The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- October 05, 1891
    Eighteenth Convention of the Polish Roman Catholic Union in America (Summary)

    According to the instructions given by Mr. Peter Kiolbassa, president of the Polish Roman Catholic Union in America, the delegates representing different groups of this organization in Chicago and Milwaukee gathered on September 29 at the railroad station, whence they left at 3:10 P.M. in a chartered coach for the convention. Delegates from other cities, as well as members of the clergy, boarded the train here and there along the route, and thus the party arrived at 5:00 P.M. in the small but romantic city of Manticoke, Pennsylvania, which is situated in the mountains.

    Some delegates found lodgings with local members; others went to hotels. As soon as quarters were found, everyone felt at home, thanks to Polish hospitality.


    On September 30, at 2 P.M., the delegates gathered at the Broadway Armory, which was beautifully decorated with all kinds of banners on the outside and with beautiful garlands, wreaths, and portraits of the Polish heroes and Kosciusko and Pulaski on the inside. There were many banners and American and Polish flags, among them a Polish flag with a white eagle.

    The president of the Union, Mr. Peter Kiolbassa, asked Reverend W. Raszkiewicz to say a prayer, after which he formally opened the eighteenth convention of the Polish Roman Catholic Union of America with a speech full of enthusiasm.

    Up to then, out of the seventy-eight societies which constitute the Union, only forty-five delegates had arrived. There were fourteen priests.

    The president of the organization made a suggestion, which was unanimously accepted, that Mr. Ignacy Machnikowski, editor of the organ of the Polish Roman Catholic Union, be made secretary of the convention.


    A Committee on Resolutions was formed, end Reverend V. Barzynski of Chicago was chosen as one of its members.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Oct. 6, 1891.

    Mr. Peter Kiolbassa made a motion that the delegates gather on the following day at 9 o'clock in the morning at the hall, from where they would march to church. The motion was carried.

    Reverend V. Barzynski announced that the very Reverend Bishop O'Hara, of Scranton, Pennsylvania, would honor the convention with his presence of the next day's church services.

    First Evening Session

    Before seven o'clock in the evening, the hall was so full of people that some had to stand outside. The session started at half past seven.


    Mr. Ignacy Machnikowski of Chicago, who was the first speaker, expressed his gratitude for the honor of addressing such a large Polish audience, and then spoke of our American good laws of freedom, liberty,and tolerance, which do not exist in Russia and Prussia.

    He praised the Polish Roman Catholic Union in America for its great merits, for its good work, for establishing parishes, building churches, schools, and libraries; he praised the organization for holding national celebrations and arranging theatrical plays. He made many good suggestions and remarked that we should not be indifferent as to what kind of people fill the world; that, according to the will of God, the world should not be filled with people who live only for the pleasure or satisfaction of their daily needs; for they are not capable of fulfilling God's plan on earth. Only those people can fulfill God's plan who can raise themselves above this world. Such aim may be attained only by a truly religious person, for religion teaches us duties toward God and country, and for this reason it is the most important factor in education. He spoke about parochial schools and their great influence. He assailed the 5opponents of parochial schools and begged his countrymen to send their children to these institutions.

    The next speaker was Reverend V. Barzynski, who was received with great ovation, and who spoke of the great difficulties [met by the]Polish clergy in America, of the enemies and opponents of religion and the Roman Catholic Church in America, and of our fatherland and its fate. He also mentioned our great men, artists, writers, heroes, and called upon his listeners to follow their example. His speech, which is a gem and was stenographically reported, was rewarded with great applause.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Oct. 7, 1891.

    The chairman invited Mr. Peter Kiolbassa again to the stand, and the latter delivered another speech in which he compared the Polish settlements of Chicago with those of New York and other cities praised the Polish clergy for its splendid work. Tremendous applause rewarded the speaker.


    The next speaker was Reverend Wojcik from Minnesota, who, in a very interesting talk, described a certain fashionable residential district, its unnatural life and bad example.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Oct. 8, 1891.

    Finally, Reverend Stephen Szymanowski of Camden, J. J., chairman of the convention, took the floor and stated that the Americans must respect the Poles, and then he said, "I will take the liberty to point out what kind of Poles I mean, and my task will be simplified by presenting to you a practical and exemplary type of Pole whom you whould strive to emulate; he is in our midst, and his name is Peter Kiolbassa. (This remark brought prolonged applause). By his work, integrity, steadfastness of character, loyalty to the Catholic Church and fatherland, he has gained the respect and affection not only of the Poles but also of the people of other nationalities. His high position as city treasurer has not in any way changed him, for he is a man of unwavering principles.


    "If all Poles in America would conduct themselves as he does, then the people of other nationalities would be obliged to respect them."

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Oct. 9, 1891.

    The September 30 afternoon session began at 2:18 P.M. with a prayer by Reverend V. Barzynski, chairman of the committee, introduced a motion that the wording of some paragraphs in the constitution of the organization be changed for the purpose of removing their ambiguity, and proposed the elimination of paragraph 1, article fourteen, of the constitution, alleging it was obscure and unnecessary. The motion was put to a vote and adopted unanimously.

    Other paragraphs of the constitution were put to a vote and adopted.


    The next item on the program was the official organ of the organization. Mr. Kiolbassa asserted that the Polish Roman Catholic Union in America was strong enough to have its own organ published and supported by the organization. All agreed that such organ was necessary. However, Reverend V. Barzynski declared that he knew from experience it would be hard for such organ to exist, saying that some time ago the organization had adopted a resolution that every member should subscribe [to] Wiara I Otczyzna (Faith and Fatherland) but no one had complied with it.

    Mr. Kiolbassa supported the objection of Reverend V. Barzynski, arguing that the maintenance of such organ would put the organization to a great expense.

    Finally a motion was made that the weekly publication Wiara I Ojczyzna be adopted as the organ of the Polish Roman Catholic Union of America, and that it be published twice a week. This motion was carried unanimously.


    There were many patriotic and religious speeches on September 30 by delegates from other cities. The last speaker was Mr. Ignacy Machnikowski of Chicago, who spoke of the Roman Catholic Church and its great and uplifting work, and who displayed a profound knowledge of history--ecclesiastical and political. He also spoke of our unfortunate fatherland and the fate of our people, our patriots, and our great heroes, warned us against the danger of discord, and recommended harmony and co-operation. Great applause.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Oct. 14, 1891.

    The Thursday Oct. 1, 1891, session began at 9:30 A.M., right after church services. After the reading of telegrams and other correspondence, the delegates resumed their tasks. New motions were made and carried, and resolutions were adopted. Finally, Reverend V. Barzynski announced that an election of officers should take place. The motion was carried unanimously and Mr. Peter Kiolbassa was reelected president by acclamation. The newly elected president thanked the delegates for their support. Mr. John Arkuszewski of Chicago was elected vice-president of the organization, and Mr. Gniot of Chicago cashier.


    Then a board of directors was elected, which passed a few resolutions. Finally, the presidential oath of office was administered to Mr. Kiolbassa and the directors, and the convention was over.

    According to the instructions given by Mr. Peter Kiolbassa, president of the Polish Roman Catholic Union in America, the delegates representing different groups of this organization in Chicago and Milwaukee ...

    III B 4, II B 2 d 2, I A 2 a, IV
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- February 22, 1892
    The Poles a Survey of Chicago's Polish Population

    The Poles, as a part of Chicago's population, belong to those nationalities which are especially outstanding, like the Bohemians, Danes, Swedes etc. The Polish population of our city numbers not less than 60,000. A peculiar characteristic of this nation is their tenacity in sticking together in their different colonies. They live in seclusion as a people, more than any other Europeans, and one feels like a stranger passing through their colonies.

