The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Chicago Tribune -- October 12, 1877
    Polish Patriots Second Day of the Convention

    The second day's session of the fifth annual Convention of the Polish Catholic Union of the United States was held yesterday at the corner of Noble and Bradley streets. There were some twenty societies represented by delegates. The Rev. Father L. Moczygemba, of Jeffersonville, Ind., presided, John Barzynski, secretary.

    A committee of three, composed of P. Kiolbassa, the Rev. Kosloski, of La Salle, and the Rev. Joseph Dombrowski, was appointed for the purpose of finding a suitable place in which to establish a Polish Orphan Asylum, and to raise funds among the Polish Societies through the country for that purpose.

    The second day's session of the fifth annual Convention of the Polish Catholic Union of the United States was held yesterday at the corner of Noble and Bradley streets. There ...

    III B 4, III C, II D 4
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- January 20, 1879
    The Poles in Chicago

    Among the many nationalities in Chicago, the Poles play a leading part. During the last years, especially after the Chicago Fire, they increased noticeably, so that they now number about twenty-five thousand. The first Polish pioneers arrived in Chicago as early as 1852; they lived in various sections of the city, virtually strangers, since there was no specific Polish settlement in the city at that time. As most of them were of the Roman Catholic faith, they became affiliated with the German Catholic churches, although a desire prevailed to build a Polish church. In 1869 a club was finally organized to raise funds. Within a short span of time several thousand dollars had been gathered and the erection of a church commenced in earnest. The site was at Noble and Bradley Streets. When the fact became known, hundreds of Polish families from all parts of America and particularly from the Kaschubei in Germany flocked to Chicago. The Kaschubes are of Polish origin. Their language shows much borrowing from the German. These people live in the vicinity of Danzig, Berend, and Neustadt in Upper 2Silesia, Prussia, and represent a low cultural level, due to the Prussian school edict whereby all Polish children must study the various school subjects in German, a language which is strange to them. The Kaschubes are fervent Catholics, frugal and economical. Many of them have ten thousand to thirty thousand dollars.

    The first wooden church, later converted into an elementary school, was dedicated in 1869; Reverend Jaskowski was the first Polish priest.

    It is generally conceded that most of the foreign people founding a new home on these shores lose all sense of discretion in so far as the word liberty is concerned, due to a rapid change from monarchical to democratic surroundings involving the abolition of class consciousness. Therefore, the new arrivals practiced no self-restraint; self-interest ran rampant, and this fault also manifested itself occasionally among the Poles. A Polish priest sits on a volcano, as it were; every member of the parish intends to rule, and gives 3advice to the priest on how to conduct himself within and beyond the confines of the church. Anonymous letters are a daily occurrence; the Lord have mercy on [a minister] who transgresses and lacks energy--that man is lost. Many of the sixty-five Polish communities of this land could give their own interesting versions of certain peculiar incidents, but in so far as these internal affairs are concerned, I shall enshroud them in secrecy.

    The people had conscientious scruples, because they could not order masses to be read for their deceased relatives. Money for masses poured into the church coffers in copious quantities and the impecunious priest became affluent. [Translator's note: This is a literal translation. Possibly the apparent meaninglessness is due to the omission of something from the Staats-Zeitung.] But this egotistical ambition [of the minister] to amass wealth had its repercussions and created enemies. Besides, he had the misfortune of being encumbered with a charming and beautiful "cousin," who today would be called ciotka (aunt).


    Dissatisfaction [in the parish] became rampant; finally a horde armed with cudgels visited the unsuspecting priest and returned with broken weapons. The maltreated disseminator of the gospel fled at that very hour, and a Polish settlement in Minnesota provided a sanctuary.

