The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 21, 1891
    George Washington (Editorial)

    The day after tomorrow will be a great holiday in America. On that day the people of the United States will celebrate the birthday of George Washington, the Father of our Country. Since our paper will be published on that day, as usual, in the afternoon, and since we wish to give our readers an opportunity to recall the heroic deeds of this great man, we are publishing his biography in today's issue. Because our space is limited, we will present only the most important facts concerning this great American.

    George Washington, the greatest of the world's great men, and first President of the United States, was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia, on February 22, 1732. This year we celebrate George Washington's birthday on February 23 because February 22 falls on Sunday. If this celebration were to take place on Sunday, there would be no special holiday devoted to George Washington for 2school children, government employees, etc.

    George Washington's father, August Washington, whose ancestors came from England in the year of 1657, was a rich plantation owner. He died early and his widow, the famous Mary Washington whose maiden name was Mary Ball, took upon herself the responsibility of raising the large family, giving George an admirable training. Young George attended school at Williamsburg until he was fifteen years old; then he returned home, where he practiced surveying.

    George Washington entered the military service as major when the militia was called out to suppress French and Indian attacks in Virginia. He advanced very rapidly, became a colonel, and in a short time distinguished himself in Ohio. As the soldiers of the militia were not very highly esteemed by the English government, George Washington returned to private life in 1754 and settled on the estate of his brother in Mount Vernon, Virginia. Next year, however, George Washington joined General Braddock's expedition against the 3French in Canada. Braddock made him his adjutant, and next year, in 1775, [sic] he was made commander of all the militia in Virginia. When the war ended in that part of the country in 1763 [sic], he returned to Mount Vernon again, as a private citizen, where, in 1759 [sic], he married Martha Custis, a young widow.

    In the meantime dissatisfaction arose among the colonists on account of the abuses perpetrated by the English government against them. The outrages, the great injustice, the unreasonable taxation, and other innumerable oppressive measures committed by the English government, which for lack of space we cannot describe here, created a strong opposition of the colonists. This opposition began to grow because, despite the English government's revocation of its unjust decrees several times, the outrages continued and grew worse and worse, until the patience of the colonists was exhausted. The result was open opposition and, finally, revolution against England. Thirteen colonies united for the purpose of overthrowing the English yoke.

    4

    On September 14, 1744, the fellow-citizens of George Washington elected him as their representative to the Congress of the United Colonies which was being held in Philadelphia. Here he was put in charge of all defense units, and on June 15, 1765, when more energetic measures were necessary, he was made commander-in-chief of the North American Army.

    George Washington's army was composed of militia units and all kinds of recruits--untrained, unorganized, and unequipped with the proper weapons or ammunition. For this reason he could not undertake offensive operations. This unfavorable condition was caused by the faulty laws of the colonies and the lack of co-operation of a loose Union.

    George Washington had a great task before him. He organized his army, established the necessary discipline, constructed coast defenses, and equipped flotillas. During this time he was not disturbed by the impatience of the people who urged him to take active measures. He remained calm and waited until he was well-prepared.

    5

    His first success was in forcing General Howe to leave Boston on March 17, 1776. Then on the 4th of July of the same year, the United States declared their independence and renounced their allegiance to England. England reinforced her army with 35,000 and took New York. Washington moved his army from one place to another and after several unsuccessful battles, finally retreated north into the mountains. His army was decimated by hunger, cold, and disease. Many soldiers became discouraged on account of the hardships and deserted. Any other man placed in Washington's position and confronted with such great difficulties and hardships would have lost courage and hope. But he did not fall into despair. With great difficulties he gathered the remainder of his army, numbering two thousand faithful soldiers and retreated as far as the Delaware River. But fortunately, not everyone lost hope. Washington persuaded Congress to increase the strength of the army to one hundred battalions and to prolong military service for the duration of war. He was also given almost dictatorial power over the army for six months. Then on December 26, Washington crossed the Delaware River, attacked the English, and on the third day of January, 1777, defeated them at Princetown. However, 6he yielded to superior forces on the eleventh of September at Brandywine River, and on the third of October, at Germantown, he retreated to Valley Forge. This defeat did not deprive him of his courage or hope. He held out his post until the French Alliance permitted him to resume his offensive operations. On June 28, 1778, he defeated the English at Clinton, near Monmouth, and later, on the eighteenth of October, reinforced by 6,000 French soldiers, he forced an English army of 7,000 commanded by Cornwallis to surrender at Yorktown. This led to the signing of a peace treaty with Great Britain in 1783.

    When the English left New York on November 25, 1783, Washington disbanded his army, resigned his commission to Congress, and returned to Mount Vernon as a common plantation owner. He declined to accept any reward for his services from the Federal government. However, he did accept a grant of land presented to him by the State of Virginia on the condition that he would be given the right to use it for public school purposes.

    7

    In May, 1787, he was sent by the State of Virginia to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, where he was chosen as the presiding officer of all sessions. The result of this convention was the framing of the Constitution of the United States on the seventeenth of September, 1787.

    In April, 1789, Washington was elected first President of the United States.

    As President, he established peace and order, regulated national debts, constructed national defenses, built schools, and laid the foundation for constructing roads and canals. He preserved strict neutrality, and because of this he was successful in entering into trade agreements with England. In 1792 he was re-elected President of the United States. By a proclamation of neutrality, Washington preserved the peace of the United States in the war between France and England and effected a profitable trade agreement with the latter. He expelled seditious French agitators, for which he was severely criticized. He declined a third term, thereby establishing a precedent which has been respected until the present day.

    8

    In 1797 when a threat of war with France hovered over the country, Washington was appointed Lieutenant-General and, in spite of his old age, he undertook the task of reorganizing the army. Then France sent a commission and made a treaty in 1800.

    Washington died on December 14, 1799, leaving no heirs. He made a will by which he freed his slaves.

    Who does not know how Americans worship the Father of this country? Many cities bear his name, and in almost every city, some street, some public place, is named after him. Almost in every state there is a "Washington County."

    There are also many monuments erected in commemoration of his name, and the most famous and magnificent of them all is the one erected in the capital, Washington, D. C. There are also very imposing monuments of George Washington in Richmond, Boston, New York City, and Philadelphia.

    9

    The character of George Washington was revealed by his great deeds. It was unusual, unsurpassed. He was calm in deliberation, energetic in actions, unmoved in misfortune, brave on the battlefield, keen in selecting his counsels and assistants, never allowing even a shade of jealousy; outspoken, sincere, always adhering to his principles whenever he thought he was right; conscientious in performing his duties, pleasant, charitable. These are some of his good qualities.

    The people of the United States pay homage to the memory of this great man, the Father of this free and wonderful country.

    The day after tomorrow will be a great holiday in America. On that day the people of the United States will celebrate the birthday of George Washington, the Father of ...

    Polish
    I J, III B 3 a
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 12, 1891
    Zgoda

    Zgoda, which is edited by a person who is endeavoring very zealously to discredit the Polish National Alliance, states in its last issue that the entire program arranged by the Polish Roman-Catholic Union to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Polish Constitution of the Third of May, and announced by Dziennik Chicagoski, is made for the purpose of misleading the public. We suspected for some time, but now are almost positive, that the editor of Zgoda is either incapable or does not care to support, spread, and explain the ideals of the Polish National Alliance and other national organizations. It seems to us that he is only concerned with his own ridiculous ideas. Even though the title of his paper calls for harmony, it is not strange at all that he be preaching the opposite, causing dissension among 2the Poles.

