The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Zgoda -- December 10, 1890
    Proclamation to National Societies in Chicago

    Dear Fellow Citizens:

    About ten years ago the Harmony Society of Chicago sent notice that in order to preserve the language of our forefathers they demanded the building of a Polish library.

    The Harmony Society sent letters to all Polish societies and organizations to join with us, to help support, upkeep and to enrich this library. Only few societies were interested in this undertaking. They donated money and elected the officers. In their constitution they resolved that this library be made free to all our fellow citizens, and to the Polish people interested in supporting a library of this kind. In a short time whether due to lack of money or for other reasons the societies withdrew, leaving the upkeep of this library upon the shoulders of the Harmony Society, and the Society of Teachers. Shortly afterwards the Society of Teachers withdrew, leaving the Harmony Society the sole means of support for this library. The kind of support given this library by our society in the last few years can be ascertained by examing our books. The newest and best books obtainable written by prominent Polish poets and writers can also be obtained from the secretary. Today the library numbers nearly 1,500 volumes.

    2

    To this day the library is and will continue to be the property of the Harmony Society. There is a clause in the constitution stating that when times are better and the people show more interest in supporting an institution of this kind, the Harmony Society will permit other Polish societies to join and help enlarge and enrich this library.

    In the last ten years since this library was established, many new societies were organized which could help continue this library. Even the P. N. A. at the last meeting, held in November has taken steps with the aid of the Harmony Society, to open its own Polish library.

    For nearly one hundred thousand Polish people in our city, we should have at least one good library in a beautiful building, with books of the best and highest quality. But one society such as the Harmony, cannot take care of so great an undertaking. Therefore we are asking you with the permission of the officers. Do you, dear fellow citizens, want to work hand in hand in supporting, upkeeping and enriching the Polish library in Chicago? Do you want to take care of it, own it and add to the financial needs of this library? The cost of the upkeep is not very high. It is up to you to donate whatever you can. We suggest that each society interested in this send two or three delegates to the special meeting to be held Sunday evening, January 11,1891 at Nalepinski's Hall.

    3

    There it can be decided whether the societies are in favor of one big library or whether each society will organize and maintain a library of their own.

    At this meeting a new constitution will be written to be used by all libraries whether united as one or under their own separate ownership. A central group of officers will be elected, a librarian or librarians to be selected from the best men obtainable, through the aid and votes of all the present delegates. All delegates chosen to represent their group, please be present.

    Harmony Society of Chicago

    M. Rzeszotarski, President

    J. Olbinski, Secretary

    Dear Fellow Citizens: About ten years ago the Harmony Society of Chicago sent notice that in order to preserve the language of our forefathers they demanded the building of a ...

    Polish
    III B 2, II B 2 a, II B 1 d
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 04, 1892
    Continuation of the Polish "Filaretow" Society Written by Helen Sawicki (First article printed in January 2, 1892 issue.)

    Through these worthy efforts, those who were willing to learn, both young and old, were lifted from the path of ignorance. However, this did not continue for long. This youthful movement for liberty was soon put to a stop by the Russian government, yet the seed of fraternity was well scattered.

    Soon after a reorganization took place in Thomas Zan's ranks, and a new order was founded. This time it took on the name of "Filaretow" (Lovers of Virtue). This new body undertook the same platform of the former society, nevertheless there were a few changes. A new unit was added, bearing the name "Lovers of Education." At the beginning, there were only seven virtues, but this figure reached twenty later.

    2

    The "Lovers of Virtue" were headed by the following: Thomas Zan, John Czeczot, Adam Michiewicz, Onufry Pietrowicz, Ignacy Domejko, and several other outstanding Polish notables. This new organ carried the banner of the previous one, but its doors were guarded with secrecy. This was done in order to avoid interference of the university and government. Whoever could pay, contributed a monthly fee, which amounted to about two and a half dollars in American money. These dues were converted into many useful means. Books were purchased, a reading room was kept, and many other incidentals were bought.

    This organization was composed of groups. Each group met separately. At the head of each was a president, secretary, and treasurer. There was a circle of lawyers, authors, mathematicians, medical authorities, etc. The election of officers was open, and those that received the most votes were 3chosen for the respective offices. Each group held separate meetings at which the by-laws were read, the progress discussed, and plans for future programs were made out. At times, delegates from other units were invited. These representatives would tell of their work. During these sessions, the members would not only be instructed in the art of rhetoric, but open discussions were held and vital subjects were frequently presented. Exact interpretations of what went on were given. Public speaking was practiced to a great degree.

