and man in the annals of mankind.

    "We further declare that it is our belief that every nation is entitled to the natural and inherent right of self-government, and that the subjugation of one nation by another for the purpose of territorial aggrandizement is contrary to all principles of justice and humanity and a violation of all rules of international law, as well as a perpetual menace to modern civilization.


    "We solemnly protest against Russia's inhuman persecution of Poles during the last century, and we particularly express our condemnation and abhorrence of the atrocious massacres and destruction of religious edifices committed in 1893 by Russian officials in Kroze and in other places in Poland for the purpose of compelling the Poles to change their ancient faith.

    "We declare and promise that we will always be faithful to, and ready to fight in defense of, those great principles of human liberty for which Thaddeus Kosciusko fought one hundred years ago, and upon which the Government of the United States is founded.

    "Therefore, we appeal to all lovers of justice and liberty for sympathy and aid for the cause of unhappy Poland, until the unparalleled crime of 1795 is redressed and Poland is restored to her former place among the nations of the world."

    The program was concluded with "God Save Poland," which was sung by everybody 28in the hall. It was a splendid manifestation worthy of Kosciusko.

    Many articles and photographs in connection with the manifestation have appeared in the American newspapers, and in tomorrow's issue we will reprint some of them.

    Yesterday the Poles of Chicago held a Kosciusko manifestation consisting of a parade downtown, a meeting to protest against the partition of Poland, commemorative exercises at the hall of Battery ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 17, 1897
    Poles Honor Thaddeus Kosciusk (Correspondence)

    Chicago, Illinois,

    Feb. 15, 1897,

    Dear Editor:

    Please be kind enough to publish the following article in the Dziennik Chicagoski:

    On February 14 the Thaddeus Kosciusko Society staged a program in commemoration of the one hundred and fifty-first anniversary of the birth of Kosciusko, immortal Polish hero of two worlds, at the Holy Trinity Parish 2school hall. When the exercise was opened at 4 P. M. the auditorium was packed.

    D. Ekowski opened the program and called upon W. Wleklinski, treasurer of the Polish National Alliance, to preside as chairman. Mr. Wleklinski took the stand and explained the purpose and meaning of this gathering. He concluded by praising the Kosciusko Society for its fidelity to the great Polish hero.

    The Chopin Choir, under the direction of Anthony Mallek, sang "Patz Kosciusko Na Nas Z Nieba" (Look Upon Us From Heaven, Kosciusko).

    The initial speaker of the evening was the Reverend Casimir Sztuczko, pastor of Holy Trinity Parish, who spoke about the deeds of Thaddeus Kosciusko.


    The pastor concluded his talk by urging the assemblage to follow the example of this immortal Polish hero. Applause greeted the priest as he left the stand.

    "Pocieszenie" (Consolation) was sung by the Wanda Choir, much to the enjoyment of the crowd. A. Mallek also directed this group.

    Mary Majewska recited "Na Dzien Urodzin T. Kosciusko" (On the Day of Kosciusko's Birth). This was followed by a number of songs by the young ladies' group of the Youth's Friend Society of Holy Trinity Parish. Then Andrew Marcinkiewicz recited "Barefoot Boys" in English.

    Another group of young ladies from the Youth's Friend Society sang "A Czy Znasz Ty Bracie Mlody" (And Do You Know, Dear Brother). A group of young 4men from this society sang "Dalej Bracia" (Onward Brothers), and they were followed by Miss Catherine Ekowska who recited "Kosciusko".

    John F. Smulski was the second speaker of the evening. This distinguished Polish representative gave the highlights of Kosciusko's accomplishments in America during the Revolutionary War and his activities after his return to Poland. The speech was colorful and interesting.

    The combined Wanda and Chopin Choirs sang a medley of Polish national airs. Because of their beautiful singing the choirs were forced to repeat several numbers.

    A verse, "Jeszcze Nie Zginela" (Not Yet Lost), was delivered by John Maciejewski, and Miss Pearl Wleklinska declaimed "Bitwa Raclawica" (Battle at 5Raclawica).

    A collection was made which netted $13.89.

    This was followed by Leona Nowak's recital of "Jeszcze Polska Nie Zginela" (Poland Is Not Yet Lost).

    Mr. Lisztewnik, president of the Kosciusko Society, thanked the audience and all participants in the program for making this event a success.

    The chairman, Mr. Wleklinski, extended his thanks to the audience also, and the exercise was concluded with the Polish national hymn, "God Save Poland".

    Joseph Rosinski, secretary.

    Chicago, Illinois, Feb. 15, 1897, Dear Editor: Please be kind enough to publish the following article in the Dziennik Chicagoski: On February 14 the Thaddeus Kosciusko Society staged a program ...

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