The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 01, 1893
    Polish-American Participation in the Lwow Exposition of 1894 (Editorial)

    In accordance with our promise given to the readers of Dziennik Chicagoski, we return to a discussion of the Polish-American participation in the Lwow Exposition of 1894. We are leaving the article in the Emigration Review on the side for the time being, and turn oar attention to the letter received by Mr. Peter Kiolbassa from the directors of the Exposition.

    The letter, from its text, constitutes a formal invitation of the Poles in America to participate in the Lwow Exposition. The letter justifies our participation by the fact that 1894 is the hundredth anniversary of Kosciuszko's insurrection; that we should use the-results of our peacetime efferts as evidence to outsiders that we continue to exist and that we have a right to exist. On this principle, the directors of the exposition intend 2it to be not merely a display of provincial talent, but instead, a general manifestation involving all provinces of Poland, as far as political conditions will permit, of course.

    American Polonia has already been characteristically christened as the "fourth partition" by people in the old country. It is the least known "partition," if we may call it thus, for it has only recently been discovered by our brethren in Poland. But it attracts wide interest in Galicia and Poznan; it is discussed secretly in Russian Poland. In spite of the increased facilities of communication, in spite of the fact that we seek to acquaint our countrymen in Poland with our activities in many different ways, they still seem to be inaccurately informed. Until not long ago, they were completely unaware of our existence and development; today they probably overrate our strength and significance. If once we accept the premise that Poles living in America ought to retain their nationality, that they are under obligation to their mother country, we must admit that closer relations between American Polonia and its homeland are imperative. These relations ought to begin with mutual understanding. We admit also that occasion for such an understanding is presented by the Lwow Exposition, which, as we see, 3is planned on a broad scale and which will, no doubt, draw numerous visitors from all three divisions of Poland. And so it is quite logical that the directors should turn to American Polonia with a request that we submit examples of our work here to the Exposition. We ought not be unrepresented in this "national exhibition," as the letter describes it, since we consider ourselves a fragment of the Polish nation. And so, we ought to accept the invitation tendered by the directors of the exposition and prepare ourselves for participation in it. This is how the matter presents itself to our minds. We hope, too, that this neighborly viewpoint will be accepted by the Poles in America generally.

    More complicated are the questions: What form will our participation take? Who is to direct it? How large a fund is necessary for this purpose and how shall it be raised?

    While the letter from Lwow presents the matter in a general way, yet it already speaks of a Polish-American pavilion. In our opinion, this desire is a bit too bold. Obviously, the directors of the Exposition cannot be 4accurately informed, and hence they propose a project which presupposes that the Poles in America are able to carry a considerable expense. This is not true. We know well that our people in America are poor people, already weighed down with a great many burdens. Again, our people are almost exclusively workingmen, though a few are engaged in business. There are practically no independent Polish-American manufacturers. We have no industrial specimens to offer, therefore; even craftsmen are rare among us. Thus it can readily be seen that we would have too few specimens of manufacture, handicraft, etc., to necessitate a separate pavilion for their display. In place of this, our exhibit should give our brethren across the ocean a picture of our religious, intellectual, and national life. We build schools and churches, we publish books and newspapers, we organize societies for every conceivable purpose; this is the phase of our existence most interesting to our mother country, and we should strive to create the clearest possible conception of it. Our exhibit might consist of photographs of Polish schools and churches in America, bound volumes of our newspapers, books published here. We might show them the constitutions of our societies, their emblems, brochures, and in some cases, handwritten manuscripts. Such a 5collection would not be difficult to assemble, it could be sent to Poland at low cost, and a place could be found for its display at the Exposition. Best of all, it would give a clear picture of our life here. It may be that this picture would not altogether be complimentary, but at least it would be a truthful one. Obviously, aside from the above-mentioned exhibit, the completion of which would be more or less a public duty, it would be left to the initiative of private individuals, if such willing persons could be found, to supply specimens of industry, handicraft, etc. So much for the form which, in our opinion, our participation in the Lwow Exposition should take.

    The two remaining questions present no serious difficulties. Who shall direct it? Obviously, our newspapers first, and afterward, people of good will and action. Mr. Kiolbassa requested that we publish the letter he received and that all other Polish newspapers reprint it in order to disseminate the idea--to open discussion of the matter in the newspaper column. After it has been thoroughly discussed from all angles, Mr. Kiolbassa will call a mass meeting of Polish-American citizens to talk the matter over. It is practically certain that volunteers will be found to lend their services to 6the cause. This procedure should be followed by other Polish colonies, and eventually a central committee could be formed to take charge.