    Besides these educational and instructive gatherings, parties of a social nature were held. Various affairs were held at which singing, reading, drama, and speech were given an open range. There were also annual Maytime festivals. These parties served a twofold purpose. They not only enlightened the burden of the hard work, but also instilled gaiety and friendship.

    4

    Several organizers of this organ were responsible for these social functions. The backbone was composed of Thomas Zan, John Czeczot, A. Michiewicz, and Mr. Wolowicz (no first name given). Zan represented beauty and morality over which he exerted great influence for he had high respect for his office, and his zeal for these virtues was limitless. Mr. Czeczot was the agent of sincerity and happiness. Brotherhood was representative of Mr. Wolowicz. A. Mickiewicz, one of the later prophets of the people, brightened and added life to the parties by his songs and his poems. Oratory and poetry were under his banner. He devoted his entire life to help his people. He wrote many verses primarily to bolster the spirit of his brothers. These poems in turn were memorized by many, and passed by word of mouth to others. One of the many poems written by him is the following, which reflects the spirit of the organization he so devotedly worked for:

    5

    Let your eyes with gladness shine,

    And garlands of joy cover you,

    And in new hope entwine,

    For we are friends - one and two,

    One for all and all for you.

    Lift your poor heart from sorrow

    Fill up with hope and glory -

    Holy this will be tomorrow;

    Pride, greed, and luxury

    Sweep it away in hurry.

    6

    This you should gladly do:

    For our people guard the life

    Of learning and of virtue

    At home, at work, or in strife;

    And keep it sharp as a knife!

    Be sure that this in your mem'ry stays:

    Your people --- learning and virtue --- always!

    All of the flowering youth of the University of Vilno gave itself to the purpose of this brotherhood. They studied and passed on what they have been taught to others. The shroud of greed, hatred, and selfishness, was gradually shed through this brotherly atmosphere. Many individuals, after grasping the full purpose of this noble fraternity, devoted all of their 7lives to furthering its cause. They realized that through the education of the masses to the conditions, the Poland of yesterday could only be restored.

    Propriety and decorum reigned throughout every unit. A watchful eye was kept on those that did not regard the by-laws to the fullest extent. Those that lost interest or were endangering the cause were expelled. This was generally considered a disgrace. Through cooperation, all of the spare time of the members was used to a good advantage.

    It was believed that through more strict reorganization the continuance of the fraternity would be possible. However, this budding flower did not get an opportunity to come to full bloom. The despotic government cut down its growing stem once again. When all the units of the central organ were forbidden, all of the books of the organization were destroyed, and its members 8scattered over the entire country. These actions did not stop their mistreatment by the Russians. Despite persecution, this society existed in the hearts of every member.

    In the junior year group at the Vilno University, Michael Plater wrote on the blackboard of his classroom: "Let the constitution of the third of May live." This was more or less a child's prank, yet it was taken as a sign of revolution by the Russians. The right hand men of Constantine, the Russian Tsar in Warsaw, began an investigation concerning this matter at the University. The investigators seized a student by the name of Jankowski, who tried to get into Warsaw through a false passport. Jankowski was a former student of the "Filaretow" Society, but was expelled for his lack of interest. A thorough search of his belongings revealed a pamphlet of the by-laws of the organization. Although he was 9under oath never to reveal any of its secrets, Jankowski, under pressure and with the promise of freedom, told everything he knew. After this, followed a general purge of the already crumbled fraternity. Riots and unjust violences prevailed.

    Further persecutions of those connected with this organ can be found in the third part of Michiewicz's poem, the "Beggers" or "Dziadow."

    This is the history of the origin of the "Filaretow" society. To us, they represent a great symbol of respect, our ideals. For at the present time, we are existing amidst trying conditions. It is difficult for us to uphold these ideals while we are struggling to earn our daily bread. But these traditions that have been brought with us to this country still flourish..... We must remember that there are many of our people abroad that would gladly 10leave their forced drudgery, but cannot because the hope and strength of their struggle has been sapped. They would gladly leave the soil to which they are imprisoned, but have no opportunity to leave. Though this has been true for over a hundred years, the fight for liberty is still being waged.....Although we are in a free country, we are facing many obstacles. Our struggle to be classed on the same level with the other people here is very great, and can be compared with the hardships of those young people that organized the society of "Filaretow" many years ago.