    "Why didn't we arrange for this festivity earlier?" asks the editor of Zgoda. Yes, we tried to arrange it last year, but the deliberation broke up, not through the fault of the organizations affiliated with the Polish Roman-Catholic Union, that waited for an answer and further deliberation, but through the fault of the delegates sent by national organizations not connected with the Polish Roman-Catholic Union, and who gave no answer, and through the fault of the editor of Zgoda, who obstructed our plans by articles which could have been stopped by the Polish National Alliance.

    3

    The editor of Zgoda implies that it would be impossible to eliminate organizations of nihilistic and unpatriotic tendencies, or those which are soiled with anarchism or czarism, for the simple reason that not everybody could clear himself of such charge if it were made for the purpose of elimination. Yes, then it is true that the independent organizations, and those which are affiliated with the Polish National Alliance, cannot prove that they are not soiled with anarchism or czarism if they were accused of it. And if they cannot prove it and cannot clear themselves of such charge, then it is the fault of the editor of Zgoda, who is degrading the organ of the Polish National Alliance by publishing in it foul articles.

    4

    Zgoda, "The assay, the chemical means that can prove all this," so has expressed himself the sarcastically happy editor of Zgoda, which should be the organ of all Polish organizations, if they have one, has been very badly polluted, but in our opinion it can still be cleansed. So much for the editor of Zgoda today.

    We are not accusing at present the Polish National Alliance or any other organization not affiliated with it or with the Polish Roman-Catholic Union, unless they confirm their sympathy with the editor of Zgoda by silence or open declaration.

    5

    We are of the opinion that the prospect for celebrating the commemoration of this historical event is very good in spite of the opposition of the editor of Zgoda.

    That some organizations will observe this commemoration very solemnly downtown on Saturday, that the church societies will observe it on Sunday, May the 3rd,and that there will be another celebration for school children on Monday, is no reason why we should not get together on some other day in order to form some kind of a constitution for the entire Polish element in America, and by this act conclude the commemoration of declaration of the Polish Constitution a hundred years ago.

    6

    Indeed, we need a special day for consultation, for understanding and for putting an end to quarrels, for it would be impossible to accomplish all this on a day devoted to other activity.

    We hope that our extended hand will be welcomed by all good and sincere patriots; that every organization will elect a number of delegates, - one to every twenty-five members, - and send their names to the secretary of the celebration organized by the Polish Roman-Catholic Union. We hope that all of us will admit that we need a general conference. We also hope that in case someone has any objection to our plan, or a better proposition, or a good suggestion for some improvement, or any question to make, he should come forward without prejudice, without bitterness in his heart, with the conviction that he is serving the national cause and with the desire to effect solidarity.

    7

    Inasmuch as Zgoda will not publish any reconciliatory articles as long as it is controlled by its present editor, we are offering the columns of our paper for such remarks, advice or propositions as may be constructive, peaceful, serious, and not opposed to the principles of patriotism and the Roman-Catholic church, and provided that such articles bear the signature of the writer or organization,which we as editors like to have for our private information.

    Zgoda, which is edited by a person who is endeavoring very zealously to discredit the Polish National Alliance, states in its last issue that the entire program arranged by the ...

    Polish
    I C, II B 2 d 1, III B 3 a, III B 2, III C
  • Chicago Tribune -- March 13, 1891
    Polish Singers Hold a Banquet

    The United Polish Singers of America gave a banquet at the Palmer House last evening in honor of the prize cantata in the musical contest just closed.

    May 3rd will mark the 100th anniversary of the adoption of the Polish constitution, and to celebrate the event the Polish singers of America decided to give a large cash prize to the composer of the best cantata.

    Profs. Hans Balatka, J. Ferck, N. Ledschowski, A. Seebaum, and K. Mallek were the judges appointed to decide which was the best among the thirty odd compositions offered. Their decision was announced yesterday.

    The rest of the program comprised an address by President K. Mallek of Madison; a talk on "The United Singers of America", by the Hon. E. I. Slupecke of Milwaukee; "Poland", by S. Nicki of Chicago; "America, Our Adopted Country", by P. Kiolbassa of Chicago; and "The Constitution of May 3, 1791", by E. Z. Biodowski of Chicago.

    Songs were rendered by the chorus of United Singers, the Chopin Quartette, Harmonia Quartette of Milwaukee, and Gustav Wojnicke.

    2

    The guests numbered one-hundred and comprised the leading Poles of this section.

    The judges awarded the first prize to Tytus Ernesti of Utica, N. Y., for the cantata Tam na Wschodzic Gwiazdka Swieci" (In the East the Bright Star Glitters). The judges were Hans Balatka, John Ferck, I. A. Seebaum, N. Ledschowski, and Anthony Mallen.

    The United Polish Singers of America gave a banquet at the Palmer House last evening in honor of the prize cantata in the musical contest just closed. May 3rd will ...

    Polish
    II B 1 a, III B 3 a
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- April 24, 1891
    "They Are Revealing Their Will to Us" (Editorial)

    The vice censor of the Polish National Alliance has expressed his opinion about that organization. According to him, the lodges belonging to the P. N. A. are not allowed to make any decisions without the consent, or rather without the will, of the central board of that organization.

    Is this in reality the opinion of each separate lodge? And do sensible members of the P. N. A. share that point of view? The near future will tell.

    As soon as the program of the three-day celebration commemorating the Polish Constitution of the Third of May, arranged by the Polish Roman Catholic Union was announced in Dziennik Chicagoski, a very severe criticism of our article appeared [in the next] issue of Zgoda.

    2

    Every part of the program--the three-day celebration, the memorial service for those who sacrificed their lives for the Fatherland, the plan of holding a general Polish conference--is represented in Zgoda as a farce, an act of treason, an infamy, a disgrace and a deception.

    On the other hand, neither the organ of the P. R. C. U., Wiara I Ojczyna nor Dziennik Chicagoski, supporting the three-day celebration, criticized one point of the celebration arranged by the P. N. A. for the second of May. Angered by this lack of criticism, Zgoda suspected that their celebration would be branded a "masonic rabble."

    In view of the first fact mentioned, let the sensible members of the P. N. A. (if the vice censor's statement does not hold for them) decide who behaved patriotically, who showed more fairness.

    Let us mention another fact. Some P. N. A. lodges sent their delegates to Rev. V. Barzynski last year to arrange a general celebration in honor of the 3Polish Constitution of the Third of May. A conference was held at which Father V. Barzynski's remarks provoked those delegates and later angered the lodges to such a degree that they refused to come to an understanding with the P. R. C. U. societies or to negotiate with them. Immediately Zgoda attacked Rev. V. Barzynski. Quite naturally the attack aroused the indignation of the societies which respect Father Barzynski as a patriot and exemplary priest. This of course made a reconciliation almost impossible. At that time, that is after the return of the delegates from Father V. Barzynski with their proposal, every impartial person, including some of the delegates and Father V. Barzynski himself, thought that after the presentation of the proposition to the P. N. A. lodges, an attempt would be made either to modify the stipulation or to make a counter proposal. Nothing of the kind occurred although there were violent attacks upon the priest because he dared to give his conscientious advice.

    This mutual indignation manifested itself in violent eruptions of abusive language on one side, and anger on the other. At that time these undignified 4attacks could be explained and justified by the "hot Polish temper".

    Some reflection should have taken place, at least after some time. The P. N. A. lodges should have made an attempt at reconciliation with the societies affiliated with the P. R. C. U., and these societies should have shown their willingness to reach an understanding. And they did, for they sent letters to the P. N. A. lodges in which they proposed a general conference after the second of May. Zgoda, however, prevented the P. N. A. lodges from participating in that conference; it ridiculed the program of the societies affiliated with the P. R. C. U. and insulted Father V. Barzynski as the adviser of the P. R. C. Union. It tried to provoke criticism of the celebration arranged by the P. N. A., and being unsuccessful, began to fabricate stories about that celebration. Finally, the censor of the P. N. A. announced that its lodges would comply with the decision of the central board of the P. N. A. This decision was not to participate in the conference.

