The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 09, 1891
    Saint Stanislaus Kostka's Polish Hall Opened to the Public

    The opening of the St. Stanislaus parish hall took place last night. This hall, which is very large, is located at the new school building.

    The opening was celebrated with the presentation of an amateur play sponsored by the parish choir with the cooperation of the Knights of the Crown of the Polish Queen.

    The beautiful hall was filled to capacity. Its beauty, of which the Poles should be proud, did not pass unnoticed, and many people from the audience admired its beautiful chandeliers, the curtains, and the decorations. The Poles never before had such a beautiful hall. Its design, its large windows, its magnificent ceiling make the hall beautiful. In addition to its beauty, it has a good heating system and good ventilation. Another feature of importance is the two main stairways and four side-exits for the convenience of the public. The stage is so large that battles could be fought on it. Indeed, this is some thing to see and to admire.


    The play selected for the opening of the hall was "The Polish Insurrection of 1863," a drama which pleased the public immensely. And why not? The actors played the roles of ardent patriots face to face with the hated foes. There were victorious encounters, and loathsome scenes of Russian abuses contrasted with the Poles' lofty examples of true patriotism, true love of their country and self-sacrifice.

    The author of the play did not present the sad end of the insurrection because he feared that it might arouse hatreds. His purpose was to amuse the audience with scenes representing victorious encounters of the Polish patriots with the Russians, and at the same time he desired to convince the audience that the insurrection was justified because it was forced by Russian outrages. The author put great emphasis on the bravery of the insurrectors, who indeed performed heroic deeds wherever they could.

    Our amateurs were so deeply affected by their roles that one could perceive that they felt their actions and thoughts. Deserving special attention was the role of a patriotic Polish mother in whose bosom raged a battle between 3motherhood and patriotism. The mother role was played with deep emotion by Mrs. Pauline Kiolbassa, and the roles of the two daughters by Miss Lessner and Miss Zukowski. All the amateurs were emotionally affected by their roles and played splendidly.

    The insurrectionists were presented as great patriots and the Muscovites not only improve the acting but also make possible the acquisition of better costumes.

    We have noticed that sometimes the actors are handicapped by the behavior of the public, who make so much noise that the actors are forced to speak too loud if they expect to be heard, especially in a hall as large as St. Stanislaus's. Actors are also interrupted by outbursts of laughter at the wrong time. This is done by the young folks who think they know everything and like to criticize. Amateurs should send complimentary tickets to all Polish newspapers and see to it that their critics be provided with good seats.

    The opening of the St. Stanislaus parish hall took place last night. This hall, which is very large, is located at the new school building. The opening was celebrated with ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 25, 1891
    Christian Science Commits Another Murder (Editorial)

    This association, which misrepresents itself as Christian, has caused a misfortune in Des Moines, Iowa. Mr. Wm. Protzmann, one of the followers of the sect, was stricken with typhoidal pneumonia on Dec. 17. Despite his critical condition, he was not allowed to have a doctor or use any medicine. When his relatives protested, the patient was taken away "for the purpose of removing him from the influence of the blind and unfaithful." It took the poor fellow sixty-one days to yield; evidently, he had a very strong constitution. Finally, he yielded, when he died.

    A coroner's jury gave a verdict of "death as a result of Christian Science." The case will go before the jury, but it will be very hard to bring a regular charge because the deceased was a member of the sect.

    This association, which misrepresents itself as Christian, has caused a misfortune in Des Moines, Iowa. Mr. Wm. Protzmann, one of the followers of the sect, was stricken with typhoidal pneumonia ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 27, 1891
    Polish Activities in Chicago

    St. Casmir Young Men's Society, in St. Stanislaus Parish, donated $50 to the parish library fund. This fund will be used for enlarging the parish library, especially the establishment of a reading room. The library is in charge of the Polish Patriots' Club, and this fund is at its disposal. The young men of this society certainly deserve due credit and hearty support in every respect. They are a good example to our Polish youth, and we hope they will be Polish patriots, even though some of them are born in America and will remain here.

    St. Casmir Young Men's Society, in St. Stanislaus Parish, donated $50 to the parish library fund. This fund will be used for enlarging the parish library, especially the establishment of ...

    II B 2 a, III B 2, III C, III E
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 05, 1891
    Tools of Father Vincent Barzynski (Editorial)

    Not long ago Father Vincent Barzynski, the pastor of St. Stanislaus Kostka's parish in Chicago, was supposed to express himself in the presence of his acquaintances in the following manner: "What shall I do? They want to make me famous."

    Whether or not Father V. Barzynski's merits have already made him famous among the Poles in America is only his affair, and we have no intention of questioning him about it, for we trust that in the end, time will show all his good and bad deeds in a true light. However, we are sure of a fact: his enemies, the supporters of the faction that opposes the Polish Roman Catholic Union, are to be thanked for spreading his fame.

    Supported by this undeniable fact, we take the liberty of using, or perhaps 2misusing, Father V. Barzynski's name in this article, for which we wish to apologize to this patriotic priest, so much more as it is not on his account but on somebody else's (perhaps to some extent on our own) that we intend to cut down some of this unwelcome popularity.

    Looking impartially at the bitter conflict between the Polish Roman Catholic Union and the Polish National Alliance, leaving out disreputable questions, and disregarding who is right or wrong, the reader of this fight with the press cannot but notice this: When the Polish Roman Catholic Union makes any charges against the Polish National Alliance or any other organization, group, or individual friendly to or independent of that organization, it always refers directly to the Polish National Alliance as an association composed of many persons and with a constitution; it treats an association as an association and an individual as an individual.


    But, on the other hand, if the Polish National Alliance, or any other organization opposing the Polish Roman Catholic Union, has any objections against the Union, instead of aiming its attacks directly at this organization it aims them at Father V. Barzynski. Any pretext, be it a resolution adopted by any church, society or organization not even connected with the church, is sufficient cause to bring forth an onslaught of insults against Father Barzynski. Even when any individual makes a statement disagreeable to this faction, regardless of whether or not he or she is friendly to or shares the views of Father Barzynski, instead of refuting the party responsible, the cry is that he or she is a "tool" of Father V. Barzynski, following this statement with as many insulting remarks as they can concoct. This is how Father V. Barzynski's fame has spread.

