The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 30, 1893
    Unpleasant Occurrences (Editorial)

    Times are hard--they affect all of us very closely--and they have indirectly been the cause of occurrences that are very unpleasant to the Poles in America.

    We have never attempted to conceal facts, no matter how painful. The readers of Dziennik [Chicagoski]know of the riots caused by unemployed workers in Milwaukee, Detroit, Buffalo, and, finally, in Chicago. Unfortunately, Poles also played a certain part in these riots. We will not repeat the sorry facts here; we wish only to point out that street riots are instigated by individuals or by bands of adventurers who have not stopped is the case, responsibility should not fall upon Polonia in general; actually, however, it does.

    Such incidents are widely publicized by the American press; they are talked 2about by the American public. Poles who take part in street riots, committing robbery and violence, do incalculable harm to themselves and to all of their brethren in America. They create the worst possible opinion of us. They give reason to claims that the Poles are a savage people, devoid of any civilization, lawless, given to violence and crime. They create prejudice against Polish workingmen among employers; they may bring it about that the doors of all factories and business establishments will be closed to us forever--we will be outcasts of American society. In short, such incidents bring disgrace upon our nationality, and may stop the development of the Polish element in America forever.

    These incidents are the more unpleasant in that they are not justified by absolute necessity; apparently they are the results of ignorance and imprudence on the one hand, and anarchistic agitation on the other. It is difficult to justify such incidents, of course. Times are hard, but as yet hunger stares no one in the face. The majority of workingmen is employed; the unemployed can still take care of themselves. We well understand that poverty is no joke and is hardly conducive to calm thought, but in the face of poverty, 3every one of us ought to remember Christian principles; we ought to remember that crime and violence will gain us nothing. Examples from recent riots are proof of this. Injuries, jail, disgrace--these are the profits. Did any one of the rioters gain at least a crumb of bread by his violence? No. Did it help his family in any way? Certainly not. On the contrary, he has only caused them greater misery by his injuries or his imprisonment. Neither here in Chicago nor anywhere else where the masses are orderly and opposed to anarchism do rioters stand to gain; they expose themselves merely to the worst consequences: long imprisonment or even death.

    We most fervently appeal to the Poles not to permit themselves to be misled by desperation, or what is worse, by the subversive whisperings of evil people who would make of us a living pathway for their criminal agitation. We appeal to them to be temperate and peaceable, to bear misfortune patiently, not to drag their brethren into disgrace--not to be blinded by passion. We ask that they try to improve their condition by legal methods, not by violence and crime; finally, we ask that they follow the example of peaceableness set by American and other workingmen, who are no worse off than we are.


    We stated in advance that the Poles who take part in street riots are exceptions among us. In truth, the Poles are, generally speaking, a peaceful and sensible people. Only certain individuals engage in riots and violence. Who are they? In general, they are people of the worst type. In part, these people are ordinary "bums" (ulicznicy); in part, they are uncouth and unenlightened recent arrivals from Europe; and in part, they are people who are influenced by anarchistic propaganda.

    Unfortunately, this is the truth. If a handful of Poles were found among the rioters, it was, for the most part, the fault of anarchist agitators. Unfortunately we already have several such Poles, with a certain R---[Rybakowski] at the head, this R--- who daily makes shameless and godless speeches on the lake front. The seeds sown by him and those like him and by a few anarchistic newspapers have germinated. As a result, the entire American Polonia may be sunk in poverty and despair.

    These weeds must be torn out by the roots. Away with anarchism and crime from 5among Poles! The mass of honest Polish workingmen should cast out the comparatively few lawless individuals from among their midst;they should protest loudly against the activities of agitators and they ought to state clearly that they not only have nothing in common with rioters, but condemn them severely. The Poles in general, Polish priests and leaders, ought to take the newly arrived, less enlightened Polish elements, and teach them that although America is a free country, it has laws; crimes are punishable here just as in the old country, perhaps even more severely. They should be taught that excesses against the existing order are crimes against God, country, and brethren.

    That is one of our duties, but there is yet another. The other depends upon our giving material assistance, according to our means, to those who have really been affected by hard times, those who are really in need--if there be any such people. We repeat: if there be any such people. We learn from reliable sources that one of the "unemployed," "hungry" workingmen, a Pole named Harowicz, who was arrested in a riot at the City Hall, had three hundred 6dollars in Stensland's bank [Milwaukee Avenue State Bank]. This is an official fact. Such a scandalous fact, however, should not deter us from giving aid to those who are really in need.

    To determine which people are really in need, and to give aid to these people is our second important duty.

    Times are hard--they affect all of us very closely--and they have indirectly been the cause of occurrences that are very unpleasant to the Poles in America. We have never attempted ...

    I D 2 c, II D 10, II E 1, III G, I C, I E
  • Narod Polski -- February 21, 1900
    Chicago Chronicle

    One hears more often about our adolescents causing disturbances and fights on the streets. All local Polish newspapers are urging the parents to give more attention to their children, but the evil seems to be growing daily.

    Such negligence of the parents in the supervision of their children is not found even among the savages. It is a shame and disgrace to our name. After closing of the corner "dens of vice" everybody expected the young people would stay home more, but instead one sees the groups of young rowdies insulting and assaulting the passers-by on the street.