    Should the exhibit be arranged according to the lines we have proposed, the fund required would be small. The task of raising the money required would be comparatively simple; the fund could be satisfied partly by public donation and partly through the efforts of the individuals and societies most concerned.

    The matter of representation of our newspapers in the Exposition is primarily a question for newspapermen. We will leave its discussion for another time.

    In accordance with our promise given to the readers of Dziennik Chicagoski, we return to a discussion of the Polish-American participation in the Lwow Exposition of 1894. We are leaving ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- July 25, 1893
    [Uses 6, 235 Pieces for One Table]

    Mr. Juszczenc, a Pole living on West Division Street, has just completed a very remarkable piece of work. He has constructed an occasional table of 6,235 pieces of wood without the use of a single nail or a bit of glue. It is a very beautiful and original piece of work. Persons who would like to buy it, can apply to Dziennik Chicagoski for further information.

    Mr. Juszczenc, a Pole living on West Division Street, has just completed a very remarkable piece of work. He has constructed an occasional table of 6,235 pieces of wood without ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 05, 1893
    Lecture of Polish Art Given Polish Art Section Inaugurated

    Yesterday should be long remembered by Chicago Poles. The day was marked by two noteworthy occurrences, two important manifestations that give proof of our national vigor.

    The lecture on Polish art was given yesterday at the Memorial Art Palace on the lake front; the Polish Art Section was also inaugurated yesterday at the Fine Arts Palace in Jackson Park.

    The lecture was delivered in Hall number three at the Memorial Art Palace. The rather small hall was filled to capacity, and among the audience a great many Poles were to be found. The lecture was prepared by Mr. M. Zmigrodzki and delivered by M. Drzemala. The text of the lecture will appear in 2Monday's issue. It was carefully prepared and presented a clear outline of the history of our art, past and present. The lecturer concluded by emphasizing that we have risen to our present cultural level in spite of political oppression. In general, the lecture held the attention of the audience and was applauded vigorously at its conclusion.

    The lecture itself was admirably illustrated by numerous reproductions of the more important works of our masters, which were used by the speaker as examples. After he had finished, these specimens were circulated among the audience. "Torches of Nero," "Rejtan," "Union," and especially the three Grottger Cycles attracted general attention and called forth numerous questions, which were willingly answered by the Poles who were present. The most important paintings were explained by Mr. Zmigrodzki. Grottger's martyrological cycle of our nation was particularly appreciated.


    In a word, the lecture was successful. It served once again to bring our cause to general attention, it demonstrated our cultural level, and it retraced the injustices which we have suffered.

    Most of those who attended the lecture were present at the inauguration of a Polish Art Section at the Palace of Fine Arts in Jackson Park. The program began at 4:15, in Hall number sixty-two. The little hall was filled mostly with Poles, but a number of Americans, newspaper reporters, etc. were present. The program was opened with a speech in English by Peter Kiolbassa. He explained the purpose of the gathering and pointed out the reasons for the comparatively small number of Polish paintings exhibited. He spoke of political conditions in Poland, conditions which barely permitted our artists to exhibit their work as Poles at the World's Fair. Finally, he called the attention of those present to three paintings by Malczewski--"Death Of An Exiled Woman," symbolizing Polish martyrdom; "Jadwiga," symbolizing our 4spiritual strength; and "Wernyhora," prophesying the resurrection of Poland. These paintings appeal directly to our hearts, and to the hearts of all peoples; in any case, these and other works prove definitely that we work and progress despite political oppression.

    After this beautiful address, which was applauded enthusiastically, the gathering moved to the gallery on the second floor, at Mr. Kiolbassa's request. The next speaker, M. Drzemala, spoke on the significance of this first exhibit of Polish art in America. He called attention to the good points in the works of our artists, and to the fact that these paintings are our only representation at the Fair and that they remind people from all corners of the world of the name of Poland. In conclusion, he acknowledged the noble American hospitality, which permits us to take our place beside other nations despite political conditions in Europe.


    Professor Dunikowski spoke next in the name of the visitors from Poland, expressing his joy at being able to view the work of Polish genius at the Exposition. "In view of our presence here and our efforts", he said, "Poland is not lost--nor will it be lost!" ("Polska Nie Zginela--i Nie Zginie!")