    In the opinion of these persons, only two things are possible for the Poles living here: Either they accept their views blindly, no matter how ridiculous they may be, or else become a tool of Father V. Barzynski. In their 4opinion, there is only the Polish National Alliance and its allies on one side, and Father V. Barzynski on the other. In their eyes it is impossible for any one to disagree with them unless he or she is a blind tool of the father. In other words, the opinion of others is zero as a mathematical exponent, unless it be expanded by Father V. Barzynski. Under these circumstances it is quite natural that a respectable newspaper opposed to their views and, still worse, opposed to the unjust attacks directed against the father, be considered by them Father Barzynski's organ.

    Is this the right thing to do? Is it decent to accuse every one of having no convictions of his own, of not knowing anything, of not understanding anything, of being nothing but a zero, a pawn in the hands of a clever person?

    What would the supporters of the Polish National Alliance say if during a controversy 5all of them and each of them were ignored and called simply the tools of Mr. Frank Gryglaszewski? And what would they say if all attacks were directed only at him?

    They would be indignant, of course; they would say immediately that not Mr. Frank Gryglaszewski but the people rule. Then such acknowledgment on the part of the opponents would be justified and would greatly simplify the fight, because in that case it would be only necessary to state that the tools of the persons who do not bring up their children to be Polish patriots, or the tools of the individuals who belong to non-Catholic associations, have no right to proclaim that they have the welfare of their fatherland at heart.

    It makes us laugh when we read in Zgoda a reply of Father Mozejewski to an article written by the editor in the last issue of Wiara I Ojczyzna. "I recognize the style of writing and I know that it was written by Father V. 6Barzynski and to him I shall reply." And this pious priest is not afraid to defile himself with such a lie! If Father Mozejewski will not recall this statement in his reply, then we cannot comprehend how his conscience permits him to sleep.

    It is a fact that Dziennik Chicagoski has already been proclaimed as the organ of Father V. Barzynski; its editor and his co-workers as blind tools and enemies of the Polish National Alliance, even though our paper has never attacked the Alliance, with the exception of this article, which is just to express the fact that it does not agree with the opinion of these organizations. If we ever objected to their insinuations, our objections met with the old wornout reply, "That's an old story." If it is, let it be so. If Zgoda continues its attacks on Father V. Barzynski, and refers to others as his "tools," then we will reciprocate by aiming a few darts at His Censorial Highness (the censor of the Alliance) in our future argumentations, and no 7one can blame us for that. It would be foolish to defend ourselves with a fancy sword if we are attacked with a heavy saber.

    If it is your desire that individuals should face each other instead of the public, we will grant you that privilege. The future will tell which of us will compare with St. Michael.

    Not long ago Father Vincent Barzynski, the pastor of St. Stanislaus Kostka's parish in Chicago, was supposed to express himself in the presence of his acquaintances in the following manner: ...

    III C, II B 2 d 1, I C, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 12, 1891

    Zgoda, which is edited by a person who is endeavoring very zealously to discredit the Polish National Alliance, states in its last issue that the entire program arranged by the Polish Roman-Catholic Union to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Polish Constitution of the Third of May, and announced by Dziennik Chicagoski, is made for the purpose of misleading the public. We suspected for some time, but now are almost positive, that the editor of Zgoda is either incapable or does not care to support, spread, and explain the ideals of the Polish National Alliance and other national organizations. It seems to us that he is only concerned with his own ridiculous ideas. Even though the title of his paper calls for harmony, it is not strange at all that he be preaching the opposite, causing dissension among 2the Poles.

    "Why didn't we arrange for this festivity earlier?" asks the editor of Zgoda. Yes, we tried to arrange it last year, but the deliberation broke up, not through the fault of the organizations affiliated with the Polish Roman-Catholic Union, that waited for an answer and further deliberation, but through the fault of the delegates sent by national organizations not connected with the Polish Roman-Catholic Union, and who gave no answer, and through the fault of the editor of Zgoda, who obstructed our plans by articles which could have been stopped by the Polish National Alliance.


    The editor of Zgoda implies that it would be impossible to eliminate organizations of nihilistic and unpatriotic tendencies, or those which are soiled with anarchism or czarism, for the simple reason that not everybody could clear himself of such charge if it were made for the purpose of elimination. Yes, then it is true that the independent organizations, and those which are affiliated with the Polish National Alliance, cannot prove that they are not soiled with anarchism or czarism if they were accused of it. And if they cannot prove it and cannot clear themselves of such charge, then it is the fault of the editor of Zgoda, who is degrading the organ of the Polish National Alliance by publishing in it foul articles.


    Zgoda, "The assay, the chemical means that can prove all this," so has expressed himself the sarcastically happy editor of Zgoda, which should be the organ of all Polish organizations, if they have one, has been very badly polluted, but in our opinion it can still be cleansed. So much for the editor of Zgoda today.

    We are not accusing at present the Polish National Alliance or any other organization not affiliated with it or with the Polish Roman-Catholic Union, unless they confirm their sympathy with the editor of Zgoda by silence or open declaration.


    We are of the opinion that the prospect for celebrating the commemoration of this historical event is very good in spite of the opposition of the editor of Zgoda.

    That some organizations will observe this commemoration very solemnly downtown on Saturday, that the church societies will observe it on Sunday, May the 3rd,and that there will be another celebration for school children on Monday, is no reason why we should not get together on some other day in order to form some kind of a constitution for the entire Polish element in America, and by this act conclude the commemoration of declaration of the Polish Constitution a hundred years ago.


    Indeed, we need a special day for consultation, for understanding and for putting an end to quarrels, for it would be impossible to accomplish all this on a day devoted to other activity.

    We hope that our extended hand will be welcomed by all good and sincere patriots; that every organization will elect a number of delegates, - one to every twenty-five members, - and send their names to the secretary of the celebration organized by the Polish Roman-Catholic Union. We hope that all of us will admit that we need a general conference. We also hope that in case someone has any objection to our plan, or a better proposition, or a good suggestion for some improvement, or any question to make, he should come forward without prejudice, without bitterness in his heart, with the conviction that he is serving the national cause and with the desire to effect solidarity.


    Inasmuch as Zgoda will not publish any reconciliatory articles as long as it is controlled by its present editor, we are offering the columns of our paper for such remarks, advice or propositions as may be constructive, peaceful, serious, and not opposed to the principles of patriotism and the Roman-Catholic church, and provided that such articles bear the signature of the writer or organization,which we as editors like to have for our private information.

    Zgoda, which is edited by a person who is endeavoring very zealously to discredit the Polish National Alliance, states in its last issue that the entire program arranged by the ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 12, 1891
    The Polish Nation and How We May Help It (Editorial)

    An article under the title "The Polish Nation and How We May Help it," reprinted from the Examiner, No. 3, New York, an American newspaper, appears in the last issue of Zgoda.