    Let sensible members of the P. N. A. suggest what more could have been done 5by the societies affiliated with the P. R. C. U. They expressed their desire for an agreement. Could these societies, after what took place, after the insults heaped upon a respected counsellor, declare that they were willing, for the sake of holy peace, to give up their spiritual adviser and ask permission to participate in the P. N. A. celebration?

    Every sensible person will admit that these societies did more than was expected. Not being invited, they are not criticizing the P. N. A. celebration, and having no desire to interfere with it, they have arranged for their own to take place the following day. They are extending a friendly hand in spite of the insults of Zgoda and of malicious tongues. They are charitable although they are twice as strong. And you--that is your correspondents in Zgoda--ridicule their generous actions. You sneer at every statement, at every step taken, and you increasingly anger their spiritual counsellor by your vicious attacks. Finally your vice censor makes a proclamation stating that you can take no steps until your executive committee reveals its decision.

    6

    How ridiculous are some of the reasons invented by Zgoda for not participating in the proposed general conference. According to Zgoda this conference is a deception. How can it be a deception when you will have an equal voice in it? You presume that your celebration of May 2 will be criticized anyhow, and so you continue to criticize viciously the program of the P. R. C. U. although there is no criticism made of your own program. You state that Father V. Barzynski, and not the societies, is arranging the celebration. While this statement has never been confirmed, not even by one of the societies, you yourselves declare very clearly that you are acting on the decision of your executive committee.

    Your censor has made an ironic remark that there is no necessity of sending delegates to Chicago as though it were some kind of Mecca. Now if we are going to hold a general assembly, then there must be a suitable place for it. Is it strange that the city of Chicago which has the largest Polish population was chosen, or that the P. R. C. U., the largest Polish organization in America, is extending the invitation?

    7

    Wherever there is ill will, there is always faultfinding in everything, no matter how small; where there is good will, small mistakes are overlooked, and necessary sacrifices made for the good of the cause.

    The vice censor of the Polish National Alliance has expressed his opinion about that organization. According to him, the lodges belonging to the P. N. A. are not allowed to ...

    Polish
    III B 3 a, II B 2 d 1, III B 2, III B 4, I C, IV
  • Chicago Tribune -- May 03, 1891
    Big Polish Celebration

    The exercises commemorating the centennial anniversary of the adoption of Poland's constitution were begun yesterday by a parade and meeting of Polish citizens at Central Music Hall. The parade was made up of all the various Polish societies in the city.

    At two o'clock in the afternoon, the various societies assembled in Haymarket Square, where Chief-Marshall Budrinski, Welkinski, and Ryrewski, formed the procession. First came a band of twenty-five Polish police officers in uniform, captained by Lieut. Deaubein.

    The exercises will be continued as follows:- Sunday at 4 P.M., the school children will sing and perform other exercises; in the evening a concert intermixed with speeches in the Polish language by prominent laymen and clergymen will be given.

    A mass for the repose of the souls of the departed who died in defense of Poland will be celebrated Monday. In the evening the grand meeting will be presided over by the Hon. Thomas A. Moran, Judge of the Appelate Court, and speeches will be made by the Rt. Rev. J. L. Spalding, Bishop of Peoria, and William J. 2Hynes, and William J. Drahan.

    A pontifical mass will be celebrated Tuesday morning, and in the afternoon a convention will be held by the delegates assembled from all parts of the union. In the evening at 7:30, a play will be given entitled "The Defense of Czestowo" in the Polish language.

    The exercises commemorating the centennial anniversary of the adoption of Poland's constitution were begun yesterday by a parade and meeting of Polish citizens at Central Music Hall. The parade was ...

    Polish
    III B 3 a
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 04, 1891
    The Speech of Rev. F. Szukalski in Chicago, May 3, 1891 at the Celebration of the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Polish Constitution

    Father F. Szukalski, pastor of the Polish Church at Beaver Dam, Wis. delivered the following speech at a large Polish hall in Chicago on May 3, 1891.

    "Every Pole believes it an honor to love his fatherland. Love of fatherland-that glorious phrase which thrills the heart of every Pole. It awakens all from the slumber of indifference, it revivifies every one who retains a spark of life.

    "In our history, love of fatherland in written into the blood of our noblest countrymen. Our ancestors spared no sacrifice--they forsook their homes, renounced the pleasures of family life, property, friends, freedom, even life 2itself, to endure the hardships of war; they did this because in their hearts burned the holy flame of love for the fatherland.

    "If every native Pole cherishes such love for the fatherland, how much more should we, the exiles, who have lost our beloved fatherland through separation. In the words of our immortal poet Adam Mickiewicz:

    'Oh Lithuania, my country, like life thou art;

    How dear art thou to one's heart

    May be realized only by one

    Who lost thee, and thy beauty.

    I see and desire to sing, for I long for thee.

    "No enemy has ever designed a method of persecution, no tyrant has ever invented a system of torture, no murderer of our brothers has ever conceived of an agony so profound that it could tear out the love of fatherland from 3the heart of a true Pole.

    "Russian deputies separated our families, imprisoned and tortured our countrymen, exiled them to distant Siberia but could not extinguish the spark of patriotism.

    "Countrymen! Love of fatherland is a sacred love which God has implanted in the hearts of men, and which no human power can destroy.

    "No matter how sacred, or holy, or noble a thing may be--a corrupt individual can distort it in order to pursue his own evil designs.

    "Unfortunately, this expression, love for the fatherland was so misused.

    "Let us recall our history previous to May 3, 1791, since we are celebrating today the one hundredth anniversary of that historic day. We remember that those who waited impatiently to tear Poland apart, those who sought to 4betray our fatherland for revenge, those who for profit and for protection of their own interests, delivered Poland into the hands of her oppressors, did so under the guise of patriotism; all of them proclaimed their loyalty to the fatherland. Hugo Kollataj, a Polish political writer of that period, says that they fought for priority in infamy; one tried to outdo the other in the sale of the fatherland.

    "Poninski, Branicki, Karr, Frederik II, Catherine III, Empress of Russia, all posed as patriots--and all of them were plotting the partition of Poland.

    "Today as we commemorate the significant moment when our nation recognizing its weakness, made desperate efforts to purge itself, despite insuperable obstacles, in order to regain the road which might lead to power and national glory, we should remember the reasons for our country's dismemberment-- our fatherland, once powerful enough to decide the fate of Europe, and of 5Christianity. We should consider and analyze the pretexts employed by the enemies of our country for its destruction.

    "I cannot present a complete picture of all the causes and all the means employed, because it is beyond my power and the amount of time at my disposal. I will point out only the most important facts, that we may learn our lesson from them.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, May 5, 1891.

    THE SPEECH OF REV. F. SZUKASKI

    (continued from previous issue)

    "General knowledge of ancient history, especially of one's native country, has always served as a guide to nations in times of uncertainty.

    6

    "J. Lelewel, a Polish historian, advises all of us to study the history of our country in order to avoid the pitfalls of our ancestors, as well as to profit from the deeds of our illustrious countrymen through knowledge of their achievements.

    "Let us familiarize ourselves with our history, above all with the reasons for our downfall that we may avoid a repetition. Let us know the perfidy of our traitors that we may abhor their infamy and never similarly debase ourselves. Let us acquaint ourselves with the machinations of Poland's enemies and the pretexts used to disguise their evil designs that we may not fall prey to their insidious strategy. We should know also the glorious deeds of our true patriots, who worked always for the betterment of our fatherland, and who spared no sacrifice, that we, encouraged and enlightened by their example, may equally serve our oppressed fatherland. That Poland was once a powerful country, capable of ejecting invading armies, and protecting her people, is an historic fact. That Poland in the course of time lost her power, became weak, 7and was finally enslaved by neighboring powers is also a fact written in the annals of European history.

