The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

Filter by Date

  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 13, 1891
    Polish Bible

    The internal revenue collector received an invoice for an old Polish bible printed in 1563. It is a rare copy, one of the oldest Polish bibles in print, which was acquired by Mr. Gunther, a well-known downtown confectioner, for his private collection. The book will arrive at Chicago today.

    Mr. Gunther bought this bible from a certain book dealer at Frankfurt, Germany, for nine hundred German marks (about $207.00). Mr Gunther says that this Polish bible was printed at that time by order of a certain Polish gentleman, (his name is not disclosed yet) and was passed as an heirloom from generation to generation down to the last descendant of the family who was forced to pawn it on account of poverty. The gentleman, however, had never redeemed the bible; it passed from hand to hand, and is now in Mr. Gunther's possession.

    The bible may be seen in a few days at Mr. Gunther's collection room which 2is located above his confectionery shop. It seems that the bible was printed in Cracow, Poland, at the time when the first printing shop was established in that country (the first Frank Swaybold's printing shop was established in 1491).

    In other cities the printing shops were established much later. For instance, in Warsaw, it was established in 1580, and in Lemberg, in 1593. At that time, already two Polish translations of the bible existed. One was the Leopolit's translation of 1561 (this was not so very good because many Bohemian and old Slavic words were incorporated). The other one was the excellent translation of Jacob Wujek, 1540-1591. We will furnish our readers with a better description of this bible as soon as we will have an opportunity to see it.

    Mr. Gunther desires to donate his collection to the city library.

    The internal revenue collector received an invoice for an old Polish bible printed in 1563. It is a rare copy, one of the oldest Polish bibles in print, which was ...

    II B 1 e, I B 4
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 10, 1891
    Polish Activities Polish Library Society Holds Annual Meeting

    "The Saint Vincent de Paul Society, organized to maintain a library at Saint Adelbert's Parish, will hold its annual business meeting at 4 P. M., Sunday, Dec. 13, at the parish hall.

    "At this meeting, the election of new officers will take place; the financial statement will be read; new members will be admitted; and dues will be received.

    "The officers and members of the Society, as well as the parishioners, are invited to this meeting. Everybody--young and old, fathers and mothers, young men and young women--should gather at the parish hall in order to join the Society, the purpose of which is as follows:

    1. To enlighten the Polish people.

    2. To discourage among the Polish people the reading of unwholesome newspapers and other immoral, irreligious, Masonic, and godless literature which poison their minds, and which are spread among our people by the devil and our enemies.


    3. To make good Poles and Catholics out of the members of the parish.

    4. To discourage our people, especially the youth, from frequenting during their leisure time places of questionable character, by supplying them with wholesome amusements and good literature.

    "The initiation fee is only twenty-five cents, and the monthly dues are ten cents. Every member is given a library card which entitles him to borrow books from the parish library, according to the rules and regulations of the Society.

    "It is the duty of every parishioner to support his parish library, which is a school for the adults and a mental nourishment for our souls.

    "I hope the public attendance at this annual meeting will be considerable.

    Respectfully yours,

    John Ciesielski,

    Secretary and Librarian

    731 Van Horn Street.

    "The Saint Vincent de Paul Society, organized to maintain a library at Saint Adelbert's Parish, will hold its annual business meeting at 4 P. M., Sunday, Dec. 13, at the ...

    II B 2 a, II B 1 e, III C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 04, 1892
    Continuation of the Polish "Filaretow" Society Written by Helen Sawicki (First article printed in January 2, 1892 issue.)

    Through these worthy efforts, those who were willing to learn, both young and old, were lifted from the path of ignorance. However, this did not continue for long. This youthful movement for liberty was soon put to a stop by the Russian government, yet the seed of fraternity was well scattered.

    Soon after a reorganization took place in Thomas Zan's ranks, and a new order was founded. This time it took on the name of "Filaretow" (Lovers of Virtue). This new body undertook the same platform of the former society, nevertheless there were a few changes. A new unit was added, bearing the name "Lovers of Education." At the beginning, there were only seven virtues, but this figure reached twenty later.


    The "Lovers of Virtue" were headed by the following: Thomas Zan, John Czeczot, Adam Michiewicz, Onufry Pietrowicz, Ignacy Domejko, and several other outstanding Polish notables. This new organ carried the banner of the previous one, but its doors were guarded with secrecy. This was done in order to avoid interference of the university and government. Whoever could pay, contributed a monthly fee, which amounted to about two and a half dollars in American money. These dues were converted into many useful means. Books were purchased, a reading room was kept, and many other incidentals were bought.

    This organization was composed of groups. Each group met separately. At the head of each was a president, secretary, and treasurer. There was a circle of lawyers, authors, mathematicians, medical authorities, etc. The election of officers was open, and those that received the most votes were 3chosen for the respective offices. Each group held separate meetings at which the by-laws were read, the progress discussed, and plans for future programs were made out. At times, delegates from other units were invited. These representatives would tell of their work. During these sessions, the members would not only be instructed in the art of rhetoric, but open discussions were held and vital subjects were frequently presented. Exact interpretations of what went on were given. Public speaking was practiced to a great degree.

    Besides these educational and instructive gatherings, parties of a social nature were held. Various affairs were held at which singing, reading, drama, and speech were given an open range. There were also annual Maytime festivals. These parties served a twofold purpose. They not only enlightened the burden of the hard work, but also instilled gaiety and friendship.