    Why was this article published in Zgoda? The editors of Zgoda evidently share the opinion expressed in this article; otherwise they would make some comments about it. The editors of Zgoda are discrediting again the Polish National Alliance, an organization which they are supposed to represent. Not content with the very unpatriotic article published in Zgoda a few weeks ago, in which this paper tried to prove that it is not right to bring up our children as Polish patriots, the editors now publish another article, without comments, in which they try to prove by distorted facts that Catholicism has always been and still is the cause of the "degradation" of the Polish 2nation, and that the Poles will not be able to advance till they cease to be Catholics.

    Is this really the opinion of the Polish National Alliance whose organ is Zgoda? When we stated some time ago how badly the editors of Zgoda are discrediting the Polish National Alliance by publishing a nationalistic article without any remarks about it, the editor of Zgoda mentioned in the next issue of his paper that he did not share the opinion expressed by us. Now, if we ask the editor of Zgoda whether he shares the opinion expressed in the article, that "the Roman-Catholic Church still follows the old oppressive system" (and this does not mean only priests, as the editor might say trying to evade the question), he probably will say that he does not. If so, then why does he publish such articles?

    How else can the Polish National Alliance prove the assertion that it 3follows its constitution, that it is patriotic, that it never was and is not now against Catholicism or Catholic priests, if not by articles published in its organ Zgoda?

    Let us suppose that someone who does not know anything about the real situation will take in his hand that issue of Zgoda in which the article of Mr. T. W. on the school question appeared. What would be his impression of the patriotism of the Polish National Alliance? Let us suppose that he will also take in his hand the last number of Zgoda. What conviction will he have about the respect for the true Catholic Priests?

    It is no wonder that journals hostile towards the Polish National Alliance, journals which are a black spot in the life of the Poles in America, are profiting by the incapability of Zgoda's editors. Would it be a bit strange if Dziennik Chicagoski, which is not yet hostile towards the Polish National 4Alliance, would be forced to adopt an antagonistic attitude towards it especially if its directors continue to allow the editor of Zgoda to publish articles whereby they admit that they share his opinion?

    An article under the title "The Polish Nation and How We May Help it," reprinted from the Examiner, No. 3, New York, an American newspaper, appears in the last issue ...

    I C, II B 2 d 1, III C, III A
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 04, 1891
    The Speech of Rev. F. Szukalski in Chicago, May 3, 1891 at the Celebration of the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Polish Constitution

    Father F. Szukalski, pastor of the Polish Church at Beaver Dam, Wis. delivered the following speech at a large Polish hall in Chicago on May 3, 1891.

    "Every Pole believes it an honor to love his fatherland. Love of fatherland-that glorious phrase which thrills the heart of every Pole. It awakens all from the slumber of indifference, it revivifies every one who retains a spark of life.

    "In our history, love of fatherland in written into the blood of our noblest countrymen. Our ancestors spared no sacrifice--they forsook their homes, renounced the pleasures of family life, property, friends, freedom, even life 2itself, to endure the hardships of war; they did this because in their hearts burned the holy flame of love for the fatherland.

    "If every native Pole cherishes such love for the fatherland, how much more should we, the exiles, who have lost our beloved fatherland through separation. In the words of our immortal poet Adam Mickiewicz:

    'Oh Lithuania, my country, like life thou art;

    How dear art thou to one's heart

    May be realized only by one

    Who lost thee, and thy beauty.

    I see and desire to sing, for I long for thee.

    "No enemy has ever designed a method of persecution, no tyrant has ever invented a system of torture, no murderer of our brothers has ever conceived of an agony so profound that it could tear out the love of fatherland from 3the heart of a true Pole.

    "Russian deputies separated our families, imprisoned and tortured our countrymen, exiled them to distant Siberia but could not extinguish the spark of patriotism.

    "Countrymen! Love of fatherland is a sacred love which God has implanted in the hearts of men, and which no human power can destroy.

    "No matter how sacred, or holy, or noble a thing may be--a corrupt individual can distort it in order to pursue his own evil designs.

    "Unfortunately, this expression, love for the fatherland was so misused.

    "Let us recall our history previous to May 3, 1791, since we are celebrating today the one hundredth anniversary of that historic day. We remember that those who waited impatiently to tear Poland apart, those who sought to 4betray our fatherland for revenge, those who for profit and for protection of their own interests, delivered Poland into the hands of her oppressors, did so under the guise of patriotism; all of them proclaimed their loyalty to the fatherland. Hugo Kollataj, a Polish political writer of that period, says that they fought for priority in infamy; one tried to outdo the other in the sale of the fatherland.

    "Poninski, Branicki, Karr, Frederik II, Catherine III, Empress of Russia, all posed as patriots--and all of them were plotting the partition of Poland.

    "Today as we commemorate the significant moment when our nation recognizing its weakness, made desperate efforts to purge itself, despite insuperable obstacles, in order to regain the road which might lead to power and national glory, we should remember the reasons for our country's dismemberment-- our fatherland, once powerful enough to decide the fate of Europe, and of 5Christianity. We should consider and analyze the pretexts employed by the enemies of our country for its destruction.

    "I cannot present a complete picture of all the causes and all the means employed, because it is beyond my power and the amount of time at my disposal. I will point out only the most important facts, that we may learn our lesson from them.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, May 5, 1891.


    (continued from previous issue)

    "General knowledge of ancient history, especially of one's native country, has always served as a guide to nations in times of uncertainty.


    "J. Lelewel, a Polish historian, advises all of us to study the history of our country in order to avoid the pitfalls of our ancestors, as well as to profit from the deeds of our illustrious countrymen through knowledge of their achievements.

    "Let us familiarize ourselves with our history, above all with the reasons for our downfall that we may avoid a repetition. Let us know the perfidy of our traitors that we may abhor their infamy and never similarly debase ourselves. Let us acquaint ourselves with the machinations of Poland's enemies and the pretexts used to disguise their evil designs that we may not fall prey to their insidious strategy. We should know also the glorious deeds of our true patriots, who worked always for the betterment of our fatherland, and who spared no sacrifice, that we, encouraged and enlightened by their example, may equally serve our oppressed fatherland. That Poland was once a powerful country, capable of ejecting invading armies, and protecting her people, is an historic fact. That Poland in the course of time lost her power, became weak, 7and was finally enslaved by neighboring powers is also a fact written in the annals of European history.

    "What caused this change? What factors contributed to the stripping of Poland's defenses and placing her in bondage?

    "The causes are many and detailed. Some of them, however, are basic, out of which all others proceed quite naturally.