    We received also complaints about places of vice and gambling run by private individuals where scantily dressed young girls entertain the boys. Gambling and drinking go on till late in the night. The adolescents should be home at the lastest at 8 P. M., either reading or doing something useful.


    What is such a mother worth who does not know where her twelve year old daughter is at night?

    We advise the more frequent use of the rod on the disobedient children. It is much better to make the children cry than for the parents to weep on account of their children.

    One hears more often about our adolescents causing disturbances and fights on the streets. All local Polish newspapers are urging the parents to give more attention to their children, but ...

    I B 3 b, II E 1
  • Dziennik Zwiazkowy -- May 20, 1909
    The Safeguarding of Citizens

    Although the United States probably spends more money than any country in the world for its police system, the average citizen does not benefit from this expenditure, for his life is endangered daily. Daily headlines bring to us the news of murders and robberies, many of which are committed in broad daylight, on public thoroughfares, busy streets of the city - virtually under the noses of the police; yet, there are only a few arrests and less convictions. Non one is safe from these criminals at large. The publicity of the crimes reaches many frontiers.

    Italy and Spain, known for their bandit tribes, do not have as many murders and robberies in a year as are committed in the United States in a week. The Mafia of Italy, which is the terror of our citizens, is not as bold in its own country as it is in the United States. A majority of the crimes here are perpetrated by this group. It is apparent that our police force 2are helpless in their work, or plainly speaking, in order to safeguard their own life, they do not show any interference.

    The well-known detective Petrosini, who lost his life in Sicily through the bullets of the Black Hand, was the only person that waged a constant fight to eradicate the criminals and their crimes. His activity was second to none. The gangland world was in constant fear of him.

    The sluggish and idle sons of the Green Island, adorned with a club and a star, can be more easily found in the saloons than on their beats, where they ought to be on the lookout for any suspicious act.

    A certain band that has been throwing bombs over many parts of the city, causing damage to private property and disturbing the peace of the community, must be well-organized, for the well-paid police force cannot track it down.


    Everyday the citizens are open prey for these bandits, becoming innocent victims, at times paying with their lives. When the criminal is caught and brought to justice, he is given a light sentence. Those that commit petty crimes are the ones that suffer the most. Organized crime virtually thrives and is becoming stronger in metropolitan areas.

    The activity of the criminal is branching out in many fields, crossing many borders. Organized bands hold up express trains, rob the mail, and the passengers. Their acts of crime go unmolested.

    Last Sunday, highway bandits held up the Great Northern Limited, near Moriss, Washington. Pouches containing about $20,000 in registered mail were taken. Country posses and farm vigilantes are taking a hand in the search for these bandits, filling the gap of the incompetent police, who do not know how to search out for the bandits who escaped with the loot. The railroad company 4offers a $10,000 reward for any clue leading to the conviction of each of the culprits. There were six of them. The company is posting a $60,000 reward for their conviction. It feels that this is the only method that will bring the bandits before the courts of justice. This will also make the police department use better and more energetic methods for action.

    When an individual or a company offers a reward for the capture of thieves, the police seem to become more active. The rewards are alluring and lucrative, which makes them to be successful; otherwise they would not exert themselves to fulfill their duties.

    Everyday bands of bank robbers force their way into stores and banks, break fireproof vaults and carry out small and large sums of valuables. The pickpockets empty the pockets of innocent people, the mail boxes are emptied of their mail. In spite of these daily mass operations, the police is only 5able to make twenty arrests per day. This perhaps is only as a gesture.

    Should these crimes increase and broaden out it won't be hard to predict the position in which this country will find itself. No one will be certain of his personal liberty, not even of his life. Since many of the holdups take place near where the police are stationed, and this happens in Chicago, the latter at times catch the felons but let them free. At times the person seeking help from the officers gets a taste of the club himself.

    The upkeep of the Chicago police is estimated at three million dollars, a cost which is borne by the citizens. In exchange for this, the citizen gets a feeling of insecurity, for he does now know whether he is safe at home or our in the streets. His personal freedom is constantly at stake, not to say anything of his personal property.

    Statistics show that out of every 1000 dollars stolen, 50 return to the 6original owners. These crimes increase daily. During the first week of last year there were 656 robberies reported. This year, in Chicago, there were 963. The smaller petty larceny cases, or the number of persons injured are not included. Conditions are getting worse. Should the citizens not require from the police department a stronger enforcement of the laws, crime will be out of control. Why should the burden be shouldered by the citizenry? Why should millions be spent, if the expenditures do not bring any results? The safety of the citizen is jepardized to such an extent that he sometimes is not certain of his life. The bandit groups have grown and spread out more rapidly in the cities than the Italian bandits in the hills and forests.

    Although the United States probably spends more money than any country in the world for its police system, the average citizen does not benefit from this expenditure, for his life ...

    I H, II E 3, II D 9, II E 1, I C
  • Dziennik Związkowy -- June 29, 1909

    A thirty-first consecutive bombing took place in Chicago yesterday. These bombings, which are causing great and small losses, injuring and at times killing people, continue despite the two-year search for the bombers by the police. There is some doubt as to their efficiency in the execution of their duties, although their efforts are constant. After each bombing the search is renewed with greater force, greater strength. We must believe this. However, the question is, how close are the police in solving the thirty-first bombing? How many more must occur before the guilty ones are brought to justice? When are the lives of the citizens to be protected and safeguarded by the police? When will it be safe for the people to participate in parades, conventions, and mass gatherings?