    Several organizers of this organ were responsible for these social functions. The backbone was composed of Thomas Zan, John Czeczot, A. Michiewicz, and Mr. Wolowicz (no first name given). Zan represented beauty and morality over which he exerted great influence for he had high respect for his office, and his zeal for these virtues was limitless. Mr. Czeczot was the agent of sincerity and happiness. Brotherhood was representative of Mr. Wolowicz. A. Mickiewicz, one of the later prophets of the people, brightened and added life to the parties by his songs and his poems. Oratory and poetry were under his banner. He devoted his entire life to help his people. He wrote many verses primarily to bolster the spirit of his brothers. These poems in turn were memorized by many, and passed by word of mouth to others. One of the many poems written by him is the following, which reflects the spirit of the organization he so devotedly worked for:


    Let your eyes with gladness shine,

    And garlands of joy cover you,

    And in new hope entwine,

    For we are friends - one and two,

    One for all and all for you.

    Lift your poor heart from sorrow

    Fill up with hope and glory -

    Holy this will be tomorrow;

    Pride, greed, and luxury

    Sweep it away in hurry.


    This you should gladly do:

    For our people guard the life

    Of learning and of virtue

    At home, at work, or in strife;

    And keep it sharp as a knife!

    Be sure that this in your mem'ry stays:

    Your people --- learning and virtue --- always!

    All of the flowering youth of the University of Vilno gave itself to the purpose of this brotherhood. They studied and passed on what they have been taught to others. The shroud of greed, hatred, and selfishness, was gradually shed through this brotherly atmosphere. Many individuals, after grasping the full purpose of this noble fraternity, devoted all of their 7lives to furthering its cause. They realized that through the education of the masses to the conditions, the Poland of yesterday could only be restored.

    Propriety and decorum reigned throughout every unit. A watchful eye was kept on those that did not regard the by-laws to the fullest extent. Those that lost interest or were endangering the cause were expelled. This was generally considered a disgrace. Through cooperation, all of the spare time of the members was used to a good advantage.

    It was believed that through more strict reorganization the continuance of the fraternity would be possible. However, this budding flower did not get an opportunity to come to full bloom. The despotic government cut down its growing stem once again. When all the units of the central organ were forbidden, all of the books of the organization were destroyed, and its members 8scattered over the entire country. These actions did not stop their mistreatment by the Russians. Despite persecution, this society existed in the hearts of every member.

    In the junior year group at the Vilno University, Michael Plater wrote on the blackboard of his classroom: "Let the constitution of the third of May live." This was more or less a child's prank, yet it was taken as a sign of revolution by the Russians. The right hand men of Constantine, the Russian Tsar in Warsaw, began an investigation concerning this matter at the University. The investigators seized a student by the name of Jankowski, who tried to get into Warsaw through a false passport. Jankowski was a former student of the "Filaretow" Society, but was expelled for his lack of interest. A thorough search of his belongings revealed a pamphlet of the by-laws of the organization. Although he was 9under oath never to reveal any of its secrets, Jankowski, under pressure and with the promise of freedom, told everything he knew. After this, followed a general purge of the already crumbled fraternity. Riots and unjust violences prevailed.

    Further persecutions of those connected with this organ can be found in the third part of Michiewicz's poem, the "Beggers" or "Dziadow."

    This is the history of the origin of the "Filaretow" society. To us, they represent a great symbol of respect, our ideals. For at the present time, we are existing amidst trying conditions. It is difficult for us to uphold these ideals while we are struggling to earn our daily bread. But these traditions that have been brought with us to this country still flourish..... We must remember that there are many of our people abroad that would gladly 10leave their forced drudgery, but cannot because the hope and strength of their struggle has been sapped. They would gladly leave the soil to which they are imprisoned, but have no opportunity to leave. Though this has been true for over a hundred years, the fight for liberty is still being waged.....Although we are in a free country, we are facing many obstacles. Our struggle to be classed on the same level with the other people here is very great, and can be compared with the hardships of those young people that organized the society of "Filaretow" many years ago.

    We are facing new problems here. It is for our own good that we organize and educate our people so that they can orient themselves to their new surroundings. We can take up the banner of the "Lovers of Virtue" here without any fear and blaze a trail for our people. Only through organization and work can we accomplish these aims. The curtain of ignorance can be substituted for one of culture.


    The purpose of the first public meeting at this society here is to restore hope in our once oppressed people. Plans, platforms, and programs, were discussed openly, and an outline of activity was adopted. Therefore, in order to restore hope and position in our people, we must get to work and organize.

    Through these worthy efforts, those who were willing to learn, both young and old, were lifted from the path of ignorance. However, this did not continue for long. This youthful ...

    II B 1 d, II B 1 e, II B 2 g, III B 2, I C, I E, I H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 06, 1892
    News of the Literary Contest for Polish Authors (Editorial)

    We are greatly pleased by the results of the article recently published in the Dziennik Chicagoski relative to conditions of a contest for Polish literary authors in America. It has been imitated by other papers.

    The editors of the Polish Courier in Milwaukee have printed this article with a little more elaboration upon the tactics of authors. This is very good. This supporting attitude will awaken our literary writers and offer them greater fields of opportunity, along with the respect and recognition of original material.

    It would please us greatly if other Polish papers and periodicals would 2adopt this system and offer their suggestions for improvement. In this manner we could develop better understanding and feeling between the press and writers. Through the help of the Polish Courier, we were able to modify our conditions. This is why we are pointing this out. This agreement was made possible through the cooperation of our paper and the Milwaukee journal. Other papers could easily follow suit.