    Mr. Basset, one of the directors of the Exposition's congresses, expressed himself sympathetically on the activity of the Poles and on our art in particular.

    The last Polish address was made by H. Nagiel, who said that it was a joy to see Polish paintings exhibited under the same roof with the artistic accomplishments of all other nations, that our Polish tongue, resounding through these halls, protests against the political oblivion to which we have been doomed. After calling attention to a few of the paintings exhibited, the speaker concluded by paying homage to the Stars and Stripes, under the 6protection of which we may participate in this Exposition--as Poles. All of the addresses were generously applauded. Mr. Nagiel's speech closed the inauguration program. After viewing the exhibit, the invited guests proceeded to the Polish restaurant, where the Committee of 101 had prepared a modest reception. A few hours were spent thus in pleasant companionship over a glass of wine.

    The inauguration was eminently successful; everyone was satisfied and happy. All sections of Chicago's Polonia were numerously represented by their more important citizens. The Polish clergy was represented by the Reverends J. Barzynski, A. Nowicki, F. Lange, and E. Siedlaczek. Most of the visitors from Poland who are in Chicago were also present. Representatives of both Zwiazek (Polish National Alliance) and n (Polish Roman Catholic Union) attended; in fact, all parties and factions were represented.

    A majority of today's American newspapers have made favorable comments on the inauguration.

    Yesterday should be long remembered by Chicago Poles. The day was marked by two noteworthy occurrences, two important manifestations that give proof of our national vigor. The lecture on Polish ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- October 20, 1893
    Polish-American Participation in the Lwow Exposition of 1894

    Although much has been said and written on the subject of Polish-American participation in the Kosciusko Exposition to be held at Lwow in 1894, it was not until a few months ago that real action was taken in this matter at the initiative of Dr. E. H. Dunikowski.

    A Central Committee was formed here in Chicago, with local committees in New York and Baltimore, and these immediately approached the task of raising funds for the enterprise. As a result of petitions sent by the Committee to the Polish organizations, the Polish Roman Catholic Union and the Polish National Alliance voted three hundred dollars and five hundred dollars respectively toward the erection of a Polish-American pavilion at the Lwow Exposition, and all other organizations promised their full moral support to the Exposition.


    So, as we can see, the foundation has already been laid. Very little progress has been made from this point, however. In truth, the Central Committee did hold a few meetings; it issued notices and appointed subcommittees to prepare dissertations on various subjects which will be presented at the Exposition, but thus far the actual results are insignificant. This, we judge, is not the fault of either the Committee or the public; it is simply that recent preparations for the celebration of Polish Day have absorbed all of our intellectual strength and plumbed the depth of our public's generosity, so that all matters of lesser moment--among others, Polish-American participation in the Lwow Exposition--were relegated to a lower plane.

    Polish Day has passed. The Lwow Exposition is again a matter of first importance, and it should be taken up the more energetically since the time is short and much remains to be done. We have begun this series of articles in order to turn the attention of the public to this important question.

    Our task is to discuss the necessary steps to be taken in order that American 3Polonia should present itself properly at the Exposition.

    It is hardly necessary to ask whether we, the Poles of America, must be represented at Lwow. The question was widely discussed in the[Polish] press. Arguments pro and con were presented. The final opinion was that, in spite of everything, our participation in the Exposition at Lwow is indispensable from the standpoint of the Exposition's character and purpose. The Exposition, to be held in the year of the hundredth anniversary of the Kosciusko Insurrection, is to show the results of a hundred years of cultural, intellectual, and industrial efforts of Poles scattered over the whole world--so far as political restrictions will permit. Such was the original idea of its creators, and in the face of this, we, as a portion of the Polish people, are in duty bound to show our brethren in Poland that we are alive and what we are doing. Further arguments on the necessity of our participation in the 1894 Exposition are superfluous; the necessity was definitely established in the name of the public when the two largest Polish organizations voted appropriations for the cause.


    It seems unnecessary also to consider whether or not the Poles here should erect a special Polish-American pavilion. The dignity of our million-and-a-half Polish population demands that we place our exhibit entirely under our own roof and fly our own colors--the Polish and the American flags. This was the point of view of the Central Committee when it issued its appeal for support to the public; the Union and the Alliance were guided by the same viewpoint when they voted funds for a Polish-American pavilion in Lwow.

