The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 18, 1892
    Polish Welfare Organization

    Yesterday at 4 P.M., the first meeting was held to make plans for an organized welfare association that will look after the poverty-stricken throughout St. Stanislaus Kostki's parish at St. Stanislaus Kostki's parish hall. An executive committee was chosen, and given the power to elect other functionary groups. A bureau of intelligence was among the first to be organized.

    The function of this department will be primarily one of investigation and information. It will try to locate the jobless in industry and commerce. An outlook will be kept on all branches of industry, relative to getting as many of the idle to work as soon as possible.

    2

    The following members of the parish have been picked for the executive body:

    Peter Kiolbassa

    Stanislaus Kunz

    Victor Bardonski

    August Kowalski

    P. Ratkowski

    Louis Biadaszkiewicz

    Sigmund Czsplinski

    August Rudnicki

    Jacob Mucha

    Frank Wleklinski

    Walter Pyterek

    Frank Murkowski

    Frances Zwierzynski

    Frank Okon

    Father Vincent Barzynski

    3

    This meeting,for the assistance of the poor, was attended by many of the parishioners. This marked the initial step in organized welfare work. At the termination of this assembly, there was good indication that the enterprise will be met with success.

    The first organized meeting of this institution will be held Sunday, January 24, at 4 P.M.

    Yesterday at 4 P.M., the first meeting was held to make plans for an organized welfare association that will look after the poverty-stricken throughout St. Stanislaus Kostki's parish at St. ...

    Polish
    II D 1, II D 8, III C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 16, 1892
    Polish Welfare Association's Membership Continues to Swell

    The Polish Welfare Association, officially organized last Sunday to aid poverty stricken Poles, has finally completed a program to be followed during the present year. A committee of twenty-one directors has been elected to execute the resolutions adopted at a meeting held Sunday after-noon at the New Polish hall. The board of directors have already chosen the assistants to aid them in their work. Out of the large crowd that came, sixty people joined the welfare organization.

    The organization of this society is an important step forward. The execution of the adopted resolutions did not end with the first few meetings; therefore, it is necessary to continue these gatherings over a period of time. The problem of alleviating the critical situation of our poor will be discussed at future sessions, when solutions will be offered.

    2

    Sunday's meeting has placed this organization on a good footing. The road for its success looks very bright.

    Important resolutions passed at the gathering are as follows:

    1. The name of the society shall be:

    Polish Welfare Association No. 1 of Chicago, Illinois, located at St. Stanislaus Kostki's parish.... The organization will be placed under the guidance of St. John.

    2. The aim of the society will be to practice Christian kindness among the unfortunate, especially our own people in the vicinity of St. Stanilaus Kostki's parish. The activities of the association may be extended to other Polish parishes and neighborhoods in Chicago by the organization of groups sanctioned by the central board. Polish societies in the city can do their share by following the example of this organization, that is, they can name a committee to enroll members at a dollar per person. Members may pay a dollar every quarter, or four dollars for the whole year.

    3

    Those not wishing to belong to this welfare association, or those not having the means to pay, are urged to contribute as much as they can afford. Money, food, and clothing will be welcome at all times.

    The Intelligence Bureau is working on plans to find employment for the able-bodied needy. As soon as this department completes its study of the needs of the poor, it will be ready to offer assistance. The time will be announced.

    By the aid of ballots, Father Vincent Barzynski was elected president; Victor Bardonski, first vice-president; Thomas Krolik, second vice-president and financial secretary; Stanislaus Szwajkart, secretary; Jacob Mucha, cashier; Paul Ratkowski, visiting case worker; and Wladislaus Nowaczewski, guardian.

    The next meeting of directors will be held February 24 at 8 P.M. at the parish hall. The question of a permanent place for the financial office will be decided.

    4

    At the present time, the twenty-one members at the board of directors do their work without pay.

    The Polish Welfare Association, officially organized last Sunday to aid poverty stricken Poles, has finally completed a program to be followed during the present year. A committee of twenty-one directors ...

    Polish
    II D 10, III B 2, II D 8, I B 4
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 25, 1892
    Polish Welfare Association Convenes Again

    The Polish Welfare Association will convene every Monday in order to make its services easily available and expedite its plans, according to a proposal adopted at a meeting held last night. The Welfare Bureau will be open during week days from 10 A. M. to 4 P. M. all those in need of help will be interviewed at once so that they may receive help as quickly as possible. This office is also open to any member of the organization wishing to offer suggestions or having to attend some business.