    We are facing new problems here. It is for our own good that we organize and educate our people so that they can orient themselves to their new surroundings. We can take up the banner of the "Lovers of Virtue" here without any fear and blaze a trail for our people. Only through organization and work can we accomplish these aims. The curtain of ignorance can be substituted for one of culture.

    11

    The purpose of the first public meeting at this society here is to restore hope in our once oppressed people. Plans, platforms, and programs, were discussed openly, and an outline of activity was adopted. Therefore, in order to restore hope and position in our people, we must get to work and organize.

    Through these worthy efforts, those who were willing to learn, both young and old, were lifted from the path of ignorance. However, this did not continue for long. This youthful ...

    Polish
    II B 1 d, II B 1 e, II B 2 g, III B 2, I C, I E, I H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 23, 1892
    Twenty-Six New Members Added to St. Casimir Young Men's Club

    Twenty-six new members have been added to the ever growing St. Casimir Young Men's Club, according to an official announcement made at the quarterly meeting last week. During the past few months, the society has gained more recognition, patronage, and members, than in any preceding months. The spirit of the Polish Catholic groups is awakening and they are becoming more interested in Polish Catholic organizations.

    March 4 marked the anniversary of the St. Casimir. In memory of this patron of the society, a special religious ceremony was held for the members at St. Stanislaus Kostki's Church in the evening. Prayer, songs, and lectures, were a part of the rituals.

    2

    A Cultural Committee constantly plans programs of interest which enrich the members in traditional, historical, and literary knowledge of the Polish people.

    Every Polish Catholic young man past his sixteenth year can become a member of this organization. Entrance fee is two dollars, and regular monthly fees are twenty-five cents. Besides giving assistance in case of sickness, mishap, and death, the club offers many educational advantages to its members.

    Julius Szczepanski, president.

    Twenty-six new members have been added to the ever growing St. Casimir Young Men's Club, according to an official announcement made at the quarterly meeting last week. During the past ...

    Polish
    III E, II B 1 d, II D 2
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 11, 1892
    Polish Activities

    The Henryk Sienkiewicz Literary Circle was organized last Sunday, August 7. The officers of the new Circle are G. T. Kozlowski, president; M. Haremski, vice-president; H. Haremski, recording secretary; J. Lipinski, treasurer; Jalek, sergeant at arms; M. Kaczmarek, editor; and Kniola, assistant editor. Meetings are held every second and fourth Sunday of the month. The next meeting will be held on the fourteenth of this month, at 8 P.M., in the Temple hall, corner of Blue Island Avenue and Twelfth Street.

    The Henryk Sienkiewicz Literary Circle was organized last Sunday, August 7. The officers of the new Circle are G. T. Kozlowski, president; M. Haremski, vice-president; H. Haremski, recording secretary; J. ...

    Polish
    II B 1 d, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 27, 1893
    Polish Literary and Educational Foundation

    Mr. Sigmund Slupski, who resides at present in Chicago, has originated the idea of creating a fund to support a new Polish institution. Such an institution as he contemplates could provide a material impulse to our cultural advancement. The project is well on the way toward realization. It is to be a fund having for its aim the establishment of Polish literary and scientific competitions. Thus, competitions will be established in writing of short stories, novels, satires, plays, and scientific treatises. They are to be written in Polish, using Polish-American life as a background.

    It is needless to say that an idea of this sort, handled intelligently, can do much to stimulate thought among our Polish-Americans. While the number of representatives of the Polish intelligentsia in America is small, even in this group it could create new impetus and possibly bring new talent forward. On the other hand, such works could give the people of Poland a much more accurate picture of conditions here than that which mere newspaper accounts give them. The only problem, then, is to establish the fund.

    2

    Mr. Slupski assures us that definite progress has already been made in this direction. Our famed artist Mr. Paderewski has offered three hundred dollars to start the fund, and Mr. W. Dyniewicz, publisher of the Polish Gazette, has offered one hundred dollars. It is hoped that further contributions will be made by the public, and that the fund will be increased later by profits made from the publication of prize winning works. Further, dramatic societies presenting stage plays will be expected to set aside a percentage of their receipts for this fund. In consideration, such societies will be permitted to present, free of charge, plays that receive awards in the competition.

