The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 05, 1891
    Polish Activities in Chicago Polish Patriotic Organization Holds Important Meeting

    The Educational Department of the Polish Patriotic Organization of St. Stanislaus Parish held a meeting at St. Stanislaus Hall last night.

    At this meeting the aims of this society were discussed. The principal aim is to spread a general campaign of education in the form of Polish patriotic literature, Polish music, both church and national, among the Polish people. It is also proposed to develop the artistic talents of our people, that they may become able representatives of dramatic art, especially national. Generally speaking, the purpose of the organization is to educate the Polish youth.

    We know that the beginning is very hard, for it is the custom of the Poles only to look at one another everytime anything not immediately practical is proposed.

    One of our difficulties in America is that many of us who lack the necessary qualifications for a given job refuse to improve ourselves by hard study.

    2

    We have no courage to acknowledge it, and even refuse to believe that this deficiency can be overcome.

    The Educational Department desires to do away with this deficiency by conducting special conferences in which the youth may get together and discuss different subjects.

    If the members of the Department will work steadily, efficiently, and systematically, there can be no doubt that the result of their labors will be evident in a short time. Not the one who only plans, but the one who plans and executes accurately is the one to conquer difficulties large and small. Cooperative work always brings its fruit.

    Let us act, brother patriots! Mutual confidence, understanding, orderly meetings and patient performance of our obligations will make us benefactors of the Polish youth.

    Your deeds will be written in gold letters in the book, of life and in the hearts of those for whom you will open treasures of knowledge, treasures 3of beauty; for whom you will open temples of universal and national wisdom.

    Those who doubt should retreat; let them be silent; they should not discourage others.

    The one who discourages others takes a great responsibility upon himself before God and country.

    There are people who criticize everything no matter how good it is, and who are glad if they succeed in spoiling the work of others.

    Such satisfaction is disastrous and will be punished by God, let alone that quite often the people discover such foxes.

    The harder the beginning the more courage, understanding and cooperation we need. Constructive criticism is useful too if given at the right time.

    The Educational Department of the Polish Patriotic Organization of St. Stanislaus Parish held a meeting at St. Stanislaus Hall last night. At this meeting the aims of this society were ...

    Polish
    III B 2, II B 2 f, II B 2 g, I A 1 a
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- July 09, 1891
    A Polish Kindergarten

    In order to help those parents who cannot personally take care of their children during vacation period, I will open a Polish kindergarten for children from four to eight years of age. The school will be under the supervision of my wife and two daughters, who were educated in Europe, and have suitable qualifications for this work.

    The school will open on Monday July 13, in the large garden adjoining my residence, located at 315 West Division Street.

    The children's time will be occupied in the following manner: Reading, story telling, garden work, all kinds of games and handwork, according to age. Good behavior will be strictly observed. Tuition will be $1.50 a month. My daughters give private lessons in music, and teach the Polish, German, and French languages for a reasonable fee.

    K. Sawicki.

    In order to help those parents who cannot personally take care of their children during vacation period, I will open a Polish kindergarten for children from four to eight years ...

    Polish
    II B 2 g
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 26, 1891
    Polish Activities

    The newly organized Polish singing society Filarets will hold its first social and educational gathering tomorrow night at Mr. Nalepinski's Hall, 543 Noble Street.

    The object of this society is to foster education and preserve the purity of the Polish language among its members. In order to attain its object, the society will hold gatherings from time to time. At these gatherings educational lectures will be given and the program will be diversified by vocal and instrumental music, recitations, etc. There will be two lectures at tomorrow night's gathering. Each member may bring two friends as guests. At this meeting, officers of the society will be chosen and new members will be accepted. [Translator's note. This society still exists. It combined in 1932 with the Polish singing society Dudziarz, changing its name to Filareci-Dudziarz.]

    The newly organized Polish singing society Filarets will hold its first social and educational gathering tomorrow night at Mr. Nalepinski's Hall, 543 Noble Street. The object of this society is ...

    Polish
    II B 1 a, II B 2 g, III A
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 04, 1892
    Continuation of the Polish "Filaretow" Society Written by Helen Sawicki (First article printed in January 2, 1892 issue.)