    Plans for the Information Office, which will serve as an employment bureau for those in need, have been widely discussed. Further discussion, however, was continued until the next meeting, pending certain developments. Due to its widespread connections, this office when opened will be of great benefit to the man looking for employment.

    The results of next Monday's meeting will be announced at a later date, as well as the outcome at the projected Information Bureau. All members are urged to attend.

    The Polish Welfare Association will convene every Monday in order to make its services easily available and expedite its plans, according to a proposal adopted at a meeting held last ...

    Polish
    II D 10, II D 8
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 25, 1892
    The Constitution of the Polish Welfare Association

    Yesterday afternoon the Board of Directors of the Polish Welfare Association read at the Polish Hall the proposed constitution of this organization before a crowd of members and non-members. The constitution will be read to the members at the next two meetings, so that they may get well acquainted with it.

    [The constitution, as published in four consecutive installments by the Dziennik Chicagoski, is as follows:]

    Constitution of the Polish Welfare Association

    I. Name and Purpose.

    1. The name of the society will be "Polish Welfare Association No. 1 of Chicago, Illinois," at St. Stanislaus Kostkis Parish.

    2

    2. The aim of the organization is to offer Christian assistance of mercy to those in need, especially to fellow citizens and countrymen living in the vicinity of St. Stanislaus Parish.

    II. Members.

    3. Any Pole can be a member of the Welfare Association.

    4. A person may be a regular member, or a benefactor.

    5. A regular member of the organization is a person who has paid a dollar entrance fee and pays four dollars a year in one sum, or one dollar quarterly, and has pledged to abide by the constitution.

    6. Benefactors of the Association will be those persons not desiring to follow the laws of the organization or to take active part in it, but who 3wish to make contributions, in cash or in the form of groceries, coal, wood, clothing, medicine, medical services, etc., to the office of the secretary.

    7. The duties of a member, besides making contributions, are as follows: to attend all meetings and special sessions regularly; to take active part in a drive to wipe out false representatives trying to collect money from the people or to get money from the organization under false pretenses. Members will be permitted to attend all meetings free of charge.

    III. Origin and Meetings.

    8. The first year of the Polish Welfare Association began on January 1, 1892, in Chicago; each following year will begin on January 1.

    4

    9. Regular meetings of the society will be held every three months, beginning the first Sunday in January, April, July, and October; out of these quarterly sessions, the January gathering will be considered as the annual meeting. The day and date of the quarterly meetings can be changed at the discretion of the members if any important matter is to be considered; however, the place of meeting cannot be changed.

    10. The Directors will have regular monthly meetings; the officers will convene each week; a director has the right to be present at an officers' meeting.

    11. At every annual meeting, new officers, twenty directors and a president ex officio, will be elected by a ballot vote. In order to facilitate the ballot vote, the secretary will have all the names of the regular members printed in a list that will be given to all members present. The twenty candidates receiving the larger number of votes will be chosen as directors.

    5

    The chairman of the meeting will pick out three former directors to tabulate the returns. In this way the elected directors will immediately take office, and on the following quarterly meeting they will pick out their assistants. The books of their predecessors will be turned over to them.

    12. During the yearly meeting, changes of policy, suggestions, criticisms, and amendments to the constitution can be made.

    13. The presence of twenty-five regular members at a quarterly meeting will be considered as a quorum.

    IV. Administration.

    14. The administrative body of the Association, as mentioned above, is composed of twenty directors and an ex officio president, who is the pastor of the parish or an assistant picked by him.

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    15. The directors are obligated (a) to meet once a month or more frequently, depending on the matters at hand; (b) to handle to the best of their ability the funds of the society for the benefit of the needy; (c) to lay down administrative regulations to their officers relative to disposing of the problems that may arise; to control the officers in the disposition of the matters; (d) to make a report of the progress of the welfare organization at each quarterly session; (e) to make suggestions and lay plans for the growth of the society.

    16. The administrators will select among themselves officers to handle the various duties of the welfare work, namely: (a) first vice-president, (b) second vice-president, (c) secretary, (d) financial secretary, (e) cashier, (f) visitor, and (g) administrator.

    7

    17. Eleven directors, including the ex officio president, will be considered a quorum.

    18. If an occasion arises when it becomes necessary to have a salaried official to manage the Association on an efficient basis, the directors will have the right to employ one.