    "Our famous orator and patriot, Father Skarga, says: 'As our bodies die of internal and external diseases, so do kingdoms fall through domestic disturbance. They too have external enemies who seek to destroy them through wars and invasion.

    Poland also, had internal weaknesses and external enemies.'

    "The internal weaknesses crept into the vital organism of the country and 8undermined it while hostile powers contributed to its downfall, not by conquest, but by assisting the spread of the internal disorder, not by superior force, but by preventing the cure of the destructive disease.

    "What do you think was the basic domestic reason for the fall of Poland? Was it internal unrest? This factor is surely responsible for many of the misfortunes of our fatherland, but it did not undermine the very foundation of its life. Was it the oppression of the people by the nobles? This oppression weakened the country, but it could not dry up the streams from which the life of our nation flowed. Was it the egotism of the Polish magnates? This hindered our national development, but it did not deliver a mortal blow to our fatherland.

    "Discord, oppression of the people and egotism of the magnates contributed to the weakening of our fatherland, but they are not the basic cause of its fall.


    "What then is the real cause? It is unnecessary to name it for every Pole knows it well.

    "The downfall of our fatherland was caused primarily by the apathy towards the Holy Catholic Faith and disregard of its teachings.

    "I am convinced that broadminded and unprejudiced people who know the history of our country recognize that the downfall of our nation was caused principally by the decline of the Holy Faith.

    "Some individuals might say that the decline of faith in Poland is a secondary issue having little connection with its downfall. To these people, faith is always a secondary issue, a thing without special value or significance. I am afraid that they may accuse me of using this solemn moment for religious propaganda. I wish to say to them that my purpose today is to present historic facts.



    (continued from previous issue)

    "Let no one think that this is my personal opinion. Our silver-tongued orator and great Polish patriot, Father Skarga, who took an active part in public life, who know the weaknesses of the Polish government and realized the dangers threatening it, expressed the same opinion. He can hardly be accused of partiality or prejudice since he lived almost three hundred years ago. Here is his opinion expressed at the opening of the Fourth Polish Congress.

    'This Polish Kingdom is founded on the principles of the Holy Roman Catholic Church. It has stood for six hundred years upon this foundation. Thus, it worshipped Christ and believed in His Gospel; thus it respected its spiritual advisers, was obedient to them and to the Holy Teachings; thus, it grew into a great country allying itself with many nations; thus it resisted 11its enemies, and became known to the neighboring powers. This old oak grow in this manner, became strong and no wind could uproot it, because its root is Jesus Christ and His priests. If you undermine this foundation--the old religion and priesthood--the whole structure of the country will be weakened, and downfall will follow.'

    In another place Skarga says:

    'If this kingdom will serve the Church of Christ, He will elevate it and deliver it from any danger, but if it abandons the Church and its service, it will perish.'

    "To those who say that these convictions are obsolete, I reply: glance at the history of our nation, observe it through many centuries and notice when this nation was powerful and when it was weak, when it stood at the peak of its glory and when it was on the decline. You will see that at the time when Father Kordecki, armed with the crucifix, stood at the head of 12Christians defending the fortress of Czestochowa, Poland arose victorious just at the time when her doom seemed imminent, for powerful Christ delivered it from danger. You will see that when Jagiello led his countrymen into the Church of Christ, Polish boundary lines were expanded and the nation grew stronger. You will see that after Sobieski had led his army into the temple of God and together with his men humbled himself before the Lord and had strengthened himself with the bread of life, he attacked the Turkish forces, defeated them, saved Vienna and Christianity from a horrible fate and made Poland famous throughout the world.

    "On the other hand you will see that when heresy and apostasy visited our fatherland, when heterodox men denied Christ, created new gods and idols, presented them to the nation as symbols to be worshipped and defended, when heretics began to scoff at the teachings of the Catholic Church and blaspheme against God, then began the downfall of the nation. You will be convinced 13that when these heterodox men, who formerly had betrayed God and their conscience, began to demand confidence, respect, and official positions in the Polish kingdom, discard and rebellion began; the country could not resist the invaders and its boundary lines shrank. When dissenters, after betraying God, treacherously applied for protection to Poland's enemies and opened her doors to invasion, Poland, weakened by the internal dissension, could not resist, and groaning with pain fell into bondage. The Polish nation became an object of laughter and ridicule.

    "The history of our country indicates that our nation rose to greatness and power when her people served God by respecting and observing the Holy Catholic Faith, that when the people began to abuse the Holy Faith, repudiate the church, and allow heresy to grow, the happiness of the nation dwindled and the strength of our fatherland decreased--finally Poland was crushed and obliterated from the map of Europe.


    "I will speak briefly about the Polish dissenters. Those who betrayed the Holy Catholic Faith in Poland by joining the Protestant Church were called dissenters. The Poles, seeing these people abandon the vows made at the holy baptism, lost confidence in them and removed the from public office. The people had another reason for distrusting them. Morawski, whom no one can of prejudice, says the following: 'Polish dissenters must admit that they earned their dismissal from public offices by their own conduct--by allying themselves with the enemies of the country.' Whoever wishes to sympathize with the dissenters must realize that Poland was a Catholic country, and that the dissenters were newcomers to it. As such they should have contented themselves with that which the government was willing to give. What is more, it is apparent that no one ever persecuted dissenters in Poland. They held their religious services and no one tried to force them 15to adopt the Catholic faith. In other words, Polish dissenters fared better in Poland then in other Catholic countries, and incomparably better than Catholics in non-Catholic countries.

    "The dissenters were not satisfied with fair treatment, they wanted power. In the pattern of King Frederick of Prussia and Catherine, Empress of Russia, they wanted to persecute Christians of Catholic faith. When their plan was frustrated they applied for help to Poland's worst enemies betraying our fatherland by furnishing Frederick and Catherine with an excuse for intervention in Poland.

    "The method of electing monarchs and the policy of 'Liberum Veto' constituted another seed of dissension which contributed to Poland's downfall. Because of the system of eligibility, the death of a Polish king was a signal for all kinds of disturbances. Every magnate had his favorite candidate for the throne whom he tried to elect by fair means or foul. Consequently the country was divided into factions which fought each other. This created discord 16and disorder--brought injustice to the country and weakness.

    "The question of a king's eligibility created dissension not only among the Poles but among neighboring powers. When a king died, neighboring countries sent representatives who supported their own favorite. These representatives gave more than more verbal support. They used bribery, encouraged drunkenness among the electors, affiliated with one or another faction and went so far as to call for military intervention.