    "What caused this change? What factors contributed to the stripping of Poland's defenses and placing her in bondage?

    "The causes are many and detailed. Some of them, however, are basic, out of which all others proceed quite naturally.

    "Our famous orator and patriot, Father Skarga, says: 'As our bodies die of internal and external diseases, so do kingdoms fall through domestic disturbance. They too have external enemies who seek to destroy them through wars and invasion.

    Poland also, had internal weaknesses and external enemies.'

    "The internal weaknesses crept into the vital organism of the country and 8undermined it while hostile powers contributed to its downfall, not by conquest, but by assisting the spread of the internal disorder, not by superior force, but by preventing the cure of the destructive disease.

    "What do you think was the basic domestic reason for the fall of Poland? Was it internal unrest? This factor is surely responsible for many of the misfortunes of our fatherland, but it did not undermine the very foundation of its life. Was it the oppression of the people by the nobles? This oppression weakened the country, but it could not dry up the streams from which the life of our nation flowed. Was it the egotism of the Polish magnates? This hindered our national development, but it did not deliver a mortal blow to our fatherland.

    "Discord, oppression of the people and egotism of the magnates contributed to the weakening of our fatherland, but they are not the basic cause of its fall.

    9

    "What then is the real cause? It is unnecessary to name it for every Pole knows it well.

    "The downfall of our fatherland was caused primarily by the apathy towards the Holy Catholic Faith and disregard of its teachings.

    "I am convinced that broadminded and unprejudiced people who know the history of our country recognize that the downfall of our nation was caused principally by the decline of the Holy Faith.

    "Some individuals might say that the decline of faith in Poland is a secondary issue having little connection with its downfall. To these people, faith is always a secondary issue, a thing without special value or significance. I am afraid that they may accuse me of using this solemn moment for religious propaganda. I wish to say to them that my purpose today is to present historic facts.

    10

    THE SPEECH OF REV. F. SZUKALSKI

    (continued from previous issue)

    "Let no one think that this is my personal opinion. Our silver-tongued orator and great Polish patriot, Father Skarga, who took an active part in public life, who know the weaknesses of the Polish government and realized the dangers threatening it, expressed the same opinion. He can hardly be accused of partiality or prejudice since he lived almost three hundred years ago. Here is his opinion expressed at the opening of the Fourth Polish Congress.

    'This Polish Kingdom is founded on the principles of the Holy Roman Catholic Church. It has stood for six hundred years upon this foundation. Thus, it worshipped Christ and believed in His Gospel; thus it respected its spiritual advisers, was obedient to them and to the Holy Teachings; thus, it grew into a great country allying itself with many nations; thus it resisted 11its enemies, and became known to the neighboring powers. This old oak grow in this manner, became strong and no wind could uproot it, because its root is Jesus Christ and His priests. If you undermine this foundation--the old religion and priesthood--the whole structure of the country will be weakened, and downfall will follow.'

    In another place Skarga says:

    'If this kingdom will serve the Church of Christ, He will elevate it and deliver it from any danger, but if it abandons the Church and its service, it will perish.'

    "To those who say that these convictions are obsolete, I reply: glance at the history of our nation, observe it through many centuries and notice when this nation was powerful and when it was weak, when it stood at the peak of its glory and when it was on the decline. You will see that at the time when Father Kordecki, armed with the crucifix, stood at the head of 12Christians defending the fortress of Czestochowa, Poland arose victorious just at the time when her doom seemed imminent, for powerful Christ delivered it from danger. You will see that when Jagiello led his countrymen into the Church of Christ, Polish boundary lines were expanded and the nation grew stronger. You will see that after Sobieski had led his army into the temple of God and together with his men humbled himself before the Lord and had strengthened himself with the bread of life, he attacked the Turkish forces, defeated them, saved Vienna and Christianity from a horrible fate and made Poland famous throughout the world.

    "On the other hand you will see that when heresy and apostasy visited our fatherland, when heterodox men denied Christ, created new gods and idols, presented them to the nation as symbols to be worshipped and defended, when heretics began to scoff at the teachings of the Catholic Church and blaspheme against God, then began the downfall of the nation. You will be convinced 13that when these heterodox men, who formerly had betrayed God and their conscience, began to demand confidence, respect, and official positions in the Polish kingdom, discard and rebellion began; the country could not resist the invaders and its boundary lines shrank. When dissenters, after betraying God, treacherously applied for protection to Poland's enemies and opened her doors to invasion, Poland, weakened by the internal dissension, could not resist, and groaning with pain fell into bondage. The Polish nation became an object of laughter and ridicule.

    "The history of our country indicates that our nation rose to greatness and power when her people served God by respecting and observing the Holy Catholic Faith, that when the people began to abuse the Holy Faith, repudiate the church, and allow heresy to grow, the happiness of the nation dwindled and the strength of our fatherland decreased--finally Poland was crushed and obliterated from the map of Europe.

    14

    "I will speak briefly about the Polish dissenters. Those who betrayed the Holy Catholic Faith in Poland by joining the Protestant Church were called dissenters. The Poles, seeing these people abandon the vows made at the holy baptism, lost confidence in them and removed the from public office. The people had another reason for distrusting them. Morawski, whom no one can of prejudice, says the following: 'Polish dissenters must admit that they earned their dismissal from public offices by their own conduct--by allying themselves with the enemies of the country.' Whoever wishes to sympathize with the dissenters must realize that Poland was a Catholic country, and that the dissenters were newcomers to it. As such they should have contented themselves with that which the government was willing to give. What is more, it is apparent that no one ever persecuted dissenters in Poland. They held their religious services and no one tried to force them 15to adopt the Catholic faith. In other words, Polish dissenters fared better in Poland then in other Catholic countries, and incomparably better than Catholics in non-Catholic countries.

    "The dissenters were not satisfied with fair treatment, they wanted power. In the pattern of King Frederick of Prussia and Catherine, Empress of Russia, they wanted to persecute Christians of Catholic faith. When their plan was frustrated they applied for help to Poland's worst enemies betraying our fatherland by furnishing Frederick and Catherine with an excuse for intervention in Poland.

    "The method of electing monarchs and the policy of 'Liberum Veto' constituted another seed of dissension which contributed to Poland's downfall. Because of the system of eligibility, the death of a Polish king was a signal for all kinds of disturbances. Every magnate had his favorite candidate for the throne whom he tried to elect by fair means or foul. Consequently the country was divided into factions which fought each other. This created discord 16and disorder--brought injustice to the country and weakness.

    "The question of a king's eligibility created dissension not only among the Poles but among neighboring powers. When a king died, neighboring countries sent representatives who supported their own favorite. These representatives gave more than more verbal support. They used bribery, encouraged drunkenness among the electors, affiliated with one or another faction and went so far as to call for military intervention.

    "Thus regal eligibility divided the country into factions and permitted the entrance of foreign troops who persecuted the people. It gave neighboring powers too much influence; quite often a Polish king cared more for the country which supported him than for indigenous Polish interests.

    "The evil caused by this system of monarchial election was continued further by the policy of 'Liberum Veto,' a privilege granted to every member of the Polish Diet. This privilege gave him the right to break up a parliamentary 17session by saying 'Liberum Veto,' I object, thereby destroying all constructive measures passed by that legislature. 'Liberum Veto' placed the entire country at the mercy of one man.

    "Neighboring countries realizing that they needed only one disruptor at the Polish Parliament in order to obstruct legislation, did not hesitate to employ these means to the detriment of Poland. They used to bribe members of the Diet and thus gain influence. Such contemptible wretches were Poninski, Rzewuski and others. There was no order in Poland, and the Diet was helpless despite the aid given by the noble patriots since the paid agents of Prussia or Russia could always defeat them.