    His successor was the Reverend Bakanowski, an erudite gentlemen well versed in Polish, German, French, Italian, Latin and English. Besides being endowed with a sympathetic sonorous voice, he was endowed with exceptional talents in rhetoric, and his general conduct inspired friendship. To all these mental attributes must be added, unfortunately, bodily perfection. Like Alcibiades, he was the most beautiful specimen of his race. Attendance at his sermons was large; all nationalities congregated at his distant church on Sundays, to listen and admire the "Beautiful Polish priest". Naturally, the fair sex was most numerous. Invitations galore were sent to him, requesting his presence here and there for the purpose of holding religious meetings and consoling beauteous ladies in their parlors. Would it be reasonable to 5condemn the pious man for yielding to his desire to save souls and accepting such offers? Of course not. Among the mass of Polish penitents was a charming, intelligent, lovely lady, wife of a local physician. Above all, it became increasingly important to save her soul. And while religious solace was given here, the sick, and children in need of baptism, waited vainly at home. The doctor's residence was in another part of the city. The oft occurring absence of the priest aroused antagonism. The burden of his duties in the parish induced the priest to obtain an assistant. This brings to the scene the Reverend Wolowski, a suspicious, conniving man, who had lost one arm during the Polish Insurrection against Russia in 1863, according to his version. Scandalmongers assert, however, that Wolowski, caretaker of the war chest of his regimental division, made a trip to somewhat remote regions, supposedly to protect the precious property from Russian marauders; but the Polish patriots protested against the pretext, and as punishment cut off the pernicious arm. With the officiating of this gentleman the halcyon days of Aranjuez came to a sinister end. Envious of his colleague's success, the 6assistant sent a voluminous denunciation directly to Rome.

    Reverend Bakanowski was called to the Holy City to defend himself and did not return. Like Niobe, the not fully converted beauties pined away from secret sorrow, remembering only the past exhilarating moments while hiding from human scrutiny the grief that engulfed them. But vengeance was in the offing for the insolent schemer who so rudely curtailed clandestine bliss. His attempt to found a Polish school--a measure calculated to bolster his waning popularity--proved unavailing. He was doomed, in so far as Chicago was concerned.

    The following priest, Reverend Zwiardowski, shortly after taking the reins of the parish, dismissed the sinister chap. The school was not to be abandoned, however.

    As dissension arose at the time among the then functioning teachers and the 7priest, and as there existed an absolute dearth of other suitable pedagogues, Reverend Zwiardowski decided to let nuns manage the school. The sisters were mostly Germans and expressed German nationalism in no uncertain terms; it brought a remonstrance. The dissenters found a leader in Mr. Dynsewics, editor of the liberal Polish paper, Gazetta Polska, a publication in existence for the last ten years. Their slogan or, may we say, "the war whoop," was the terse sentence: "In Germany Bismarck Germanizes us, and here a Polish priest!"

    The people were so incensed, that the priest, whose health was none too good, considered it advisable to leave his field of activity. The vacancy thus created provided a berth soon after, in 1874, for the Reverend Vincent Barzynski, who still functions in his ecclesiastical capacity. Few leaders faced greater difficulties. There were more than fifteen thousand people of Polish extraction in Chicago at that time, representing every part of the former great nation (in the period of a bygone century--1667 to 1772--this 8former kingdom represented an area of 21,334 geographical square miles), and everyone was imbued with the ruling complex, insistent on telling the minister what to do.

    Father Vincent was thirty years old at that time; he came from a highly respected family living in the Russian part of Poland. He attended the best schools in his native land and continued his studies in Rome. He is very eloquent--capable of exacting admiration from his adversaries through his powers of persuasion. He is intelligent, pious, but not a hypocrite, and has an excellent reputation. He is fully aware of the traits of his countrymen and his plans take cognizance of them. In many respects his conduct reminds one of Octavius Augustus: If various efforts meet with indifferent success, then he threatens to leave the parish, whereupon every request is promptly granted, and upon urgent entreaties from the congregation he condescends to stay for a while. Various business matters incident to such a large congregation he has placed in the hands of several committees; but, 9basically, he is the sole leader. "Roma Locuta Est, Causa Finita Est," he tells an occasional opponent who cannot be reconciled to the priestly views. He is on a par with Gregory VII, a man of tremendous will power who would rather perish than relinquish a plan designed to elevate the community spiritually and materially. But, Facta Loquuntur.

    Under his capable leadership the Polish school attained increased attendance; six hundred children are at present enrolled and given instruction in their native language by Polish nuns. Music, which in former years induced Polish youths to leave the path of rectitude and seek dance halls, taverns, and other libertine diversions, is now mute.