    "Thus regal eligibility divided the country into factions and permitted the entrance of foreign troops who persecuted the people. It gave neighboring powers too much influence; quite often a Polish king cared more for the country which supported him than for indigenous Polish interests.

    "The evil caused by this system of monarchial election was continued further by the policy of 'Liberum Veto,' a privilege granted to every member of the Polish Diet. This privilege gave him the right to break up a parliamentary 17session by saying 'Liberum Veto,' I object, thereby destroying all constructive measures passed by that legislature. 'Liberum Veto' placed the entire country at the mercy of one man.

    "Neighboring countries realizing that they needed only one disruptor at the Polish Parliament in order to obstruct legislation, did not hesitate to employ these means to the detriment of Poland. They used to bribe members of the Diet and thus gain influence. Such contemptible wretches were Poninski, Rzewuski and others. There was no order in Poland, and the Diet was helpless despite the aid given by the noble patriots since the paid agents of Prussia or Russia could always defeat them.

    "The third internal cause of Poland's downfall was the lack of education among the nobles and the lower classes. This lack of education became a weapon in the hands of those who desired to destroy Poland. Ignorant masses were easily misled, and the voters unaware of their country's real interests sold it out to those who paid more for their votes. The nobility, whether 18they cared for their country's welfare or were merely protecting their own interests, obeyed their masters' orders. Thus Poland was divided into as many quarreling elements as there were magnates and wealthy nobles.

    "These weaknesses created an unhealthy situation in Poland; however they were not as bad as conditions prevailing in other countries at that time. The support given by the majority of the people, and the heroism of the patriots more than made up for the weakness in the governmental structure.

    "The nation, from sad experience, realized that foreign governments had overpowering influence in its own government; it knew also that the germs of destruction must be removed or the country would be annihilated. And so the nation began to strengthen its governmental structure. Honest patriots sought to remove the system of regal eligibility, to abolish the 'Liberum Veto,' and to educate the people.



    (continued from previous issue)

    "The Polish nation recognized its weaknesses, realized the dangers threatening it, and wanted to rectify the situation. It had men of great ability; Kollataj, Malachowski, Potocki. It had ardent patriots; Rejtan, Korsak and Bochuszewicz. Such a nation could have regenerated itself and would undoubtedly have done so.

    "But to mankind's eternal disgrace and the damnation of all Europe, this regeneration was prevented by the three monarchs who at that time disgraced the thrones of Europe. Frederick II of Prussia, Catherine II of Russia, and Maria Theresa of Austria.

    'These three constituted a Satanic trinity, opposing the Holy Trinity, a mockery of all that is sacred.


    'Frederick, whose name signifies a "friend of peace," was Satanic in his constant pursuit of war, although he had the audacity to mock Christ by calling himself the "King of Peace." Frederick tried to make the old order of knighthood an object of derision by creating an evil fraternity called the "Order of the Black Eagle." He gave this order, a Latin motte "Suum Cuique," literally, to each his own. The members of this order were Frederick's servants who robbed and plundered.

    'Catherine, whose name means "purity" in Greek, was a most impure woman, although like shameless Venus, she called herself a virgin, Catherine called a legislative council apparently to make a mockery of it, since she corrupted the laws and destroyed the rights of the people.

    'Thus Catharine announced that she was protecting freedom of conscience while at the same time she forced millions of people to change their religion.


    'As if to mock at humility and holiness, Maria Theresa, who bore the name of the most meek and immaculate Mother of our Savior, was a proud she-devil who carried on a war for the purpose of conquering a foreign country. She was ungodly, although she prayed and went to confession because she enslaved millions of people.

    'The names of these three, Frederick, Catherine and Maria Theresa, are three blasphemies; their lives-- a series of criminal acts.'

    "These three saw Poland's weakness and decided to enrich their countries by robbery. When they saw that Poland was overcoming her weakness, they sought to prevent it. When that plan failed, they contrived to partition the country into three parts, for thus it would be easier to keep her in bondage.

    "What means were used to destroy Poland? Did they attack her by force? No, they could not do that for the Poles would see the danger, cease their internal strife, and unite to repel the enemy. Our enemies decided to avoid 22this. They devised a plan by which the Poles themselves would effect Poland's destruction.

    "During the absence of a monarch and before the election of King Stanislaus August, there were, the usual disturbances in Poland. This was a splendid opportunity for the Russian Czarina and the Prussian King who already plotted the partition of Poland. Whoever knows anything about this intrigue must admit that such infamy cannot be duplicated in the history of the world.

    "The Poles were divided into factions; hostile neighbors hired agents to encourage discord and insurrection, or at the very least to ensure the election of a candidate sympathetic to the interests of a foreign country at the expense of Poland.

    "Stanislaus August, a favorite of Catherine, Empress of Russia was elected as king. As was expected, Russian influence became stronger every day.


    A conference was held at which bribed members of the Polish Diet granted Catherine the right to protect Poland. Under the threat of bayonets, the dissenters were given equal rights. Those members of the Diet who opposed these measures were seized and exiled to Russia by the Czarina.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, May 11, 1891.


    (continued from previous issue)

    "The Czarina had been looking for a pretext which would allow her to dominate Poland. She meddled in Poland during the election but that ended with the coronation of the king. She tried to promote an insurrection in Ukrainia which would justify the entrance of Russian troops into Poland, but the plan failed. Hark, whom she had sent to Ukrainia for insurrectionary purposes, 24could not accomplish anything.

    "But now she had a pretext which would last until Poland was partitioned--the alleged disorders in Poland. Accordingly, the Czarina sent Repnin to Poland to establish order, or rather disorder in Poland. He had a hundred thousand Russian soldiers in Warsaw and he knew how to handle the situation. For some he had Rubles, honor and distinction--for others violence, bayonets and knouts. Those who opposed Russian rule, were dealt with in the fashion of the Cossacks; those who tried to reform the government or improve the conditions were either exiled or discredited in the eyes of the ignorant nobility. If anyone advocated the abolition of 'Liberum Veto,' he was accused by Russian hirelings of trying to establish an autocracy and eliminate the privileges of the nobility. The ignorant people believed these agents. Whoever proposed a hereditary throne for Poland was decried by Muscovites as a traitor trying to deliver a free kingdom into the hands of a tyrant, as a betrayer seeking the enslavement of free citizens, and so on.


    "But Catharine was supposed to be the personification of all that was essential for the welfare of Poland. 'On demand of the Poles' she accepted the difficult task of Poland's protectress and announced that she would not tolerate any one who opposed liberty in Poland. She defended the system of Polish monarchial eligibility which opened the way to the throne to every noble, and permitted every magnate to support his candidate. The Czarina defended the policy of "Liberum Veto,' since it gave every member of the Diet an opportunity to accept graft.