    The most extensive Polish settlement is located in the Sixteenth Ward, Noble Street, Elston Avenue etc. In this neighborhood live not less than 30,000 Poles. Almost as large is the Polish colony on Seventeenth Street, Paulina, Laurel and vicinity. The chief factor of their seclusion is the Catholic Church. The largest congregation is the St. Stanislaus Kostka Church, located at Ingraham and Noble Streets.

    The Polish immigration to Chicago started thirty-eight years ago. Anton Schermann, J. Niemezewski, J. Dziewior, who are still alive, and are honored like patriarchs, were among the first settlers....


    The immigrants of those early years were almost exclusively poor working men; but nearly all of them became well-to-do. The colony grew very slowly until 1873, when large numbers of Poles from Russia and Prussia came to Chicago. At that time the colonies on the south side and in South Chicago were founded. When in 1884 twenty-thousand Poles were banished from their old country, the largest portion came to America, and of these the majority settled in Chicago. The largest Polish population of American cities is in Chicago.

    The Poles have eight churches in Chicago, and the largest among them is the St. Stanislaus Kostka Church, which has thirty thousand members. The church, the school, the home for the nuns and the priests cover a whole city square. The school is a four story brick building and more than three thousand pupils attend. Eight men teachers and twenty nuns comprise the staff.....Two high schools were also erected by the church recently...and an orphanage.

    The two largest associations of the Polish population are the Polish Roman-Catholic National Union and the Polish National Alliance. The interests and activities of these organizations are closely allied to eccleciastical and national purposes. They have branches all over the United States and are also 3active in works of charity. P. Kiolbassa is the president of the Union, and its office of administration is at 141 - 143 West Division Street. This building belongs to the Polish Publishing Company.

    The above mentioned company publishes two Polish newspapers, Dziennik Chicagoski, a daily, and the Wiarai Ojczyzna (Faith and Fatherland), a weekly, and is the organ of the Polish Roman-Catholic National Union, which has a membership of about 8,000. The National Alliance was organized twelve years ago. It has 4,500 members, and their slogan is; "Poland is not yet lost."

    Besides the already mentioned papers, others are published: the Gazeta Polska, established 1873, the weekly Tygodnik Powiesciowy, the Gazeta Katolicka and the Dzien Swiety.

    At present there is a movement on foot among the Poles to erect a monument in Humboldt Park to that great Polish champion of liberty, Kosciusko. The Chopin Choir and the dramatic Club of young people contribute to their entertainment.


    They also have two athletic clubs, and a number of small societies which are active in charitable endeavors under the supervision of the clergy.

    The Poles, as a part of Chicago's population, belong to those nationalities which are especially outstanding, like the Bohemians, Danes, Swedes etc. The Polish population of our city numbers not ...

    III A, III C, III G, IV, II D 4, III B 2, II B 2 d 1, II B 2 d 2, II C, II D 10, II B 3
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 09, 1892
    A Picture of the Polish Press in America (Editorial)

    One of the oldest Polish periodicals in the United States is the Gazeta Katolicka (Catholic Gazette). This magazine has undergone many changes since its inception, but it has always been the symbol of Catholicism, and has contributed a great deal toward strengthening the faith among the immigrants.

    The publication originated in St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish. It was organized by the Resurrection Fathers, who for many years managed the publication. Some time ago, Mr. W. Smulski was appointed editor, and at the present time still holds that office. Mr. Smulski has made many contributions toward keeping the Polish people together. For several years his weekly has printed many good articles.

    If the Gazeta Katolicka had a better literary staff, it would undoubtedly be 2one of the most outstanding Polish papers in America. Unfortunately, this literary power is lacking. From time to time, articles that have been sent in by the readers appear, but this is not enough to elevate the standing of the paper. Translations from other sources and copies of articles from the Polish journals abroad lose their power of conviction and interest. Reprinted stories always lack the punch of original material.

    It is realized that magius voluisse, sat est is a true saying. No one can deny the sincerity of Mr. Smulski's efforts. He has rendered an outstanding service to the immigrants and to the Polish people as a whole. His efforts merit continued support and more recognition by the Polish people.

    His Dzien Swiety (Holy Day), a Sunday supplement to the weekly Gazeta, is an interesting paper. The reading of this edition by the Polish people on Sunday and holy days brings many benefits to them and to the church. It offers the people a different type of reading material from that which appears 3in the daily papers. It contains a number of spiritual articles. The educational items tend to divert the mind of the reader into cultural channels. Again, through the medium of Dzien Swiety, W. Smulski offers the immigrant assistance in adjusting himself. Although some forces among the Polish people try to discredit his work, he remains a valuable servant.....

    Ever since the history of man has been recorded, we note that reform has been one of the problems of the people. Reforms have continually been taking place. Reformers have become a power in the scheme of mankind. They have been of two classes, the good and the bad. The former have expounded and introduced better and more practical ideas than the most sublime theories of the latter, but this class has been small.

    In Cracow, for example, in the development of reform, a paper entitled Reforma (Reform) made its appearance, with the intention of leading a revolution in the trend of thought. The publisher and chief editor of this newspaper was 4some kind of a hydropathic doctor, who specialized in giving cold bath treatments. He had some success in this direction, and soon enlarged his practice considerably. This doctor, at the same time, tried to gain clients through his editorials. He also tried to cure the mentally deficient by his cold water treatments. The venture proved a failure. The treatments made the patients worse, many times resulting in death. The mental cases of the city of Cracow and adjoining towns continued to increase.

    But this did not seem to slow up the reformers. New medical treatment was discovered for galloping consumption. A new system for the care of mental cases was also initiated. Under the leadership of several political groups, a new bloc was organized. It's paper was called the Nowa Reforma, (New Reform) a journal which until this day has tried to reform the people, but with little success. The purpose of the Nowa Reforma is to reform a conservative Catholic group in Galicia, break the power of Lemberg, and chase the Muscovites beyond the Balkans. It is hoped that they will succeed 5in their reforms.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Mar. 10, 1892.

    In the United States, we have had another type of reform paper. The first was under the editorship of a group that wanted to develop a new social order. But, as before, nothing was accomplished. This faction and its ideals soon died out. Out of its pyre, a second Reforma was born, a periodical under the management of Mr. Nagiel, former editor of a paper in Warsaw.

    Although it has been said that the present Reforma under the direction of Mr. Nagiel has not reformed anyone, yet it is unlike most reform papers, for it shows specific changes within its own ranks. This is a step forward, a step that most reforms do not undertake, because it is difficult to fulfill.

    This paper has undergone many changes. Its present platform is unlike the original one. The paper today has an American point of view. Its stand is 6considered one of the best. Mr. Nagiel's paper keeps within the bounds of decent journalism. If it is not purely a Catholic publication, it is far from being non-religious. It does not fall in the category of "Raeueber and Moerder Presse". The editor takes his own stand on certain important events and issues, a stand that is reserved and circumspect. Sensational and scandalous articles are never given any prominence, and seldom find place in print at all. No pessimistic ideas are ever presented to the reader. Other newspapers are never attacked. Antagonism is always avoided. The editorials are always light and to the point, never attacking anyone, or stirring up any trouble.

    The oldest Polish periodical in America is the Polska Gazeta (Polish Gazette). It is owned by W. Dyniewicz, a bookseller in Chicago. This weekly paper will soon mark its twenty-fifth anniversary.

    Mr. Dyniewicz is neither a literary figurehead nor a journalist, but he is a versatile, energetic, persevering, and practical individual, filled with 7American spirit and wit. During his early days, the immigrant was beginning to be a factor of importance. Realizing this, he prepared a publication to assist the ever-increasing Polish population. His aim was primarily to help the immigrant adjust himself to a new country and a new government. The name of the paper was fitting to its cause, Polska Gazeta.