    This would eliminate the simultaneous printing of the same article by different local papers or papers in nearby towns. Writers violating this rule would be dropped from the list, according to this contest.

    Often it happens that a mercenary writer wants to get as much money as possible for his material. His articles are sent not only to one paper, but to two, three, and more. As a result, it happens that this article is accepted and published by some of these papers, which is very unfortunate. In this way the author doubles or triples the value of his work. This is not so bad when the articles appear apart 3and in different cities but when they are printed locally at the same time this is when it hurts both sides the most. The paper does consider it a privilege to print some of the stories of the author because it believes that it is exclusive. The editors of the Dziennik Chicagoski and the Milwaukee Polish Courier will hereafter recognize the efforts of those that desire to write for their prospective papers only.

    Because of the recent agreement between these two papers upon this proposal of having a literary contest for our Polish authors, we have set January 15 for the opening of the contest. The conditions for this contest, stated in a previous issue, will be repeated shortly. We will also point out any changes of the rules. This will give ample warning to all authors.

    We are greatly pleased by the results of the article recently published in the Dziennik Chicagoski relative to conditions of a contest for Polish literary authors in America. It has ...

    II B 2 d 1, II B 1 e
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 09, 1892
    Our Contest (Continuation from January 8, 1892, issue is missing)

    Every author, if he so desires, may have his name kept a secret until the contest is over, providing he places his name in a separate envelope with the same number, or pseudonym, that appears on the article. These envelopes will be opened after the judges' decisions have been reached.

    The "jury" is not going to consider the length of the article as much as the contents. The manuscripts that are going to be sent in will be judged for timeliness and accuracy. Items falling into the following categories will be accepted for consideration: value to our society, building of new hope for our immigrants, and for our people abroad. Interesting poems, verses, and short stories will be next in line for consideration. Following this, will be articles about happenings, travel, holiday celebration, and society news. Articles from other newspapers and magazines will not be considered.


    A word about the selection of the judges who are to pick out the various material for acceptance and merit. It is customary before a literary contest is launched to select authorities from the various fields of literature to act as judges. These members of the "jury" cannot take part in the competition, which is readily understood. If we were to follow this example, and if we were to select judges for this "jury" from the noted Polish-American novelists, teachers of literature, poets, feature writers, and editors, of which there are not many, we would have to exclude those from whom we are especially anticipating contributions. In this respect, we would be endangering our purpose rather than bettering it.

    We must resort to other means in choosing a "jury" of this kind. The "Dziennik Chicagoski" has definite aims to reach. It has a bright outlook on the betterment of our people. Certain steps are going to be taken to better these goals. We support such noble ideas becuase we feel that we are a part of them. We fight for them and keep the doors open for improvement. The Polish Publication Association also lends a hand in this direction.


    This organization is partly comprised of educated men, i.e., university trained, partly of outstanding personages, and finally those of true patriotic citizenship of this country, who probably do not possess great literary ability, but are true Poles who possess common sense. Towards this source, the editors of this paper turn for its judges to determine the value of the manuscripts sent for the contest. Those will be excluded from this group that desire to enter this field of competition. Those writers who wish to compete, and also express a desire to be on the judges staff will be considered on the condition that they relinquish the right of accepting the prize money in case one of their articles is chosen.

    No work will be accepted before the fifteenth of this month, or after the same date in November. If within this specified time, less than thirty six manuscripts are received for this contest, then the time limit will be extended on official notice. This extra time will be allowed until the required number shall be reached.


    This contest is held primarily for our "American Knights" of the pen to stimulate interest in the literary field. We do not want the prospective contestants to believe that the awards are going to be lucrative, nor do we want them to think that they are going to get world-wide recognition. We do not wish the prize money to be the primary bait. We do believe that the principal incentive will be the love for our people, to serve them, if only through the means of the pen which, as a result, may serve as a stimulus to awaken them from their dormant stage.

    Secondly, we do hope that the prize money will awaken the writers to do some outstanding work. These awards are going to be presented just before the Christmas holidays. What could be better than a prize for literary effort at Christmas time? Those that have a regular income from this particular branch have an opportunity to earn some extra money. We are going to make an effort to use the future work of the winners, and from time to time publish their work on a larger scale. Also, we will try to find an outlet for them in other papers.

    Every author, if he so desires, may have his name kept a secret until the contest is over, providing he places his name in a separate envelope with the same ...

    II B 2 d 1, II B 1 e, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 18, 1892
    St. Casimir Young Men's Club Celebrates its Fifth Anniversary

    Last night, the Young Men's Club of St. Casimir's Church celebrated the fifth anniversary of its organization at the Polish hall of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish. An evening of entertainment was given to the members and to the public as well. A variety program was presented, which included guest speakers, drama, music, and a resume of work accomplished.

    Noble Street was crowded with the members of this organization early in the evening. This demonstration of club members was positive proof that the anniversary affair was going to be a success. Many other people had also started to assemble. About 7:30 P. M., the various parochial military societies began to march to the accompaniment of a drum corps. Each military society was garbed in typical Polish costumes of the heroic soldier. They were followed by the members of the club, who marched gallantly like the Polish 2soldiers of Napoleonic times; following them came all the societies that were invited to participate in this affair.