    "The duped Poles believed these slanders and lies, and through insurrection helped their enemies to destroy the fatherland.

    "The behavior of these enemies of Poland was a complete fraud. Proclaiming their pride at having become the "protectors" of Polish independence, they plotted its overthrow. Declaring firm patriotism, the traitors secretly bargained with the enemies of Poland to obtain a large reward for their perfidy. Frederick and Catherine who persecuted Catholics in their own 26countries, posed in Poland as the protectors of dissenters.

    "When the Russian soldiers in Poland began to exceed themselves, the Poles awakened to the treachery of Catherine and Frederick. A conference was held for the purpose of adopting a plan to save Poland, but it was too late. The enemy was too powerful. The country was surrounded by enemy forces, and the nation could not unite itself for action. There was no leader, and dissension reigned throughout the country.

    "Furthermore the Russians had succeeded in stirring up an insurrection in Ukrainia and Wolyn, and then attacked Poland with a great army. About a hundred thousand Poles fell at that time; the nation was horror-stricken.

    "Such were the blessings brought by Frederick and Catherine to Poland. They would have destroyed Poland completely but Russia's war with Turkey intervened.


    "Thanks to the Russo-Turkish war, the Polish nation again raised its standard of fidelity to God, of liberty and equality for which it endures exile and imprisonment.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, May 12, 1891.


    (continued from previous issue)

    "Now the question arises, What did the history of our nation teach us? What did the treachery of our enemies teach us? The misfortunes caused by the system of the eligibility of kings and the policy of 'Liberum Veto' will certainly be of value some time in the future when Poland is reborn.

    "Our history furnishes other valuable lessons. It reveals the fact that the decline of faith was the basic cause of Poland's downfall. Early in 28its history Poland was protected from the German invasions by the Roman Catholic Church, and from that time on our nation was closely identified with that Church. Our enemies destroyed Poland under the pretext of protecting those who had repudiated the Roman Catholic Church. The Catholic faith is so woven into the Polish nation that whoever attempts to separate nationality from faith will distort his ideas of nationality, and lose his faith.

    "Our history shows that the lack of education among the people was one of the names employed by our enemies to destroy Poland. Unenlightened masses could not distinguish between a patriot and a hypocrite. Citizens should know their duty towards their country. Only when our nation returns to the Church and brings forth great men will there be a regeneration of Polish nationalism and a resurrection of Poland."

    Father F. Szukalski, pastor of the Polish Church at Beaver Dam, Wis. delivered the following speech at a large Polish hall in Chicago on May 3, 1891. "Every Pole believes ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 04, 1891
    Poles Celebrate Proclamation of Their Constitution (1791) Commemoration of the Hundredth Anniversary of the Polish Constitution of May the Third

    Although the main festivities to commemorate the Polish Constitution of the Third of May (1791), begin today and end tomorrow at Bradley Hall, the parishes held their own celebrations yesterday for their members. Last night's celebration at the new St. Stanilaus Kostka's hall was held for the members of this parish, and it served as an introduction to other celebrations which will take place at this hall.

    Last night's festivity however, deserves special attention. It brought us joy and, as it happens quite often, some sadness. Let us hope that the joyful moments will remain with us forever as pleasant memories and spiritual upliftment, and that the unpleasant ones will be obliterated from our minds and changed for the better.


    It was a beautiful Sunday morning of May, right after a gloomy Saturday, and the holiday spirit was everywhere. Even a stranger in a Polish neighborhood must have noticed that this was not a simple Sunday observance but some unusual national holiday. Almost all buildings were beautifully decorated, and thousands of flags, Polish and American, fluttered from the roofs and the windows. Large portraits of Polish patriots decorated the sides of many buildings and here and there one could see large portraits of George Washington, father of our country, with appropriate inscriptions. The streets were filled with people, almost everyone wearing some kind of medal, badge or tricolor ribbon indicating that he or she was a participant of the celebration.

    The Church of Saint Stanislaus Kostka, the interior of which was beautifully decorated with Polish and American flags and with all kind of national emblems so as to indicate that the church solemnities were connected with a great national holiday, was filled to capacity at every Mass. At 10 a.m. a High Mass was said in honor of the Fatherland. For this Mass the large 3temple of God could not accommodate the people who came to worship God. The great masses of the faithful raised their imploring voices to the Holy Virgin, mother of God, Queen of the Crown of Poland, asking her for the liberation of Poland. These devotional prayers and supplications filled the hearts of the faithful with holy joy and gave them assurance that a nation having such Queen still lives and has a future, even if at present it must experience great difficulties.

    Soon after the noon hour, the church yard and surrounding streets were filled with throngs of people, and the entire parish presented a picturesque sight. A very solemn vesper service was going to be celebrated in honor of church societies. The members of these organizations, dressed in their full regalia and with banners, formed themselves in lines ready to march into church. Here alone could anyone form an idea of the great number of the faithful belonging to this parish. Not only some non-members but also many members of the societies could not find a place in the church, as pews and aisles and all standing room were filled with 4people. The Knights of the Blessed Virgin, garbed in their picturesque uniforms, stood at the aisles. Societies could be distinguished by their uniforms or banners. Standard-bearers stood at both sides of the altar.

    During the vesper services, which began at 3 p.m., the Reverend Felix Zwiardowski, who came from Texas, delivered a patriotic sermon. After the sermon, a litany was sung to the Blessed Virgin of Loreto, to whom, as Queen of Poland, an appeal was made. The litany was followed by the blessing of the Holy Eucharist.

    The evening celebration began at 8 p.m. at the beautifully decorated Polish hall, and the entire program was adapted to the occasion.

    Quite often, especially in America, no attention is paid to the object of the commemoration; hardly or no mention is made in speeches of that which is commemorated. The subject is rather avoided or at best an 5attempt is made to connect the object of commemoration with a problem that has nothing to do with it. Some persons have no idea of what a commemoration is; they think that a program composed of a few numbers, including patriotic singing, constitutes a great commemorative celebration. We should discuss practical questions, especially those which can be applied to our immigration and those which point out how we may imitate - the examples of those whom we commemorate. We take for granted that at an occasion such as a commemoration, all speeches, theatrical plays, and songs should remind the participants of that which is commemorated.

    Yesterday's program was devoted entirely to the Polish Constitution of the Third of May declared in 1791.