    After each bombing, when the wind blows the smoke away, certain facts appear to the keen-eyed observer. The twentieth bombing brought to light the fact 2that the police force is overburdened with work and should be immediately reinforced with more policemen. As the bombings continued, the voices for a larger police force became louder. After the twenty-ninth occurrence, it was estimated that 500 new policemen were needed to fill the present ranks, for the organized culprits were spreading out. The safety of the Chicago citizenry is at stake. The last two explosions succeeded one another in a very short lapse of time. Evidently, the heated search for the responsible persons, or the rapid increase in the police ranks, could not adjust itself to the pursuit, for no results were brought out. Now it is not known whether the thirty-second bombing will be prevented by our public officers. Will they say that they will catch-up with the gang, or will our governing heads add new taxes in order to increase the Chicago police corps, not by 500 persons, as was proposed after the twenty-ninth disaster, but by 1000? A witling could adjudge the Chicago police force, saying that it is much easier to protect the sly bombers than to search for them or patrol a strike or any other public duty of importance. Instead of relieving the public burden, they increase it. Whenever the city officials begin to talk of an increase 3in the police department, their pursuit of the bombers cools. Until the increase is realized by at least half of the last proposal, the bombing hazards will not be solved and the present police force will continue to be idle in this respect.

    Let us look upon the yearly report of the police sheriff, who evidently was discouraged by the poor showing of the police force and resigned from office. Out of 3,800 Chicago policemen, about 1,825 fulfill their duties in the more important precincts, where they patrol the busier streets. Having a natural fear of the dark streets, where crime has been constantly committed for years and never wiped out, they never enter them. The sheriff admitted that there was a shortage of police on the streets, for many of them occupy themselves in duties within the police organization, or are posted in the outlying police stations. Six officers are posted at the treasurer's office, where in reality there is nothing to be stolen. Many of the local police are stationed at railroad crossings, looking after the interest of large corporations, private interests, theaters, etc, These 4corporations, or individuals, do not pay one cent for this protection. Shippy, the sheriff, also revealed that creating a larger police force, including a larger street beat, would be of great advantage. By sending out hundreds of officers out into the streets, instead of placing them to protect some private enterprise that can afford to pay for its protection, they could easily occupy themselves in solving the prevalent problems of crime. This is really a problem. Although the forces of crime make necessary an increased police department, such an increase is impossible due to shortage of funds.

    A thirty-first consecutive bombing took place in Chicago yesterday. These bombings, which are causing great and small losses, injuring and at times killing people, continue despite the two-year search for ...

    II E 1, I D 1 a, II E 3, I H
  • Dziennik Związkowy -- December 21, 1910
    Deficit in the Treasury of the Polish Roman Catholic Union (Editorial)

    Everyone has heard, undoubtedly, of the deficit existing in the treasury of the Polish Roman Catholic Union. Rumors have been current for some time that something is amiss in that organization, but heretofore the matter also ended in rumors. It was not until the newly elected president of the Union, Mr. Stanley Adamkiewicz, suspended Mr. T. Osrowski, the treasurer of the organization, and reported his action to the newspapers, that the truth of these rumors became officially established. Various particulars, the testimony of many people, interviews by reporters, conjectures and complaints have poured out as if from the horn of plenty. On the day following the suspension of the treasurer an extensive report, emanating from a committee selected at a meeting of the organization's administration, appeared in the newspapers. In this 2report the committee asserted that $81,000 was missing from the treasury of the Polish Roman Catholic Union. The committee also reported that the former treasurer of the organization, Mr. T. Ostrowski, had assigned his entire private estate to the Union. Moreover, in the same report the committee accuses the former administration, namely, the former president and the former general secretary, saying that they knew of the existence of this shortage at the time of the last convention in Cleveland, and still they concealed it from the delegates.

    In reply to this communication an extended statement by the former president of the Union appeared in the daily newspapers. In this reply he attempts to shift the blame from himself to the new administration. The former president quotes the very words of the treasurer himself to show that at the time of the Cleveland convention the shortage did not exceed $40,000. Therefore, if the shortage has now reached $81,000, or perhaps more, it is clear that the new administration was not without fault in failing to discover the deficit and in not making certain that it would 3not increase.

    The chaplains of the Polish Roman Catholic Union were also drawn into the discussion, namely, the present chaplain, the Reverend Father Gronkowski, and the former chaplain, the Reverend Father Wojtalewicz. Two distinct parties appeared--that of the old administration and that of the new--which mutually accuse each other and give various items of information against each other to the daily newspapers.

    It is difficult absolutely to distinguish truth from exaggeration in the mass of material presented by some of the newspapers. They write, for example, that the shortage is far greater than the committee admitted; they mention $100,000 and more. They also state and write that the private estate of the former treasurer, Mr. T. Ostrowski, is not only insufficient to cover the entire deficit but will not even offset an appreciable share of the amount missing.

    The controversy has already attained huge proportions. With polemical 4zeal people cast various charges at one another, some of them very grave, and the accused reply in kind. Only the courts or a convention extraordinary could solve the whole matter and assign to every one his share of guilt, penalty and responsibility.