    After the triumphal march, all the participants and visitors were seated in the spacious hall. John Paszkiewicz was elected president of the fifth anniversary of the society. He, in turn, nominated Ignac Machnikowski for secretary. J. Szczepanski, a member of the young men's society, opened the meeting in the following manner:

    "My Dear Friends: Five years have elapsed since the day of the origin of our club, whose foundations were laid several years before by the pastor of St. Stanislaus Kostka Church, Father Vincent Barzynski. Like the flow of the river that passes in its course green pastures, cultivated lands, and sandy plains, this organization has also passed through many stages and faced many barriers. At times, when the hardships were overcome, a little ray of sunshine would appear for a moment, but the clouds would soon approach and cover the glimmering sun, and they would be followed by storms. Then again a new day would be born and 3new hope would take root. The many stages did not spell failure, for each disappointment brought stronger determination, until the road to success was finally reached. We bring this out with pride and happiness.

    "The aim of the society is to further the development of morals, education, and a higher standard of living. Each member is instilled with patriotism toward his native country, familiarized with the historical background of Poland, and acquainted with her literature. We do not wish to brag too much about our accomplishments, but I will say that we do as much as lies within our power and as much as our spare time permits. I wish to take this opportunity to thank the clerical members of St. Stanislaus Parish for their invaluable support, and to thank the parishioners for their kind response to our various activities. Without this splendid co-operation we would long ago have failed in our purpose. It is this assistance that enables our organization to grow."

    After the applause had subsided, the outstanding singer of the church choir, J. Kondziarski, in his resonant bass voice, sang three verses of the well-known 4Polish number, "Smutnoz To Smutno, Bracia Za Dunajem". Quietness filled the auditorium as soon as the opening bars were sung, for the audience did not want to lose any of the richness of words and melody. At the completion of the song, the singer left the stage. The audience began to applaud, and no amount of persuasion could make them cease. The likable singer returned to the stage to acknowledge the applause, and graciously sang."With Us Life Is Rough", also in Polish. Again the audience enthusiastically applauded him.

    Francis Kiolbassa, the younger brother of City Treasurer Peter Kiolbassa, and one of the officers of Stensland's Bank, gave an oration on "Orden's Fortifications". (Julius Constantine Orden, 1810-1887, was a Polish army officer in 1831, and a great here.)

    The Nowicki brothers, directors of the orchestra, played as a clarinet duet a variation of R. Eilberg's "A Child's Soul". Their playing was received by the audience with enthusiasm; continued applause brought then out for an encore.


    Peter Kiolbassa was called onto the stand by the president of St. Casimir Young Men's Club to give a talk. He gladly accepted the invitation. The City Treasurer, an expert judge of American Poles, excused himself in his inimitable manner for not being prepared to give an interesting speech. These in attendance were net much concerned about this, because it is known that wherever he has spoken his words have been remembered long after the occasion. It is well known that his speeches are always full of life and overflow with sincerity, religion, and patriotism. It would be a heart of stone, indeed, that did not respond to his words. Mr. Kiolbassa, despite his modesty, has accomplished a great deal as a Pole in Chicago. May God give him the opportunity to continue his work for a long time to come.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Jan. 19, 1892.

    Peter Kiolbassa paid fine tribute in eloquent style to the fifth anniversary celebration of the Young Men's Club. He pointed with pride to the fine example of the society.


    "Great strides", he said, "have been made in the instruction of Polish history and folklore, and, what is more important, greater heights have been reached in the instruction of English. It is laudable of the parents to have their young man belong to this organization. Although these young people work hard for a living during the day, they work equally as hard in the evening to further the principles of their institution. Many of then support their mothers and fathers, and sometimes even younger brothers and sisters, yet they find a few spare hours to spend among volumes of Polish history and literature. In this manner, they lift the banner of our younger generation in Chicago to a better position. Their example ought to be followed by many of us. We ought to support such a noble cause.

    "Recreation after a day's work is a prime essential for mental and physical stability, but this recreation must be instructive, so that it will not bring any bad results. This is how the members of the club spend their free time. They look after the interests of the club with the same ardour as members of similar groups in the Poland of yesterday. Their work is done with such zeal 7that it sometimes surpasses the efforts of our older members.

    "However, among most of our younger generation there is a lack of esteem toward adults. There is also a lack of respect for the fair sex, honor and respect for which would bring a better understanding of the relations between the sexes. This would prove extremely advantageous, for out of it would come the development of praiseworthy manners. The parents should look after the behavior of their sons. When such things are uncovered, the boys should be reprimanded for their errors.

    "Young ladies should avoid the company of young men who do not have the manners of a gentleman. In this respect, with the co-operation of the parents and young women, a great deal can be done to enlarge the horizons of our boys. In the long run, they will nature into fine citizens, likable companions for our girls, and respectful husbands.

    "A youth having respect for everything that is Polish, learning Polish history 8and literature, and observing every religious oath with ardour, merits high admiration. A youth who believes in God and is loyal to the concepts of the church can be a fine Polish patriot.

    "The young men of St. Casimir's club fall into this category. This is why we lock upon them with confidence. When we leave these fields of life, it will be with calm minds, for our places are going to be filled by competent men. This is why we beast about this club, and why we boost it, because we feel that many, many more ought to belong to it. We would not only like to see another fifth anniversary, but also a fiftieth anniversary."

    Loud applause greeted Mr. Kiolbassa as he left the rostrum. Walter Dombek, a guest artist, was next on the program, and he acquitted himself admirably. He sang a beautiful song called "Anchored", with the spirit of a true artist. For an encore, he sang the memorable ballad, "The Hymn That Mother Sang".