    19. A two-thirds vote will be the deciding factor in passing or rejecting any by-laws or changes.

    V. Officers.

    20. The officers of the Welfare Association will meet once a week to discuss the work and plans of the organization. All officers will perform their duties without any remuneration, unless otherwise specified by the board of directors.

    8

    21. The duties of the President or the First Vice-president (the first-vice president will take over the duties of the president in the event of his absence; and in case both the president and first vice-president are absent, the second vice-president will take over the duties) are as follows: The president has full charge of handling all matters concerning the organization; he will hold council relative to any parliamentary rulings; it is up to him to permit or take away the right of anyone to vote; to represent the society on the outside; to sign acts, letters and other papers of the organization. Neither the president nor his assistant votes during a general meeting, unless there is a tie. During a directors' or an officers' meeting, the president has the right to vote. In the event the president and both vice-presidents are absent, the secretary will open the session. The directors that may be present will elect a chairman to preside at the meeting.

    9

    22, The duties of the Secretary are as follows: to make a record of all proceedings of the officers', directors', and general sessions; to take care of all the external correspondence; to read the minutes of the last meeting at every quarterly gathering; to read a record of the progress at every quarterly session; to arrange and announce through the press what has been accomplished during the year; and to take care of circulars, bulletins, and other matters pertinent to his office.

    23. The duties of the Financial Secretary are as follows: to take care of the office of the Welfare Association during the designated hours; to keep separate lists of contributors, needy persons, and regular members; to keep an accurate account of all transactions; and to keep a record of funds contributed by members or private individuals. The financial secretary is also to take care of the issuance of money, or passes, to directors, officers, and the goodfellows of the society; he is to turn all contributions, whether 10in cash or in merchandise, to the cashier; he is to give a weekly report of all transactions at the officers' weekly meetings, and to take care of all correspondence concerning his department. The financial secretary is to be placed under a bond of one thousand dollars, and this sum can be raised at the discretion of the directors. Until further notice, the financial secretary will be in charge of the Information Bureau.

    24. The duties of the Cashier are as follows: to take care of all the money handed to him by the financial secretary and to give a receipt to the latter; to pay out the necessary amounts of money for operation as designated by a signed recommendation from the president; and to keep the books of his department in good order. The cashier is also placed under a bond of one thousand dollars, a sum which may be increased at the discretion of the directors.

    11

    25. The duties of the Visitor will be as follows: to visit those persons asking for assistance, and to present a complete questionnaire to the president or financial secretary, at the officers' and directors' meeting. In case of expansion in the organization, the visitor will get assistants from the ranks of the directors of regular members, as designated by the regulations.

    26. The duties of the Administrator are as follows: to take care of all the material contributions; to distribute them under a signed order by the president, financial secretary, or higher ranking official; to purchase articles as directed by the board of directors; and to keep a record of all goods received, purchased, and given out.

    12

    VI. Granting of Assistance of Help.

    27. The Welfare Association, as stipulated in article I, paragraph 2, has as its aim to offer Christian assistance of mercy and to give such assistance as (a) The issuance of essectial commodities (in special instances, money will be given; and in emergency cases rent and vital essentials will be paid); (b) Moral support through personal attention will be given to individuals; homeless persons, orphans, and widows will be directly taken care of by the Association; and whenever possible and necessary, practical advice will be given to those in need of moralization; (c) Spiritual and medical attention will be introduced whenever the needy are not in a position to provide it themselves; (d) The bureau of information will try to secure steady or temporary work for the able-bodied poor; and (e) Various other types of assistance will be given as soon as they be brought to the Association's attention to be approved by the directors and officers.

    13

    28. Identification cards will be given out to the officers and regular members of the organization in order to protect the Association and the people from impostors who try to get money under false pretenses. These cards will bear the official seal of the society. Any individual in need of help and begging on the streets and from door to door, should be referred or turned over to the headquarters of the Association. The officers will decide whether or not this individual needs assistance.

    VII. The Information Bureau.

    29. The Association will maintain a bureau of information for the sole purpose of finding remunerative work of one kind or another for the able-bodied. At the present time this bureau will be in charge of the financial secretary. When needed, the department will be enlarged and more assistants employed.

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    30. In order to justify the existence of the bureau, contacts will be made with industrial and commercial firms of Chicago and vicinity in an effort to get employment for as many of the unfortunate unemployed as it will be possible. The bureau will publish its work in the press. Circulars and letters will be distributed in an effort to popularize the bureau. The officer of the information bureau will keep in good order all the transactions done.