    It is a very important fact, and it has been irrefutably confirmed, that the shortage did not arise all at once but has existed for some time and has gradually increased. When it began, and with what initial amount the newspapers do not certainly know. But the interested persons are agreed that a marked shortage already existed at the time of the last convention of the Polish Roman Catholic Union, and that the former officials were aware of this and yet kept it secret from the delegates. After the convention the shortage steadily increased. The new administration did not take the matter up until it had been in office a year and two months.

    It is difficult to imagine that other officials of the Union's 5administration besides the president and the secretary did not know of the existence of a shortage for so many years, including the priests who form part of the administration. This greatly increases the guilt of the old and the new administrations.

    This conjecture is verified by the present chaplain of the Polish Roman Catholic Union, the Reverend Father Gronkowski, who in an extended communication forwarded to the Polish newspaper Dziennik Zwiazkowy expresses himself in a very ambiguous manner. The reverend chaplain considers it bad policy that some of the officials of the present administration of the Union are members of the committee selected by the administration to ascertain the extent of the shortage.

    We consider the position which the Reverend Father Gronkowski takes in this matter to be absolutely correct. As long as the matter necessitated the appointment of a committee by the administration to give an authoritative opinion, it was proper to appoint on this committee reliable 6members of the Union belonging neither to the old nor to the new administration and hence, impartial. People of that kind would inspire more confidence in the public.

    Every deficit in the treasury of an organization is a sad matter. It exposes the organization to harmful aftereffects. But of the two possible forms of shortage that of which there is now talk is unquestionably the worse.

    A sudden shortage, caused by a single act of malfeasance on the part of the treasurer, would be a thing greatly compromising and embarrassing to an organization. But a deficit lasting for several years, increasing constantly, and carefully concealed puts the management of the organization in a far worse position. Throughout the entire period of its failure to comply with the law this organization enjoyed a good reputation and received new members into its fold. The officials should not be permitted to hide 7the truth from the members for years and at the time of enrolling new members give them the impression that everything is in the best of order.

    The very words of the reverend chaplain himself indicate the high degree of disorder which has existed. He proves on the basis of the testimony of the former treasurer that this official, in a way the most important in the entire organization, has for the last ten years failed to keep a daily record of the amount of money and the kind of money that has come into his hands. This, after all, is nothing less than criminal negligence! By so conducting a business it is possible not only to endanger the financial condition [of an enterprise] but even to ruin it.

    But, we ask, what were the other officials doing in the course of the ten years of the treasurer's failure to keep a record of the income? Did it never occur to them that it is improper to conduct financial affairs in that manner? After all, they must have known in what way the treasurer kept his books because that was their first duty. What did 8the finance committees do at the conventions of the Polish Roman Catholic Union?

    It is not the intention of the Dziennik Zwiazkowy to pronounce judgment here over the officials of the Union. Let the people who have trusted them be the judges.

    We only wish to call the attention of members of the Polish National Alliance to the benefit and the security to be derived of the system employed in our organization. Here the people themselves govern; they themselves know and investigate the ways and means of conducting the business. They have at all times access to all books and accounts and receive detailed and truthful reports.

    Everyone has heard, undoubtedly, of the deficit existing in the treasury of the Polish Roman Catholic Union. Rumors have been current for some time that something is amiss in that ...

    II D 1, II E 1, III C, IV
  • Dziennik Związkowy -- December 22, 1910
    In the Polish Roman Catholic Union Former General Secretary of the Union, Mr. F. Krolik, Presents Explanation

    To the members of the Polish Roman Catholic Union!

    From the time of the discovery of Mr. Ostrowski's malfeasance [as an officer of] the Polish Roman Catholic Union, repeated charges have been directed against me by the present administration, which I do not understand or admit. The members of the organization who have repeatedly honored me and trusted me by electing me to the office of general secretary could demand of me only that I keep the books in order. Did I not do that? Could any one, in the course of my tenure of office charge me with entering willingly and knowingly one false item on the records of the Polish Roman Catholic Union? Can experts and public accountants from Springfield or the present administration or Mr. S. Adamkiewicz charge me with any such transgression?


    I solemnly declare and give assurance upon my word of honor that every entry made by me is honest, and I take full responsibility for each and every item.

    The supposition that Mr. Szopinski and I must have known of the malfeasance of Mr. Ostrowski is false.

    Mr. Ostrowski, the treasurer of the Polish Roman Catholic Union, was also treasurer of other business associations and enterprises. In conducting the construction of some thirty churches he had sufficient credit to obtain cash when it was necessary at a given time.

    Mr. Ostrowski, as he himself stated, besides erecting thirty churches also built about five hundred buildings, and his turnover in the period of his tenure of office exceeded two and a half million dollars. Hence, in accordance with his needs, he could transfer money from one account to another, Whenever I or Mr. Szopinski asked him about the cash, he could always give an 3accounting. To conventions he took certified checks, and proved himself solvent.

    Mr. Ostrowski undertook too many enterprises, and I suppose that he made his bids for [building] contracts too low. Be that as it may, neither I nor Mr. Szopinski talked him into any enterprises. Moreover, we never dreamed that he would use the funds of the Union to promote his personal interests.