    S. Ciwinski gave a reading which dealt, in popular style, with the entire life 9history of St. Casimir. He received a great ovation for his commendable reading. The applause for him would probably have continued even longer, had it not been for the announcement that the popular Miss Rose Kiolbassa was next on the program.

    Her interpretation of "Evening Star", from the German, which was sung in English, kept the entire audience spellbound. Her rendition was so well liked that she repeated it in Polish and then in English again.

    She was followed by J. Oszwaldlowski, who gave a recitation on the "Polish March". A musical background was supplied by the St. Stanislaus Kostka church choir, under the able direction of Mr. Kwasigroch.

    The church choir of mixed voices included the following feminine members:

    Miss Kwasigroch, Miss Constantine Kaminski, Miss W. Chlebowski, Miss Rose Stas, Miss Rosalie Siuda, Miss Mary Gorzynski, Miss Anna Nering, Miss Frances Jesska, 10Miss Pearl Werner, Miss Rose Kiolbassa, Miss Anna Borkowicz, Miss Julia Dominikowski, Miss Mary Czerwinski, Miss Leona Ekwinski, Miss Frances Switala, Miss Casimira Murkowski, Miss Ann Krysiak, and Miss Olenczak.

    The following male voices were also included:

    J. Kendzierski, Frank Kwasigroch, W. Dembek, Anthony Huntowski, John Nering, W. J. Jozwiakowski, F. Kinkel, J. Ogurek, and Jacob Mruczkowski.

    This choir of mixed voices sang several numbers after the completion of the recitation. The numbers were of typical Polish European atmosphere, and brought back memories to many in the audience. "The River of Our Village" was the outstanding number. It is needless to say that the director and the choir were given a great hand.

    W. J. Jozwiakowski, a member of the club noted for his many activities in the organization, spoke directly to the younger people in attendance. The orchestra 11then played a medley of Polish airs.

    It has been observed before, on other entertainment programs, that there was a lack of Polish melodies. This was one occasion where such was not the ease. The Nowicky brothers had made a varied arrangement of many of the outstanding Polish airs, much to the liking of all present. These melodies were well arranged, which pleased the many amateur singers who were accompanied by the orchestra. However, it must be pointed out that, although the entire performance was to be in Polish, some of the guest artists sang in English. Their musical repertoire was not as complete as that of the Nowicky brothers.

    This was the theme of the speech of Father Vincent Barzynski, pastor of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish. As he rose upon the rostrum, his countenance was filled with sadness. His opening words were equally sad.


    It was difficult for the pastor to talk on such a very delicate subject. But, once he began, he did not hesitate to speak the truth. His first words touched some members of the audience who have desired to hear more speeches of criticism in this direction. Many regretted that there were not more speakers who could speak so fluently in the native tongue about the Poles and Poland.

    The other part of the pastor's speech acted more like a soothing balm for the wounds inflicted upon our nationality by the many radicals, and suggested important steps to be taken as a cure for all these hardships.

    "This concerns", said the reverend speaker, "everyone of us vitally, and fills us with hope. One of the rays of hope within our circle is the grand work of the Young Man's Club of St. Casimir. These boys work hard to attain their objectives, in order to create more respect for our people. Unfortunately, we cannot say this about all of our young people in Chicago. We view this with sad hearts, because these youths are gradually dropping out of our circle, out of our nationality.


    "Today, there was a typical occurrence which confirms my statement. As a priest, it is my duty to go wherever my assistance is needed within the parish. As I was making a call, I met a group of boys and girls out in the streets who had no thought of attending this anniversary celebration here this evening, nor did they recall that this day was set aside to God, nor did they observe in their hearts the recent holiday ceremonies. To put it differently, what are they looking for--loitering in the streets, using a different language? Most certainly not the will of God, nor the respect of our people!

    "Thus--it is sad to reveal, but it must be done--our younger generation is gradually falling away from our ranks. Our younger generation is falling away, and it is primarily the fault of the parents.

    "It is sad for me to see that the ranks of St. Casimir Young Men's Club, the pearl of our parish, has so few within its ranks. Why are there so few? Because the parents do not encourage their children to join this fine organization. Parents should not, because of hardships, discourage their children from joining.


    Nevertheless, every step in the direction of fulfilling our love for our country is costing us a heavy price. It is becoming difficult to redeem the younger generation from its waywardness. Yet, if definite steps are not taken to remedy this situation, we will be faced with a serious problem. We will not be able to determine whether we are advancing, or merely existing, or dying out.

    "If we are dying out, let us expire in glory. Our work is that of martyrs, but this is not strange, for we are the offspring of martyred people. Our people have always withstood the most fearful onslaughts with the aid of the sign of the cross, although on the borderline between Asiatic and European countries. The cross is the symbol of martyrdom; consequently, our nation has struggled under trying conditions for freedom and recognition, in a struggle which was both against oppressor nations and against paganism. In this battle, our people did not have time to rest, and there was no spare time in which to develop intellectually, for the fathers of the nation were always on horseback, with saddles serving them as pillows. When they, in their idleness, began to seek rest without the sign of the cross--it was then that they began to fall.


    "As many times as the Polish people want to solve their problem worthily, as many times as they desire to become recognized, they must stand and upheld the banner of the cross and show that they are descendents of martyrdom. Therefore, upon the true flag of the Polish people there should always be found the sign of the cress.