    VIII. General Orders.

    31. The board of directors has the privilege to obtain assistance from and affiliate with other welfare groups in Chicago and the state of Illinois, in the event the required funds cannot be raised in the vicinity of the Welfare Association.

    15

    32. The aim of the Welfare Association is twofold: it will give not only material aid, but also spiritual and moral assistance. Every effort will be exerted to improve the unfortunate condition of the poor within the radius of the organization.

    33. If at any time, because of lack of support or other reasons, the welfare organization should become dissolved, the proceeds, if any, will go to the Holy Family Orphanage, Chicago, Illinois.

    Yesterday afternoon the Board of Directors of the Polish Welfare Association read at the Polish Hall the proposed constitution of this organization before a crowd of members and non-members. The ...

    Polish
    II D 10, II D 1, II D 3, II D 4, II D 8, III C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 09, 1892
    A Step Forward (Editorial)

    The notion of uniting individual units into a central bureau for co-operation has been stirring in the minds of Polish printers since long ago. Heretofore, this notion has appeared spasmodically but the chief drawback has been the lack of Gutenberg enthusiasts. Now, with the increase of Polish printing shops in Chicago there is also an increase of workers in this field. These have felt the need of solidarity, lest in the future as in the past they grope along in the dark, and have determined to have a central office where the unemployed could obtain information.

    This move, if generally approved, will be of service to the owners of printing houses as well as to the printers. Until now, when a shop wanted help, there was no means of getting any information in this regard. On the other hand, compositors in search of employment were obliged to inquire 2from one shop to another. From now on, the secretary of the Polish Printers' Association in Chicago, will keep a list of the unemployed and, should a vacancy arise, he will inform them of the address involved. The fee is not stipulated, this being left entirely to the good will of the members, so as not to curtail the rights of the printing shop owners.

    The purpose of mentioning this is to correct the news spread by some newspapers outside Chicago that a printers' union was organized here. From a broader point of view, a union is the same as an association; but in America, only those associations are termed unions that adhere to a certain wage scale. The newly-organized association of Polish printers has no such purpose. Polish printing in the United States is as yet at such a low level that copying the standard of Americans or Germans would be a pipe dream.

    The wish of the organizers was to provide for the peaceful settlement of disputes with the shop owners, and also to provide moderate payment for 3their colleagues, in the event of illness. This aim was theoretically adopted in the constitution. In order to confirm it by action, the good will of printing house owners in search of help, is indispensable. They should apply to the association's secretary, Mr. H. Maychrzycki. Likewise the support of the printers is important; they should support this association which eventually may be of help to them.

    As far as we know, only Chicago printers may register now. They do not lose their association rights in the event of leaving town. This, however, does not prevent printers and owners in other towns from making use of this information department. Quite to the contrary, a wider sharing of this institution can bestow mutual benefits, and widen its usefulness.

    Additional features of the program proposed for the association are lectures, amateur performances, education, as well as an energetic participation in the national activities of Polish emigrants.

    4

    What fruit the above proposals will yield, time will tell. Not anticipating any particular event, we may call the organizing of this association a step forward.

    The notion of uniting individual units into a central bureau for co-operation has been stirring in the minds of Polish printers since long ago. Heretofore, this notion has appeared spasmodically ...

    Polish
    II D 8, I D 2 a 2, II D 1
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 30, 1893
    A Warning to Workingmen

    It is evident that some employment agencies are shamelessly taking advantage of the workingmen by accepting a fee and sending them to work on the canal, where actually there is no work for them. It often happens that laborers sent out have no money left with which to pay their fares back to Chicago. In Lemont and other towns bordering on the canal there are many laborers encumbered with their families, waiting patiently for a job. Yesterday in Lemont the number of unemployed was increased by a few hundred workers fired by the Western Stone Company. In Summit, Romeo, and Sag, the same conditions prevail.

    These dishonest practices of the local employment offices should be stopped permanently.

    It is evident that some employment agencies are shamelessly taking advantage of the workingmen by accepting a fee and sending them to work on the canal, where actually there is ...

    Polish
    II D 8, I D 2 c
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- April 23, 1894
    Outline of the Constitution of the Polish League in the United States, to Be Discussed at the Kosciusko Mass Meeting on May 8, 1894

    [Translator's note: This constitution was adopted with a few changes.]