    Then, again, Mr. Ostrowski at no time gave money either to me or to Mr. Szopinski for safekeeping. Consequently, only those could take money from him whom he had trusted outside the organization.

    What is more, Mr. Ostrowski cannot show a single check which might dishonestly have been passed to him twice for payment. He is not so foolish that he would not have called attention to this. Even if he had said nothing of it previously, he certainly would say it today, and he would present the checks.


    If Mr. Ostrowski claims that he never counted the daily receipts, that is a false statement, for he was very exacting when it came to taking in money. When we closed the daily financial reports, he was always present, and he counted every penny of it and took the money with him. The only reason for his antagonism to me and Mr. Szopinski was that we demanded that he deposit the money daily in the bank in the organization's name. He made every possible attempt to squirm out of this. When he discovered recently that Mr. Szopinski was secretly checking him, he became definitely antagonistic and combined with our enemies to prevent our re-election. If we were partners in the malfeasance, it would be natural to expect that he would be hand in glove with us.

    Why, then, does not Mr. Ostrowski himself speak up? Why is this left to Mr. Adamkiewicz and the former treasurer's friends of the new administration? If Mr. Ostrowski could say that "such and such funds were taken from me by Mr. Krolik, and so much and so much by Mr. Szopinski," that would be very pleasing to his protectors and would help him greatly in his defense. But 5he cannot say that because it is not true, and at no time was there any suspicion of such a thing.

    Mr. Ostrowski never was nor could have been either my victim or Mr. Szopinski's. His present position resulted from reversals in his building enterprises. If he had been successful this year in closing at least one good contract and in obtaining a considerable deposit on it, this catastrophe would never have occurred. But, as I understand the conditions in the Polish Roman Catholic Union, this catastrophe could not have involved more than a few thousand dollars.

    If there was actually a defalcation of the huge sum of ninety thousand dollars, then this was due exclusively to Mr. Adamkiewicz and his friends in the new administration. In their fight against me and Mr. Szopinski they have forgotten completely about watching and checking Mr. Ostrowski.

    They have conducted themselves in exactly the same way as did Mr. Roszkowiak.


    This gentlemen, in his statement made to the Polish newspaper, Dziennik Narodowy, asserts that being a member of the revision committee, he had searched hopelessly for Attorney Belinski, and that he waited for us and for others. But it is strange that he did not approach Mr. Ostrowski and did not say to him:

    "I refuse to sign the report until you make an accounting of the money according to the last [of those] statements [which are] always printed in the official organ of the Polish Roman Catholic Union."

    It is far more convenient for Mr. Roszkowiak to tell fairy tales now as to why he did not examine the treasury. He did not need anybody [or anything] to help him do this except Mr. Ostrowski and the recent financial statement printed in the Dziennik Narodowy.

    It is equally convenient for Mr. Adamkiewicz and for others to present Mr. Ostrowski as an unfortunate victim and falsely to blame me and Mr. Szopinski.


    By so doing they attempt to free themselves of the charges of criminal negligence and scandalous mismanagement of the organization's funds. They have brought about these conditions in their administration.

    In order to inspire confidence in others, they say that I was an ordinary laborer and without proper education for the position which I held. Strange, very strange indeed, that only after my ten years of work as secretary of the Polish Roman Catholic Union and after five conventions the present administration has discovered this and has announced to the whole world in a very noisy manner that I was an inadequate person for the office of secretary, an ordinary laborer without the least education! The highly experienced professional dignitaries of the present Polish Roman Catholic Union base their assertion upon the fact that after coming from my native land to America I worked in a lumberyard as a common laborer.

    Yes, I have worked, as all others have who have come here fresh from Europe. I have worked hard for my living, and for a period of several months I was 8an ordinary laborer, an employee of the Ritz Lumber Company; but I have never been ashamed of this work, nor am I ashamed of it now, for it was honest and honorable labor. Nevertheless this charge is no proof whatsoever that I arrived in this country without the slightest education of any type. The best proof of this is perhaps the fact that the firm for which I worked as an ordinary laborer, despite the fact that I had not mastered the language of this country, promoted me after four years of hard labor to the position of bookkeeper, a position which I held for four years. After this I was a foreman in the employ of this company for a full year, until the time when St. Stanislaus Kostka's Parish appointed me its secretary, and these duties I performed for more than six years to the general satisfaction of the reverend pastor as well as that of all the parishioners, who have from time to time honored me with their complete trust.

    At the same time I was appointed to the very important position of secretary of the St. Joseph Savings and Loan Association, and in this association more than three hundred thousand dollars passed through my hands annually. This 9position was held by me for more than twenty years, and to the best of my knowledge [I filled it] to the general satisfaction of the members of the administration and of the official examiners in Springfield.

    Ten years ago the convention of the Polish Roman Catholic Union for the first time honored me with the position of general secretary. From that time on I have served in that capacity to the best of my ability, having at heart only the welfare of the organization. At the same time Mr. Szopinski, who later became the president of the organization, was appointed on the financial committee, which completely reorganized the Union, brought order into it, and worked out a new assessment table. This table placed the declining organization again on a firm basis.

    The subsequent conventions serve as the best proof that my work was well and capably done. This is further attested by the examining committees appointed at the conventions as well as by the Insurance Department's examiners sent from Springfield by the State government. These two examining groups have 10for the last ten years always expressed themselves in commendation of my work.