    The headquarters of the foundation is to be in Chicago. The foundation will be directed by a committee consisting of Peter Kiolbassa, M. Labuy, M. Drzemala, J. H. Xelowski, and Sigmund Slupski. New judges will be named every time a separate competition is announced, and final judgment will probably be passed in Poland, in Krakow or Lwow.

    In a short time, further details will be made public by the committee.

    Mr. Sigmund Slupski, who resides at present in Chicago, has originated the idea of creating a fund to support a new Polish institution. Such an institution as he contemplates could ...

    Polish
    II B 1 d, I A 1 a, III H, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- June 03, 1893
    The Polish Foundation for Literary Competition

    We have already written of the creation of a fund for literary competition. We have the pleasure of informing our readers now that this plan has taken definite shape. The foundation has been organized and announcement of the first competition appears below.

    "Announcement of the Competition Committee

    "This announcement is addressed to our countrymen in general and particularly to Polish societies, especially dramatic societies or such societies as present theatrical performances.

    "No one can deny that literature, if it is to perform its entire duty, must present a faithful picture of the life of a given element of society. We American Poles have already ceased to recognize ourselves among the types appearing in the contemporary literature of our homeland. Living as we do 2in another hemisphere, under different political, economic, sociological, and even climatic conditions, our general character has changed to a certain extent. So have our habits of thought changed, our manners and customs, even our language, which has acquired new virtues and new faults. Thus, the literature of our homeland is no longer adequate, and a real need arises for the creation of our own literature, based upon the lives of our countrymen here in America. Such a literature will constitute a school that will teach a greater love for drama and books, at the same time giving our brethren across the sea a better opportunity of acquainting themselves with us, thus strengthening the bonds between ourselves and our homeland.

    "But is it possible to create a literature of our own under present conditions? Do we have the requisite literary talent? Indubitably. There are a great many talented people among us who could work profitably in this field. Unfortunately, in the constant struggle for existence, they cannot devote their time to anything in which there is no hope for material gain. We say "no hope" because there is practically no market here for original 3literary work; therefore nobody attempts to write.

    "There is only one remedy for such a state of affairs: a prize competition. The hope of winning a money award will undoubtedly prove a stimulus for those who have any ability in this field.

    "Accordingly, a competition committee has been organized, consisting of M. Drzemala, chairman, Sigmund Slupski, secretary, Peter Kiolbassa, treasurer, J. Xelowski, and M. La Buy.

    "The committee has already acquired the necessary funds for a start and it hopes that with the proper support of the public, it will be able to announce two competitions yearly in novels, short stories, or satires, or in playwriting dealing with Polish-American life, perhaps even in scientific discourses on subjects of general interest to American Polonia.

    "The committee, therefore, having demonstrated the usefulness of the task 4it has undertaken, appeals to the public in general and especially to societies and dramatic organizations. A contribution by the last-named in particular may prove something of an investment, for the public will no doubt hasten to view prize-winning plays, thereby bringing profit to the theater. Only such societies as make voluntary contributions to the Foundation will be permitted to produce prize-winning plays; independently of initial contributions, each society will be required to pledge a certain percentage of its receipts from every performance to the fund. This percentage may not be less than two dollars, and when a given society has contributed a total of ten dollars, it will be permitted to produce the play that wins first prize. A total of six dollars in percentages will entitle the society to produce the second prize play, four dollars, the third. Societies which make no initial contributions, however, will be given the privilege of producing prize plays only upon payment of thirty, eighteen, and twelve dollars, respectively. The plays will be copyrighted and will remain the property of the Foundation.

    "Aside from the above payments, the committee will accept gratefully all 5contributions that private individuals or societies may wish to make. These will be publicly recognized in the Foundation's semi-annual financial statements, to be published in at least two Polish newspapers in America. At present, the treasury contains four hundred dollars in cash.

    "Each competition will be designated by the name of a famous Pole, whenever possible, by the name of a famous Pole in exile. Since the 350th anniversary of the publication of Copernicus' epoch-making discoveries and of his death falls this year, the first competition will bear the name of Nicholas Copernicus.

    "In order that the next competition may be announced as soon as possible, the committee asks that all societies wishing to participate, respond immediately. All communications should be addressed to the secretary of the committee, Sigmund Slupski, 207 West Madison Street, Chicago, Illinois.