    Since the small church proved inadequate for the large congregation, an additional house of worship was built: The Church of the Holy Trinity, near Milwaukee Avenue. The Poles, living in the immediate vicinity, virtually surrounded the structure with stores, mostly saloons, and this contingent 10later asked the bishop that their connection with the old church be severed and a priest of their own choice be installed. The antipathy of certain Poles toward Father Vincent is attributable to the fact that he hails from Russian Poland and belongs to the Order of the Resurrectionists. Almost the entire Polish Liberal Party, here and abroad, maintain that the priests of this Fraternity show insufficient patriotism, and that their interests are only centered on Catholicism. While this assumption may be partly justified, it is entirely inappropriate in so far as Father Barzynski is concerned. His sermons express fervent patriotism, and the well-edited, ultramontane Polish paper, Gazetta Polska Katolicka, which is published under his direction, always defends Polish interests. Moreover, the numerous changes he inaugurated and, above all, the founding of a Polish high school, give conclusive evidence of the priest's patriotic sentiments.

    Bishop Farley did not accede to the wishes of the Poles desiring an independent church, as Father Vincent and his assistants proved sufficient.


    Increasing dissatisfaction became apparent, resulting in an eventual rift and at long last two parties, steeped in bitter animosity. Church meetings developed into a replica of the Polish Congress, and a threat was made to apostatize. Time and time again Father Vincent advocated reconciliation but to no avail; he was even insulted and, on one occasion, arrested at the behest of some depraved creature.

    When all efforts in behalf of peace proved fruitless, the Reverend Father carried the "sanctissimum" to the mother church and left his church to the dissatisfied element. Thus the house of worship remained forsaken for almost a year, when a Polish priest, Mielcuszny, appeared. Many Polish people knew him when he lived in the Grand Duchy of Posen, (Germany). He had been active in New York, but was compelled to resign. Cardinal Closkey objected to the priest's wordly activities, because the latter fitted out a saloon, combined with a dance hall, in the basement of the church; this proved a lively place after church services. Mielcuszny, an accomplished dancer, 12usually opened the festivities.

    This priest proved most welcome to the recreants and, contrary to the bishop's wishes, was installed. Intense enmity now involved the two factions, but this is not the place to adjudge theological principles. Suffice it to say, therefore, that according to church canons the installation of priests is one of the ecclesiastical duties delegated to bishops, and this community, in the strict sense of the creed, is not Catholical. After the disgruntled element had affiliated itself with the long-closed church, now given a new lease on life under the leadership of the Polish priest from New York, the parochial domain of Reverend Barzynski again enjoyed the blessings of peace. As the available space provided by the church proved inadequate, a new church was built. Thus far eighty thousand dollars have been spent on construction, and an additional thirty thousand dollars will be required to complete the edifice.

    The not overly large mortgage is being paid by voluntary contributions and 13pew rentals, which amounts to approximately eight thousand dollars per year.

    The paintings for the church have been entrusted to a talented Polish artist, Zabinski, who came directly from Rome (Italy). His studio is at the parish house. A visit will prove very interesting. Several splendid sketches and the full-size, partly completed painting, "The Death of Stanislaus Kostka," give eloquent proof that a genius conceived them.

    For some time Father Vincent considered founding a Polish high school, and to realize that goal he spent large sums of money; however, serious difficulties were encountered. Indifferent success did not deter him, however. Repeatedly he admonished his congregation, and spoke in stentorian tones about public indifference. Finally, the community decided to build a higher institution of learning, and to defray the cost. The school was opened this year, January 2, [1879], and two eminent instructors were secured.


    Professor Stein, thirty years old, passed his examinations with flying colors at the gymnasium in Thorn, on the River Weichsel, and the seminary in Posen. To complete his studies he traveled throughout the greater part of Europe. [In the interim] he taught in Posen and Bromberg at public schools, and academies for young ladies. In America he taught successfully in New York and Detroit. Here, he will give instructions in the German and Polish languages, as well as mathematics.

    Professor Wenslow studied at the Jesuit College here; later he studied philosophy.

    The institution [the Polish high school] accepts students regardless of religion or nationality. At present forty-three students are enrolled; the evening school register shows seventy-two have matriculated. The future of the school is assured, as attendance increases daily.