    "The third internal cause of Poland's downfall was the lack of education among the nobles and the lower classes. This lack of education became a weapon in the hands of those who desired to destroy Poland. Ignorant masses were easily misled, and the voters unaware of their country's real interests sold it out to those who paid more for their votes. The nobility, whether 18they cared for their country's welfare or were merely protecting their own interests, obeyed their masters' orders. Thus Poland was divided into as many quarreling elements as there were magnates and wealthy nobles.

    "These weaknesses created an unhealthy situation in Poland; however they were not as bad as conditions prevailing in other countries at that time. The support given by the majority of the people, and the heroism of the patriots more than made up for the weakness in the governmental structure.

    "The nation, from sad experience, realized that foreign governments had overpowering influence in its own government; it knew also that the germs of destruction must be removed or the country would be annihilated. And so the nation began to strengthen its governmental structure. Honest patriots sought to remove the system of regal eligibility, to abolish the 'Liberum Veto,' and to educate the people.

    19

    THE SPEECH OF REV. F. SZUKALSKI

    (continued from previous issue)

    "The Polish nation recognized its weaknesses, realized the dangers threatening it, and wanted to rectify the situation. It had men of great ability; Kollataj, Malachowski, Potocki. It had ardent patriots; Rejtan, Korsak and Bochuszewicz. Such a nation could have regenerated itself and would undoubtedly have done so.

    "But to mankind's eternal disgrace and the damnation of all Europe, this regeneration was prevented by the three monarchs who at that time disgraced the thrones of Europe. Frederick II of Prussia, Catherine II of Russia, and Maria Theresa of Austria.

    'These three constituted a Satanic trinity, opposing the Holy Trinity, a mockery of all that is sacred.

    20

    'Frederick, whose name signifies a "friend of peace," was Satanic in his constant pursuit of war, although he had the audacity to mock Christ by calling himself the "King of Peace." Frederick tried to make the old order of knighthood an object of derision by creating an evil fraternity called the "Order of the Black Eagle." He gave this order, a Latin motte "Suum Cuique," literally, to each his own. The members of this order were Frederick's servants who robbed and plundered.

    'Catherine, whose name means "purity" in Greek, was a most impure woman, although like shameless Venus, she called herself a virgin, Catherine called a legislative council apparently to make a mockery of it, since she corrupted the laws and destroyed the rights of the people.

    'Thus Catharine announced that she was protecting freedom of conscience while at the same time she forced millions of people to change their religion.

    21

    'As if to mock at humility and holiness, Maria Theresa, who bore the name of the most meek and immaculate Mother of our Savior, was a proud she-devil who carried on a war for the purpose of conquering a foreign country. She was ungodly, although she prayed and went to confession because she enslaved millions of people.

    'The names of these three, Frederick, Catherine and Maria Theresa, are three blasphemies; their lives-- a series of criminal acts.'

    "These three saw Poland's weakness and decided to enrich their countries by robbery. When they saw that Poland was overcoming her weakness, they sought to prevent it. When that plan failed, they contrived to partition the country into three parts, for thus it would be easier to keep her in bondage.

    "What means were used to destroy Poland? Did they attack her by force? No, they could not do that for the Poles would see the danger, cease their internal strife, and unite to repel the enemy. Our enemies decided to avoid 22this. They devised a plan by which the Poles themselves would effect Poland's destruction.

    "During the absence of a monarch and before the election of King Stanislaus August, there were, the usual disturbances in Poland. This was a splendid opportunity for the Russian Czarina and the Prussian King who already plotted the partition of Poland. Whoever knows anything about this intrigue must admit that such infamy cannot be duplicated in the history of the world.

    "The Poles were divided into factions; hostile neighbors hired agents to encourage discord and insurrection, or at the very least to ensure the election of a candidate sympathetic to the interests of a foreign country at the expense of Poland.

    "Stanislaus August, a favorite of Catherine, Empress of Russia was elected as king. As was expected, Russian influence became stronger every day.

    23

    A conference was held at which bribed members of the Polish Diet granted Catherine the right to protect Poland. Under the threat of bayonets, the dissenters were given equal rights. Those members of the Diet who opposed these measures were seized and exiled to Russia by the Czarina.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, May 11, 1891.

    THE SPEECH OF REV. F. SZUKALSKI

    (continued from previous issue)

    "The Czarina had been looking for a pretext which would allow her to dominate Poland. She meddled in Poland during the election but that ended with the coronation of the king. She tried to promote an insurrection in Ukrainia which would justify the entrance of Russian troops into Poland, but the plan failed. Hark, whom she had sent to Ukrainia for insurrectionary purposes, 24could not accomplish anything.

    "But now she had a pretext which would last until Poland was partitioned--the alleged disorders in Poland. Accordingly, the Czarina sent Repnin to Poland to establish order, or rather disorder in Poland. He had a hundred thousand Russian soldiers in Warsaw and he knew how to handle the situation. For some he had Rubles, honor and distinction--for others violence, bayonets and knouts. Those who opposed Russian rule, were dealt with in the fashion of the Cossacks; those who tried to reform the government or improve the conditions were either exiled or discredited in the eyes of the ignorant nobility. If anyone advocated the abolition of 'Liberum Veto,' he was accused by Russian hirelings of trying to establish an autocracy and eliminate the privileges of the nobility. The ignorant people believed these agents. Whoever proposed a hereditary throne for Poland was decried by Muscovites as a traitor trying to deliver a free kingdom into the hands of a tyrant, as a betrayer seeking the enslavement of free citizens, and so on.

    25

    "But Catharine was supposed to be the personification of all that was essential for the welfare of Poland. 'On demand of the Poles' she accepted the difficult task of Poland's protectress and announced that she would not tolerate any one who opposed liberty in Poland. She defended the system of Polish monarchial eligibility which opened the way to the throne to every noble, and permitted every magnate to support his candidate. The Czarina defended the policy of "Liberum Veto,' since it gave every member of the Diet an opportunity to accept graft.

    "The duped Poles believed these slanders and lies, and through insurrection helped their enemies to destroy the fatherland.

    "The behavior of these enemies of Poland was a complete fraud. Proclaiming their pride at having become the "protectors" of Polish independence, they plotted its overthrow. Declaring firm patriotism, the traitors secretly bargained with the enemies of Poland to obtain a large reward for their perfidy. Frederick and Catherine who persecuted Catholics in their own 26countries, posed in Poland as the protectors of dissenters.

    "When the Russian soldiers in Poland began to exceed themselves, the Poles awakened to the treachery of Catherine and Frederick. A conference was held for the purpose of adopting a plan to save Poland, but it was too late. The enemy was too powerful. The country was surrounded by enemy forces, and the nation could not unite itself for action. There was no leader, and dissension reigned throughout the country.

    "Furthermore the Russians had succeeded in stirring up an insurrection in Ukrainia and Wolyn, and then attacked Poland with a great army. About a hundred thousand Poles fell at that time; the nation was horror-stricken.

    "Such were the blessings brought by Frederick and Catherine to Poland. They would have destroyed Poland completely but Russia's war with Turkey intervened.

    27

    "Thanks to the Russo-Turkish war, the Polish nation again raised its standard of fidelity to God, of liberty and equality for which it endures exile and imprisonment.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, May 12, 1891.

    THE SPEECH OF REV. F. SZUKALSKI

    (continued from previous issue)

    "Now the question arises, What did the history of our nation teach us? What did the treachery of our enemies teach us? The misfortunes caused by the system of the eligibility of kings and the policy of 'Liberum Veto' will certainly be of value some time in the future when Poland is reborn.