    6

    "The Nicholas Copernicus Literary Competition For American Poles

    (Conditions)

    "Inasmuch as the purpose of this competition is the development of local literary talent, only such entries will be accepted as are submitted by authors who have lived in the United States for the last two years. Those who have arrived here later than two years ago may compete only for honorable mention.

    "Only short novels, satires, and human interest stories between one and two thousand forty-letter lines [10,000-15,000 words] in length, based on Polish-American life, will be accepted. Entries will not be judged by their length, and must be within the prescribed limits.

    "There will be three money awards, namely: first prize, $100; second prize, $75; third prize, $30.

    7

    "Every manuscript ought to carry a special mark or number besides its title. This same mark or number should appear on a sealed envelope, included with the manuscript, which will contain the author's name and address. These envelopes will be opened only in the event that a manuscript is awarded a prize. The names of all authors who do not receive prizes will remain secret. Manuscripts will be returned to their owners upon proper identification. To facilitate return of a manuscript, a mark of identification known only to the author and to the secretary of the committee should appear on the envelope. Every author should designate on this sealed envelope whether he desires the judges to be chosen from amongst American Poles or from amongst well-known literary men in Poland, that is, Cracow. Final decision on this question has been left to the authors themselves, who are, after all, most concerned. The will of the majority will prevail.

    "Illegible manuscripts will not be accepted. All manuscripts not receiving awards that are not called for within two months of the date on which results of the competition are announced, will either be destroyed together 8with the accompanying envelopes, or placed in the Museum.

    "Prizes will be awarded three months from the date on which results are announced. This is necessary in order that the judges have time to discover any possible plagiarism. If it should happen that an award is not called for within three months of this date, the money will be returned to the Foundation and the author will lose all rights to his work; the work will be the property of the committee. The rights to all other works that receive prizes will remain with the authors, and the committee will even endeavor to find a publisher for them.

    "Manuscripts must be submitted to the secretary of the committee and must be postmarked before September 1, 1893. The committee will not be responsible for any unregistered material.

    M. Drzemala, president.

    Sigmund Slupski, secretary.

    Address: 207 W. Madison Street. Chicago."

    9

    Dziennik [Chicagoski] will return to a discussion of this competition in a later issue with a number of appropriate suggestions.

    We have already written of the creation of a fund for literary competition. We have the pleasure of informing our readers now that this plan has taken definite shape. The ...

    Polish
    II B 1 e, II B 1 d, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 28, 1894
    Polish Young Ladies' Educational Club Gives Reception

    Last Sunday the Polish Young Ladies' Educational Club gave a reception, which was a great success not only because the attendance was large but also because the public was pleased. The wife of Dr. Lande delighted the audience with her piano selections, and Dr. Janczewski thrilled everyone, carrying us upward with the tones of his violin. Listening to his music made us forget the troubles of this world. Such moments are rare, most uplifting. No wonder that the public was charmed. There was also a lecture and several recitations.

    The next two receptions of the Club will be held on March 4 and 11. If they turn out as successful as this one, then we may count on another donation for the Polish hospital, a donation that will come straight from the heart.

    Last Sunday the Polish Young Ladies' Educational Club gave a reception, which was a great success not only because the attendance was large but also because the public was pleased. ...

    Polish
    II B 1 d, II B 1 a, II D 3
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 30, 1895
    Dramatic and Literary Circle Organized at Bridgeport

    A meeting of loading Polish citizens of Bridgeport was held on January 25 at L. Czeslawski's Hall for the purpose of organizing a club to promote education among the Poles. After a long discussion, it was agreed to found such an organization, which will be called the "Dramatic and Literary Circle". The club will organize a library, arrange lectures, present plays, offer training in singing and music, etc.

    In order to give everyone an opportunity to join, the initiation fee has been set at fifty cents. Since the realization of the aims of the Circle requires the expenditure of large sums of money, the administration appeals to the Polish people, especially those in Bridgeport, to support the programs sponsored by the club. It would not be fair to demand large dues from the thirty members now in the Circle, and that is why this appeal is made. Moral and material help, as well as contributions of books, 2will be greatly appreciated. The books will be used in the proposed library, and the names of the donors will be published in the Polish press.