    His early plans materialized because he was forbearing. The initial issues only dealt with the news in America and Europe. This pioneering Polish paper won a number of staunch supporters. Mr. Dyniewicz did not do any of the writing, but hired others to perform the work. Now and then, he would give the germ of an idea for an article to a staff member who would build it up. At times, the paper faced failure, but the determination of the organizer has always managed to keep it in circulation. Most of its early readers were of peasant stock, though a few of them were city-bred immigrants. The new Poles that came into the city were mostly uneducated. But the paper continued to be issued, despite the appearance of cloudy skies. The publisher knew that in the end his ideals would succeed. The 8Polska Gazeta continued to awaken the people to new horizons and frontiers. It helped to promote patriotism and preserve the Polish tongue.

    Our people, for the most part, are conservative. When one of them began reading the Polska Gazeta, he continued doing so for many years. Many times the children, after reaching maturity, have become subscribers. Most of the subscribers are from the ranks of farm folk and the rank and file of the city.

    When Mr. Dyniewicz undertook the printing of this paper, he realized the importance and the responsibility associated with the work. The people are the bulwark of the nation. The people of the nation follow in the footsteps of their fathers, and adhere to the old customs and language. Because of this, a newspaper must follow in the same line. It must support Because of this, a newspaper must follow in the same line. It must support the traditional ideals, evaluate them continually, and protect them against any perversion; in this case, it must protect the Polish immigrant from the 9many American contagions.

    Were the principles of Mr. Dyniewicz always carried out? Unfortunately, they were not. The fault does not rest upon him, but upon those whom he employed and trusted to carry out his aims. There were times when the Gazeta Polska, besides dealing with foreign news, dealt with offensive and tragic articles without any mercy. Immoral incidents in American life were treated with an unpleasant zest.

    Conservative writings have always found the support of the periodical. Its pages have always welcomed helpful and valuable suggestions. New movements, if meritorious, have been given backing. Unpleasant articles have always been weeded out, and their authors reprimanded for their creations.

    W. Dyniewicz has always tried to keep alive the Polish tradition in his paper, as well as in the books he has sold, both religious and national. He has served his cause without fault. The twenty-fifth anniversary of 10this paper on American soil will be an honorable and laudable occasion, not only for the publisher, but for Polish journalism as a whole. We have hope that Providence will permit Mr. Dyniewicz to see this day come.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Mar. 12, 1892.

    It is not with pride that we continue today our discussion of Polish journalism in the United States. We have not completed our treatise. Only the more important newspapers have been touched. Although this has been only the first step, the editorial department has been swamped with letters of criticism. Many of the complaining letters threaten the author of the articles. Some even say that they will get revenge. And for what? Is it because we have treated our articles on this matter objectively before the public eye? If we have erred, we are only human. Mistakes can be rectified or disregarded. But there is no reason why we should be besmeared with such malicious and insinuating assusations as, "we have been filled with 11slavishness", "we desire glittering gold", etc.

    One group of correspondents complain that they have not been praised, others interpret their praise and elevate it to great heights. Some become angry at the fact that others have been praised. Others fume and rage, and threaten us for our objective treatment of the Polish press. How is it possible for us to strike a happy medium?

    We have never tried to deprive anyone of a piece of bread. Thank God that we have our own bit in our hands. Our present stand, from which we have never turned, has won us great praise from the Polish ecclesiastical conference at South Bend. we will be glad to give up our present position to anyone who is better qualified and more expertly trained. Anyone who feels that he is more capable than we should call at our office.

    It is impossible to please everyone. There will always be critics. It is much easier to criticize than to write something creative. Our aim and 12ambition is to protect the interest of our religion, to assist our people into conservative channels, and to devote as much time as possible to public good. We have no desire for gold. Praise will probably not come our way, but we will find enough reward in our stand for justice, despite the many unpleasant accusations which are showered upon us.

    In 1891, an illustrated weekly entitled Niedziela (Sunday) made its first appearance in Detroit. It is sponsored by the Polish Seminary, and edited by Reverend W. Barabasz. The very name of the editor tells the story of the type of material to be found. The selection of material in this weekly is always light and interesting. The subject matter is well sifted and presented in a simple style, a style that fills the need of the masses. Yet it is wholesome and entertaining. Above all, it is easily understood by the readers. The illustrations show great promise. This is not surprising, for they appear under the guidance of a dilettante. He has a broad knowledge of things, and whatever he puts into his illustrations 13wins praise.

    The name of Reverend Barabasz is a valuable asset to the paper. He is a person trained not only in theology, but also in poetry, art, and human relations. His path is not filled with roses, but what writer in America, especially if he is Polish, walks on them? We feel certain that the reverend editor will succeed in his venture, because of his sincere effort to reach the minds of the uneducated and the learned alike.

    In Manitowoc, Wisconsin, there is a national religious publication edited by Father Luczycki. We have never seen a copy of the periodical, and it is therefore impossible for us to comment upon its contents. We have heard from a reliable source that the paper is doing a fairly good job.

    One of the oldest Polish periodicals in the United States is the Gazeta Katolicka (Catholic Gazette). This magazine has undergone many changes since its inception, but it has always been ...

    II B 2 d 1, II B 2 d 2, V A 2, III A, III C, III G, III H, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- July 13, 1892
    [A Periodical in English to Defend Poles] (Editorial)

    For the past several days rumors have been heard, also by us, that a corporation is being formed in New York which has for its aim the publication of an English periodical, dedicated to the defense of Polish interests. As long as this rumor did not become more concrete, we made no mention of it because we did not wish to spread unreliable information. Today we have received two statements relative to this publication with a request that they be published. We are complying with this request and are printing the statements, changing nothing in them, although they have evidently been submitted to us rather hastily written and marked even more by hundreds of errors.

    However, the hurriedness in the composition is of minor importance; we are concerned with the text, or rather with the main point, with the subject matter of the statement. The idea of publishing a periodical of that nature is, 2undoubtedly, commendable and we cannot cast any aspersions upon that proposal. Despite this we were doubtful whether we should print the statement, and only the fear of being accused of some unfound prejudice compels us to publish this reply before it is too late.

    The cause of our uncertainty was the fact that we really do not know with whom we are dealing. The publication of a periodical of such a nature as the proposed Freedom and Art requires two principal conditions: in the first place, we would say "solidness" of the publishers and second, ability of the editors. The signature of "committee," or even that of only one name (A. F. Koziell), does not suffice as a guarantee that such a perioducal will be essentially the expression of the sentiment and opinion of the Polish people. We know well that at times our enemies undertake similar measures in an underhand manner, so as to harm us only the more effectively; we also know that at times, there are people having praiseworthy intentions but lacking the power to bring them into action; by their incapability they bring more harm than gain. Consequently it is essential that we know who stands at the head of this venture, so that we 3can awaken the confidence of the people.

    It is hoped that the "committee" will soon correct this error by sending us the particulars which we have a right to demand--in the meantime we present the statements with reservations and only as a project that is commendable in itself, although it might be difficult to accomplish, especially considering among our status in America, our need of men of education and our unfortunate abundance of people who in their own imagination "know everything," and yet in reality know so very little.....

    For the past several days rumors have been heard, also by us, that a corporation is being formed in New York which has for its aim the publication of an ...