    The community now entertains the highest regard for its spiritual leader; it 15feels convinced that no personal ambition or selfish interest motivated his action; he was concerned only in the true welfare of his countrymen. Since the storm subsided and outstanding success crowned the priest's efforts, it is expected that the majority of the estranged members will return to the mother church soon.

    This brief sketch does not pretend to give all the details which, after all, would be superfluous. I have merely stated facts, because Chicago has many Polish families, and a large number subscribe to this paper. Perhaps I may have an opportunity at some future time to give an account of the Polish community of the South Side, its church, the Polish press, clubs, and, possibly, some interesting details of prominent Polish people who live in our city.

    Among the many nationalities in Chicago, the Poles play a leading part. During the last years, especially after the Chicago Fire, they increased noticeably, so that they now number about ...

    III C, II B 2 d 1, I A 2 a, I A 2 b, III A, I C, IV
  • Zgoda -- January 12, 1887
    Attempts to Organize Polish Clubs and Societies in America

    Dear Editor:

    We hope that the writer of this article has in his heart some of the true feelings Polish people in this country received after reading his article. When I receive letters from different parts of our city, telling of organizing new church societies and political clubs, I am surprised that no attempts have been made to organize a Polish national club in our country for the benefit of all Polish people.

    Sooner or later all Polish immigrants in this country will concentrate on the organizing one big Polish club, which will take care of all Polish affairs pertaining to the welfare of the Polish immigrants in this country.

    It is assumed, that the Polish National Alliance will take full charge of this great movement, but the disinclined will have to change their attitude about this movement; otherwise it will be dropped because one club cannot take care of this alone without the support of all the Polish people.


    This Polish national club will take the utmost interest in all Polish affairs and be of great help to the Polish immigrants.

    I haven't any doubt that no matter where we go this land of freedom will give the Polish people the opportunities they have been seeking.

    In about 30 or 50 years, the population of the Polish immigrants in this country will be a few millions. Our hardships in our native land, and our faith in the Lord are well known, but our main ambition won't be realized any too soon. Judging by our intentions and hard work, we have one thing that means everything to us, freedom.

    Let us always bear in mind that Poland was our native land, but now in the land of freedom, let us all learn to speak a new language, let us not lose faith that some day our native land will fight against its rulers and be a free country. Then we can return to her and have riches and good luck, which are awaiting us.


    All this will not happen unless the poor class of people defy the treacherous rule of the rich. Before the rich will consent to this change and agree to be treated as equals with the poor, the blood of many patriots will flow in our native land.

    In this land of freedom we need many churches where we can receive our daily bread or communion, and we ask that all Polish people take part in this religious obligation, the same way as they have done in Poland.

    We should have a committee to see that the Polish children attend school, that they have books published at a reasonable price, have intelligent teachers, maintain and run the old schools, and build new schools, and organize Polish libraries in the neighborhoods inhabited mostly by Polish people.

    A committee of finance, consisting of trusted and intelligent men of high standing, should take it upon themselves to see that the Polish soldiers and the Polish churches are kept in the best of conditions.


    I am interested in only one thing; that the Polish papers and the employees take the utmost care in publishing articles concerning the welfare of all Polish people. Almost daily we hear of Polish societies and churches being started, which is a good sign that soon we will be a strong group, united as one.

    Let this idea of unity remian deep in our hearts, so that the new Polish immigrants may profit by our sincere and hearty efforts. I hope the editor can place a few of these words in his paper.

    A. Patriofil.

    Dear Editor: We hope that the writer of this article has in his heart some of the true feelings Polish people in this country received after reading his article. When ...

    III A, III B 2, III C, I A 1 a, I E
  • Zgoda -- January 26, 1887

    There are many Americans who give our forefathers credit for their splendid support of the Catholic religion and their undying love for their native land.

    Not long ago something was said in regard to the above mentioned which caused hard feelings and misunderstanding among Polish people; we feel that it should be overlooked.

    American citizens attending the Polish National Alliance convention began collecting donations to support and maintain the academy and convent of the Ursulan Sisters. Donations were given good-heartedly.

    During a church mission in a small town near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a Polish Catholic priest, Father Koluszewski of Cleveland, ascended the pulpit and denounced sternly the donations given to support the "n Home."


