The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 26, 1890
    The Chicago World's Fair (Editorial)

    At last the President has issued a proclamation regarding the opening of the World's Fair. It appeared on the 24th day of December, the day before Christmas.

    Better late than never. Undoubtedly, the Fair may yet be a great success. All that is necessary for its success is some good luck. There is no doubt that, as an American exposition, it will be great, positively unsurpassed by any European exhibition. At this fair the United States will have a splendid opportunity to show the world its great development during the last 115 years, and how far it has advanced in the field of inventions, especially in applied sciences. However, there is a doubt whether this exposition will surpass, or even be equal to, European expositions, especially the Parisian, in respect to art. There is no doubt that we have plenty of money, but whether we have enough ability and artistic taste for creating an exposition both great and beautiful, is a question.

    The criticism will be very severe, and we may take it for granted that European 2critics will not overlook even the smallest irregularity or mistake. But let us not judge too harshly. We have a number of able people who know how to put up a fair. They have some experience because they have visited other world fairs, and for American dollars it will be possible to secure a few European experts who have a good taste. Americans are very practical. They will know how to overcome this obstacle.

    Two questions arise, will this exposition deserve to be called a world's Fair, and will other countries participate in it? We wrote about this before and expressed our doubts. However, we are not infallible and hope that this time we will be false prophets.

    There is some consolation in the fact that, at the last election, the American nation opposed McKinley's Bill. Consequently, Europe may be appeased with the hope that the bill had only an ephemeral significance and will be forgotten in a short time.

    The majority of the stockholders of the Chicago Fair are also appeased because they feared that the exposition would not be open on Sundays, and 3that the sale of liquor would not be allowed at the Fair. These two obstacles have been removed by the directors of the Fair, thereby making the financial success of it possible, for experience teaches that fairs bring more profit on a Sunday than during the whole week. The proclamation of the President created a more cheerful attitude toward the matter.

    The proclamation is typically American, - business-like. Because we are very prosperous, we can afford to have a fair. Perhaps such proclamation will invite elegant European formalists to make satirical remarks, but on the other hand, it will encourage business men, for whom we care very much, and which is most important.

    At last the President has issued a proclamation regarding the opening of the World's Fair. It appeared on the 24th day of December, the day before Christmas. Better late than ...

    Polish
    I C, I D 1 a, I B 1, I H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 07, 1891
    The United States Congress (Editorial)

    The Fifty-first Congress of the United States ended its session last week. It lasted two years, during which time it passed many laws that will undoubtedly bring a great benefit to the country, and also some harm. However, we must admit that most of the laws which have been passed are beneficial to the Nation, and on that account Congress deserves much credit.

    The first session lasted ten months; it began in December 1889 and ended in October 1890. The second session was shorter, from Dec. 1, 1890, to Mar. 4, 1891.

    Perhaps it is too late now to give a detailed account of the activities of this National Council, but since the public is greatly interested in its activities, we will discuss some of the most important laws enacted during the first session.

    2

    One of these laws is the McKinley Act, or Protective Tariff Bill, which calls for a high duty on goods imported from other countries. The purpose of this Bill, according to the Republicans, is to protect our trade and to help the development of our industry. According to the Democrats, the purpose of the Bill is to enable the rich industrialists to raise the prices of all commodities at the expense of the poor consumers and the working class. This Bill, however, contains a very practical clause, because it authorizes our Government to make reciprocal trade agreements with other countries in respect to certain tariff concessions.

    This Congress has also passed the Sherman Act, which authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury to buy silver bullion to the amount of 4,500,000 ounces a month (not an insensible Bill), the Anti-trust Bill and the Lottery Bill. A resolution to move the Meteorological Bureau from the War Department to the Department of Agriculture was passed. Congress also agreed to accept the territories of Wyoming and Idaho into the Union as new states. Finally it passed a Bill authorizing a Chicago Columbian Exposition in 1893, and another raising the veterans' pensions.

    3

    These are the most important Bills and they were passed during the first session of Congress, and are now in force.

    The second session, though short, also passed many good measures.

    During this session Congress debated on the Silver Bill, the Election Bill, and the Nicaragua Canal Bill, but fortunately these bills were rejected.

    Inasmuch as the bills passed are of great importance because they constitute new laws, we will devote a few words to each one of them.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Mar. 9, 1891.

    The country has been divided into nine voting districts, according to the census of 1890. This is a logical division, provided the census is correct, and Congress deserves credit for that.

    4

    Another measure is directed to lessen the work of the Supreme Court. This measure provides for nine Circuit Courts, each consisting of several states, and each allotted to one of the nine justices of the Supreme Court. This will create a new position for a Circuit Court judge in every circuit. These judges will be appointed for their whole lives by the President. If Mr. Harrison desires to be just, he should appoint not only Republicans, but men of ability. In the future the Circuit Court will be next in rank to the United States Supreme Court, and will constitute the nine Courts of Appeal. These courts will handle patent, murder, tariff, and marine cases. This is a good measure for which Congress deserves much praise.