    II B 2 d 2
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- July 14, 1892
    To the Polish Artists and Literati in America (Forwarded) United States of America, May, 1892

    We request all the Polish newspapers in America to print this reply:

    The Paderewskis, Modrzejewskis, Rzeszkows, Mierzwinskis, H. Wieniawski, Zimaje, little Hoffman and others have gained a great name for Polish art on this side of the ocean. Profiting, therefore, from such a good start, an attempt should be made to stabilize and develop this laudatory opinion, especially since from it not only moral but also material benefit could be gained for our artists and literati as well as for the entire nation.

    Today, beyond those few above-mentioned names, the Americans have little or no knowledge whatsoever either of our art or even less of our literature. It is only is the last two years that the translation of With Fire and Sword made its appearance, and that of The Deluge appeared only this year. In reference to 2painting, the only representatives here thus far are Chelminski and Wierusz Kowalski, who were in some way successful in gaining the good will of this wealthy country. These fires are sufficiently popular here, and we see their pictures not only in trade but at nearly every exhibition--but the fame of our brush also ends with them. Relative to sculpture, this was at one time represented by the able and productive artist, Dmochowski, but was hidden under an alien, not Polish, name. At any rate, this is ancient history because thirty years have elapsed since his death. Comparatively speaking we have a greater number of musical representatives because besides those listed at the beginning, we also have here the Kontskis, Niedzielskis; Lamberts, d'Ernests, Levs, Oborskis, Jakubowskis, Strzoleckis, Zadors, and perhaps a half dozen others, of mediocre caliber but useful working artists. Moreover, the memory of Chopin lives here, his compositions are heard at every step, but only a handful know that this genius also was born from the Polish spirit.

    This situation cannot continue, it should not. A beginning has already been made, it is necessary to go forward. If we were not to profit from the situation today, it would be a punitive negligence especially since the Fair is coming. It is 3necessary, therefore, to acquaint the Americans more intimately with our literature and art, as well as with the circumstances of our spiritual production, which would assure us a new and yet wide and profitable market plus the additional understanding of the American people.

    This task could be best accomplished today by forming a publishing syndicate for the purpose of translating, as well as an agency for the Polish arts and English articles, an agency which would handle only our finest literary productions, and one where in illustrated form, our finest artistic products could be shown, thus to present our literature and art in that way to the strangers from the most profitable angle.

    In the meantime we propose the publication of an illustrated monthly on the pattern of other local publications of that nature. The preparatory work has already progressed so far that the first edition may even appear during this year. It is hoped that the periodical will be well patronized by our readers. According to reports that have been gathered, it is expected that a favorable reception will 4be accorded to this periodical.

    The services which it could render to our arts and artists, as well as to our national cause, which it will explain and defend, are so evident that every educated and Polish-spirited citizen will comprehend it so easily that is is unnecessary to discuss these matters any further. At any rate, another reply explains this.

    We also count upon the ardent civic assistance of our literati and artists, especially because we are starting our work not for any personal gain but for the general welfare and we expect to repay every bit of help according to our strength. We ask, therefore, for a more detailed explanation from the person who simply signs himself as F.A. Koziell, 745-141 Street, New York, H.Y.

    We will only say here that literary creations as well as educational ones are desired, ones which would acquaint a stranger with our country and customs, with our spiritual and intellectual present and past developments, with our civilizing work, with our history and present political and social status--with our literature and 5arts, with our literati, our people of education and our artists. The illustrations are to be in the same category. We ask that literary productions be written in Polish and the editorial department will endeavor to obtain a most careful translation.

    Experienced translators are greatly desired, even if it was necessary to polish their style.

    We also request all interested persons to communicate with us and to spread this information to others, especially to those in dramatic and literary circles, since because of lack of addresses and time we cannot make individual invitations.

    All reports will be confidential.


    We request all the Polish newspapers in America to print this reply: The Paderewskis, Modrzejewskis, Rzeszkows, Mierzwinskis, H. Wieniawski, Zimaje, little Hoffman and others have gained a great name for ...

    II B 2 d 2, II B 1 c, II A 3 c
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 05, 1893
    The Emigration Review on American Poles (Editorial)

    In its last few editions, the Emigration Review has published a detailed report .... of the travels of Doctor Dunikowski in America, ending in its last number with the following remarks which are of great interest to us:

    ".... Professor Dunikowski's journey proved that there is actually an impressive number of Poles in North America, and that these countrymen of ours, living together in large groups, have every chance of retaining their original nationality forever. There are a million and a half, or perhaps by this time, two million people who are free, well-to-do, and are already somewhat enlightened through their own Polish schools in the practice of American life. But these people will not easily permit themselves to be divested of their Polish nationality even by the Americans.

    "In many sections, a third generation of Poles is already rising. They 2are well-built physically, handsome, and of a lively temperament as a result of better physical and spiritual nourishment than the old country could have afforded them. These people, who constituted a burden to their homeland, or possibly would have increased the death rate after a short and miserable life, are attaining a decent position in America.

    "With us in Poland, they occupied the lowest intellectual level; in America they are changing beyond recognition; they are becoming intelligent and useful citizens. They learn to read and write the Polish language in Polish schools built at their own expense. Although it is true that these schools have their faults, they have one invaluable point in their favor--they exist and keep alive the national spirit.

    "Practically all of these people have acquired a deep love for their mother country and are doing their utmost to retain the Polish language and the Catholic faith; economic well-being and hope promote rapid germination of 3these spiritual needs.

    "There are in the United States, whole sections with a majority of seventy to eighty per cent of people who are truly Polish, as for instance, northern Wisconsin, and certain parts of northern Michigan. In sections of Chicago, as in Stanislawow, Wojciechow, [St. Stanislaus', St. Adalbert's] there are 100,000 Polish people; Buffalo ...., Detroit, New York, and Brooklyn have 40,000 each; Cleveland, (neighborhoods of Krakow, Poznan), has 25,000, not counting the smaller sections.

    "There seem to be enough of our people abroad then, to awaken us from the apathy with which we have looked upon emigration. We should interest ourselves in, and not underrate these Polish masses overseas, who in any case may give valuable contribution to our national cause.

    "In the first place, our newspapers should take a different attitude toward this problem than has been true heretofore, for their attitude has been essentially humorous. Interest in the Poles abroad will require no material 4sacrifices, for our countrymen are fairly prosperous; at most, we might be expected to supply their public libraries with Polish books. Authors and publishers who would donate books might even expect profit, for the workers there buy the books that they like. One edition, printed in Posen and sold in America, brought its publishers a fortune."

    The interesting Emigration Review closes the report with an enumeration of the greatest needs of the Poles in America, and with a promise that it will return again and again to the affairs of the "fourth partition," as they call us.

    In its last few editions, the Emigration Review has published a detailed report .... of the travels of Doctor Dunikowski in America, ending in its last number with the following ...

    I C, II B 2 d 2, I A 2 a, I B 4, III A, III G, III H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 23, 1893
    [New Polish Magazine]

    As the readers of Dziennik Chicagoski know, there has existed for some time a desire to publish in America a monthly magazine in English dedicated to Polish interests. Such a publication would be designed to acquaint the American people with Polish art, literature, civilization, and so on. A magazine of this kind--Art and Freedom--will soon make its appearance.

    Various Polish names have been mentioned in connection with the prospective publication, but for the time being, Mr. Sigmund Slupski has charge of the matter. Mr. Slupski was formerly editor of The Pole in America (Polak W Ameryce) and later of the Philadelphia Patriot (Patryota). The first issue of Art and Freedom will probably appear in June. Its editorial offices are located in the Davy Block Building at 207 W. Madison Street.