    "If the Poles in Chicago were united, if they had regard and respect for their banners and the sign of the cress was found upon them, if they would solemnly observe all of their historical memories while they are trying to save their souls, there would be no split, no discord in our ranks, and our younger generation would not be falling away.

    "Alas! evil papers, sinful pastimes, and unfortunate imbibing are ruining our younger generation and also our older members. Great responsibility rests upon the shoulders of those who permit themselves to be seduced by these papers, the words of which are food for the mad, if not for the vile.


    "But, thank God, the majority of Poles in Chicago have not forsaken Polish ideals; therefore we have hopes. Our young people have surpassed us in some of our fields. There is hope from this source--their example will recruit many of the younger people into their ranks.

    "Our older people never knew freedom, for they were constantly being stepped on by other nations. In the schools established by the hostile countries, Polish literature and history were forbidden. Our younger generation in this country today has a better opportunity to know Poland, if we could only give it proper impetus.....The St. Casimir Young Men's Club has such potentialities.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Jan. 21, 1892.

    "Although we are far away from our country--primarily because of this--it would be disgraceful to forget our obligations to our native land. Our own parish here should serve as an example. It is the largest in Chicago, perhaps the largest in the United States. We are making every effort possible against the 17opposition that comes from all sides. The young men of St. Casimir's Club are doing a splendid and untiring job in this direction. Although they must earn a living during the day, and support their families, yet they find time to continue in this field of Polish endeavor. If we follow their example, God will give us victory.

    "If a comparison of the history of Poland is made with that of other countries, it will be seen that her history, although not always noble, is by far the richest. Yet for all our historical accomplishments we were delivered to the will of the Muscovites by France and Germany, and for our struggles for freedom we have been mercilessly treated.

    "During his holy lifetime, St. Casimir had foreseen the early ruin of Poland, and perhaps that is why he did not want to wear the crown of Poland. He had foreseen the evil that spread over the country. But the source of this evil was not found amid our people, but in the German religious papers and French liberal papers. Instead of accepting these stories so easily, the Poles should 18have long before stood by their own religious faith, just as our boys of St. Casimir's Club are doing. This would have been the best means of protection from political and religious decay.

    "Therefore, the parents of our parish ought to make a strong effort to have their children join this organization.

    "Unfortunately, our younger generation does not wish to burden itself with religious and patriotic duties, but desires instead to be free. It desires the freedom which we here in America are enjoying to the fullest extent. But there is as great a differences between good and bad freedom as there is between good and evil, between Heaven and Hell, between a good patriot and a bad one.

    "Our patriotism should be as perfect as possible, and should be supported by religion, for this was the kind of patriotism our fathers upheld. If our patriotism is of this sort, we will withstand all adversities and patiently endure all sufferings. We are all suffering, and our brothers in Europe are 19suffering even mere. Yet, no matter what burdens the czar heaps upon them, they do not give themselves up to him.

    "We ought to bear the pain for the faults of our fathers, for a good son pays the debts of his father. We ought to suffer also for our own faults. If we suffer together, we will all weather the storm, and a brighter horizon will be curs forever."

    The ovation that Father Barzynski received exceeded that accorded to any other artist or speaker of the evening. Following the speech, the orchestra played several traditional Polish tunes.

    A one-act drama, played by fifteen male actors, and arranged by our young poet, Szczesny Zahajkiewicz, was the final presentation of the evening. Outstanding performances were given by Anthony Huntowski and R. Szajkowski. Huntowski portrayed the role of "Kuba" with notable ability. "Kuba" was a Polish 20character who never had enough time between drinks to study the history and culture of Poland, or become familiar with the great names of Poland. In spite of this, the tradition of his native country was deeply rooted within him, for he displayed great indignation whenever his partner, "John," discredited anything Polish, or whenever he praised anything other than Polish.

    The author has well brought out in this short play the Polish-American youth, which has shed completely the native culture of its fathers, and has put on ways unnatural to its origin. As a contrast to this kind of character, the author has introduced in another role the youth of St. Casimir's Club, ably portrayed by Mr. Jozwiakowski. It was he who instructed "Kuba" and "John", and showed them the way to reading the history and literature of Poland. It was he, as a representative of this society, who taught these two and their colleagues what great men Poland has given to the world, and gave them an example of the wayward youth that followed the teachings of radicalism.

    This short but instructive and interesting play, concluded the entertainment of 21the fifth anniversary of St. Casimir Young Men's Club. The entire audience was moved to the roots of their souls by this grand performance of Polish-American youth. It wished these young men a continued success in their work, a continuation of happiness throughout all their efforts, and, finally, not only a tenth anniversary, but a fiftieth, plus an ever increasing membership.

    Signed: Ignac Machnikowski,

    Secretary of the Entertainment

    Last night, the Young Men's Club of St. Casimir's Church celebrated the fifth anniversary of its organization at the Polish hall of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish. An evening of entertainment ...

    III E, II B 1 c 1, II B 1 a, II B 1 e, I B 3 b, III B 2, III H, III A, III C, I K, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- June 02, 1892
    [Role of the Polish Newspaper] (Editorial)

    The author of this article, in reviewing some of the Polish-American newspapers which pose as having a pretext of leadership over the others, has frequently read the bombastic phrase: "Education of the people." Every editor who takes over a newspaper makes the most lengthy comments on the need of reformation in our press. He accuses his colleagues of lack of qualification, charges them with inconsistency, ill will and the like. He, himself, on the other hand, promises constant adherence to an avowed course, and promises to extend his efforts only in behalf of the American people. This praiseworthy attitude, however, soon undergoes a change. The highly enthusiastic editor fails to fulfill his administrative oath, which was solemnized by the words--"so help me God." He more often selects the different paths leading to money. Enlightenment is then set aside as being inopportune. The newspaper finally becomes a mere copy of the other papers, differing only in name.