    Article I

    1. The Polish League is to represent all Poles in the United States of America. Its purpose is to unite all Poles in the name of Christian love and love for Poland, so that they may uplift themselves by engaging collectively in benevolent, educational, and patriotic work. The Polish League--as a combination of moral and physical forces the purpose of which is to promote an interest in nationalistic work--is to be a fraternal alliance standing above all factions.

    2. The object of the Polish League is to defend, support, and foster the Polish 2national cause by open and legal means. The expression "Polish national cause" is understood to include the civil, political, and national rights of the Poles and such tasks as teaching the Polish language, educating the Poles, [preserving Polish] customs, promoting unity, teaching the history of our nation, promoting the development of national characteristics, and, finally, working for the prosperity [of the Poles]

    3. The purpose of the Polish League may be summed up as follows:

    a. To look after the interests of American Poles in an honest manner, especially, in the presence of public opinion.

    b. To promote education by means of books, schools, and publications.

    c. To keep the Poles morally united in a brotherly spirit through mutual and moral influences.

    3

    d. To keep in contact with the mother country--both economically and intellectually.

    e. To improve our material condition through the organization of all kinds of institutions for mutual help.

    f. To help the weak and the poor.

    g. To collect money in America for the Polish National Fund.

    4. The Polish League shall never engage, either directly or indirectly, in any activity against the Holy Roman Catholic Faith or the principles of Christian morality set forth by the Church.

    5. Polish priests, who, through their calling, are engaged in teaching Christian love toward the mother country among the people, especially the youth, 4will have the right to voice their opinions at mass meetings and sessions of the League. They also will have the right of representation in its administration.

    6. Persons belonging to secret societies or organizations condemned by the Church cannot belong to the League. Anarchists, communists, and socialists shall be excluded from the League.

    Article II

    Organization of the Polish League

    1. The Polish League in the United States of America will be a federation.

    2. The League will embrace all Polish communities, parishes, societies, and organizations. Every Polish community, parish, society, or organization will have the right of representation at mass meetings, and in general it will have 5the right to control the affairs of the League in proportion to the number of members from whom it collects and pays a one-cent per capita assessment toward the Polish National Fund.

    3. No community, parish, or organization will lose its autonomy by joining the League. However, they will take upon themselves an obligation to work for the good of the Polish nation under the direction of the Polish League.

    4. Every large Polish community will constitute a district, which will be in charge of a district commission consisting of a president, two vice-presidents, a secretary, and a collector.

    5. District commission will begin to function as soon as they are approved by the League.

    6. If necessary, in order to facilitate its work or enlarge its field of action, 6every district commission can establish agencies and supervise them.

    7. Agencies will be under the district commissions and their personnel will consist of a manager, a secretary, and a collector.

    8. Agencies are nucleuses in direct contact with the Polish people. Their duties will be to promote education and patriotism by means of meetings, speeches, lectures; to enroll new members; to collect special dues and donations for the League; to send these funds to the district commissions, and to carry out all orders given by the district commissions.

    9. Duties of the district commissions:

    a. To see that the orders and decisions of the central board of the League are carried out.

    b. To collect dues in the district.

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    c. To inform the central board as to the needs of the district and see to it that the aims of the League are realized in their localities.

    d. To keep proper records.

    10. Collectors are to send accumulated funds at least once a month. When the sum collected exceeds twenty-five dollars, it must be sent at once.

    11. Rules and regulations in regard to the activities of the district commissions and the manner in which they will communicate with other departments will be issued by the central board from time to time.

    Article III

    Financial Organization

    1. The funds of the League are derived:

    a. From the one-cent monthly special assessment imposed upon every member of 8the League. Income from this assessment is to be set aside for the Polish National Fund.

    b. From voluntary monthly contributions and other donations.

    2. Societies, organizations, parishes, and communities shall collect from their members the one-cent special assessment and other contributions. The money thus collected shall be delivered to the local agencies, which shall send it to the district commissions.

    3. The district commissions shall deliver all collected funds to the financial secretary of the League, who will turn them over to the treasurer.

    4. Allocation of the League's funds:

    a. The one-cent special assessment collected from the members of the League is 9to be set aside exclusively for the Polish National Fund of the Polish League.

    b. All administrative and departmental expenses must be covered by voluntary contributions.

    5. Care of the funds:

    a. The control of the League's funds, and the issuing of yearly statements, etc., shall be under an executive committee of the League, according to the decision at the mass meeting.

    b. The League's funds shall be entrusted to the treasurer of the League.

    c. Rules and regulations governing the treasury will be prepared by a special committee, which will be chosen at the mass meeting.