    In the meantime, before the first issue appears, Mr. Slupski is circulating, as a sort of prospectus, an article in Polish which will be found in Art and Freedom. The article is entitled "Copernicus and Columbus." We have had the 2opportunity of seeing the first copy of this brochure which has just come off the press, and we admit that, from the standpoint of typography, it is well presented. The print is plain, clear-cut; the paper is of high quality. It contains in all about forty illustrations. We have not yet had the opportunity to review the work from a literary point of view, but we concede that the choice of illustrations seems commendable. We find no such illustrations embellishing the works of our investigators of Copernicus in Poland. We find in the brochure copies of a number of portraits of Copernicus, among which is one that was supposed to have been painted by himself; drawings depicting members of his family; pictures of all the monuments that have been erected in his memory, and finally, reproductions of paintings by such masters as Matejko, Siemiradzki ("Apotheosis of Copernicus"), Gerson, Lesser, Sypniewski, and others, representing our great countryman in various stages of his life. This capital collection of illustrations gives the brochure an added value and should prove highly interesting to Americans.

    Mr. Slupski's brochure, arranged to resemble the first copy of Art and Freedom, contains two additional features, namely, a large portrait of Paderewski 3and a prospectus.

    From the latter we discover that the first issue of Art and Freedom will contain--besides the article on Copernicus--the following articles: "Slavonic Beginnings," "Religious Persecutions of the Russian Government," "Sketches From Russia," etc. One of its special attractions will be a composition by Paderewski, written especially for Art and Freedom, entitled "Columbus Jubilee Hymn."

    We wish the publishers success in their undertaking and eagerly await the first issue.

    As the readers of Dziennik Chicagoski know, there has existed for some time a desire to publish in America a monthly magazine in English dedicated to Polish interests. Such a ...

    II B 2 d 2
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 17, 1893
    Publication of Art and Freedom Postponed

    Sigmund Slupski has advertised in the last issue of Zgoda that publication of the monthly Art and Freedom will be postponed. Art and Freedom was to have been a monthly magazine dealing with Polish culture. It was to have been written in English and published here in Chicago. As the reason for its postponement, Mr. Slupski gives the recent death in England of Iza Slupski Young, well-known translator, who had prepared a number of articles for the new magazine. Mr. Slupski suggests that no more subscriptions be sent in; money will be refunded upon request to those individuals who have already paid for subscriptions. As to those who have sent subscriptions to Mr. Koziello, of New York, who at present has no connection with the publication, Mr. Slupski suggests they apply to Koziello himself.

    We regret the necessity of this postponement. Such a publication as Art and Freedom could be of real benefit. It was for this reason that Paderewski donated five hundred dollars toward it. Unfortunately, the management--from 2the time the idea first arose ten months ago, until today--offers little indication that it will ever be realized. Too bad!

    Sigmund Slupski has advertised in the last issue of Zgoda that publication of the monthly Art and Freedom will be postponed. Art and Freedom was to have been a monthly ...

    II B 2 d 2, II B 1 e, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- July 12, 1893
    Polish Publishing Company Stockholders' Meeting

    The annual stockholders' meeting of the Polish Publishing Company, publishers of Dziennik Chicagoski and Wiara I Ojczyzna (Faith and Fatherland), was held at the editorial offices of this paper. Among those present at the meeting were the Reverends Vincent Barzynski, S. Kobrzynski, J. Kasprzycki, and F. Byrgier, and Messrs. P. Kiolbassa, W. Jendrzejek, P. Ratkowski, T. Krolik, F. Kaczmarek, and A. Lakowka. Among those present from out of town were the Reverends U. Raszkiewicz, of Otis, Indiana; P. Cichocki, of Manitowoc, Wisconsin; and F. Wojtalewicz, of Hammond, Indiana. The Reverend Matkowski, of Bay City, Michigan, sent a representative, while Reverend Czyzewski, of South Bend, [Indiana], wired that he was unable to attend the meeting. The Reverend Sebastyanski notified the company that he had transferred his shares to the Nazarene Sisters Convent. In all, a majority of stockholders were present.

    A financial statement for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1892, to July 1, 21893, showed that the affairs of the company are in sound condition. The statement showed a surplus in spite of the fact that subscription to Wiara I Ojczyzna was not compulsory to members of Zjednoczenia (Polish Roman Catholic Union). The inventory report showed the company's assets to be $17,000. The stock of books (liquid assets) was valued at $10,000. The reports were accepted and the meeting turned its attention to other business.

    It was decided that the annual stockholders' meeting will be held not in July as heretofore, but on the first Wednesday after the fifteenth of January each year.

    The Reverend F. Byrgier was elected secretary to replace Father Kroll, who resigned on September 27 of last year, and the Reverend J. Kasprzycki was elected to the board of directors to fill the vacancy created by Father Gordon's departure for Poland. Election of officers was deferred to the next meeting.

    Finally, a committee was elected, consisting of the Reverends Byrgier, Czyzewski, and Mr. R. Ratkowski. This committee will audit the company's accounts 3for the past year, and with the co-operation of the manager and last years' auditing committee, it will verify the financial reports.

    Various improvements in the company's publications were discussed, but final decisions were left to the board of directors.

    As a whole, the meeting was a harmonious one: it demonstrated, moreover, that the Polish Publishing Company exists on a sound business footing.

    The annual stockholders' meeting of the Polish Publishing Company, publishers of Dziennik Chicagoski and Wiara I Ojczyzna (Faith and Fatherland), was held at the editorial offices of this paper. Among ...

    II B 2 d 1, II B 2 d 2, II B 2 d 3, II A 2, III C, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 23, 1893
    Polish Roman Catholic Union Holds Convention in Chicago First Day's Session

    As early as one-thirty in the afternoon, delegates to the Polish Roman Catholic Union Convention were gathering in the convention hall. The scene was a crowded, noisy, gay one; old friendships were renewed, new friendships made, memories recalled, and past events reviewed.

    At 2:30, the president of the Union, J. Kromka, of Detroit, and its spiritual adviser, the Reverend Gutowski, appeared on the platform. After the delegates, headed by the clergy, took their places, Father Gutowski spoke a few words on the importance of the convention and the need for harmony. He then said a prayer which the kneeling audience repeated after him.

    Following the prayer, President Kromka spoke. He described to the delegates 2the steady growth and development of the Union during the past year, which, he said, was due entirely to the tireless efforts of its founder, Father Vincent Barzynski, the clergy, the officers, and the members of the Polish Roman Catholic Union. He called upon the gathering to acknowledge these efforts by rising from their seats, which everyone did. He added that during the past year twenty-six new societies joined the Union, and that to date the total membership is 152 societies--9,250 assessable members.

    As one of the initial formalities of the convention, the president named the Credentials Committee, which included Thomas Krolik, of Chicago; I. Buzalski, of Bay City, Michigan; Michael Tomaszewski, of Milwaukee, Wisconsin; W. Sobczynski, of Detroit, Michigan, and A. Chmiel, of Everson, Pennsylvania. Upon a motion by the secretary, B. Straszynski, the convention voted a half-hour recess to give the committee time to check the credentials of the delegates. Following the recess, Mr. Krolik, upon the president's request, announced that the credentials of 163 delegates, representing 205 votes, were accepted.