    Through these worthy efforts, those who were willing to learn, both young and old, were lifted from the path of ignorance. However, this did not continue for long. This youthful movement for liberty was soon put to a stop by the Russian government, yet the seed of fraternity was well scattered.

    Soon after a reorganization took place in Thomas Zan's ranks, and a new order was founded. This time it took on the name of "Filaretow" (Lovers of Virtue). This new body undertook the same platform of the former society, nevertheless there were a few changes. A new unit was added, bearing the name "Lovers of Education." At the beginning, there were only seven virtues, but this figure reached twenty later.

    2

    The "Lovers of Virtue" were headed by the following: Thomas Zan, John Czeczot, Adam Michiewicz, Onufry Pietrowicz, Ignacy Domejko, and several other outstanding Polish notables. This new organ carried the banner of the previous one, but its doors were guarded with secrecy. This was done in order to avoid interference of the university and government. Whoever could pay, contributed a monthly fee, which amounted to about two and a half dollars in American money. These dues were converted into many useful means. Books were purchased, a reading room was kept, and many other incidentals were bought.

    This organization was composed of groups. Each group met separately. At the head of each was a president, secretary, and treasurer. There was a circle of lawyers, authors, mathematicians, medical authorities, etc. The election of officers was open, and those that received the most votes were 3chosen for the respective offices. Each group held separate meetings at which the by-laws were read, the progress discussed, and plans for future programs were made out. At times, delegates from other units were invited. These representatives would tell of their work. During these sessions, the members would not only be instructed in the art of rhetoric, but open discussions were held and vital subjects were frequently presented. Exact interpretations of what went on were given. Public speaking was practiced to a great degree.

    Besides these educational and instructive gatherings, parties of a social nature were held. Various affairs were held at which singing, reading, drama, and speech were given an open range. There were also annual Maytime festivals. These parties served a twofold purpose. They not only enlightened the burden of the hard work, but also instilled gaiety and friendship.

    4

    Several organizers of this organ were responsible for these social functions. The backbone was composed of Thomas Zan, John Czeczot, A. Michiewicz, and Mr. Wolowicz (no first name given). Zan represented beauty and morality over which he exerted great influence for he had high respect for his office, and his zeal for these virtues was limitless. Mr. Czeczot was the agent of sincerity and happiness. Brotherhood was representative of Mr. Wolowicz. A. Mickiewicz, one of the later prophets of the people, brightened and added life to the parties by his songs and his poems. Oratory and poetry were under his banner. He devoted his entire life to help his people. He wrote many verses primarily to bolster the spirit of his brothers. These poems in turn were memorized by many, and passed by word of mouth to others. One of the many poems written by him is the following, which reflects the spirit of the organization he so devotedly worked for:

    5

    Let your eyes with gladness shine,

    And garlands of joy cover you,

    And in new hope entwine,

    For we are friends - one and two,

    One for all and all for you.

    Lift your poor heart from sorrow

    Fill up with hope and glory -

    Holy this will be tomorrow;

    Pride, greed, and luxury

    Sweep it away in hurry.

    6

    This you should gladly do:

    For our people guard the life

    Of learning and of virtue

    At home, at work, or in strife;

    And keep it sharp as a knife!

    Be sure that this in your mem'ry stays:

    Your people --- learning and virtue --- always!

    All of the flowering youth of the University of Vilno gave itself to the purpose of this brotherhood. They studied and passed on what they have been taught to others. The shroud of greed, hatred, and selfishness, was gradually shed through this brotherly atmosphere. Many individuals, after grasping the full purpose of this noble fraternity, devoted all of their 7lives to furthering its cause. They realized that through the education of the masses to the conditions, the Poland of yesterday could only be restored.

    Propriety and decorum reigned throughout every unit. A watchful eye was kept on those that did not regard the by-laws to the fullest extent. Those that lost interest or were endangering the cause were expelled. This was generally considered a disgrace. Through cooperation, all of the spare time of the members was used to a good advantage.