    10

    Article IV

    The Polish National Fund

    1. Aim and purpose. The Polish National Fund shall be maintained by voluntary contributions for the purpose of supporting the Polish national cause and the Polish national movement in an endeavor to gain the independence and national rights of Poland.

    2. The object of the Polish National Fund shall be:

    a. To inculcate the principle of self-reliance among the Poles.

    b. To accustom the Polish public to the duty of making contributions toward the national cause.

    c. To provide funds for nationalistic work.

    3. The Polish National Fund shall embrace all funds set aside for nationalistic 11work, regardless of source, as provided by the regulations.

    4. Safeguarding the funds. The money of the Polish National Fund shall be invested in United States bonds.

    5. Protection and control. The Polish National Fund shall be guarded and protected by trustees.

    6. These trustees shall be chosen at the mass meeting and shall consist of trustworthy citizens financially responsible.

    7. The trustees shall have the right to check the funds and examine the financial records of the League at any time. They shall issue quarterly financial statements.

    8. Disposition of the Polish National Fund. The Polish National Fund shall be 12inviolable, its interest as well as the principal, until it reaches the sum of $100,000.

    9. As soon as the Fund reaches $100,000, the interest of the previous year is subject to disposition. The one-cent assessment collected from members shall be continued and added to the Fund.

    10. The problem of the disposition of the Polish National Fund shall be settled at the mass meeting, and the administration of the League, consisting of trustworthy men, shall dispose of it in accordance with the decision reached at the mass meeting.

    Article V

    The Legislative Power

    1. The legislative power is vested in the conventions of the League.

    2. Conventions shall be held every three years at the location chosen by a 13majority of the district commissions six months before they are scheduled to take place. Special conventions may be called by two thirds of the votes of district presidents.

    3. The conventions of the Polish League shall be attended by delegates from Polish communities, parishes, organizations, and societies, in the proportion of one delegate for every one hundred members paying the one-cent special assessment to the League in their respective parishes, organizations, or societies. A community or society with less than one hundred members shall be entitled to send one delegate.

    4. Delegates to the conventions of the Polish League shall be chosen from among pastors of Polish parishes or their assistants, and also from among editors of Polish newspapers in America, who work in the spirit of the League.

    5. The by-laws of the League and the outline of its activities shall be made 14at the conventions.

    6. The officers of the League shall be chosen at the conventions.

    7. All basic problems of the League shall be decided at the conventions.

    8. Rules and regulations for conducting the conventions and for the election of officers shall be prepared by a committee chosen and approved at the last two conventions.

    Article VI

    Executive Department of the League

    1. The central board of the Polish League shall consist of a president, two vice-presidents, a secretary, a treasurer, and ten directors, four of whom must be officers of the central board.

    2. The central board is the executive branch of the Polish League and shall 15attend to all activities of the League, such as protection of Polish immigrants, welfare work, internal and external activities of the League, Polish National Fund and its problems, organization and control of departments, districts, and agencies.

    3. As to immigration, the central board shall endeavor to aid Polish immigrants by protecting them against exploitation and, if possible, by securing them employment. It is also its duty to inform prospective immigrants about conditions in America and the difficulties of traveling, through special appeals and warnings in Polish newspapers published in Europe. In general, the central board shall work for the welfare of Polish immigrants as circumstances will permit.

    4. As to welfare work, the central board shall support all Polish benevolent institutions, such as orphanages, homes for the aged, hospitals, etc.

    5. As to its internal activities, the League will endeavor:

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    a. To unite all Poles, reconciling those who are at odds with one another and reproving professional slanderers and intrigants who disrupt national unity.

    b. To defend the honor and the rights of American Poles by legal, verbal, and written means.

    c. To warn our public against wicked and harmful elements.

    d. To voice publicly matters which concern American Poles.

    e. To inform American Poles about the League's affairs, their civic duties, and about the benefits derived by performing them.

    5. As to its external activities, the League will endeavor to keep in spiritual contact with the mother country, creating sympathy here for our oppressed countrymen and helping them by all means in emergencies.

    17

    Article VII

    1. The central board of the Polish League will organize and control two permanent departments, namely, the Educational Department and the Welfare Department.

    2. The Educational and Welfare departments shall consist of five members each, namely, a president, two vice-presidents, a recording secretary, and a financial secretary.