    Secretary Straszynski read the list of delegates as follows:

    Holy Family Brotherhood, J. Manna: one vote; St. Mary's Society, Jacob Mucha, P. Ratkowski, B. Klarkowski, F. Zagrebski, F. Kaczmarek, and T. Krolik: six votes; St. Adalbert's, Bishop and Martyr, of St. Stanislaus Kostka parish, M. Mellin, W. Kujawa, J. Ryband: three votes; St. Joseph's II, F. Fuhl, J. Jarzembowski: two votes; Sacred Heart of Jesus, Town of Lake, M. Andrzejewski: one vote; St. Adalbert's I, of St. Stanislaus Kostka parish, W. Przybylski: one vote; St. Francis Xavier, Reverend Lange, L. Wegner: two votes; Sons of Freedom, under the protection of St. Casimir, B. Straszynski (for absentee); Holy Cross Society of St. Casimir's parish, Reverend F. Kroll: one vote; King Sigmund I Society, Vincent Klebanowski: one vote; St. Mary's of Perpetual Help, Frank Bemka: one vote; St. Casimir's [Society] of St. Casimir's parish, W. Wachowski: one vote; St. Francis Society of St. Casimir's parish, S. Kinowski: one vote; St. Isidore's, J. Trebacz: one vote; Holy Cross Society, A. Lamkowski (two votes), Paul Lewandowski (one vote): three votes; King Ladislaus Society, M. Gawron, 4W. Kosmala: two votes; St. Casimir Youth Society, W. Jozwiakowski, S. Cywinski, T. Gordon, and J. Grabowiecki: four votes; St. Anthony's, F. Szatkowski: one vote; Knights of St. Martin, Anthony Gordon: one vote; St. Hedwig's, of St. Stanislaus Kostka parish, J. Puzik, J. Mrohen: two votes; Jacob Wejher Society, F. Chwarszczynski: one vote; St. Valentine's Society, J. Cyszewski: three votes; Archbrotherhood of St. Dominic, F. Czerwinski: two votes; St. Hedwig's Society, of St. Hedwig's parish, K. Armknecht, J. Jablonski: two votes; Sacred Name of Jesus Society, of St. Adalbert's parish, A. Martin, K. Bielinski: two votes; St. Cecilia Society, J. Czekala, J. Suwalski, W. Barwig, W. Grabarski, A. Huntowski: five votes; Association of Priests in America, the Reverends F. Szukalski and Edward Kozlowski: two votes; King John Sobieski Society, A. Tomasik: one vote; Holy Trinity Society, F. Wleklinski, F. Zwierzynski, W. Jedrzejek, P. Luka, Paul Giersz, J. Paszkewicz: six votes; St. Joseph's Society, St. Stanislaus parish, F. Strzelecki (two votes), H. Abraham: three votes; St. Stanislaus Kostka Society, W. Zielinski, M. Deregowski, W. Matuszak, F. Jalowy, J. Jakubowski: five votes; St. Stanislaus, Bishop and Martyr, Society, M. Zawislanski, M. Ptaszek: two votes;


    Holy Heart of Jesus Society, St. Stanislaus Kostka parish, S. Czajka (two votes), J. Gniot: three votes; Father August Kordecki Society, W. Zwierynski: two votes; Society of the Sacred Heart of the Sorrowful Mother of Jesus, I. Skorupa, J. Malicki: two votes; St. Hyacinth's, J. Hoppa: one vote; Holy Cross Society, St. Stanislaus Kostka parish, A. Lamkowski, W. Grabarski, P. Lewandowski: three votes; St. Joseph's I, F. Fuhl, M. Siuda: four votes; St. Adalbert's Society, St. Adalbert's parish, J. Kramer: two votes; and St. Florian Krakus Society, S. Behnke: one vote. [Translator's note: All societies listed are Chicago societies. Out-of-town societies represented 111 votes; Chicago, 94.]

    After the list of delegates had been read, the president declared the election of a chairman as the next business of the convention. Nominations were made immediately. Father Kroll nominated W. Jedrzejek, and J. Mucha nominated Peter Kiolbassa. Father Kroll and K. Bielinski were also nominated. On a motion by the Reverend E. Kozlowski, it was decided that a trial ballot be taken, following which the convention would elect one of the three candidates polling the 6most votes. Delegates Czekala, Krolik, and Klarkowski were appointed to distribute the ballots.

    On the trial ballot, Kiolbassa polled forty-three votes, Jedrzejek forty-two, Father Kroll thirty-eight, Bielinski twenty-six, and Krolik one. On the final ballot, Kiolbassa polled seventy-two votes, Jedrzejek forty-seven, and Father Kroll forty-two. Besides these, one vote was cast for Bielinski and one for Grabarski. The president's announcement that Peter Kiolbassa had been elected chairman of the convention was greeted with repeated applause. The chairman took his place on the platform.

    Mr. Kiolbassa thanked the convention for the honor it had conferred upon him. "I regard it an honor," he said, "since it is always an honor to preside over a gathering of honest men. We may not be highly educated, but we are an honest people; of this we are proud." The speaker further expressed the hope that debates would be conducted in true Christian spirit, for, "the eyes of 7our countrymen are upon us," he said. He declared that all personal matters should be put aside and that each speaker should respect the other, not shouting out of turn when things went contrary to his wishes. After twenty years as a member and officer of the Polish Roman Catholic Union, the speaker said that he knows well the virtues and faults of delegates to the Union's conventions. He said that he will be just and entirely impartial, but that he will not permit mutual interference among the delegates. Since it represents a nation, the convention is of significance before the eyes of the world. Once more thanking the convention for the honor conferred upon him, the chairman asked the convention's desire.

    J. Kromka, president of the Union, spoke again. He said that after serving as president for a year, he was entrusting the care of the Union to the hands of God and to its representatives, wishing it God's blessings and continued expansion. Surrendering the gavel to the chairman, he called upon the convention to respect it and to work in harmony and unity. Upon the chairman's 8request, the delegates rose from their seats in acknowledgement of the president's services.

    On a motion by Delegate Tomasik, the chairman named B. Klarkowski secretary of the convention, and Jacob Mucha sergeant at arms. Following this, he announced that next in the order of business was the reading of the annual report by the secretary. Since the hour was already very late, however, numerous voices were raised in motions for adjournment. There were still a few important formalities to be observed. The chairman read two telegrams from well-wishers, one from Milwaukee and one from Detroit.

    Several committees were yet to be named. The chairman appointed an auditing committee of five, and a program committee of three.

    Delegate K. Bielinski made a motion that a telegram be sent to the Pope, 9asking his blessing. The chairman directed the priests to appoint a committee among themselves to compose the telegram.

    After inviting the delegates to the evening performance of "Children of Israel," to be performed especially for their entertainment, the chairman adjourned the meeting until the following day.

    The Evening's Performance

    In the evening, the same hall was filled to capacity--even the galleries were crowded--to witness a truly splendid performance of Szczesny Zahajkiewicz's drama, "Children of Israel".

    The performance was an unusually successful one. Evidently the players exerted their best efforts before so numerous an audience, among whom were visitors from all over the United States and even from Europe. The direction of the play, 10under the author himself, was meticulous down to the finest details, and it was the general opinion of the audience that it would be difficult to find a play equaling it on the Polish-American amateur stage.

    We have had many occasions to write of "Children of Israel". This time the cast was much the same as in previous performances, and to list it at this time would be needless repetition. Suffice it to say that the principal roles (especially the lead, played by Mr. V. Jozwiakowski) were performed more carefully and successfully than ever before. Newcomers in the cast were Mr. Domek, as Pharaoh, I. Kowalski, as Paha, and P. Ligman in the role of Judas. Miss Kunkowski, who played the part of Potiphar's wife (appearing on the stage for the first time, we hear), displayed a talent which our stage directors would do well to remember. The music was also excellent.

    Availing ourselves of this opportunity, we will mention the priests who, as out-of-town guests of the convention, are staying among us in St. Stanislaus 11Kostka parish (Na Stanislawowie). The visiting priests are the Reverends Raskiewicz, Gutowski, Lipinski, Ponganis, Matkowski, Kozlowski, Nowakowski, Skory, Wrobel, Kobylinski, Szymanowski, Pradzynski, Szukalski, Krzywonos, Jachimowiez, Frydrysiak, Nawrocki, Miszkiewicz, Kroll, Frydrychowicz, Grabowski, Pawlowski, and the Rector Klos, from Poland.