    The Dramatic and Literary Circle will welcome any suggestions as to how it may best serve the Polish people. Everyone knows the good such an organization can accomplish for the people.

    The next meeting will be held on February 1, 7:30 P. M., at Czeslawski's Hall. The present officers of the Dramatic and Literary Circle are M. Wleklinski and Dr. W. Statkiewicz.

    A meeting of loading Polish citizens of Bridgeport was held on January 25 at L. Czeslawski's Hall for the purpose of organizing a club to promote education among the Poles. ...

    Polish
    II B 1 d, II B 1 c 1, II B 2 a, II B 1 a
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 12, 1895
    Zorza Literary and Dramatic Society Holds its First Meeting in Bridgeport

    The newly organized literary and dramatic club held its first meeting on February 1 at Czeslawski's Hall, Bridgeport. The temporary president, M. A. Wleklinski, opened the session; Dr. W. Statkiewicz acted as recording secretary.

    A motion was made to decide upon an official name for the group, and after some discussion it was agreed to adopt the name "Zorza (Northern Light) Dramatic and Literary Society." An initiation fee of twenty-five cents and a monthly fee of ten cents for each member was voted upon and adopted.

    An election of officers was also held, and the following were named: N. L. Piotrowski, president; Dr. W. Statkiewicz, vice-president; M. A. Wleklinski, recording secretary; Dr. J. Weintraub, financial secretary; Max Wojtalewicz, cashier; Stanislaus Cichowicz and Dr. Statkiewicz, singers' committee; Michael Pozarowski, librarian; Stanislaus Marczewski, F. Pniewski, and 2S. Chichowicz, library board; Dr. J. Weintraub, dramatics director; N. L. Piotrowski, Dr. Statkiewicz, and Dr. Weintraub, lecture committee.

    The new Society has sixty members and is one of the finest organizations in the community of Bridgeport. It will be to the advantage of the Poles to affiliate themselves with this society. Singing and reading provide a pastime which is both pleasant and educational.

    The aim of the Society is to establish a local library, so that the Polish people may be able to acquaint themselves with their native literature. It is the desire of this organization to spread the seed of culture throughout the community during this year of mourning [anniversary of the Poles' unsuccessful revolt against Russia]. All Poles are requested to support this movement by contributing books for the proposed library.

    Thus far, thanks to the contributions made by several kind citizens, the 3librarian has received one hundred books. The names of the donors will be announced soon.

    The next meeting will be held Wednesday, February 13, at 7 P.M. in Czeslawski's Hall. Since the choir [of the Society] is to be a mixed one, all women from Bridgeport desiring to sing are invited to participate.

    The first singing lesson will take place Friday, February 15, at 7 P.M. Professor Henzl is the music director.

    M. A. Wleklinski, recording secretary

    3321 Fisk Street.

    The newly organized literary and dramatic club held its first meeting on February 1 at Czeslawski's Hall, Bridgeport. The temporary president, M. A. Wleklinski, opened the session; Dr. W. Statkiewicz ...

    Polish
    II B 1 d, II B 1 c 1, II B 1 a, II B 2 a, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- April 23, 1895
    Third in a Series of Patriotic Exercises Held at Bridgeport

    The third in a series of patriotic exercises was held Sunday, April 21, at Leon Czeslawski's hall under the sponsorship of the literary club "Zorza" (The Dawn).

    The program was as follows:

    I. Machnikowski gave a lecture on Adam Mickiewicz, Polish novelist. He also rendered a declamation.

    Dr. Statkiewicz gave a talk on the influence of alcohol on the human system.

    Miss Przybylska recited a beautiful Polish verse, "He who loves must suffer."

    A declamation, "Must", was given by Mr. Ciechowicz.

    Seven-year-old Eugene Janiszewski and little Mary Bauer recited several Polish 2verses.

    In conclusion, N. L. Piotrowski induced Reverend Krawczunas, who was in the audience, to say a few words. The priest praised the Poles for their wonderful patriotic functions and urged them to keep up their fine work.

    [Translator's note: These patriotic exercises were staged in connection with commemorating 1895 as a year of national mourning; for it marked the one-hundredth anniversary of the third partition of Poland.]

    The third in a series of patriotic exercises was held Sunday, April 21, at Leon Czeslawski's hall under the sponsorship of the literary club "Zorza" (The Dawn). The program was ...

    Polish
    III H, II B 1 d, I B 1, IV