    The speakers did their best to give an accurate description of this historical event. Reverend F. Szukalski, a priest from Beaver Dam, Wis., in his very interesting discourse based on historical facts, described 6how the Polish Constitution of the Third of May came into existence, explaining the causes of the sad partition of Poland. Mr. B. Klarkowski, the teacher, said in his enthusiastic talk that the constitution was accepted by the people because in spirit it is part of us. Reverend V. Barzynski read and explained the Constitution. Mr. Vincent Jozwiakowski, a young Pole, delivered a very enthusiastic speech to the young people, pointing out the great significance of the Polish Constitution and what they can learn from it. A variety of entertainment proper for the occasion was given between the speeches. A first-class orchestra played Polish compositions. This orchestra played at the Mass and will play again Tuesday at the solemn Mass to be officiated by the Archbishop of Chicago. Several members of the orchestra are Poles. Well-trained choirs, accompanied by the orchestra, sang Polish songs and compositions suitable for the occasion. One of the compositions was the "Hymn of the Third of May," specially composed for this occasion by the well-known poet Mr. S. Zachatkiewicz. The school choirs, composed approximately of eighty girls and fifty boys under Mr. A. Kwasigroch, parish organist, sang beautifully.


    It may be said that the celebrants paid close attention to the speeches, and enjoyed the musical selections a great deal. Miss Rose Kiolbassa, who delighted her listeners with her beautiful voice and displayed a great talent, was rewarded with great applause. Miss Kiolbassa distinguished herself at the choir by her clear alto voice. She was equally good at the piano and finally, to top it all, she won the hearts of the public with a superb recitation. Her success was so great that she was given applause and showered with flowers.

    This important and beautiful celebration was concluded with the singing of "God Save Poland."

    Mr. Peter Kiolbasa, who was the chairman of the committee in charge of the celebration, shared the platform of the hall occupied by the clergy and the presidents of the societies.

    And now let us direct our attention to the sad lack of interest shown last 8night during the celebration. At occasions such as last night's, the large Polish hall can hardly accommodate those who wish to participate, yet last night the hall was half filled. It is true that the public behaved wonderfully, that they were enthusiastic, yet it was sad to see that the hall was only partly filled. Perhaps some were tired by the all day celebration in the morning and the afternoon; perhaps some prefer to attend the general celebration which will take place tomorrow; and perhaps to some the prices seemed too high.

    [The Polish Constitution was declared on May 3, 1791.

    "In this historical document Poland guaranteed to all Poles, regardless of class or rank, peasant or merchant, laymen or clergy, equality, freedom of conscience, and a share in the government. This Constitution was to be revised every twenty-five years. It was an ideal constitution, a forerunner of democracy, later used as a model by nations who deemed it necessary to perfect their government. Burke, Lafayette and Washington believed it to be the best of all known constitutions." From the book Poland and her People. Transl. note.]

    Although the main festivities to commemorate the Polish Constitution of the Third of May (1791), begin today and end tomorrow at Bradley Hall, the parishes held their own celebrations yesterday ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 05, 1891
    Poles Celebrate Proclamation of Their Constitution (Second Day, May 4) (Summary)

    The Poles of Chicago should always be proud of yesterday's celebration. Its memory should last as long as they live in Chicago, and it should be publicized throughout the country because it brought credit to all Poles.

    The changeable weather of Chicago was rather unfavorable, for it was chilly, cloudy, and gloomy and it tried to snow.

    Delegates from all over the country came to St. Stanislaus Kostka's Parish. Among the delegates were many clergymen and men of distinction. They admired our beautifully decorated buildings and some of them honored us by visiting our office and printing shop. We have learned from the 2visitors that the celebrations in other cities were also successful.

    In the Morning

    As outlined in the program, there was a solemn memorial service in honor of those who sacrificed their lives for the faith, country, and the principles of the Constitution of the Third of May.


    The children of St. Stanislaus Kostka's school staged a special celebration in the afternoon. Although it did not draw a large crowd, it was successful. It was a working day; therefore, many parents could not attend and for the same reason the large Polish hall at Bradley Street was not filled. We are of the opinion that it is the duty of parents to see what progress their children are making in the school, about which so much has been written lately.


    Have our children made any progress? Yesterday's demonstration is the best proof. Facts speak for themselves.

    The school children's celebration was carried out according to the program. It began with a march played on a piano by the school girls, after which the school girls choir, whose members were dressed in national colors, sang the Polish song "Where the Polish Heart Beats." Then Mr. B. Klarkowski, the teacher spoke to the school children about the Polish Constitution and its importance. After his talk, he introduced little Leon Jozwiak, who in spite of his young age, delivered a beautiful speech, beginning with the words; "God did not grant us the privilege to be in the land where white eagles nest," Little Leon was greatly applauded. Next on the program was a beautiful piano duet entitled "Philomy Brilliant," played by two school girls. This was followed by an athletic exercise by a group of boys. Finally, the time arrived for the "Bouquet of Polish Songs," which was executed by the choirs to the satisfaction of the public.

    Deserving special attention is the beautiful sententious dramatical sketch 4entitled "Religion and Happiness," staged by senior school girls of St. Stanislaus Kostka's school, in which seven goddesses, namely, Wealth, Art, Wisdom, Beauty, Singing, Music, and Poetry offer their services to a girl of luck, but cannot satisfy her because each of them represents only apparent mundane happiness. Our heroine, however, is seeking absolute happiness, which appears to her in the form of Religion and Faith. The performance was a success for which the young ladies received great applause. The rest of the program was made up of singing and instrumental music. The program was concluded by Reverend V. Barzynski, who spoke of the patriotism of our mothers. He regretted the fact that the number of children in the hall was rather small.

    In the Evening

    The culminating point of yesterday's activities was last night's celebration in English at the large Polish hall, to which, besides the Poles, Americans and Germans were also invited.


    Shortly before 8 P.M., the great hall was practically filled. The orchestra played the favored "Bouquet of Polish Songs" as the public filled the remaining seats at the gallery. The knights of the Blessed Virgin Mary appeared in their picturesque uniforms, the school children dressed for the occasion, and the parish choirs stationed themselves at the sides of the hall. The platform was occupied by special guests, the clergy, delegates from societies and high city officials. Reverend Father Szukalski, opened the meeting and introduced Judge Moran as the chairman, who was greeted with deafening applause. The program began with the singing of "O Columbia" by the parish choir conducted by Mr. A. Kwasigroch, after which Judge Moran proceeded to speak.

    Judge Moran's speech was recorded stenographically, but we cannot reproduce it here for lack of space. However, we will point out the most important parts.