    Before the performance, the Reverend Vincent Barzynski, as host, greeted the visitors with heartfelt words and the ancient Polish motto: "Gosc w Dom, Bog w Dom" (Who receives guests, receives God). Before the curtain was raised on the last scene of the play, Father Barzynski invited the audience to attend a meeting to be held in the same hall on the evening of the following day, that is, Wednesday.

    Church Services for Convention Delegates

    At 8:30 in the morning, solemn services were held at St. Stanislaus Kostka Church for the delegates to the convention.


    Mass was celebrated by Reverend P. Gutowski, spiritual adviser of the Polish Roman Catholic Union. Reverend E. Kozlowski and Reverend Lipinski officiated as deacon and subdeacon respectively. Reverend Casimir Skory was the master of ceremonies. The sermon was delivered by Reverend T. Jachimowicz.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Aug. 24, 1893.

    Second Day's Session

    The second session of the Polish Roman Catholic Union's Convention opened yesterday, at 11:15 A. M., after the church services in the morning. The first duty of the chairman, according to the constitution, was to name a motions committee of seven..... By general request, the chairman added to this number two priests, who were to act as advisers.....

    The secretary of the Union called the roll, and the secretary of the convention 13read the minutes of the previous day's session. Following this, the secretary of the Union read the annual treasury reports and the auditing committee presented its report. This last report showed the accounts of the secretary and treasurer in such perfect order that the auditing committee felt obliged to commend these officials publicly. However, it developed that upon receiving the books from his predecessor, the incumbent treasurer had received $143.09 less than the report showed. Both the treasurer and the secretary spoke on this subject, as did their predecessors. Former secretary John Manna explained that a misunderstanding had arisen which would be explained in the afternoon, and former treasurer Gniot promised to produce receipts; further discussion of this matter was postponed until the afternoon.

    Since the hour was already late, the meeting was adjourned until two o'clock in the afternoon.


    Afternoon Session

    The roll was called again at 2:10 P. M. Ex-treasurer Gniot produced a receipt, showing that treasurer Wleklinski had received $4,375.89 from him on August 6, 1892. The annual report for the year 1891-92, however, showed that at the time the books of the last administration were closed, the treasury account totaled $4,518.98. The shortage was $143.09.

    Former secretary Manna explained how it happened. After the last convention, there were receipts and expenses still recorded by the former officials. To September 1, receipts were $2,069.20 and expenses $2,211.29. Debate continued on this matter until finally a committee was named to check the accounts. The committee--consisting of W. Dukarski, of Gaylord, [Michigan], J. Andryson, of New York, and Reverend Szymanowski--retired from the hall to check the accounts immediately.

    Since the motions committee had not yet reported, minor matters were taken up.


    Delegate Bielinski demanded that the books and financial reports contain separate accounts for initiation fees and dues paid by new societies (instead of being accounted for under the general head of Income). The recording secretary was instructed to make a notation to this effect.

    On a motion by Delegate Tomasik, the secretary of the Union read a portion of the minutes of last year's convention, calling attention to the motions that had not been voted upon. The case of Hopa was mentioned, to whom the last convention had voted a hundred dollars' benefit, but who had died before it could be paid to him. The question was debated whether or not his heirs were entitled to receive this money, and a petition to this effect was read to the convention. The decision was, however, that since the heirs had received six hundred dollars in death benefits, payment to them of the money which had been assigned to the man while he still lived was out of the question.

    At this time, the chairman of the motions committee entered the hall. The 16three principal motions were read and debate began immediately. We present here the motions in order of occurrence. The first was to equalize death benefits for all members of the Union by establishing the death benefit at nine hundred dollars. If a member should die without having received benefit payment on the death of his wife, his death benefit is to be nine hundred dollars; but, if he has already received the usual three-hundred-dollar benefit on the death of his wife, the death benefit in his case is to be six hundred dollars. The motion was hotly debated. While some thought it entirely just, especially as far as the unmarried members are concerned, others felt that it would merely prove a greater burden and would mean further assessments. Among those who took part in this discussion were K. Bielinski, J. Czekala, and the Reverends Kroll, Szukalski, and Nowakowski. On a motion by Delegate Abraham, the question was put to a vote. An overwhelming majority voted against the change.

    The second motion was that the officers of the Union be from different cities, as previously. Among those who discussed the question were Bielinski, Czekala, 17Tomasik, Manna, and Father Kroll. The motion was carried by a large majority. Delegate Barwig proposed an amendment providing that the secretary and treasurer be elected from the same city. As the vote was not decisive, a ballot was necessary. Kromka, Bielinski, and Father Nowakowski were appointed to count the ballots. The result was 116 votes against the amendment, 84 in favor, and two blank ballots. The secretary and treasurer will, therefore, each be from different cities.

    The third motion provided that the reserve capital in the hands of the treasurer be never greater than two thousand dollars, all surpluses to be loaned out at interest and an account to be kept thereof. The motion was discussed by the Reverend Kozlowski, Bielinski, Czekala, Lampkowski, and others. Upon being put to a vote, it was carried. On a motion by Delegate Krolik, the constitution will be amended to this effect.

    Delegate Krolik also moved that the payment of one per cent of the organization's 18funds to the treasurer be abolished. A lively discussion followed. Treasurer Wleklinski had already renounced his claim to this percentage..... The question was discussed by Jedrejek, Kromka, and others. A large majority voted in favor of Delegate Krolik's motion. Delegate Czajka moved that the treasurer be given a salary in order that he should be legally responsible for the money entrusted in his care. Again a lively discussion followed. It was moved that the treasurer pay four per cent to the Union on surpluses over the reserve fund; other motions called for three per cent. The original motion was defeated by a considerable number of votes. Delegate Kromka declared that the treasurer is entitled to some kind of income, and Delegate Czekala moved that the treasurer's salary be set at fifty dollars per year. The discussion that followed was taken up by Father Kroll, Czekala, Jedrzejek, and Bielinski. This motion was also defeated.

    The committee assigned to check the accounts of former secretary Manna reported that the books held no record of income or expenses for the period of 19August 8 to September 1, 1892. Since Manna had bound himself to produce records for this period, conclusion of the matter was postponed until the next day.

    As the hour was already late, motions for adjournment were in order. The chairman announced that a mass meeting would be held at eight o'clock in the evening and invited all delegates to be present. He also announced that the delegates would gather in the hall at eight in the morning, from where they would proceed together to church. With these announcements, he adjourned the meeting.

    Evening Mass Meeting

    In the evening a large audience, including a great many women, filled the convention hall. A selected orchestra played Polish national hymns while the chairman and secretary took their places upon the platform.


    At 8:20 the chairman opened the meeting with a speech. He spoke of the significance of such mass meetings as this, stating that they had more than once accomplished important results. At this time, a mass meeting assumes new importance, for it can be attended by visitors from all over the United States and Europe, he said. "Since we are accustomed," he continued, "to opening all of our important gatherings with an appeal to God, the parish choir will sing the hymn "Bogu Rodzica" [Kyrie Eleison, thirteenth century Polish Gregorian chant]. The choir sang this solemn hymn, from the St. Adalbert oratorio, under the direction of A. Kwasigroch. The chairman then called upon the Reverend Snigurski, who came to the stand amidst great applause as the first speaker. The reverend speaker raised the question: Why are we gathered here from all parts of the country? Why have our societies sent us? He said that those societies which belong to the Polish Roman Catholic Union must consult together on how to insure their existence in the future. "We strive to attain perfection; in order to achieve it, we combine into organizations. There are many different organizations; we do not condemn any of them, for we 21have neither the right nor the time to do so. We should look to ourselves, perfect ourselves. An organization has the right to exist if its members meet in the name of God. Any organization collapses unless it has religion for its foundation. Our motherland was built not upon sand but upon the rock that was St. Peter. Our faith was our foundation, and though our armies were smaller than others, we were powerful and a terror to our enemies. It was only when we sought other gods, when Lutheranism and Calvinism crept in among us, that dissolution and ruin came.