    As secretary I have worked hard and deligently for several years without any one's assistance. It was not until recently that with the consent of the convention the administration of the organization gave me an assistant in the person of my daughter, a capable bookkeeper. Her salary for a very long time did not exceed twenty-five dollars a quarter.

    Any impartial person may go to the office of the organization and see how I have keep the books. After so doing I am certain that such a person will not accuse me of lack of education and ability to perform my duties as secretary. The best proof of that is the income that has come into the organization as a result of my labor and Mr. Szopinski's throughout ten years.

    The manner in which the present administration keeps books is best seen in the fact that on November 12, 1910, the president, according to the Polish newspaper, 11Dziennik Chicagoski, reported the assets of the Polish Roman Catholic Union as $666,708.85, whereas in the official report it was shown almost simultaneously that they were only $631,986.53. The difference of $34,722.52 in the two figures is no trifle. Moreover, how many times was the present general secretary obliged to change the announced balance, making deductions of several thousand dollars, for the benefit of the treasurer?

    Equally false are the charges that I, in collaboration with Mr. Szopinski, endeavored to destroy the organization's documents immediately after the convention. This accusation has no foundation and is nothing but a falsehood. Every sane man will acknowledge that neither the former president of the Union nor I would be so naive as not to know the consequences of such an act.

    False also are the accusations of the present noisemakers in the Polish Roman Catholic Union, who claim that I have paid exorbitant sums for printing material to a firm in which Mr. Szopinski has an interest. They announce, for example, that for printing the constitution I paid ten cents a copy, 12whereas the officials of the present administration pay only three and a half cents.

    This is nothing more than a base lie and an attempt to confuse the members of the organization. In my term of office, on February 6, 1906, Mr. Szopinski's printing concern charged the organization ninety dollars for printing four thousand copies of the constitution, or 2 ¼ cents a copy. In the year of 1907 Mr. Szopinski's firm printed five thousand copies for $120, 2 1/5 cents a copy. Receipt books for members, bound in cloth, were printed by the same firm at 4 ½ cents a copy. When it was decided to open new sets of books in the numerous branch groups of the Union, a special committee of the directors was delegated to request estimates on these books of other printing companies. No firm, however, gave so low a price as that of Mr. Szopinski. Naturally, his company received the contract to print these books. It was the same with other printed matter. Why, then, cast calumnies and spread lies about exorbitant prices for printing material for the Union?


    One more word of the alleged extortions of Mr. Szopinski's firm. It had, in fact, a clause in its contract that the Polish Roman Catholic Union was to pay it for correcting addresses. Despite this clause the organization for eight years did not pay a cent for this work. The firm further had it stipulated in the contract that it was to be allowed to print at least sixteen columns of advertisements per week, but it never took advantage of this privilege and did not print on an average more than eight columns per week.

    Mr. Szopinski and I have never taken a cent for making numerous installations in the groups of the organization and for various other personal expenses. All these expenses were met by us, although in the first years of Mr. Szopinski's term of office he received a salary of only two hundred dollars a year.

    That is the way in which Mr. Szopinski and I have abused our Polish Roman Catholic Union and extorted money from it.


    I am convinced that the members of the Polish Roman Catholic Union, who have always honored me with their trust, will arrive at the conviction that I was at all times their faithful servant and was ever sincere in my endeavors to promote the Union's interests.

    Fraternally yours,

    Thomas Krolik

    Former general secretary of the

    Polish Roman Catholic Union

    To the members of the Polish Roman Catholic Union! From the time of the discovery of Mr. Ostrowski's malfeasance [as an officer of] the Polish Roman Catholic Union, repeated charges ...

    II D 1, II E 1, III C, IV
  • Dziennik Związkowy -- January 06, 1915
    How Many of Our Girls Are Included?

    We have written many times in the Dziennik Zwiazkowy about conditions prevalent in department stores. We have pointed out many times that 'knowing where our daughter is' and 'imagining where she is' are two different stories. Today we are going to show how close we were in our predictions.

    Miss Alice Clement, who is an outstanding Chicago policewoman, has brought charges against Stephen Saridan, who was caught making advances to the girls in the Fair Department Store. A judge fined Saridan one hundred dollars for his so-called kind-heartedness. However, this is not all.

    "In the waiting rooms of the department stores," said Miss Clement," I meet various street-walkers and white-slavers. These vice dealers we have known a long time. They gather here daily before noon to make plans for the day. In these rest-rooms it is possible for them to strike up conversations with 2the young ladies who come to these stores unchaperoned. This is well-known to men of vice.

    "The salesgirls are aware of this and know what is going on. They realize that it is possible for them to make an acquaintance with these men. They benefit through these contacts. When one loses her job, she joins their ranks. While she is meeting various men, the mother thinks that she is gainfully employed, whereas she is undermining her life. At the end of the week this daughter turns in three or four dollars, as if it were earned in the store and this goes on for many weeks. This is prevalent in almost all the large department stores. These people mingle with the best and have a good appearance. Therefore, these street-walkers are hard to wipe out, for they are well-trained, well-organized, and the efforts of the police are fruitless.