    The question is: How shall it be done? This problem was discussed at the Central Committee's meetings and the following decisions were reached: The cost of the pavilion will not exceed $2,000; the plans will be made in Chicago by a Polish-American architect in a style used here; construction of the pavilion in Lwow will be directed by Dr. Dunikowski.

    The Central Committee will undoubtedly resume its activity now that Polish 5Day has passed and work in connection with this important event in Polish-American history is finished. Among other things it will procure proper plans, present them to the public, and then send them on to Lwow. There are other questions in connection with this, however, that depend not only upon the energy of the Committee, but upon the good will of the public as well: the question of funds, for example. Construction of the pavilion will cost at least $2,000. We have at present, thanks to the generosity of the Union and the Alliance, $800, but $1,200 more is needed. We are not counting the cost of shipping our exhibit to Poland, which, though it will be covered in part by the exhibitors themselves, will amount to something; or administrative costs, or decoration at the place of exhibit, etc. These last expenses, although they may, parenthetically speaking, easily reach another thousand dollars, are of lesser importance; the Central Committee and people of good will will undoubtedly find the means to defray them. We are primarily concerned with the money needed at the moment--money for construction of the pavilion, which should be collected without delay. Building of the pavilion 6cannot be begun until the necessary funds have been collected; its very size and style depend entirely upon the amount of money collected for the purpose. The most important question, then, is that of collecting the sum of $1,200.

    As we mentioned above, this depends not upon the Central Committee, but upon the public. The Central Committee has done its part in issuing an appeal to all Polish organizations and to the public at large. Two of our large organizations have done their share. It remains now for the other organizations and for the public to show their good will. If the erection of a Polish-American pavilion at the Lwow Exposition is really a matter of honor to [American] Polonia, it should be possible to raise the necessary funds. Times are hard--everybody knows that. But hard times did not prevent us from contributing several thousand dollars to the Polish Day Fund; hard times, therefore, cannot be an unsurmountable obstacle in the realization of this second, equally important task. Hard times may preclude a general appeal to wageearners, who are the first victims of an economic depression, but there are 7hundreds of Polish societies in America which ought to take the matter in hand. There are also many well-to-do people, and people who have not suffered as much as the workingman. We appeal to their generosity.

    The work is already begun; it would be a shame if we were unable to finish it. We repeat: the first requirement toward Polish-American participation in the 1894 Kosciusko Exposition at Lwow is to collect as soon as possible the funds necessary for the erection of a pavilion. We should bear in mind the Latin proverb: Bis Dat Qui Cito Dat [he gives twice who gives without hesitation].

    With this appeal, we conclude our first article. In the next, we will consider the problem: How shall we participate in the Lwow Exposition?

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Oct. 21, 1893.

    Articles on this subject have already appeared in Dziennik[Chicagoski]. In 8these articles we have expressed the opinion that American Polonia can take part in the Lwow Exposition by preparing an exhibit that will give a picture of its religious, intellectual, and social life. Such material must constitute our chief exhibit in Lwow, for the results of industrial and agricultural efforts of the Poles in America are relatively insignificant and can have their place at the Exposition only as an addition. The Central Committee is more or less of the same opinion.

    Let us, therefore, leave the question of industrial products for future articles and turn our attention to the exhibit that will give some conception of our social and intellectual life.

    In the first place, we should note here that the detailed program of the Exposition, which lies before us at this moment, classifies the types of specimens to be exhibited into thirty-four groups, including agriculture, horticulture, fishing, mining, industry, education, communication, inventions, and so forth.


    A majority of the specimens giving an example of our life here can, in truth, be classified in one or another of these groups; some of them, however, could not in any case be classified thus. And so, our classification of the specimens that ought to be sent to Lwow will be based upon an entirely different principle than that of the official plan.

    Our exhibit ought to cover the following subjects: 1. Polish-American religious life; 2. Our school system and efforts toward general enlightenment; 3. The Polish-American press; 4. Polish-American social life, with special emphasis on organizational activity.

    Let us take up the above-mentioned subjects point by point.