    It was believed that through more strict reorganization the continuance of the fraternity would be possible. However, this budding flower did not get an opportunity to come to full bloom. The despotic government cut down its growing stem once again. When all the units of the central organ were forbidden, all of the books of the organization were destroyed, and its members 8scattered over the entire country. These actions did not stop their mistreatment by the Russians. Despite persecution, this society existed in the hearts of every member.

    In the junior year group at the Vilno University, Michael Plater wrote on the blackboard of his classroom: "Let the constitution of the third of May live." This was more or less a child's prank, yet it was taken as a sign of revolution by the Russians. The right hand men of Constantine, the Russian Tsar in Warsaw, began an investigation concerning this matter at the University. The investigators seized a student by the name of Jankowski, who tried to get into Warsaw through a false passport. Jankowski was a former student of the "Filaretow" Society, but was expelled for his lack of interest. A thorough search of his belongings revealed a pamphlet of the by-laws of the organization. Although he was 9under oath never to reveal any of its secrets, Jankowski, under pressure and with the promise of freedom, told everything he knew. After this, followed a general purge of the already crumbled fraternity. Riots and unjust violences prevailed.

    Further persecutions of those connected with this organ can be found in the third part of Michiewicz's poem, the "Beggers" or "Dziadow."

    This is the history of the origin of the "Filaretow" society. To us, they represent a great symbol of respect, our ideals. For at the present time, we are existing amidst trying conditions. It is difficult for us to uphold these ideals while we are struggling to earn our daily bread. But these traditions that have been brought with us to this country still flourish..... We must remember that there are many of our people abroad that would gladly 10leave their forced drudgery, but cannot because the hope and strength of their struggle has been sapped. They would gladly leave the soil to which they are imprisoned, but have no opportunity to leave. Though this has been true for over a hundred years, the fight for liberty is still being waged.....Although we are in a free country, we are facing many obstacles. Our struggle to be classed on the same level with the other people here is very great, and can be compared with the hardships of those young people that organized the society of "Filaretow" many years ago.

    We are facing new problems here. It is for our own good that we organize and educate our people so that they can orient themselves to their new surroundings. We can take up the banner of the "Lovers of Virtue" here without any fear and blaze a trail for our people. Only through organization and work can we accomplish these aims. The curtain of ignorance can be substituted for one of culture.

    11

    The purpose of the first public meeting at this society here is to restore hope in our once oppressed people. Plans, platforms, and programs, were discussed openly, and an outline of activity was adopted. Therefore, in order to restore hope and position in our people, we must get to work and organize.

    Through these worthy efforts, those who were willing to learn, both young and old, were lifted from the path of ignorance. However, this did not continue for long. This youthful ...

    Polish
    II B 1 d, II B 1 e, II B 2 g, III B 2, I C, I E, I H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 07, 1892
    Discussion on Russian Violence. Do the Poles Love Their Own Country?

    (Text of Szczesny Zahajkiewicz's speech given at the mass meeting January 1, at the Polish Hall of St. Stanislaus Kostki's parish at Bradley and Division Streets.)

    "This is a superfluous question! Ask those still living on the soil of old Poland which through the many decades has become saturated with the blood of her toiling defenders; ask those in the enemy camps, in cold and dark dungeons; and those on the desolate frontiers of Siberia.

    2

    These poor unfortunate Poles despite their persecution and inevitable death raise their eyes heavenward and pray for the freedom of their kind.

    "Do only those Polish people love their native land that live on its soil and those that make a profit from it? Do those that are scattered over many parts of the world cherish warm thoughts of Poland? One of our well known poets answers these questions in fine style.

    "Although a Pole becomes renown,

    Or becomes chained to the ground,

    Beaten to death or kept in jail,

    Or left in exile on the pale

    Fronts of Siberia or fights for his land,

    He is able to smile at the thoughts of his fatherland!

    3

    "Those of us who have braved the elements to come to this country, in many cases were like the debris of a wrecked ship that has reached shore. It was through the will of God that we were able to come to a democratic country. Our native land is left far behind. We can only picture this once great country in our minds, this country that was once the pride and joy of our father's,' for today its fate is darker than ever. We cannot fathom the struggle these oppressed souls are making to continue in the tracks of traditional Poland. How can we picture the pity of it all, how can we visualize the heart rendering suffering, the sacrifices of life, and the pillaging of homes. These people are in the shackels of the enemy and are having their energy sapped and their hopes dulled like a monster in chains whose blood is being constantly tapped by brutal wounds.