    "Even if the efforts of the police were to be the greatest, it still would be 3impossible for them to track down the guilty individuals," continued Miss Clement. "If the parents will not become aware of this, they will not be able to understand what is actually happening. For the daughter, instead of working in a department store, is running about with any man she makes an acquaintance with in the store. The money she brings home is often earned through immoral conduct and not through her sales work in the store, which she pretends she is doing."

    This was the revelation of Miss Alice Clement. To these disclosures we cannot add. We may say that the trial of Miss Julia Borecki and Miss Czarski, who have been picked up in a department store, has opened.

    Perhaps the mothers, who often do not like to believe what the papers publish, will believe what the policewoman has revealed. She understands this kind of life well because she sees it every day.

    "Perhaps this is not new to us," many a mother will say. "We know where our 4daughters are during certain parts of the day, but we do not know where she is and what she is doing the rest of the time."

    We have written many times in the Dziennik Zwiazkowy about conditions prevalent in department stores. We have pointed out many times that 'knowing where our daughter is' and 'imagining where ...

    II E 1, I B 3 b, II E 2, II E 3, I H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 12, 1921
    A Warning to Polish Investors by Joseph Mierzynski (Announcement)

    Over three million dollars has been lost by Polish people in America by investments in stock in Polish corporations. All this has happened in recent months only. This is an unfortunately heavy loss and one perhaps that will be an everlasting lesson to all investors.

    During the past few weeks the Polish people, according to facts, have not shown that they are capable of handling an interest on a large scale. All new Polish concerns that may arise in the future should give the people a bonafide protection for their investments. One of the best of these is the first mortgage.

    This is exactly what has been done by the Palatine Alliance. Every penny 2that is taken by this organization is protected by real-estate possessions which are valued at millions of dollars. This announcement is made in every paper in order that the people may know about this.

    There are those that try to organize a new corporation and collect money from people to promote membership and the sale of stock. They do this in the following way:

    A number of people will gather to talk over plans for a new enterprise. Among this group two or three Palatine boosters are found. They know that the Palatine Alliance has great confidence in the Polish emigrants, that the membership exceeds 30,000, and that it helps to build Polish industry and trade. Realizing this, they take advantage of the fact that they have Palatine members in the new corporation, and call themselves a "Palatine Organization." They send out an appeal to all Palatine members for support, and their circulars are printed in such a fashion that one is led to believe that the new enterprise is being carried out by the Palatine Alliance.


    In this way the public in general is led to believe the opposite. The people form the opinion that the new organization belongs to the Palatine Alliance, and that money invested in that corporation is protected by first mortgage notes. By making use of the name "Palatine," the new company influences the public to invest money in a speculative concern. Many such companies became bankrupt within a short time.

    In order to clarify this situation, I am listing the four organizations that are associated with the Palatine Alliance. They are as follows: Palatine Trade Corporation, Palatine Transportation Corporation, Palatine School Corporation, and Palatine Mining Corporation. These four compose the Palatine Alliance which is protected by a twenty million dollar real-estate investment. The money which is invested in this company is protected. Beyond the investments in the four Palatine Alliance corporations the Alliance is not responsible for any other concerns.


    I wish to point out once more to the investors who may want to purchase stock in some enterprise that the safest investment is one that protects their interests by first mortgage notes.

    Over three million dollars has been lost by Polish people in America by investments in stock in Polish corporations. All this has happened in recent months only. This is an ...

    I D 1 a, II E 1
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 16, 1922
    Our Social Lessons (Editorial)

    Our readers will no doubt recall the series of articles which we wrote about saving and the wise investment of money. We warned you urgently then, and we caution you again to invest your money prudently, not to take chances, not to speculate, and not to expose yourself to unnecessary financial risks. But on the other hand you should not keep your money in stockings, mattresses, or other hiding places where it brings you no interest and may easily be lost. Today we add another article to the series for the benefit of interested persons. As usual we begin with an example from everyday life.

    A certain Mr. Alve W. Harshman was recently arrested in Milwaukee, Wisconsin as a codefendant with C. W. French and J. W. Worthington, two notorious master swindlers. Harshman made a statement in which he explained that several years ago he lent to French $50,000 and then found himself forced to 2play the role assigned to him by French in order to get his money back.

    Colonel J. V. Clinnin, assistant United States district attorney, had these persons arrested after he had learned that Messrs. Worthington and French had organized their business in order to get rid of $6,000,000 worth of stolen bonds and about $3,000,000 in worthless notes, besides a great number of certificates of deposit.

    We have written very extensively about this affair so that our readers might be quite familiar with its details. What we want to do now is to remind you of it and to call your attention to the fact that the victims of these swindlers were, one might say, principally intelligent and well-to-do people who, it seems, should have had sense enough not to permit themselves to be so shamelessly cheated. But the fact remains that they were defrauded by these shrewd financial manipulators, and what is worse, they were involuntarily dragged into co-operation in their swindles.


    Worthington and French were careless with their money; they were dealing in millions. They set their nets only for big fish, and when one was caught, it was picked clean. Every millionaire who fell into their trap had his pockets picked to the very last penny.