    1. Polish-American religious life. Beyond a doubt, the Polish churches, of which there are from 170 to 180 or more in America, are the foundation of our national and moral life. A church forms the nucleus of a Polish community;


    national and social activities begin in the parish; here, also, Polish schools arise. It is our duty to give our brethren in Poland a conception of these bulwarks of faith and nationalism. It can easily be done. We can send photographs of every Polish church in America, each bearing a legend explaining the location of the parish, approximate number of families, date of organization, date of erection of the church, cost of construction, founder of the parish, and present pastor. In an exhibit such as this, we can not only give our brethren a clear picture of Polish church life in America, but we can also gather invaluable material on the history of the Catholic Church. Naturally, no one but our clergy can supply the necessary information; they will undoubtedly do so. The expense of exterior and interior photographs of a church will be slight, and the half-hour job of appending the proper information is not a difficult task. The Central Committee has already appealed to the clergy; Dr. Pawlicki and Mr. Maryanski, of San Francisco, have even undertaken to compile the material. We have every reason to expect that the matter will be well taken care of, and the Polish public in Lwow, upon seeing the photographs and reading the inscriptions, will 11come to the logical conclusion that, protected by so many bulwarks of faith and nationalism, we in America will not be lost.

    2. Education and general enlightenment. As we well know, Polish schools are closely bound to the Church. For this reason, we hope that the patriotic Polish clergy will gather specimens which will give some idea of every one of the hundred or more Polish schools in America. Photographs of the school buildings and their interiors, group pictures of the pupils, outlines of courses of study, examples of the pupils work, and models showing how the schools are equipped, gathered from all over the United States, would constitute an exhibit of great interest to our brethren in Poland; it would show that while we work for our living, we do not neglect our younger generation. Naturally, notations would be appended, giving the place where each school is located, the date it was founded, the name of its directors, the number of pupils attending, and so forth. S. Zahajkiewicz, at the Central Committee's request, has promised to compile the material. It is our hope that this section of the Polish-American exhibit will present itself as 12well as possible. True, it will require considerably more work than the religious section, but undoubtedly the nuns and lay teachers of our schools will shoulder part of the burden. In addition to the material on schools, some sort of disquisition on Polish reading rooms and libraries ought to be prepared.

    3. Book publishing and the Polish press. The publishing of books and newspapers is among the more prominent characteristics of the Polish element in America. In spite of their faults, our newspapers characterize us as an active, virile society. Our press will undoubtedly be represented in full at the Lwow Exposition, the more so since the Exposition's program provides a special classification for it under group XXVIII. The program includes in this group, among other things, literary specimens, newspapers, book publishing, and finally, subjects from the field of printing and lithography. Volumes of our newspapers, photographs of the inside and outside of our printing shops and publishing houses, of which we have a few in Chicago, Milwaukee, and Manitowoc, and examples of decorative work done by Polish 13printers and lithographers, would constitute a very interesting collection and would give a good conception of our work in these fields. The Central Committee will complete the exhibit with a general dissertation on Polish journalism in America, which task has been entrusted to one of our local editors.

    4. Social activities, institutions, organizations, and the theater. This will be relatively the most extensive section of the Polish-American exhibit. Only in part can it be classified under the grouping of the Exposition program. Group XXVII includes subjects concerning the development of the Polish theater; group XXVIII, specimens from literary and educational societies; group XXX, gymnastic societies and equipment; group XXI, welfare societies; and group XXXIII, statistics and graphs showing the activity and development of banks, building and loan associations, and insurance organizations. Naturally, the program provides no place for military and nationalistic societies, of which we have so large a number; one way or another, these will also be represented at the Exposition. In the first place, our large 14organizations ought to submit their constitutions, emblems, records, convention photographs and others, and, to make it more complete, their histories and present status. Welfare societies, of which we have several in Chicago, New York, and Manitowoc, might send photographs of their buildings and equipment, records, and written or printed information on their present condition. Falcon societies, though they are still not very numerous, can submit photographs showing their uniforms, their emblems, banners, gymnasiums, etc.; also, information on their present status.

    Military societies, which are so numerous and splendid here, ought to take a prominent place in the exhibit. Group photographs, showing uniforms, arms, medals, awards, even specimens of uniforms and arms, can decorate the walls of the Polish-American pavilion. Reports showing the number of members and type of organization of these societies should interest the Poles in Poland. The remaining societies ought to be represented in some way also, according to their means and individual decisions. Records and regulations of Polish building and loan associations, of which we have about twenty in the United States, would also be a very interesting feature of our exhibit.


    The Polish-American theater, too, can take a prominent place at the Exposition. Photographs of groups taken from plays we have presented here, samples of tickets, playbills, copies of plays written here, and so on, certainly ought to find a place at the Exposition in Lwow.

    As can be seen above, we shall be able to exhibit thousands of interesting specimens which will serve as invaluable material in presenting a view of our religious, nationalistic, and social relations.