    "Who gave them permission," said the Reverend Father to the congregation, "to take care of the collections for the Ursulans? Do not believe them; they are liars, these Ursulans; they are a suspicious group of ladies. In the old country the devil sent women to do his bidding where he himself had failed."

    I will not say anything that you can hold against me but I will add this - that the reason for the sudden anger of Reverend Father Koluszewski against the Ursulans is that the Polish National Alliance of America is taking care of the donations for the Ursulans and is being fully supported by its 3,000 members and by different societies and Catholic institutions.

    Reverend Father Koluszewski is himself working against the Polish National Alliance; he cannot understand how an organization as big as the P. N. A. can undertake so great a responsibility and still have so many Roman Catholic priests striving for an opportunity to join it.

    Reverend Koluszewski's speech from the pulpit only caused the people to 3leave in great anger; it caused ill feeling among the P. N. A. members because they were willing to contribute to the support of poor Ursulan Sisters' Convent.

    Another priest said: "As a priest, I am humiliated at the sudden outburst of Reverend Father Koluszerski; as a Pole, I cannot find words to apoligize for his behavior. I know that from our native country the poorest class of people crossed the ocean in search of a country where they could be taken care of in their old age, as for example, the Home of the Ursulan Sisters. This institution is also striving to save our children from the shame put upon their souls because of the lack of education. They are working to teach our Polish children the success and pleasures of life received from having a good education and from the teachings of the Catholic religion.

    It also shows in old records that the head of this institution, Superior Sister Morawska, donated her farm and all her money in her home town of Poland for the building of this home, Ursulan Sisters. This shows that any propaganda or slander said against these "Sisters" is only used as an obstruction against the Polish people in their effort to advance and their 4undying love for the Catholic religion.

    Almighty God will punish the trouble-maker who spoke so rudely about the Ursulan Sisters and their undying love for the Catholic religion.

    Dr. Rev. Father Kanonik.

    There are many Americans who give our forefathers credit for their splendid support of the Catholic religion and their undying love for their native land. Not long ago something was ...

    III C, I A 2 c, III B 4, I K, III B 2, II D 5, I A 2 a
  • Zgoda -- November 14, 1888
    The Affairs of Polish Schools

    It is difficult to give you the actual statistics of Polish schools in the United States. The census taken here of Polish children attending parochial schools is about 17,000.

    In these Polish schools over thirty secular priests teach, the rest of the teachers being nuns.

    We find a shortage of higher schools for our Polish children. Our young Polish children, wanting to obtain a higher education, must seek it in English or German institutions where often they forget their native tongue, and a Pole who can't speak Polish is useless to his Fatherland. And not only to his country, but, as the case may be, to the church and the Catholic religion.

    We must hope that by working and economizing, our poor immigration of today shall yet stand on an equal footing with other nationalities. The English, Irish, and Germans did not bring any capital here with them to America, but 2today there is a colossal American fortune in their hands. Let us try just now, to preserve our present capital, religion, nationality, and Polish virtues.

    It is difficult to give you the actual statistics of Polish schools in the United States. The census taken here of Polish children attending parochial schools is about 17,000. In ...

    I A 2 a, I A 2 b, III A, III C
  • Zgoda -- April 16, 1890
    Blessing of the Banner

    Please place this correspondence news in your Zgoda. The members of the St. Stephen Society, at the parish of St. Stanislaus, celebrated the commemoration of a beautiful Polish banner, Easter Sunday, at the expense of $600.

    The Society of St. Stephan has been organized over a year ago,and the number of members is increasing nicely. Today we have 290 members. Many of the other societies of this parish took part in this great celebration.

    At 9 o'clock, Easter morning, the procession started; the Society of St. Stanislaus came first because it is the oldest society of this parish, second came the Society of St. Casimir; third, the Society of St. Adelbert; fourth, the Society of St. Valentine; fifth, the Society of St. John Kantego; sixth, the Society of St. Stephan.

    These different societies paraded through the streets to the music 2supplied by the Society of St. Stanislaus, and returned to the church where a church mass was given, followed by a mass meeting in the church auditorium, where speeches by the Rev. Fathers and prominent leaders of Polish enterprises, were heard. The choir of St. Stanislaus sang songs, accompanied by a Polish orchestra. After the speeches, the societies marched through the streets with this new banner at the head of the parade, and many thousands of Polish people took part in the great ceremonies.