    But this was quite unusual; one might call it an exceptional affair. There are swarms of swindlers of smaller caliber who do not aspire so high but go after the savings of poor people, not disdaining those of children who put away in little banks pennies given to them by their parents. they even stretch out their paws to rob the church boxes into which pious and warm-hearted parishioners put their contributions for the poor. Many poor widows have been induced [by them] to invest in shady business enterprises the insurance money left to them by husbands and fathers of families. These are the exploiters, the true jackals.

    There is also another type of person who brings ruin to himself and to others by promoting all sorts of impractical and chimerical business schemes in the 4hope of getting rich quickly. Some of these people are honest but have the habit of looking at things subjectively. They take dreams for reality; they imagine themselves able to run railroads, to construct skyscrapers, and to organize and manage gigantic corporations, although in reality they have had no experience in such matters.

    This class of harmful dreamers has cost us millions already, and we see no and to it because these people are continually crying for more money to carry on their experiments, which, we may be sure, will end in failure.

    The only way for the average individual to protect himself and his savings is to avoid doing business with strangers who are trying to induce people to speculate with their hard-earned money. One should invest one's iunds in honest and reliable business enterprises the shares of which are sold on the stock exchange, bringing sure and good profit. There are many bonds and much valuable commercial paper which are sure and safe, bringing in good steady income and having the added advantage that in case of need they can readily 5be sold without a cent of loss. But before one makes any investment, one should avail himself of absolutely competent advice.

    Our readers will no doubt recall the series of articles which we wrote about saving and the wise investment of money. We warned you urgently then, and we caution you ...

    II E 1, II E 2, II A 2
  • Dziennik Zjednoczenia -- May 02, 1922
    Polish Welfare Association

    Anyone who accidentally finds himself in that branch of the Criminal Court headed by Judge John J. Sullivan, could irrefutably claim how indispensable is the need of the existence of a Polish Welfare Association, which some of our best citizens have in mind to organize.

    Sometimes the best Polish child, in bad environment, in back streets and in alleys, wanders off the straight and narrow path, on which his parents and society would like to have him travel. The children exposed to this danger are those of poor parents, who work hard for their livelihood. The mother is likewise forced to work, in order to add to the insufficient earnings of the father. Due to lack of some sort of organization to take care of minors, they are left, inexperienced, to fate and a prey to evil influences so easily Finding access in minds not yet developed.


    To the most burning needs of our society, particularly in larger cities, belongs the establishment of an association having as its aim the guardianship of minors, and to those, who have conceived the thought of establishing a Polish Welfare Association, belongs the most credit. Wholesome results of the activities of such a welfare association are being noticed among the Jewish society, and there is not the least bit of doubt today, that our social workers will found a no less great and no less worthy organization.

    As we have mentioned at the beginning of this article, five Polish youths appeared before Judge Sullivan's court. Two of them, having more well-to-do parents, had defenders. The defense of the other three youths was taken up on the recommendation of the Judge, absolutely without charge by the well known Polish lawyers, Judge Edmund K. Jarecki and Joseph Lasecki. The prosecutor was Assistant States Attorney, Charles Q. Wharton, the arm of the law was represented by John Philbin.


    These youngsters belonged to a well organized band of thieves - each of them from childhood had an infamous record. They also had fire arms in their possession, with which they were outfitted by one previously fined in a police court, Mr. Louis L. - living at 1134 North Ashland Avenue.

    The oldest of the accused, W. K - 1618 Haddon Avenue, is a youth twenty-one years of age. This is not the first time that he has become acquainted with the authorities. He already has appeared before the Juvenile Court and Boys' Court and has served out his fines in reform institutions. The second, an eighteen year old youth, Leon L. - 1650 West Division Street, has been incarcerated three times in the Cook County reform school. One only seventeen years old, Edward Z - 1758 North Talman Avenue, is a novice in this occupation, having no record. The parents of the boys were present at the trial, with the exception of those of Stephen K - , who was alone, his parents most likely having lost all faith in him.


    The accused broke into the meat market of Albert H - 1721 North Talman Avenue, where they stole meat valued at $620.00, breaking in through the rear door at 10:30 P:M. The father of Z - informed the authorities about the burglary. Besides that, on February 8th they stole from Edward P - 1948 Evergreen Avenue , an automobile as well as two others from unknown parties, one a Chevrolet which they sold for $2.00 and the other they sold for $1.10.

    Due to the eloquent presentation of defense represented so valiantly by Judge Jarecki and Attorney J. A. Lasecki, Judge Sullivan continued the case, with the intention of establishing a more detailed account of circumstances among which this punishable act was accomplished. The low price received for the stolen articles - a question so justifiably raised by the defense, allows the contention that pure criminal impulses did not exist in this case, but rather the influences of unruly and unbridled fantasy of youth, discerning bravado in violation of the law.


    These youths according to the claim of L - belonged to the Y. M. C. A., but such a useful organization could not have had any influence upon them because it does not take into consideration the ways of thinking of the child of a Polish emigrant, who, coming from a different environment - knows how to counterbalance its mind and return with ease to the straight and narrow path of honesty under the influence of its own countrymen. So that this example undoubtedly will arouse us to work so much harder for the establishment of a Polish Welfare Association.

    Anyone who accidentally finds himself in that branch of the Criminal Court headed by Judge John J. Sullivan, could irrefutably claim how indispensable is the need of the existence of ...

    II E 3, II E 1, II D 1, IV