    In the next article we will consider the question: How and to what extent can our industrial efforts be represented at the Lwow Exposition?

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Oct. 25, 1893.

    Can it be that the Poles in America have nothing else to show at the Exposition except such an exhibit as we outlined in the last article? This is the question we will answer now, and we can answer without hesitation.


    We say: No. In addition to our civilizational efforts and their results, we American Poles can, if we wish, display at least a small number of items representing our work in such fields as industry, handicraft, agriculture, and so forth.

    It is said of us that we are all laborers. This is true in a general sense, but there are, of course, exceptions. Here and there, we have some very capable artisans among us, who are hidden away in small Polish shops. There are also a great many Polish farmers in Michigan and Wisconsin. There are the Polish inventions which are, from time to time, mentioned in the newspapers. All in all, among these exceptions in a population of a million and a half, we are sure to find a considerable number of items that can be exhibited in Lwow.

    As a matter of fact, we do not insist that such an exhibit is absolutely essential. It will depend entirely upon the good will of those who are able to produce it. The desire for such an exhibit exists, however, for in New York and Brooklyn, Polish industrialists and artisans have declared themselves 17in favor of participation. We will review the official program of the Exposition and show what sort of exhibit could be prepared to display the modest results of our work.

    The very first group takes in farming, farm products, farm buildings, dairy farming, and agricultural schools and societies. Polish-American farmers could easily participate by exhibiting seeds, sheaves of grain, or other products; finally, they could exhibit model farms and farmhouses. Such an exhibit would, in some respects, be very instructive to farmers in the old country.

    Group II is concerned with horses, and group III with livestock--our farmers could not possibly exhibit anything in this field. Group IV, however, takes in gardening and apiculture. It is quite likely that a few apiarists might be found among our farmers (a few Polish priests keep bees, it is said), who would like to exhibit model beehives and examples of implements used here in America. Perhaps nothing could be exhibited in the forestry division (group V), but our hunters who frequent the north woods of Wisconsin 18and Michigan may surely have some trophies for exhibit--skins, if not stuffed specimens--under group VI, hunting.

    Among the Polish people living in Milwaukee and in other cities on Lake Michigan, there are whole colonies of fishermen, some of whom even own their own steam [fishing] boats. Models of the equipment and boats used in their trade, and a collection of fish caught in Lake Michigan would make a very fine exhibit. Our brethren in Baltimore who engage in oyster fishing plan to submit to this section at least photographs of fishing scenes.

    Although thousands of Poles are employed in the coal mines of Pennsylvania and other states, we have practically nothing which might be exhibited under group VIII (mining). However, the Polish gold mine in California, if it begins its operations soon, and two or three other mines which are owned or partly owned (according to the newspapers) by Poles, may be able to supply a few items in this field. Photographs of our people in mining clothes should be submitted. Group IX deals with the oil industry; we have nothing to submit for this section.


    Group X is concerned with milling, starch, distilling, yeast, brewing, etc. The two Polish breweries in Detroit and the Polish distillery in Buffalo could be represented in this section. It may be that there are similar enterprises in other Polish colonies.

    Group XI, concerned with other consumers' products, will probably find no exhibitors from America.

    The succeeding groups are concerned with various branches of trades and industry. We pass on to group XIV, which includes tinsmithing, locksmithing, goldsmithing, blacksmithing, founding, and watchmaking. There are many Poles working at these trades in America--there are even Polish shops in Chicago and other cities. We have no doubt that at least a few of them will be represented at the Exposition. The same applies to group XV, which includes barrel-making, cabinet-making, and sculpture. We know of many capable cabinet-makers, sculptors, and barrel-makers here in Chicago, in New York, Brooklyn, and Buffalo; we have even seen their work on exhibit at the Columbian Exposition; their work can well be displayed in Lwow.


    Group XVI is concerned with types of carriages; here it would be worth while to send a model of the American light carriage, the so-called "buggy," as an example to the Poles in the old country.

    We cannot submit anything under weaving (group XVII), but a very interesting exhibit can be prepared in the men's and women's tailoring trades and in upholstery; there are a great many capable Polish people in America working at these trades. The same can be said for group XVIII (shoemaking). We could also prepare an exhibit with such items as Polish-made cigars and chemical and drug preparations (group XX).

    Finally, group XXIV, which includes all types of women's handicraft, will find many exhibitors among our ladies.