    "Our history furnishes other valuable lessons. It reveals the fact that the decline of faith was the basic cause of Poland's downfall. Early in 28its history Poland was protected from the German invasions by the Roman Catholic Church, and from that time on our nation was closely identified with that Church. Our enemies destroyed Poland under the pretext of protecting those who had repudiated the Roman Catholic Church. The Catholic faith is so woven into the Polish nation that whoever attempts to separate nationality from faith will distort his ideas of nationality, and lose his faith.

    "Our history shows that the lack of education among the people was one of the names employed by our enemies to destroy Poland. Unenlightened masses could not distinguish between a patriot and a hypocrite. Citizens should know their duty towards their country. Only when our nation returns to the Church and brings forth great men will there be a regeneration of Polish nationalism and a resurrection of Poland."

    Father F. Szukalski, pastor of the Polish Church at Beaver Dam, Wis. delivered the following speech at a large Polish hall in Chicago on May 3, 1891. "Every Pole believes ...

    Polish
    III H, III B 3 a, V A 1, V A 2, III A, III C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 04, 1891
    Poles Celebrate Proclamation of Their Constitution (1791) Commemoration of the Hundredth Anniversary of the Polish Constitution of May the Third

    Although the main festivities to commemorate the Polish Constitution of the Third of May (1791), begin today and end tomorrow at Bradley Hall, the parishes held their own celebrations yesterday for their members. Last night's celebration at the new St. Stanilaus Kostka's hall was held for the members of this parish, and it served as an introduction to other celebrations which will take place at this hall.

    Last night's festivity however, deserves special attention. It brought us joy and, as it happens quite often, some sadness. Let us hope that the joyful moments will remain with us forever as pleasant memories and spiritual upliftment, and that the unpleasant ones will be obliterated from our minds and changed for the better.

    2

    It was a beautiful Sunday morning of May, right after a gloomy Saturday, and the holiday spirit was everywhere. Even a stranger in a Polish neighborhood must have noticed that this was not a simple Sunday observance but some unusual national holiday. Almost all buildings were beautifully decorated, and thousands of flags, Polish and American, fluttered from the roofs and the windows. Large portraits of Polish patriots decorated the sides of many buildings and here and there one could see large portraits of George Washington, father of our country, with appropriate inscriptions. The streets were filled with people, almost everyone wearing some kind of medal, badge or tricolor ribbon indicating that he or she was a participant of the celebration.

    The Church of Saint Stanislaus Kostka, the interior of which was beautifully decorated with Polish and American flags and with all kind of national emblems so as to indicate that the church solemnities were connected with a great national holiday, was filled to capacity at every Mass. At 10 a.m. a High Mass was said in honor of the Fatherland. For this Mass the large 3temple of God could not accommodate the people who came to worship God. The great masses of the faithful raised their imploring voices to the Holy Virgin, mother of God, Queen of the Crown of Poland, asking her for the liberation of Poland. These devotional prayers and supplications filled the hearts of the faithful with holy joy and gave them assurance that a nation having such Queen still lives and has a future, even if at present it must experience great difficulties.

    Soon after the noon hour, the church yard and surrounding streets were filled with throngs of people, and the entire parish presented a picturesque sight. A very solemn vesper service was going to be celebrated in honor of church societies. The members of these organizations, dressed in their full regalia and with banners, formed themselves in lines ready to march into church. Here alone could anyone form an idea of the great number of the faithful belonging to this parish. Not only some non-members but also many members of the societies could not find a place in the church, as pews and aisles and all standing room were filled with 4people. The Knights of the Blessed Virgin, garbed in their picturesque uniforms, stood at the aisles. Societies could be distinguished by their uniforms or banners. Standard-bearers stood at both sides of the altar.

    During the vesper services, which began at 3 p.m., the Reverend Felix Zwiardowski, who came from Texas, delivered a patriotic sermon. After the sermon, a litany was sung to the Blessed Virgin of Loreto, to whom, as Queen of Poland, an appeal was made. The litany was followed by the blessing of the Holy Eucharist.

    The evening celebration began at 8 p.m. at the beautifully decorated Polish hall, and the entire program was adapted to the occasion.

    Quite often, especially in America, no attention is paid to the object of the commemoration; hardly or no mention is made in speeches of that which is commemorated. The subject is rather avoided or at best an 5attempt is made to connect the object of commemoration with a problem that has nothing to do with it. Some persons have no idea of what a commemoration is; they think that a program composed of a few numbers, including patriotic singing, constitutes a great commemorative celebration. We should discuss practical questions, especially those which can be applied to our immigration and those which point out how we may imitate - the examples of those whom we commemorate. We take for granted that at an occasion such as a commemoration, all speeches, theatrical plays, and songs should remind the participants of that which is commemorated.

    Yesterday's program was devoted entirely to the Polish Constitution of the Third of May declared in 1791.

    The speakers did their best to give an accurate description of this historical event. Reverend F. Szukalski, a priest from Beaver Dam, Wis., in his very interesting discourse based on historical facts, described 6how the Polish Constitution of the Third of May came into existence, explaining the causes of the sad partition of Poland. Mr. B. Klarkowski, the teacher, said in his enthusiastic talk that the constitution was accepted by the people because in spirit it is part of us. Reverend V. Barzynski read and explained the Constitution. Mr. Vincent Jozwiakowski, a young Pole, delivered a very enthusiastic speech to the young people, pointing out the great significance of the Polish Constitution and what they can learn from it. A variety of entertainment proper for the occasion was given between the speeches. A first-class orchestra played Polish compositions. This orchestra played at the Mass and will play again Tuesday at the solemn Mass to be officiated by the Archbishop of Chicago. Several members of the orchestra are Poles. Well-trained choirs, accompanied by the orchestra, sang Polish songs and compositions suitable for the occasion. One of the compositions was the "Hymn of the Third of May," specially composed for this occasion by the well-known poet Mr. S. Zachatkiewicz. The school choirs, composed approximately of eighty girls and fifty boys under Mr. A. Kwasigroch, parish organist, sang beautifully.

    7

    It may be said that the celebrants paid close attention to the speeches, and enjoyed the musical selections a great deal. Miss Rose Kiolbassa, who delighted her listeners with her beautiful voice and displayed a great talent, was rewarded with great applause. Miss Kiolbassa distinguished herself at the choir by her clear alto voice. She was equally good at the piano and finally, to top it all, she won the hearts of the public with a superb recitation. Her success was so great that she was given applause and showered with flowers.

    This important and beautiful celebration was concluded with the singing of "God Save Poland."

    Mr. Peter Kiolbasa, who was the chairman of the committee in charge of the celebration, shared the platform of the hall occupied by the clergy and the presidents of the societies.

    And now let us direct our attention to the sad lack of interest shown last 8night during the celebration. At occasions such as last night's, the large Polish hall can hardly accommodate those who wish to participate, yet last night the hall was half filled. It is true that the public behaved wonderfully, that they were enthusiastic, yet it was sad to see that the hall was only partly filled. Perhaps some were tired by the all day celebration in the morning and the afternoon; perhaps some prefer to attend the general celebration which will take place tomorrow; and perhaps to some the prices seemed too high.

    [The Polish Constitution was declared on May 3, 1791.

    "In this historical document Poland guaranteed to all Poles, regardless of class or rank, peasant or merchant, laymen or clergy, equality, freedom of conscience, and a share in the government. This Constitution was to be revised every twenty-five years. It was an ideal constitution, a forerunner of democracy, later used as a model by nations who deemed it necessary to perfect their government. Burke, Lafayette and Washington believed it to be the best of all known constitutions." From the book Poland and her People. Transl. note.]