    The reverend Fathers and the committee in charge of this celebration take this opportunity to thank one and all for their splendid cooperation.

    St. Sierszulski, Sec. of St. Stephan Society.

    Please place this correspondence news in your Zgoda. The members of the St. Stephen Society, at the parish of St. Stanislaus, celebrated the commemoration of a beautiful Polish banner, Easter ...

    III C, I B 4, III B 3 b, III B 2
  • Zgoda -- October 22, 1890
    Fire at St. Stanislaus Church

    Friday morning, at the 8 o'clock mass at the St. Stanislaus church, located at Noble and Ingraham Streets, an altar candle fell which caused a fire. The attendance at this mass consisted mostly of school children, a few of whom put the fire under control before the firemen arrived; but before that had happened, a great commotion took place among the frightened children when some of the women at this mass started screaming and saying that the gas pipe had broken and would result in an explosion. The frightened children rushed the doors, which resulted in the jamming of the doorway and many were injured. The greatest catastrophe took place on the front stairs of the church. There the children fell in one big mass,tripping over one another, kicking and trying to free themselves, which resulted in over twenty children being critically injured. The largest per cent of these were boys.

    Four of these boys were rushed to the hospital where it was predicted they would die. The stairs were covered with the blood of these children.


    In a short time a few thousand people were at the scene of this catastrophe; fathers and mothers crying, looking for their children.

    People were asking whose fault was it. Some of the mothers of these children claim that if the Sisters would have done their duty in the case of a fire like this, it would never have happened. They should have kept the children quiet, and marched then out in order, but the Sisters, many claim, were more frightened than the children.

    Many people are saying what would happen if a fire would break out at a Sunday mass. To this Rev. Father Barzynski replied thus: I hope that if this ever happens at a Sunday mass, the grown up people will have enough strength and control of their minds to assist the weaker and elderly people, and help keep order in the church."

    Friday morning, at the 8 o'clock mass at the St. Stanislaus church, located at Noble and Ingraham Streets, an altar candle fell which caused a fire. The attendance at this ...

    III C, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 19, 1891
    The School Question (Editorial)

    We have received information that the Bohemians, together with some Poles, residing in Chicago, are trying to pass a school regulation which would entitle a foreign language of any large group of people the same privilege or representation in the public schools as that of the German language. We have asked many of our countrymen their attitude towards this problem, and whether or not they will participate in the agitation. From the answers received, we have come to a conclusion that there are two factions: one of them is for the agitation, and the other is bitterly opposing it. The first faction is quite small, but the second is very large.

    It is easy to find to which faction any group of people belong. Most of the members of the Polish National Alliance have joined that group of Bohemians or faction which originated the agitation. The members of the Polish Roman Catholic Union, however, with the exception of a few, belong 2to the opposing side. There are also Poles who do not belong to either of the two mentioned Polish organizations, and their opinions are also divided. Their number is so small that it should not be taken seriously.

    For the first time since Dziennik Chicagoski has come into its existence, we are going to give our view on the question, which has divided the opinions of the members of two great Polish-American organizations. We are doing this for the first time, therefore, we think it is advisable to state for the sake of clearness that we will treat this particular question objectively. If we mention the names of both organizations, it is not because we desire to engage ourselves in an unpleasant controversy between the Polish National Alliance and the Roman Catholic Union, but because we desire to make the argumentation clear.

    We have stated that the majority of the members of the Polish National Alliance are for the agitation, and that the members of the Polish Roman 3Catholic Union, with the exception of the few, are against the agitation. This is a fact, and we can prove it. However, some of these opinions are personal convictions, for which neither the Polish National Alliance nor the Polish Roman Catholic Union is responsible. The number of these individuals is very small.