    The remaining sections are less interesting to us. They take in such subjects as inventions, of which we have already spoken, music, etc. We are not concerned with such sections as those including machinery manufacture, paper-making, and electrotechnics--industries in which we have no part.


    However, we may be interested at least indirectly in the following groups: XXV (ancient art), to which a few American Poles might contribute, and XXVI (architecture, building, and household furnishings). To this last group, it would be proper to submit models of our buildings, models of workingmen's homes, and models showing how houses are moved, a procedure unknown in Poland. Group XXIII, which is concerned with ethnographical matters, should not be neglected.

    Such is our idea of a workable outline of the exhibit we can prepare for the Polish-American pavilion at the Lwow Exposition. What sort of exhibit will be prepared remains to be seen. It depends upon the energy and good will of those who work in the fields of handicraft and industry.

    Although much has been said and written on the subject of Polish-American participation in the Kosciusko Exposition to be held at Lwow in 1894, it was not until a few ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 06, 1893
    From Mrs. Slominski's Workshop

    In Mrs. Slominski's workshop we have seen two beautiful banners--one for the St. Barbara Society of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish, the other for the St. John Cantius Society of St. Joseph Parish in Town of Lake. The first has an image of St. Barbara on one side and on the other the beheading of this Saint. On one side of the St. John Cantius Society banner is an image of this Saint and on the other Christ on the Cross.

    The banners are richly embroidered in gold. Besides these, Mrs. Slominski is making many other banners for various societies in Buffalo, Detroit, and other cities.

    In Mrs. Slominski's workshop we have seen two beautiful banners--one for the St. Barbara Society of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish, the other for the St. John Cantius Society of St. ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- October 18, 1894
    Polish-American Exhibitors at the Lwow Exposition Get Awards

    The following Polish-American exhibitors at the Lwow Exposition have received awards: L. Buczkowski of Chicago, a silver medal, for a harness he exhibited; Sisters of Nazareth of Chicago, a bronze medal, for a chasuble embroidered with golden threads; Mrs. Slominski of Chicago, a bronze medal, for embroidery; Mr. Sowinski of Chicago, a diploma, for sculpture.

    The following Polish-American exhibitors at the Lwow Exposition have received awards: L. Buczkowski of Chicago, a silver medal, for a harness he exhibited; Sisters of Nazareth of Chicago, a bronze ...

    II B 1 c 3, II A 3 a, II A 3 c, III H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- April 27, 1895
    New Hall to Be Opened by Andrew Szulc

    The beautiful Polish Hall that has been in process of erection by Andrew Szulc will be opened at St. Stanislaus Parish.

    The brick building, which is on the corner of Blackhawk and Noble Streets, has a modern front. The hall has room for 500 hundred chairs and 200 seats in the gallery. The stage is as large as that of Walsh's hall. The stage screen and curtain has been made by the Polish artist B. Markiewicz. The wardrobes for the men and women are large and commodious. Electric lights will illuminate the hall as well as the stage. Besides the large auditorium, there are a number of large rooms for socials, meetings, etc.

    This evening Sokol No. II will present a review on the stage. Two plays, "Falszywy Jakajlo" [The False Stammerer] and "Fryzyer Bohater" [The Heroic Barber], under the direction of Szczesny Zahajkiewicz, will be presented tomorrow.


    It is highly probable that stage productions will be billed every Sunday at this new hall.

    On-Monday, April 29, the Polish Cavalry will hold its annual ball.

    [Opening ceremonies not given in later issues.]

    The beautiful Polish Hall that has been in process of erection by Andrew Szulc will be opened at St. Stanislaus Parish. The brick building, which is on the corner of ...

    II F, II B 1 c 1, II A 3 a, IV
  • Narod Polski -- May 14, 1902
    "Local News."

    The religious art painter Mr. Jan Czajkowski is finishing a painting representing Christ on the Cross which will be placed in the main altar of the St. George church where Rev. Krawczunas is the pastor.

    The religious art painter Mr. Jan Czajkowski is finishing a painting representing Christ on the Cross which will be placed in the main altar of the St. George church where ...

    II A 3 a, IV
  • Dziennik Związkowy -- April 28, 1911
    Theater an Important Factor in National Education. (Editorial)

    National culture is the sum total of what the people of any country have accomplished in the fields of science and aesthetics during their upward climb toward the goal of spiritual perfection. Every nation has institutions which determine its continuance or its downfall, its progress or retrogression, its power or weakness, its fame or its dishonor.