    Although the main festivities to commemorate the Polish Constitution of the Third of May (1791), begin today and end tomorrow at Bradley Hall, the parishes held their own celebrations yesterday ...

    Polish
    III A, III B 3 a, III C, III H, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 05, 1891
    Poles Celebrate Proclamation of Their Constitution (Second Day, May 4) (Summary)

    The Poles of Chicago should always be proud of yesterday's celebration. Its memory should last as long as they live in Chicago, and it should be publicized throughout the country because it brought credit to all Poles.

    The changeable weather of Chicago was rather unfavorable, for it was chilly, cloudy, and gloomy and it tried to snow.

    Delegates from all over the country came to St. Stanislaus Kostka's Parish. Among the delegates were many clergymen and men of distinction. They admired our beautifully decorated buildings and some of them honored us by visiting our office and printing shop. We have learned from the 2visitors that the celebrations in other cities were also successful.

    In the Morning

    As outlined in the program, there was a solemn memorial service in honor of those who sacrificed their lives for the faith, country, and the principles of the Constitution of the Third of May.

    Afternoon

    The children of St. Stanislaus Kostka's school staged a special celebration in the afternoon. Although it did not draw a large crowd, it was successful. It was a working day; therefore, many parents could not attend and for the same reason the large Polish hall at Bradley Street was not filled. We are of the opinion that it is the duty of parents to see what progress their children are making in the school, about which so much has been written lately.

    3

    Have our children made any progress? Yesterday's demonstration is the best proof. Facts speak for themselves.

    The school children's celebration was carried out according to the program. It began with a march played on a piano by the school girls, after which the school girls choir, whose members were dressed in national colors, sang the Polish song "Where the Polish Heart Beats." Then Mr. B. Klarkowski, the teacher spoke to the school children about the Polish Constitution and its importance. After his talk, he introduced little Leon Jozwiak, who in spite of his young age, delivered a beautiful speech, beginning with the words; "God did not grant us the privilege to be in the land where white eagles nest," Little Leon was greatly applauded. Next on the program was a beautiful piano duet entitled "Philomy Brilliant," played by two school girls. This was followed by an athletic exercise by a group of boys. Finally, the time arrived for the "Bouquet of Polish Songs," which was executed by the choirs to the satisfaction of the public.

    Deserving special attention is the beautiful sententious dramatical sketch 4entitled "Religion and Happiness," staged by senior school girls of St. Stanislaus Kostka's school, in which seven goddesses, namely, Wealth, Art, Wisdom, Beauty, Singing, Music, and Poetry offer their services to a girl of luck, but cannot satisfy her because each of them represents only apparent mundane happiness. Our heroine, however, is seeking absolute happiness, which appears to her in the form of Religion and Faith. The performance was a success for which the young ladies received great applause. The rest of the program was made up of singing and instrumental music. The program was concluded by Reverend V. Barzynski, who spoke of the patriotism of our mothers. He regretted the fact that the number of children in the hall was rather small.

    In the Evening

    The culminating point of yesterday's activities was last night's celebration in English at the large Polish hall, to which, besides the Poles, Americans and Germans were also invited.

    5

    Shortly before 8 P.M., the great hall was practically filled. The orchestra played the favored "Bouquet of Polish Songs" as the public filled the remaining seats at the gallery. The knights of the Blessed Virgin Mary appeared in their picturesque uniforms, the school children dressed for the occasion, and the parish choirs stationed themselves at the sides of the hall. The platform was occupied by special guests, the clergy, delegates from societies and high city officials. Reverend Father Szukalski, opened the meeting and introduced Judge Moran as the chairman, who was greeted with deafening applause. The program began with the singing of "O Columbia" by the parish choir conducted by Mr. A. Kwasigroch, after which Judge Moran proceeded to speak.

    Judge Moran's speech was recorded stenographically, but we cannot reproduce it here for lack of space. However, we will point out the most important parts.

    Judge Moran complimented the Poles for commemorating so important and beautiful 6an event, and then gave a brief outline of the Polish Constitution, describing the circumstances under which it was declared. He said, "Surrounded by foes opposing principles of justice and freedom, the Poles formed and accepted a constitution which brought them immortal fame, for it was an example for all because it dared to declare a lofty principle that an authority comes from the people, and because it gave so much right to the people that the Polish King had less authority than the President of the United States."

    Judge Moran continued, "Poland lives by its history, literature, noble virtues and deeds of great and famous men.

    "You have your heroes, learned men, artists."

    He cited beautiful examples in our history, mentioned Sobieski, Kosciuszko, pointed to their great deeds, and added that wherever there are lovers of freedom, there you find famous Poles, and that the Poles come to the 7United States to unite with a peace-loving nation, bringing honor to the country. He stated that it was a great honor for him to be chairman at this meeting. He praised our work, our institutions at which our children learn English and Polish, and remarked that we have a tendency to establish a government like that of the United States, that we should accomplish it, and that we have the good will of all. He concluded his speech with complimentary remarks about our gathering, our beautiful hall, and our patriotism.

    His sympathetic speech was frequently interrupted by hearty applause.

    Next attraction was a vocal duet by Mrs. P. Kiolbassa and her daughter Rose, who sang the beautiful "Schubert's Serenade," and for which they were rewarded with tremendous applause and flowers. The duet was a success, in spite of the untimely interruption of the orchestra.

    The chairman of the meeting then introduced the Right Reverend Spaulding, 8Bishop of Peoria, as one of the best speakers in America and as a distinguished bishop of our country.

    Indeed we had the rare privilege of hearing a great speech delivered by a famous speaker and prince of the Church in America. It was a great honor to hear this silver-tongued orator. His speech revealed that he has a great knowledge of our history; it also disclosed his profound sympathy for our nation; it made us proud of being Poles, and it will be remembered for a long time. He spoke about our great astronomer, Copernicus the priest. He compared the Poles with the Irish, and then proceeded to describe the partition of Poland and its causes, and here he manifested his profound knowledge of Polish history by citing historical facts. He encouraged us to love our wonderful country as well as the adopted one, and added that only the ungrateful forget their native country. Referring to American patriotism, he stated that American Poles are good patriots and also excellent linguists, and disapproved of depriving anyone of his native tongue. We listened to this great church dignitary with great respect, interest, and pride. He received tremendous applause.

    9

    After the Bishop's speech, the school children sang "The Star-Spangled Banner," and after that the ladies' choir sang a Polish composition.

    When the choir ceased singing, the chairman introduced Mr. P. Onahan, a former city treasurer, who spoke on the religiousness of the Poles, referring to King Sobieski, who after defeating the Turks, as an exemplary and loving husband, sent the news to his wife in Poland, and as a faithful Catholic sent the captured Turkish flag to the Pope of Rome.

    Special recognition should be given to the choirs and the soloists. We refer to Miss F. Bok, who sang a soprano solo and attracted everyone's attention by her beautiful voice. Jan Kondziorski distinguished himself as a basso.

    The Poles of Chicago should always be proud of yesterday's celebration. Its memory should last as long as they live in Chicago, and it should be publicized throughout the country ...

    Polish
    III C, III B 3 a, I A 2 a, III A, I C
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- May 05, 1891
    Poland's National Festival

    The main event of yesterday's great Polish festival, the third day of its celebration, was given in the large hall of St. Stanislaus School, corner Noble and Bradley Streets.

    On May 4, 1791, the Polish constitution was proclaimed; it provided that "every man who enters Poland shall be regarded as a free man". Since this noteworthy courageous statement was made, one hundred years have elapsed and the Poles of America, and especially Chicago's Polish population, excelled in its display of patriotism by giving a great parade and numerous celebrations.