    There is a certain number of members in either organization, who have also formed their own opinions, but based on idealistic principles. With these principles, the organization plays a very important part. These members may be classified into several groups, and they support one of the factions for the following reasons: If they belong to the Polish National Alliance, some members, who, for convenience, we will call group No. 1, may see a patriotic act in agitating for a school regulation which would entitle the Polish language the same privilege as that of the German language in the Chicago public schools; but they are prejudiced against the so-called "clerical rule," and (2) for the same reason do not favor parochial schools. They have nothing against the attendance of Polish 4children in the public schools. (3) these members wish to express their indignation on account of the privilege granted to the German language in Chicago schools, and although they know that the Polish language will not be introduced in Chicago public schools, they favor that measure for the purpose of removing the injustice done them. (4) The members of this group are of the opinion that the Polish National Alliance should take an initiative in such "patriotic" undertakings, and as members of the organization, should support the agitation.

    On the other hand, the members of the Polish Roman Catholic Union are of the opinion: (1) that there is a risk for the parochial schools in case the Polish language would be introduced in Chicago public schools, especially in Polish settlements; (2) there are members who think that public schools are too dangerous for the young people, because these institutions are bringing up children without religious principles, morals, patriotic feeling, or healthy view on social life; (3) many of our countrymen think that we would disgrace ourselves in the eyes of Americans, 5Irishmen, and even the Germans, for trying to introduce the Polish language in public schools when formerly we used to defend parochial schools so often and so openly; (4) the fourth group is of the opinion that a protest against the privilege of the German language would accomplish more than an agitation for introducing the Polish language in the public schools. The number of the members, either in the Roman Catholic Union or the Polish National Alliance, who have such convictions is very small, although, they deserve attention and respect.

    Finally, the majority of the members give support either to this or that group because they think it is their duty to approve or oppose their party, quite often referred to as "church-goers" or "patriots." The number of the supporters mentioned last is the largest, and with them the circumstance of belonging either to the Polish Roman Catholic Union or to the Polish National Alliance, plays the most important part. They have no personal convictions.

    As editors of Dziennik Chicagoski, we cannot ignore this important question.


    We must express our opinion on this matter, and as this opinion must agree with one of the two large groups, we are prepared for the accusation that we are opposing one of them. However, we feel that such accusation will be unjust. For this reason, we repeat emphatically that we desire to treat this matter objectively, and if there will ensue any controversy on account of it, let it be limited. We beg you for the sake of the subject only, that is, the school question, let the argumentation be conducted properly, peacefully, and with dignity.

    In our opinion, the Poles should not participate in the agitation of the Bohemians.

    We have received information that the Bohemians, together with some Poles, residing in Chicago, are trying to pass a school regulation which would entitle a foreign language of any large ...

    I A 1 b, I A 2 b, III C, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 05, 1891
    The Vicious Circle or the School Question Again (Editorial)

    Again we find two, or rather two and a half answers in Zgoda (a Polish weekly) on the school question, but how are we going to combat them? Our arguments have not been answered by contradictory disputation, our proofs have not been disproved, there are only never ending evasions, going around in circles, eluding the subject itself, and a tendency to start a controversy on some other subject, because they have no means of defending this one.

    It seems that these controvertists have only one argument and this argument is: The parochial schools are worthless because they are supervised by the priests. Public schools are good because they are 2not supervised by the priests. It is not necessary to prove that there is something wrong with that supervision, because in the heads of the opponents of the parochial schools such an axiom as two times two are four is wrong.

    We did not state that the parochial schools in America are better than the public schools just because they are supervised by the priests, but we did state that the parochial schools are better because they teach the English language as efficiently as the public schools. This is proved by the fact that the boys from the parochial schools are accepted by colleges and other institutions of higher learning, and besides, they teach religion, morality, and patriotism, the principles which every person needs in order to become a decent citizen later on. We have 3made a statement that these better schools are supervised by the priests because no one else is eager to supervise them, for no one else is establishing them.

    If any one desires to contradict our statement let him prove first that parochial schools, in reality are deficient in educating children, and if it will be necessary later on to transfer children from the parochial to the public schools on account of that deficiency. It will then be easy to prove that we should try to introduce the Polish Language as one of the subjects into the public schools.

    Zgoda continues: "You have no sympathy or support of the public, because among the united Catholic Poles (Polish Roman Catholic Union) you have only five or six thousand sympathizers out of every million." Has any 4other organization more sympathizers? That sympathy proves that our organization is the largest. If we take in consideration all adult male Poles, and we refer to those who really care to belong to any organization, the percentage belonging to this organization (the Polish Roman Catholic Union) is indeed very satisfactory.