    By reading only one of our Polish-American newspapers, one can truthfully say that one has read them all. And what about the promises? How many Polish-American newspapers are there in America? True, there are a score of them, but have any of them kept within the scope of their assigned sphere of action? The personal ambitions, greed, and desire for a sudden amassing of wealth, like weeds, smother the mere budding of the good intentions of the vigorous crusader. In a Don Quixotic fashion, he begins to war with windmills and works to the detriment instead of the welfare of this countrymen.

    What, then, can the besmirching of the private lives of our scholars and their past create? What gain can accrue from the differences of other people or from the arguments of the editors, which, at times, occupy several lengthy and expensive columns? Of what benefit can these be to others? There are people of good will among the Poles, who endeavor to fulfill their obligations conscientiously. These, however, are few in number. The news of their efforts is lost in spacious columns dedicated to the results of administrative elections, meetings, announcements of societies and the like, or, what is even worse, to a 3comical (if not painful) game of reciprocal face slapping by the "knights of the pen."

    Gentlemen! I am not, in truth, a literary person by vocation, and much less an editor or an aspirant for that position (I assure you of this, on my word of honor). As a person of a little more foresight, I note and state that you are far from the goal toward which it is your duty to aspire. Cease your private arguments. Set aside your self-love and personal ego. Don't work merely for money or glory, but with a view that your efforts may be beneficial to the people. It is time to terminate your scandalous antics. Cease making the other the greater sinner that you may appear "whiter." Give greater care to the selection of this mental food which can be either poison or health-giving medicine to the people. You gentlemen have combined in some type of an organization, but to me it seems to be ineffective. That is unfortunate. This union would be good and greatly beneficial, providing it did not end in factionalism. We have had enough of this! If such union does exist, then we will heartily exclaim: "long may it live!".


    Although unasked, for once I have taken it upon myself to give counsel--I cannot, however, omit one further statement. Everyone will admit that the Dziennik Chicagoski and the Faith and Fatherland are the two newspapers closest to the Polish-American ideals. The more wholesome work and conscientious administration of these two papers are deserving of recognition. Although there are people of ill will who would obstruct our activity, they should be disregarded in their outbursts of jealousy and personal unwillingness, while the good work should continue to progress. These two newspapers serve so great and so holy a cause that they cannot and should not deviate from their once chosen course merely to satisfy individuals. Thus far, they are the leaders among the Polish-American newspapers. They should not work only with a view toward material profit but also for the benefit of its readers. Believe me, if the writings of J. Verne were not interesting, the works of Kraszewski, the poems of Mickiewicz and many other Polish authors would bring greater reward. Nature studies, the discussion of old inventions and the noting of new discoveries, with particular reference to those of Polish origin, would be more desirable than a list of the societies of some particular faction. Thus my advice is: increase the scope of your educational work as much as possible; in 5your columns under the heading of "Feuilleton," print the works of our authors and do not order the annihilation of those articles. These two departments--"Feuilleton" and educational topics--should be printed in supplements so that a collection of them could be bound and preserved.

    I trust that you gentlemen will accept this counsel in a favorable light since it comes from the heart of a well-wishing individual, from one who allows himself the liberty to offer you advice. This he does because, on several occasions, he has investigated the opinions and views of others regarding this matter.

    I conclude with the words: "Let not my plea remain as the voice of one calling in the wilderness.".

    A Doctor of Medicine.


    (This newspaper has submitted the above correspondence without change, thereby indicating that it is ever attentive to the voice of its readers and is not antagonistic to criticism. It does, however, reserve the right to recommend to the author that he listen first to many voices that he may later be in a better position to give a proper decision. We hear these voices frequently. There are many readers who prefer political articles; others, again, desire information from their mother country; still others, favor brief local news, etc.. The newspaper must endeavor, as much as possible, to satisfy all its readers and it, therefore, cannot dedicate all its space to educational articles. When the Dziennik Chicagoski becomes sufficiently developed to be on a par with the English type of newspaper then sufficient space will be found for everything.

    Verne's story has been printed in this newspaper upon the direct request of its readers. The original Polish tales, such as: "The Tomb's Cross" (Krzyz Mogilny), "The Gray Dust" (Szary Proch), and others, have been printed in the Dziennik Chicagoski at some previous date. As soon as the Verne serial is completed, this newspaper will begin to publish the already prepared work of Boleslawits, entitled: "The Wanderers.")

    The author of this article, in reviewing some of the Polish-American newspapers which pose as having a pretext of leadership over the others, has frequently read the bombastic phrase: "Education ...

    II B 2 d 1, II B 1 e, I A 3, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- June 08, 1892
    [The Dziennik Chicagoski Postpones its Contest] (Editorial)

    A contest for the best articles of the year 1892 was published last December in the Dziennik Chicagoski. A total award of $100 was appropriated for that purpose.

    This project, however, has met with little success, although half a year has already passed since the announcement. Thus far only two articles have been submitted and these were sent in during the first month of the competition. It had been the newspaper's wish to obtain as many compositions as possible. The paper reserved the right to withhold the decision until a definite, minimum amount of work was presented. Since thus far the prospective authors have been insufficiently interested, the fear arises that a sudden outburst of articles during the last days of the contest would make it impossible for the Dziennik Chicagoski to handle the matter adequately. Finally, many voluntary contributions, not intended for the above-mentioned contest, have been sent in. Because of all this, the sponsor has decided to recall his original plan 2and substitute something else in its stead.