    4

    " That we are true Poles, that we love our native land and our people is proven by the fact that we have followed and moulded the same traditions and beliefs of our fathers. We have not discarded any of our characteristics because we were deprived of them in Europe. Instead we have built solid foundations for them. Churches were built and our religious fervor restored. These new pillars are not weak among new peoples and surroundings. They are sound. It shows that we are Polish.

    "However, we did not stop here. Our progress continued.....continues. We have managed to organize schools in our parishes in order that our children could be taught our religion, have an understanding of our language, become familiar with the history of our people and above all to have the children of our Polish people remain Polish!

    5

    "Furthermore, we have gatherings and parades, we commemorate our national holidays,along with those of this country. Through these demonstrations we show that deep in our hearts the love of our people is very warm-that we love our country.

    The poet Krasicki says:

    "The holidays in our native land

    Are observed with solemnity,

    Admidst the taste of bitter cruelty,

    Admidst prison walls and bleak steepes,

    Only to show us that in these unjust roles,

    Our people are not sorry to exist-not sorry to be Poles!

    6

    "I know that if any of you were told that you are not patriotic-not a Pole, you would feel offended and consider this an insult.

    "It shows that this love, this patriotism is reproduced and expressed by the Poles on foreign soil. I repeat once again, that through our solidarity, the building of schools, through national organizations we are trying to preserve and spread our Polish tongue and traditions.

    "But this is only being done for self-preservation and for the betterment of our position in American affairs. Is this enough? Listen fellow brothers ! In order to find a permanent place for ourselves and the freedom of our oppressed people abroad we must think of Poland as a whole.

    7

    We must not forget the less fortunate across the sea because they are putting up a fight far nobler than ours. Let us remember that this is what has kept us alive and will keep us alive. Remember, in unity there is power!"

    (Text of Szczesny Zahajkiewicz's speech given at the mass meeting January 1, at the Polish Hall of St. Stanislaus Kostki's parish at Bradley and Division Streets.) "This is a superfluous ...

    Polish
    III A, II B 2 g, III B 2, I A 2 a, III C, III H, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 23, 1893
    The Patriotic Exercises on January 22 at Bradley Street Hall

    The thirtieth anniversary of the January insurrection was celebrated solemnly at Bradley Street Hall on Saturday, at eight o'clock, through the efforts of Organizacya Patriotyczna (The Patriotic Organization) of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish in Chicago. The exercises were opened by a girls' choir with a prayer, after which the Reverend John Piechowski delivered a patriotic and religious address. He stated that the Poles were being punished for their sins by their present misery, and that they ought to awaken within themselves a spirit of humility and penance; since, for the successful uprising of the future, we need to remember the tears, the chains, and the graves in Siberia. He said that we must inspire ourselves with love for our country, with charity and sacrifice.

    Mr. Peter Kiolbassa was then named chairman of the exercises. After a beautiful song by a women's choir, Mr. Boleslaus Klarkowski delivered a historical 2lecture. Mr. Klarkowski spoke of the origin and course of the insurrection, and showed how intolerable oppression and a desire for liberty combined to produce a national uprising. He declared that another cause for the revolt was that the Russians endeavored, often by violent means, to transport the youth of Poland into the depths of Russia, thus depriving Poland of its freshest strength. He spoke on the inequality of the fight, in which one Pole often faced forty Russians, and of the enormous losses suffered. But nevertheless, in the opinion of Mr. Klarkowski, the revolt was not without certain favorable results, namely, the consolidation of all classes of people, certain privileges to the peasants, etc.

    Following this address, the male chorus under the direction of Mr. A. Kwasigroch sang beautifully a number entitled "Badly Wounded."

    The Falcons of St. Stanislaus parish, organized only a few weeks ago, performed gymnastic exercises. The precision of their performance called forth considerable 3applause.