    Judge Moran complimented the Poles for commemorating so important and beautiful 6an event, and then gave a brief outline of the Polish Constitution, describing the circumstances under which it was declared. He said, "Surrounded by foes opposing principles of justice and freedom, the Poles formed and accepted a constitution which brought them immortal fame, for it was an example for all because it dared to declare a lofty principle that an authority comes from the people, and because it gave so much right to the people that the Polish King had less authority than the President of the United States."

    Judge Moran continued, "Poland lives by its history, literature, noble virtues and deeds of great and famous men.

    "You have your heroes, learned men, artists."

    He cited beautiful examples in our history, mentioned Sobieski, Kosciuszko, pointed to their great deeds, and added that wherever there are lovers of freedom, there you find famous Poles, and that the Poles come to the 7United States to unite with a peace-loving nation, bringing honor to the country. He stated that it was a great honor for him to be chairman at this meeting. He praised our work, our institutions at which our children learn English and Polish, and remarked that we have a tendency to establish a government like that of the United States, that we should accomplish it, and that we have the good will of all. He concluded his speech with complimentary remarks about our gathering, our beautiful hall, and our patriotism.

    His sympathetic speech was frequently interrupted by hearty applause.

    Next attraction was a vocal duet by Mrs. P. Kiolbassa and her daughter Rose, who sang the beautiful "Schubert's Serenade," and for which they were rewarded with tremendous applause and flowers. The duet was a success, in spite of the untimely interruption of the orchestra.

    The chairman of the meeting then introduced the Right Reverend Spaulding, 8Bishop of Peoria, as one of the best speakers in America and as a distinguished bishop of our country.

    Indeed we had the rare privilege of hearing a great speech delivered by a famous speaker and prince of the Church in America. It was a great honor to hear this silver-tongued orator. His speech revealed that he has a great knowledge of our history; it also disclosed his profound sympathy for our nation; it made us proud of being Poles, and it will be remembered for a long time. He spoke about our great astronomer, Copernicus the priest. He compared the Poles with the Irish, and then proceeded to describe the partition of Poland and its causes, and here he manifested his profound knowledge of Polish history by citing historical facts. He encouraged us to love our wonderful country as well as the adopted one, and added that only the ungrateful forget their native country. Referring to American patriotism, he stated that American Poles are good patriots and also excellent linguists, and disapproved of depriving anyone of his native tongue. We listened to this great church dignitary with great respect, interest, and pride. He received tremendous applause.


    After the Bishop's speech, the school children sang "The Star-Spangled Banner," and after that the ladies' choir sang a Polish composition.

    When the choir ceased singing, the chairman introduced Mr. P. Onahan, a former city treasurer, who spoke on the religiousness of the Poles, referring to King Sobieski, who after defeating the Turks, as an exemplary and loving husband, sent the news to his wife in Poland, and as a faithful Catholic sent the captured Turkish flag to the Pope of Rome.

    Special recognition should be given to the choirs and the soloists. We refer to Miss F. Bok, who sang a soprano solo and attracted everyone's attention by her beautiful voice. Jan Kondziorski distinguished himself as a basso.

    The Poles of Chicago should always be proud of yesterday's celebration. Its memory should last as long as they live in Chicago, and it should be publicized throughout the country ...

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 05, 1891
    Poland's National Festival

    The main event of yesterday's great Polish festival, the third day of its celebration, was given in the large hall of St. Stanislaus School, corner Noble and Bradley Streets.

    On May 4, 1791, the Polish constitution was proclaimed; it provided that "every man who enters Poland shall be regarded as a free man". Since this noteworthy courageous statement was made, one hundred years have elapsed and the Poles of America, and especially Chicago's Polish population, excelled in its display of patriotism by giving a great parade and numerous celebrations.

    The festival which was given yesterday at St. Stanislaus Hall was highly elevating, and the words we heard there will undoubtedly leave a permanent impression in the hearts of every Pole. The hall was profusely decorated and in conformity with the mailed invitations which announced that "every friend of liberty is welcome", we noted next to the American and Polish banners, also the German, Swiss and the Irish colors.


    Amongst the multitude which filled the spacious hall, the young girls of St. Stanislaus School, dressed in white with red bands fluttering from their waists, made a most pleasing appearance; also two companies of Polish military clubs joined in their parade uniforms.

    At the beginning of the festival, the orchestra played a march, which was followed by a short opening address by the Rev. J. T. Szukalski. After the singing of the national hymn, "Columbia", Judge Moran, who accepted the presidency for the festival, spoke to the assembly. He congratulated the Poles upon their love for their native land, and complimented America for its fortunate possession of such a diligent, energetic, law-abiding and liberty-loving people as the Poles.

    The regular festival speech was given by the bishop, Rev. I. W. Spalding of Peoria, and his masterly, limitless perceptions, his effective and convincing arguments and citations, deserve recognition as a work of profound importance. The speaker gave a chronological account of the history of mankind as far back as the Aryan and Semitic tribes; from the latter we inherited religion, from the former, culture and progress in the arts were given to the human race. In a fascinating manner he mentioned the importance of the Poles upon culture and ended his enthusiasm 3creating speech by referring to Copernicus, a Catholic priest and Pole, whose scientific knowledge and discoveries in astronomy proved to be epochal. Speaking of Poland in regard to its former political position, Bishop Spaulding quoted the reasons which led to Poland's dissolution. The main cause was to be found in its geographical location; it had no natural boundaries, but was wedged between two monarchies, who had to sacrifice this bulwark of liberty. Our own America should thank Providence that oceans separate it from warring kingdoms and Czarist empires. Finally, the speaker considered the school question. He spoke with enthusiasm and declared that the teaching of one's hereditary language in the public schools is a serious thought which can not be eradicated anymore.

    Great applause interrupted nearly every sentence of this highly interesting part of his discourse.

    W. J. Onahan, former city comptroller, gave a short talk on the accomplishments of the Poles as American citizens.

    Among the musical offerings, we must first mention the duet of Mrs. and Miss Kiolbassa, which was given a tumultous welcome in recognition of its excellence.


    The church choir (ladies, gentlemen), which sang Polish national songs and the patriotic composition, "The Song of our Land", also gave us a magnificent presentation. The school children intoned "The Star Spangled Banner", which was followed by a mass-chorus which sang the prayer; and so this memorable celebration came to a glorious end.

    The Committee consisted of Mr. P. Kiolbassa, Rev. Barzynski, and others.

    <p/> The main event of yesterday's great Polish festival, the third day of its celebration, was given in the large hall of St. Stanislaus School, corner Noble and Bradley Streets. ...

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