    The Dziennik Chicagoski hereby gives notice of the postponement of the contest until some future time. Instead it will offer some remuneration to the authors who have entered the competition. It must be admitted, however, that this compensation will be meager. The amount of the payments is not made known, nor is it to be considered fixed. It is a known fact that not every article possesses the same quality, and hence does not deserve a uniform award. There are authors who do not wish to be paid for their efforts. Then there are articles that are more valuable and some that are less valuable--therefore, the compensation should be proportionate. Finally, there are creations that are worthless and, naturally, no award could be expected for them.

    The amount of the remuneration will depend upon the agreement made between the 3author of the submitted work and the editor of the Dziennik Chicagoski. The newspaper also asks the authors to stipulate, at the time their work is sent in for publication, the amount of pay desired.

    A contest for the best articles of the year 1892 was published last December in the Dziennik Chicagoski. A total award of $100 was appropriated for that purpose. This project, ...

    II B 2 d 1, II B 1 e
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 30, 1892
    "The Fern Flower" or "A Night of Enchantment"

    In writing his latest play for the amateur stage, [Szczesny] Zahajkiewicz was evidently in his native element. It presents a beautiful theme, the virtues of which are a high moral lesson, a merry presentation of a very serious thought, and the play's poetic air. At the same time, it contains no impossible situations, no illogical sequences, and no mix-up of time, place, or subject. Everyone in amateur theatricals will welcome this play as soon as he becomes acquainted with it.

    The plot concerns a group of students, colleagues of Louis, whom they like very much. They are much distressed by the fact that Louis, having taken seriously some fables about witches, fortune-tellers, ghosts, and so on, has begun to fall behind in his studies. He no longer joins them in their amusements, and in general seems to have become apathetic, drifting into a state of disinterestedness because of this temporary mental affliction. They decide to cure him, and with the idea of "knocking out a wedge with a 2wedge", Walter, one of the students, arranges for a little comedy in the woods, which he hopes will cure his friend. He tells Louis about St. John's Night, and about the flower of the fern, which he can pluck with the help of a witch and the "king of the underworld". Believing all this, Louis goes to the forest in order to pluck this much-prized flower, which is to guarantee him fame and fortune. With this, the curtain falls on the first scene.

    Louis' friends all hide in the forest, impersonating spirits, monsters, and the "king of the underworld", while the sister of one of them agrees to be a witch. They complete the effect by burning strong incense, so that Louis will not suspect their cunning trick. In a poetic and amusing scene, the "king of the underworld", after testing Louis in various ways, finally promises to give him the flower on St. John's Night the following year, on the condition that during this year, Louis will earn this good fortune by diligent work and exemplary conduct, for happiness can be achieved only through work and virtue.


    A year passes between the second and third scene. The third scene takes place in the same forest. Louis is to receive the flower of the fern that was promised him. From his friends, we learn that during the intervening year Louis has exceeded all of the other students in diligence. He has changed thoroughly--and for the better. His friends are fearful, however, that he will be angry because of their trick, and so it is with misgivings that they await his arrival. Their fears are short-lived. Louis appears, and from his lips we learn that he no longer wants the flower of the fern. He has learned the value of virtue and work, and in them sees the greatest happiness. Happiness without work offers no attraction. He even rather suspects that his friends had played a prank on him, for the lesson has taught him to think. The witch appears, just as before. By her voice, Louis recognizes his friend's sister Anne, but does not let her see that he knows her; a monster appears, and Louis recognizes him also. Finally, the rest of his friends appear, and Louis is told of the trick they have played upon him. Greatly moved, Louis thanks his friends for the lesson they have taught him--that real happiness 4on earth can be had only through hard work and virtuous living.

    We consider this play one of Mr. Zahajkiewicz's finest creations--even though the author himself may be of a different opinion--and we sincerely recommend that he continues to work in this field. This is the native element for his talent in dramatic writing.

    In writing his latest play for the amateur stage, [Szczesny] Zahajkiewicz was evidently in his native element. It presents a beautiful theme, the virtues of which are a high moral ...

    II B 1 e, II B 1 c 1, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 05, 1893
    The St. Stanislaus Society

    It was decided at yesterday's meeting of the St. Stanislaus [Youth] Society that a ten-cent fine would be paid by each member for every absence from meetings, unless the absence was unavoidable.

    After the regular business of the meeting had been disposed of, Ignatius Bogucki gave reports on several books he had read. Following him, Stephen Kwiatkowski gave an excellent book report, earning thereby the praise of the president and the applause of the members. Paul Blaszkowski's recitation of a poem was also good.

    The Society's president next addressed the meeting, explaining the manner in which Polish books ought to be read in order that the reader should gain the utmost good from them. He encouraged the members to write down passages from the books they read in order that these could be repeated at meetings.

    Although the Society has existed for only three months, a check proved that only 2three members have as yet failed to make use of the parish library. All others have been reading zealously, learning poems and acquainting themselves with Polish history.

    Every young man [of Polish descent] ought to belong to some such organization.

    It was decided at yesterday's meeting of the St. Stanislaus [Youth] Society that a ten-cent fine would be paid by each member for every absence from meetings, unless the absence ...

    III E, II B 2 a, II B 1 e, III C