    "Now we are scattered everywhere except in our beloved Poland. There Germans, Jews, and others have taken possession, while we are exiles in the United States, in Brazil, Argentina, Australia. When we have better understood our mission, our national existence will be easier. The mission of the Polish Roman Catholic Union is to gather Poles together in the name of God. Each man should strive to inspire his fellow to virtues, as in the early days of Christianity. It is the task of our Union not only to help us perfect ourselves.... but to teach us 22to help our less fortunate neighbors."

    This beautiful address, of which we have given only the main points, was frequently interrupted by applause. It was followed by a medley of Polish national hymns, sung by the girls' choir. The next speaker was Doctor Dunikowski. He said that he had come to listen, not to speak, but since he had been called upon, he would gladly say a few words. He stated that when he was in this country last year, he not only came to know us, but to love us, in proof of which he returned, bringing several friends with him. He encouraged closer relations with the homeland. "The anniversary which we are now observing is a sad one--it reminds us of Maciejowice [1794--Battle in which Kosciusko was defeated and taken prisoner by the Russian Army]--but are we to observe it in mourning? No! We mourn the dead, and Poland is not dead," he said. The anniversary will be celebrated in Lwow [Austrian Poland] by the Kosciusko Exposition. The speaker urged participation in this Exposition, referring to the announcements he has already published regarding it. In conclusion, he stressed the necessity for perseverance in the Catholic faith and 23in patriotism, for these are the virtues that make us strong.

    Dr. Dunikowski's speech was followed by an orchestral number, after which a lecture, entitled "The Need for Polish Colleges in America," was delivered by B. Klarkowski. Following the lecture, the male chorus sang a beautiful number. The next speaker was the Reverend Jachimowicz, of Omaha, Nebraska. His spirited address was vigorously applauded.

    After another choral number, the Reverend Stanislaus Szymanowski, of Perth Amboy, spoke. We would like to present the entire text of his speech, but this is not possible. He illustrated, with cases from his own experience, the importance of the Church in maintaining Polish nationalism in America.

    The program ended at eleven o'clock with the singing of "Boze cos Polske" (God Save Poland) by the entire gathering.


    Third Session of the Convention

    After Mass, celebrated by the Reverend Grucza, of Milwaukee, the delegates gathered at the convention hall for the third day's session. The chairman called the meeting to order at 9:20 o'clock. The secretary of the convention read the following petitions and telegrams:

    (1) A letter from the Polish Patriotic Youth Society, signed by its president, J. Plywaczyk, and secretary, F. P. Danisch, proposing the organization of a Youth Union, auxiliary to the Polish Roman Catholic Union.

    (2) A petition regarding Polish-American participation in the Kosciusko Exposition at Lwow in 1894. It was signed by the committee consisting of Peter Kiolbassa, W. Smulski, Father Vincent Barzynski, Leon Szopinski, W. Bardonski, Doctor [C.] Midowicz, H. Nagiel, M. Drzemala, S. Slominski, M. A. La Buy, and A. Szwajkart.


    (3) A petition asking the convention's financial and moral support of the proposed Polish Day. This petition was signed by the committee from the Southwest Side, consisting of F. Smietanka and Anthony Stefanowicz.

    (4) The request of Joseph Rogosz for support of his Great Book of the Polish Nation.

    All of these communications were favorably received and tabled for future discussion.

    The chairman next read telegrams of best wishes from Kuryer Polski, of Milwaukee, and from a number of out-of-town societies.

    As chairman of the committee for checking the accounts of former treasurer Manna, the Reverend Szymanowski reported that the books were entirely in order and the $143.00 in question satisfactorily accounted for. Chairman Kiolbassa 26explained further that the reason for the old administration's remaining in office a month after the new officers had been elected was the uncertainty concerning the American citizenship of the newly elected president. It was decided that hereafter the outgoing officers would immediately turn their accounts over to the new administration. With this, the matter was dropped.

    One of the important motions presented by the committee on motions proposed that the Union's official organ should be its property, and that this organ ought to be Wiara i Ojczyzna (Faith and Homeland).

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Aug. 26, 1893.

    Last Session of the Convention and Its Adjournment

    After election of the new president, the chairman invited him to the platform and turned the gavel over to him in accordance with constitutional regulations.


    The remaining elections and the rest of the convention to its adjournment were presided over by the newly elected president. After election of a vice-president, secretary, and treasurer, it was proposed that all of the former directors be re-elected by acclamation. However, due to the absence from the convention of director J. Dardas and to the resignation of B. Klarkowski, who had accepted other duties, L. Ruszkowski, of South Bend, Indiana, and J. Rejch, of Manistee, Michigan, were nominated to replace them. These two candidates plus the three remaining directors were elected unanimously.

    The president then declared that in addition to a secretary general, a recording secretary must also be elected. A short discussion followed. The question was: Should the recording secretary be of the same city as the president or the vice-president, and what additional costs would this new office entail? Finally, B. Klarkowski offered to perform the duties of recording secretary without pay, provided the cost of stamps, paper, etcetera is returned to him. His offer was gratefully accepted.


    The convention next turned its attention to the numerous letters requesting financial aid. The secretary of the convention read one of these letters and announced that there were at least thirty more like it. A lively debate over the first letter began. It was evident that everyone believed that some aid ought to be extended but many doubted, however, that the Union's treasury could stand the expense. Finally, Reverend Gutowski made a motion that the president of each society take up a collection for this purpose within his own society. The money thus collected would then be turned over to the administration of the Union, the members of which would divide it among the petitioners according to the needs of each. The motion was carried.

    The chairman of the convention, P. Kiolbassa, made a short farewell address to the delegates, saying that important business compelled him to leave the hall. He thanked them for the honor they had shown him and for the exemplary harmony they had maintained throughout the convention. Minor matters still being raised on the floor prevented Delegate Czajka from making the appropriate motion. A 29motion that the Union's organ publish the names of all those receiving aid was first made, following which Delegate Czajka moved that the assembly acknowledge Mr. Kiolbassa's able and impartial leadership by rising. The chairman had already left the hall.

    As their host, the Reverend Barzynski bade farewell to the delegates, expressing the hope that nothing had been lacking and thanking them for their perfect conduct. He next announced that the Pope had sent them his blessing by telegram to the Archbishop, who, at the present time, is not in the city. Father Barzynski called upon the Reverend S. Kobrzynski to bless the assembly in the Pope's name. The moment was a solemn one. The clock had just struck twelve and the church bells were ringing the "Angelus" as the delegates piously kneeled and received the papal blessing from Father Kobrzynski.

    As the last business of the twentieth convention, the Reverend Gutowski, spiritual adviser of the Union, received the oaths of office from the new administration.


    After adjournment, Father Barzynski invited the delegates to lunch, and soon after twelve o'clock the convention hall was empty.

    As early as one-thirty in the afternoon, delegates to the Polish Roman Catholic Union Convention were gathering in the convention hall. The scene was a crowded, noisy, gay one; old ...

    III B 4, II B 1 c 1, II B 1 c 3, II B 2 d 2, II B 2 d 3, II B 1 a, II D 10, III B 2, II D 1, III H, III E, III C, IV

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