    3. The duties of the Educational Department shall be:

    a. To promote education in the Polish schools by standardizing their educational system and textbooks.

    b. To publish inexpensive books suitable for the common people, establish reading rooms, libraries, trade schools, and hold public lectures.

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    c. To settle all personal disputes that may arise in the League by arbitration or honor courts.

    4. The duties of the Welfare Department shall be:

    a. To interest the Poles in agriculture; b. to organize the workingmen; c. to establish employment offices; d. to encourage Polish business.

    5. All decisions made by these departments shall be approved by the central board of the League before they may be carried out.

    6. Every member of the central board must furnish a bond, the amount of which shall be decided at the convention. This shall apply also to the members of the League's treasury.

    7. No officer of the League shall receive any remuneration for his services.

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    8. Office expenses of the League shall be paid from its funds.

    9. The problem of investing the League's funds and securing a charter for it will be entrusted to competent experts of this country.

    10. The central board of the League will determine the rules and regulations to be followed by district commissions and agencies.

    11. All members of the central board, departments, district commissions, and agencies must be Poles who are citizens of the United States (or at least they must have first papers). They must be patriotic, moral, and of good character and have an unblemished past.

    (Editor's note: The foregoing outline of the constitution of the Polish League, which we have the honor of presenting to the Polish public in the United States, is nothing else but the material that will be submitted for consideration at 20the Kosciusko mass meeting. Whether this outline will be accepted, rejected or changed, wholly or in part, depends on the mass meeting, that is, on the delegates legally chosen by the Polish people in the United States of America.)

    [Translator's note: This constitution was adopted with a few changes.] Article I 1. The Polish League is to represent all Poles in the United States of America. Its purpose is ...

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    III B 2, II B 2 g, I A 1 a, II D 10, II D 8, II D 5, II D 4, II D 1, III H, III G, III C, I L, I E

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 15, 1904
    Is the Emigration Home a Business?

    The newspaper scandal about the Immigrants' Home, is constantly ruining the good work and record of this institution. They claim that it is not a home for the needy immigrants but an enterprising business; and should be able to keep this institution in good standing without any government help.

    But this is not so, because this institution is a charity home, to help the needy, and not a money making enterprise. This home takes donations, but does not compel the needy immigrants to pay. This institution has to abide by its laws, and stay within these bounds, if it wants to exist.

    The main object of this institution is to place these immigrants at work, and do their utmost for them at all times, while in their care. A short time back this institution was closed by the government, pending an investigation because false statements in the newspapers claimed this institution placed young ladies in bad homes, and did not take much interest in this matter. But after a through investigation, it was reopened, due to the fact that the government found all these statements about this institution untrue.

    2

    This institution is opened to all Polish and Slavic immigrants. It also has a separate section for beggars; where there is enough space in one room for three or four to sleep at one time and they are treated with the utmost care and given the best food.

    A few of these immigrants pay for their lodging as a donation to this institution but some stay for two or three weeks and, when they are working and able to take care of themselves and their families, they leave; they promise that as soon as they are able they will send a donation.

    Many of these people are soon making a good living, but they never mention a word about this institution helping them when they were hungry and penniless. This is gratitude and the thanks this home receives for its gallant work. How can this immigration home exist, if these people do not help it?

    This is true in many Catholic churches; the priest has the same trouble trying to make the people donate for the upkeep of the church.

    Under such circumstances, the emigration home as well as the churches should charge a small fee for their services. In the case of the immigrants' home, they should 3charge a small entrance fee, and then an additional daily fee; this is the only answer the manager of this institution has to avoid being so hard pressed financially. The church should also charge a yearly fee, and then receive the regular Sunday and holiday donations.

    If the immigrants would stop to think, what the cost of upkeeping this institution amounts to yearly, they would no doubt donate gladly for so good a cause.

    The newspaper scandal about the Immigrants' Home, is constantly ruining the good work and record of this institution. They claim that it is not a home for the needy immigrants ...

    Polish
    III G, II D 10, II D 8, II D 6
  • Dziennik Ludowy -- November 22, 1907
    Attention

    Employment offices are in great demand by workers seeking jobs. Factories are idle, those that still exist maintain only a skeleton force of employees. And so everyone fears the hard winter aheadof him. Many people hasten to private employment agencies, who in return for a dollar, or two, promise to seek a job for them. Few fortunates receive these positions, while the majority wait anxiously, and many more become the victims of these unreliable agents, swindlers we call them, who prey upon the profits of those in misery. About one of these agencies we have written previously.