    The festival which was given yesterday at St. Stanislaus Hall was highly elevating, and the words we heard there will undoubtedly leave a permanent impression in the hearts of every Pole. The hall was profusely decorated and in conformity with the mailed invitations which announced that "every friend of liberty is welcome", we noted next to the American and Polish banners, also the German, Swiss and the Irish colors.

    2

    Amongst the multitude which filled the spacious hall, the young girls of St. Stanislaus School, dressed in white with red bands fluttering from their waists, made a most pleasing appearance; also two companies of Polish military clubs joined in their parade uniforms.

    At the beginning of the festival, the orchestra played a march, which was followed by a short opening address by the Rev. J. T. Szukalski. After the singing of the national hymn, "Columbia", Judge Moran, who accepted the presidency for the festival, spoke to the assembly. He congratulated the Poles upon their love for their native land, and complimented America for its fortunate possession of such a diligent, energetic, law-abiding and liberty-loving people as the Poles.

    The regular festival speech was given by the bishop, Rev. I. W. Spalding of Peoria, and his masterly, limitless perceptions, his effective and convincing arguments and citations, deserve recognition as a work of profound importance. The speaker gave a chronological account of the history of mankind as far back as the Aryan and Semitic tribes; from the latter we inherited religion, from the former, culture and progress in the arts were given to the human race. In a fascinating manner he mentioned the importance of the Poles upon culture and ended his enthusiasm 3creating speech by referring to Copernicus, a Catholic priest and Pole, whose scientific knowledge and discoveries in astronomy proved to be epochal. Speaking of Poland in regard to its former political position, Bishop Spaulding quoted the reasons which led to Poland's dissolution. The main cause was to be found in its geographical location; it had no natural boundaries, but was wedged between two monarchies, who had to sacrifice this bulwark of liberty. Our own America should thank Providence that oceans separate it from warring kingdoms and Czarist empires. Finally, the speaker considered the school question. He spoke with enthusiasm and declared that the teaching of one's hereditary language in the public schools is a serious thought which can not be eradicated anymore.

    Great applause interrupted nearly every sentence of this highly interesting part of his discourse.

    W. J. Onahan, former city comptroller, gave a short talk on the accomplishments of the Poles as American citizens.

    Among the musical offerings, we must first mention the duet of Mrs. and Miss Kiolbassa, which was given a tumultous welcome in recognition of its excellence.

    4

    The church choir (ladies, gentlemen), which sang Polish national songs and the patriotic composition, "The Song of our Land", also gave us a magnificent presentation. The school children intoned "The Star Spangled Banner", which was followed by a mass-chorus which sang the prayer; and so this memorable celebration came to a glorious end.

    The Committee consisted of Mr. P. Kiolbassa, Rev. Barzynski, and others.

    <p/> The main event of yesterday's great Polish festival, the third day of its celebration, was given in the large hall of St. Stanislaus School, corner Noble and Bradley Streets. ...

    Polish
    III B 3 a, III H, I C, III C, I A 2 b, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 08, 1891
    Poles Celebrate the Proclamation of Their Constitution (Summary)

    (Tuesday, May 5, 1891. The third day)

    According to the program, May 5 is the most important day of the Polish National Hundredth Anniversary Celebration, and it was so in many respects.

    At 8 A.M. delegates from all over the country gathered at the school hall, and their names were registered together with the names of the clergy.

    At 10 A.M. a solemn Pontifical religious service was celebrated at the church.

    At 9:45 A.M. the uniformed Knights of the church societies and all delegates went to meet Right Reverend Feehan, the Archbishop of Chicago, and a few minutes after 10 A.M., the procession escorted the Archbishop into the 2church, which already was filled with people. The procession consisted of uniformed knights and school girls dressed in white, after whom strode the ecclesiastical dignitary, the Archbishop, escorted by sixteen clergymen. The delegates followed the clergy. The Archbishop occupied the throne prepared for him, and Reverend Simon Kobrzynski, assisted by the clergy, celebrated a Pontifical Mass. The knights kept honorary guard.

    Reverend Snicurski delivered a patriotic sermon, in which he encouraged concord and brotherly love. His sermon impressed the participants so profoundly that some of them wept at the end.

    Credit is due to Mr. A. Kwasifroch, the organist, who trained and prepared church choirs for the occasion. The choirs accompanied by a good orchestra, sang at the Pontifical Mass melodies composed by Reissinger. Deserving 3special attention is "Ave Maria," which was sung at Offertorium Tercet by Mrs. Pauline Kiolbassa with great success. Miss Rose Kiolbassa sang alto, also with great success.

    Afternoon

    At 2 P.M. the delegates and clergy gathered at the Polish hall for the purpose of holding a strictly national conference, at which the clergy did not take any part other than as observers and advisors. Mr. John Koziczynski was chosen chairman of the meeting and Reverend Barzynski was asked to be a spiritual advisor.

    Three important issued were taken up at this meeting, namely: (1) Proper understanding of the Constitution of the Third of May, (2) Creating of national and political unanimity and solidarity among Poles in the United States, (3) Eradication of the discord that checks the enlightenment of the Polish people.

    4

    As we cannot describe this conference in detail, we will outline only the important points.

    The delegates decided that, according to the constitution of the Third of May, the Poles in the United States are and should remain Roman-Catholics. However, the word "dominating" employed in the Polish constitution was not adopted because there is no dominating religion in the United States.

    As to the second issue, it was decided to hold a general convention of all American Poles, or contact all Polish societies, or seek the cooperation of other organizations, provided that the Roman Catholic Religion will not be attacked. A committee of seven men were chosen who will take charge of this issue.

    As to the third issue, the delegates agreed that all slanders should be considered a crime against the country.

    5

    The delegates decided that religion should not be taken up at controversies and whoever attacks it in journals and newspapers should be branded an apostate, and such periodical should not be supported.

    The same delegates declared that disrespectful expressions about the clergy, and especially slander, cannot be reconciled with religion and should also be considered a national crime, a treason against the fatherland.

    The delegates also stated that those who send their children to non-sectarian schools, depriving them thereby of the principles taught by the Holy Roman-Catholic Church, and also those who do not try to teach their children the native tongue, violate their national honor.

    Finally the delegates expressed their sorrow on account of lack of patriotism at Polish societies and asked the clergy for cooperation in their respective parishes. Every pastor should instruct his parishioners how to fulfill this important duty.

    6

    IN THE EVENING

    Tuesday night the hall was so filled that many persons were turned away. The attendance was great because the program included two attractions. It read that Reverend E. Kozlowski, a pastor of a Polish parish at Manistee, Mich., one of the greatest orators in America, would speak. The other attraction was the famous play "Jasnogora" or "The Siege of Czestochowa."

    The program must have been very interesting, for this large audience of approximately five thousand people behaved as if there had been only a few persons throughout the entire program. The subject of Reverend Kozlowski's message was "Our Holy Patriotic Duty." He moved the hearts of the listeners with his masterly dissertation, which was frequently interrupted by applause. Whoever heard this speech, will never forget it.

    As to the play "The Siege of Czestochowa," it is said that a play so successful was never staged in Chicago. The leading role, that of Father August 7Kordecki," was played by Mr. B. Klarkowski, who was greatly complimented by the critics. The author of the play took the role of the "Haughty Nobleman," and played it admirably. Other roles were in good hands. The play was well written and well played; it was a great success. We are not in a position to give a description of its six acts. We regret that we cannot give all details of this great patriotic celebration. We wish to add that we were honored by many prominent persons among them two church dignitaries and many clergymen from all over the country.

    <p/> (Tuesday, May 5, 1891. The third day) According to the program, May 5 is the most important day of the Polish National Hundredth Anniversary Celebration, and it was so ...

    Polish
    III B 3 a, I A 1 a, I A 2 a, I A 2 b, III C, I C