    After a song by a girls' choir, a patriotic address was delivered by Mr. Zbigniew Brodowski. The speaker declared that in spite of the fact that the revolts were crushed, they had had important results. During the course of these insurrections, at times of most dire defeat, heroic man arose like Israel's prophets to keep alive the spirit, crush doubt, and carry forward the national standard. Kosciuszko was such; such was Kraszewski in 1863 and later, working in a different field. The fruit of these defeats was always a rebirth, an encouragement to new strength and greater effort. Here on American soil we have become a power which should, by its acts, demonstrate its nationality. [Translator's Note. The word is "Polskosc", meaning "Polishness," or, if I may coin a word, "Polonism."] One such act is the erection of a monument to Kosciuszke. The speaker appealed to the representatives of organizations to support the erection of the monument and to contribute to the fund for this purpose.

    4

    The final address was delivered by Reverend W. Barzynski. The speaker emphasized that deep and sincere patriotism is not manifested by loud demonstrations, boastfulness, and orgies, but by work, deeds, and sacrifice. Lack of effort and sacrifice caused our downfall once and produced today's grave wrongs. There were too few schools, and the rich spent their time amusing themselves abroad until everything collapsed. This should be a lesson to us. Today's quiet labor over faith, enlightenment, civilization, and the union of the nation into a whole, should be our chief occupation. Not arms and money, but faith, religion, and love will restore our homeland. Thus, we should try again and again to create something new that will strengthen us in our faith and nationality. As one such institution that should be established in America, the parson cited the Polish Brotherhood of the Queen's Crown recently formed in Galicia and approved by Cardinal Dunajewski.

    The parson was warmly applauded, as were the speakers who preceded him. The exercises closed with the singing of "Boze Cos Polske" by the audience.

    The thirtieth anniversary of the January insurrection was celebrated solemnly at Bradley Street Hall on Saturday, at eight o'clock, through the efforts of Organizacya Patriotyczna (The Patriotic Organization) of St. ...

    Polish
    III H, III B 3 a, II B 2 g, III B 2, III C, II C, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 24, 1893
    January Exercises at Shoenhofen's Hall

    In the name of the delegates of the Polish National Alliance, Mr. L. Szopinski opened the January exercises at Shoenhofen's Hall yesterday evening at eight o'clock. According to a prearranged program, Mr. Satalecki was called as chairman, and Mr. Victor Karlowski, secretary. After the Chopin Chorus sang the hymn "Boze Cos Polske" (O Lord, for Poland), Mr. Fr. Jablonski delivered a historical lecture. The next speaker was Mr. Thaddeus Wild, and Mr. M. Drzemala followed with a speech in English. Three recitations, a violin solo by Doctor Janczewski, several choral numbers, and a solo by Mr. Wojnicki completed the program. At its close, a collection was taken for the Kosciuszko memorial.

    [Translator's note: The January exercises commemorate the Polish Insurrection of 1863.]

    In the name of the delegates of the Polish National Alliance, Mr. L. Szopinski opened the January exercises at Shoenhofen's Hall yesterday evening at eight o'clock. According to a prearranged ...

    Polish
    III B 2, III B 3 a, II B 2 g, III H, II C, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 27, 1893
    Polish Patriotic Organization Decides to Pay All Costs of Protest to Washington

    The Polish Patriotic Organization's meeting that took place yesterday at four o'clock is worthy of notice.

    We can omit such details as committee reports, financial reports, etc., and come immediately to those matters which we feel are of real importance. The Organization made a very noble gesture, which is deserving of the highest recognition. It has decided to pay all the expenses that have arisen and will yet arise from the Polish protest against the American extradition treaty with Russia.

    Further, the holiday of the Polish Queen's Crown falls on April 1. In order to honor its patron saint, the Organization is preparing a huge celebration for April 8 (delayed because of the Easter holidays).

    2

    In addition, we find it necessary to mention the program that followed yesterday's meeting, which consisted of a lecture; music, and declamations. A very interesting and exhaustive lecture on the life and works of John Kochanowski was delivered by Mr. Klarkowski. Mr. A. Kwasigroch rendered a beautiful vocal number, and Messrs. John Kikulski and Jozwiakowski declaimed with inspiration. All contributors to the program were applauded generously.