    You ask: "Why are not Polish private high schools established?" They are being established and for girls also. The author of the article in Zgoda undoubtedly refers to Chicago. Is he not aware that there is a Polish high school for the girls in Chicago, located on Division Street, or does he ignore it purposely? But in order to have high schools, it is necessary to start with lower ones and have you established any school, even a lower one?

    "Piety ought to be inculcated at home" you say. Then why not education 5also? It is much harder to teach piety than reading or writing. Besides, the parents have neither qualification nor time for that, and for this reason they ought to send their children to qualified teachers." Religion should be taught by compulsion, not by the priests, or in schools, but by the parents at home." And if the parents will not exercise this compulsion, should the country allow the children of such parents to grow up as outlaws? Compulsory morality is indispensable for the country, therefore, the country should care for its early development in children, even where children are neglected by the parents or protectors, if they are orphans.

    And again, the old worn out accusation: "We know from history that this course and guidance of the priests have kept nations in darkness for centuries." In order to make such accusation, it is necessary to have some historical proofs, facts, and dates. This is a favorite melody of those "Catholics who respect the priests as clergymen, but they were accustomed to seeing the church 6and the clergy under control of the parishioners." But where are the proofs? Yet Jan Dantyszek, Peter Skarga, Nicholas Copernicus, Adam Naruszewicz, Ignace Krasicki, and so many others were priests and bishops. Dates, facts, and names, not mere hearsays constitute proofs. No true Catholic will think that the clergy should be controlled by the parishioners in respect to faith and morals, only when management of property is concerned.

    The author of the article in Zgoda also charges that the articles in Dziennik Chicagoski are "made to order." Then he refers to the Polish parade in commemoration of the Polish Constitution of May 3, and the attacks made by Thomas Krolik and others. The object of this argumentation is obvious. They are trying to evade the real issue by engaging in other subjects because they have no proofs in the question at issue.

    To what will such controversy lead us? To continuous and unnecessary attacks and dissension. If you gentlemen wish to disprove the statements made by 7Dziennik Chicagoski, you must prove that Polish parents ought to send their children to the public schools because those schools teach better English than the parochial schools. Then you will convince every one that we should try to introduce the Polish language into the public schools. Gentlemen, adhere to the subject.

    Again we find two, or rather two and a half answers in Zgoda (a Polish weekly) on the school question, but how are we going to combat them? Our arguments ...

    I A 2 a, I A 1 b, III C, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 06, 1891
    Poles Will Open a New Hall

    The new Polish hall at St. Stanislaus Parish building is almost completed and will be opened next Sunday at 7:30 P.M.

    This great event will be celebrated with the presentation of a great Polish play, written by W. X. K. Kozlowski, and based on the last Polish insurrection against Russia.

    The play is a tragic drama of difficult execution, but the amateurs who will take part in it are well-known for their ability and we are confident that it will satisfy the public.

    The stage, which is beautifully decorated, has been arranged by stage experts from the Chicago Grand Opera House.

    The scenery on the main curtain is taken from the painting of Elias, and it represents Muscovites shooting at people coming out of a church. The other 2scenes are also very beautiful and artistic. Their perspective is such as to give a perfect impression of distance. This impression is so realistic that many persons have asked why such a big hall has been built in the back of the old one.

    The reserved seats are only 35 cents; others 25 cents; children half the price.

    Remember that this play is presented for the benefit of the parish choir the Polish Cadets, and the Polish Knights.

    Tickets for this play are worth at least a dollar apiece, but the committee desires to have a large audience. Let every one see this play and thus encourage those who devote their time and energy disinterestedly. Remember that the parish choir works not only for the glory of God but also for the honor of the parish and your pleasure.

    The Cadets of Saint Stanislaus work also disinterestedly.

    The Knights have neither income nor privileges of any kind, on the contrary, 3all they have is lots of trouble and expenses. Hurrah! Long live the parish choir! Long live the Cadets! Long live the Knights of the Polish Queen's Crown!

    The new Polish hall at St. Stanislaus Parish building is almost completed and will be opened next Sunday at 7:30 P.M. This great event will be celebrated with the presentation ...

    III B 2, II B 1 c 1, III C, III A