    It is a "free" bureau of employment established by Hearst of the Chicago Examiner, Mr. Hearst's activity for the people in misery, blessed the Poles in Chicago with one of those "free" agencies located on Milwaukee Avenue. In this office one may gain an exceptional position, since the agent seated in his office doesn't attempt to exert himself to seek work for others, but still demands a dollar from each unemployed person, and gives a suitable excuse to the police 2as to where this money must go. He claims it is for the purpose of advertising to achieve classifications for the working people.

    We caution the workers to not let themselves get "strung" by this kind of "employment institutions", and remind them again, that there really exist free bureaus of employment in their vicinity. These instititions are not maintained by swindlers or by those "Blessed People", who make a proficient business for themselves. Bureaus of the good sort are established from money collected by taxation, guided by the state and city. Bureaus of this kind can be found in any of the largest cities in the United States. Here in Chicago we have the good fortune of possessing three of these bureaus and only to them should we first go when seeking aid for work. The addresses of these bureaus are:

    Illinois Free Employment Bureau

    9 South Canal Street

    259 North Clark Street

    429 Wabash Avenue.

    Employment offices are in great demand by workers seeking jobs. Factories are idle, those that still exist maintain only a skeleton force of employees. And so everyone fears the hard ...

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    II D 8, I D 2 c, I C
  • Dziennik Związkowy -- February 24, 1909
    [Fake Employment Agencies] (Editorial)

    In the larger cities of the United States, there are special offices named employment agencies. The aim of these offices is to act as agent between employer and employee,i, e; to find for the employer skilled workers, and for the unemployed, suitable employment. If it were not for the fact that these agencies are based on swindle and fraud, they would render a valuable service to the unemployed. The majority of these offices are in charge of leeches and swindlers of the worst kind. We are in possession of much evidence which proves that these agencies rob laborers who are looking for employment, of their last pennies, without fulfilling even the slightest obligation. The majority of these victims are the recent immigrants who are without knowledge of the English language and ignorant of the customs of American people. These agencies extort to the limit, taking their last cent for services and transportation, whereupon the laborers are sent to another city, often several hundred miles away and when arriving, it is found that the proffered work does not exist, or that the contractor is dishonest and exploits them like slaves; finally, after a few weeks, he "throws them out," to make room for other victims.

    A few laborers from Chicago informed us how they were sent several hundred miles from Chicago, after $35.00 was collected from them for railroad tickets and commission.

    2

    When they arrived at their destination, they found there was no work, so they came back to Chicago on foot and by stealing rides; one of them was killed by falling from a freight train.

    When they complained at the agencies, they were thrown out. Swindled laborers were compelled to find justice in courts, but there again they found other leeches, in the person of crooked lawyers who demanded exhorbitant fees in advance; then,being out of funds, they gave up; while agencies continued to swindle other victims. Some agencies are in conspiracy with contractors and foremen in factories, railroads, mines or forests, with whom they split the commission received from the poor laborers, who are given work for a short time and then are thrown out to be replaced by other victims of the connivers.

    The Immigrants Protective League made an investigation in Chicago and found that 49 out of 56 of the agencies investigated were practicing exploitation of unemployed, sending them in groups to various cities, where there was no work or where they were underpaid for work of short duration, and for which they collected from $6 to $14. The League is preparing a bill be be submitted to the State Legislature, demanding that all employment agencies shall be put under the State control.

    3

    The proposed bill provides that all private employment agencies must be licensed by the State and controlled by a special State commissioner; commissions should be regulated by law, and where the agency is not able to supply employment, that it should be compelled to return all fees which have been collected. The proposed bill forbids also that commissions be split with contractors, and that foremen, in any case of violation of this law, be severely punished.

    All agencies should give a written contract in the language in which the applicant makes his application. The name of the prospective employer, his address, kind of work, wages and period of employment, must be given in said contract. If this bill is passed, then there will be no more exploitation by leeches, operating in the guise of employment agencies.

    True, there are a few honestly conducted agencies, which are fulfilling their obligations; but the majority are managed by cheaters and should be discontinued.

    The very near future will show whether our law makers at the State Capital are willing to solve this problem.

    In the larger cities of the United States, there are special offices named employment agencies. The aim of these offices is to act as agent between employer and employee,i, e; ...

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    I H, III G, II D 8, II D 7, I D 2 c