    The Polish Patriotic Organization's meeting that took place yesterday at four o'clock is worthy of notice. We can omit such details as committee reports, financial reports, etc., and come immediately ...

    Polish
    III H, III B 3 b, II B 2 g, III B 1, III B 2, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- April 19, 1893
    National Exercises to Honor Copernicus

    We are asked to publish the following letter concerning the matter touched upon in yesterday's Dziennik [Chicagoski].

    "The St. Casimir Youth Society of St. Stanislaus Kostka Church discussed the possibility of national exercises in honor of Copernicus at its yesterday's meeting. It was decided, in the presence of one hundred and ninety members, that this organization give the project its wholehearted support. At the close of the discussion, a motion was brought forward suggesting that on May 24, it being a week-day, only a public gathering be arranged in the evening. At such a gathering we could get our people acquainted with the merits of the immortal Copernicus by means of lectures and speeches dealing with his life and work. This would be appropriate, for many people know of Copernicus in name only. But in order to protest against German pretensions by showing that we honor Copernicus as a Pole, we could arrange for a parade or some other kind of celebration by Polish organizations and societies in Chicago 2on the following Sunday, that is, May 28.

    "These are only suggestions of ours, the suggestions of one hundred ninety young men. In any case, we will comply with the will of the majority and of those who are better able to work out a project such as this. It is our desire, however, that this celebration glorify the names of Copernicus and Poland to the greatest possible extent. It must be a really serious manifestation on our part--in the face of German pretensions."

    We are asked to publish the following letter concerning the matter touched upon in yesterday's Dziennik [Chicagoski]. "The St. Casimir Youth Society of St. Stanislaus Kostka Church discussed the possibility ...

    Polish
    III B 3 a, II B 2 g, III C, III E, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 29, 1893
    Copernicus Anniversary Celebrated

    The 350th anniversary of the death of Copernicus was observed yesterday by the Polish National Alliance at the Falcon's Hall on Emma Street. Although the hall is not a large one, the attendance was not great enough to fill it.

    The exercises were opened by Mr. L. Szopinski who, in a few words, described the work which brought Copernicus world-wide fame. He emphasized the necessity of a protest against the German tendency to claim for themselves everything that is rightfully Polish. The first speaker was Mr. S. Slupski. He gave a short biography of Copernicus and outlined his discoveries. Mr. John F. Smulski followed with a lecture, delivered in English. He went to considerable length to demonstrate conclusively Copernicus' Polish origin. Mr. Smulski's lecture was very carefully prepared and ought to find a place in the columns of at least one of the American papers.

    Other speeches followed. A wreath was placed upon the bust of Copernicus, and another wreath was placed upon the table in honor of the poet Lenartowicz, who 2was also mentioned.

    There were numerous songs and recitations. It must be admitted that one of these recitations, a poem (?) by a "half-baked" ("Niedowarzony") carpenter-poet, written in honor of Copernicus....was entirely unnecessary.

    One of the numbers on the program was a speech by Doctor Pindor, an evengelical pastor from Cieszyn (Austrian Silesia), or, as he was pompously introduced, "the delegate from Silesia." Dr. Pindor who, it develops, came to this country on personal business, is not at all a bad speaker. He said nothing out of the way; indeed, certain parts of his speech, dealing with Polish National affairs, were even interesting. We cannot understand by what authority Dr. Pindor was called the "delegate from Silesia"! A "delegate" has to be delegated somewhere by somebody; from Dr. Pindor's words, it appears that if he greeted the audience in the name of the citizens of Silesia, it was simply because a few of his friends had shaken his hand upon his departure from Poland and said, "Greet them in our name!" Everyone who comes here from Europe can be such a "delegate." The public appearance of such an individual can have no significance whatever.

    3

    We protest against the misuse of the term "delegate," since it may harm the mission of a real delegate from Poland who is in our midst--Doctor Dunikowski. He is here by proper authority and with a definite purpose which, when accomplished, will serve ourselves and our homeland alike.

    The 350th anniversary of the death of Copernicus was observed yesterday by the Polish National Alliance at the Falcon's Hall on Emma Street. Although the hall is not a large ...

    Polish
    III B 3 a, II B 2 g, III B 2, III H, I C, IV