    The first of these institutions is the government, which molds the destiny of the nation at home and abroad. The second institution is that of the church, whose representatives are the mediators between God and man. They have the power either to lead the trusting people along the right road, illuminated by the light of their own virtues, or to obscure the vision of the people by teaching them fanaticism, and permitting them to hear only the thunderous voice of the shepherd compelling them to blind submission.

    The third institution is that of education which, like a plow uproots the weeds of prejudice from the human mind, changing it into fertile soil bearing 2beautiful flowers of knowledge which absorb healthy thoughts of the world. The fourth institution is that of art. Knowledge and art supplement each other; the first enlightens the soul and the other improves it by making it more noble and beautiful.

    How would our temples, our buildings, and our bridges look, had they been built according to mathematical calculations only, had they not been beautified by art? This rule can also be applied to man. Even an educated man, without an artistic understanding is unable to perceive the beauties of nature; they do not appeal to him because their bright rays cannot penetrate his heart.

    It is when actors are capable of transmitting with fervor the thought of the author and hold the audience spellbound; when eyes are filled with tears because of some sad scene or with joy when they share the happiness of others, that love arises in the hearts of humanity for that which is good and noble. Theaters are, therefore, an important factor in the education of the masses; they are a living record of human history, and a presentation of life in plastic form. Examples of heroic deeds, historical facts and customs of the various classes when portrayed with realism, present the sad events, family celebrations, and sorrows as well as 3joys - all of this is expressed in dramatic art.

    The degree of any nation's culture is judged by the development of its art. The theater had its origin in ancient Greece. Next to the temples, the structures there, devoted to theatrical purposes, were most imposing. The theater passed through many stages of evolution before it reached its present state. A theater is like an institution of higher learning, because it enlightens the masses by presenting to them examples of that with which millions of souls are filled; and with which the whole nation is inspired. We Polish-Americans should have such institutions in Chicago. We are quite prosperous, and should therefore use every means to insure the continuation of the theater and its arts.

    National culture is the sum total of what the people of any country have accomplished in the fields of science and aesthetics during their upward climb toward the goal of ...

    II A 3 d 1, II A 3 a, I A 1 a, III C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 13, 1921
    Kermis at Union Hall Continues to Attract Patronage

    Although frequent showers were prevalent throughout the city yesterday afternoon, the public began to enter the Union Hall at 5:00 P.M. and participate in the bazaar sponsored to aid the unfortunate people in Upper Silesia.

    Some of our outstanding Polish firms have set up decorated booths displaying their wares to the public. Raffles, games and gifts are featured at each displayer's booth.

    Veterans of Haller's army, in full regalia, were stationed at strategic points of the hall to give the public information about the various exhibits. Young ladies of the church societies in the neighborhood also volunteered their services. Dressed in the latest costumes of Krakow, they helped to promote the sales of Polish goods.


    At 8:00 P.M. members of Polish Sokol No. 2 began to entertain the many people gathered in the Union Hall. Their calisthenic routines brought great applause from the audience. Later, pictures of conditions in Upper Silesia were shown.

    At the buffet, Mr. Wieclaw, the proprietor of Danzig Restaurant, served the public.

    People in large numbers kept coming in throughout the evening. It was not until midnight that the hall began to be vacated.

    Information has reached the office of the committee that Mrs. Kwasigroch will sing at 7:00 P.M. and 11:00 P.M. tonight. During the intervals she will participate in the sales of the wares.

    A special treat awaits the public tomorrow at the Union Hall. Miss Rydlinska, noted dramatic artist of Krakow, will display her artistic talent in a few dramatic sketches at 8:00 P.M.


    Miss Pawlowska, famous Chicago Civic Opera singer, will be a special guest Sunday, Dec. 18.

    The Kermis committee has received a letter from M. G. Kudlik, president of the Chicago Society, which reads in part as follows:

    "At a regular meeting of the Chicago Society, which has 150 members--war veterans--the society has joined forces with the Polish-American Veterans legion and will cooperate in making the Kermis a success. Plans for a bazaar will be dropped as a result. Instead, all the members will make an untiring effort to help the Polish-American Veterans swell the flow of contributions for the orphans and widows of Upper Silesia."

    Although frequent showers were prevalent throughout the city yesterday afternoon, the public began to enter the Union Hall at 5:00 P.M. and participate in the bazaar sponsored to aid the ...

    II D 10, II A 3 a, II A 3 b