    Uncle Sam will have his own penal institutions. There will be three of them in different parts of the country. This is necessary and practical.

    The new Immigration Measure cannot be considered blind nationalism. The famous proposal of Mr. Oates has been rejected in Congress by a majority vote.

    5

    Only criminals, the insane and real paupers will not be admitted. Even those immigrants who cannot pay for their passage will be allowed to come if they are able to work and not bound by a contract. The new immigration law specifies very clearly that the paragraph referring to contract labor does not include clergymen, artists, physicians, professors, lawyers, and so forth.

    The Cattle Inspection Regulation forbids shipments of diseased cattle into foreign countries. This eliminates the pretext of foreign countries for not buying American cattle, and if the prohibition of such shipments will not be discontinued, the President has a right to retaliate by adopting similar measures.

    Another legislative act provides a subvention for mail steamboats.

    Although the foregoing measures deserve praise and credit, there are others that do not. To the latter belongs the unheard of extravagance of the last Congress at the budget session.

    6

    On account of this extravagance, a large deficit was created in the Federal Treasury, which had been in a fine condition so far.

    It was not necessary to enact a measure providing for the return to the States of Civil War taxes amounting to $16,000,000. This proposition had already been passed by both Houses during Cleveland's administration, but he vetoed it in spite of the fact that there was a surplus in the treasury.

    A copyright measure was also enacted which forbids reprinting of works in which the author has reserved the right of reprinting in America. This measure is of no benefit to authors because it also forbids the importation of such works and states that if the author desires to sell his works in America, he must publish them here on American paper and by American printers; in other words, he must publish them as if they were original.

    The Fifty-first Congress of the United States ended its session last week. It lasted two years, during which time it passed many laws that will undoubtedly bring a great benefit ...

    Polish
    I H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 21, 1891
    Aldermanic Caucus of the Sixteenth Ward

    At last the commissioners of the Sixteenth Ward agreed to hold an aldermanic caucus. Democratic voters may choose a candidate for Alderman of the Sixteenth Ward next Tuesday. Only one place has been reserved for this purpose, and those citizens of the Sixteenth Ward who desire to vote must go there. This caucus, however, is not official and will not be controlled by the law. Whoever is not acquainted with political tricks, will wonder why this preliminary election did not take place on the same day when a candidate for mayor was nominated, and why this election was not called under Crawford's Law. This question may be answered in the following way: This caucus was called by the commissioners of the Sixteenth Ward, who were elected by most of Polish votes. These commissioners, although one of them is a Pole, do not favor a Pole for alderman, and in order to assure a victory for the German candidate Sigmund, have set another day 2than the day of the mayoralty nomination for this caucus. This is one of the clever tricks which our high class politicians resort to very often.

    If this primary election or caucus were held together with the one for mayor, Sigmund would undoubtedly be defeated, because too many Poles oppose him. The commissioners of the Sixteenth Ward are taking it for granted that if the date of this caucus is changed to Tuesday, a majority of the Poles will not vote. Secondly, the polling place will be located on Milwaukee Avenue, right in the heart of the German neighborhood, where it will be very convenient for them to vote but where many Poles will not care to go. Sigmund will probably be nominated, even though he is not supported by the citizens of the Sixteenth Ward.

    But this is not all, for this caucus was not called and will not be conducted under the Crawford's Law; therefore, it will be very easy to cheat. Anyone who cares will be allowed to vote, regardless of whether he lives in that 3ward or not, and the judges may cheat if they wish because no one will control them or make them responsible for their actions. The laws in this respect are inadequate. For this reason all Poles should take an active part in this preliminary election and vote next Tuesday, if they desire to express their will as the will of the majority of this ward. The address of the polling place will be announced later.

    We wish to remind you that there will be a political meeting at Schulz's hall next Sunday,at which the election of an alderman for the Sixteenth Ward will be discussed.

    At last the commissioners of the Sixteenth Ward agreed to hold an aldermanic caucus. Democratic voters may choose a candidate for Alderman of the Sixteenth Ward next Tuesday. Only one ...

    Polish
    I F 4, I H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- April 13, 1891
    Our Representative at Springfield John A. Kwasigroch Introduces an Important Bill at the State Legislature Proposing Protection of Working Women and Children (Summarized Editorial)

    The introduction of Congressman Kwasigroch's bill at the State legislature created great interest among the working class.

    Kwasigroch's bill proposes that no person under the age of eighteen, or a woman employed by a commercial house, should work longer than sixty hours a week or more than ten hours a day, with the exception when they have to make up time. No person under eighteen years of age, or a woman under twenty-one years of age, should work at public places after 9 P. M. or before 6 A. M. However employers will be allowed, by special permission, to employ persons over eighteen years old after 9 P. M. between the first Monday in December and the first Tuesday in January of the next year, providing that these persons are allowed 45 minutes for supper.

    2

    Commercial houses in the State of Illinois shall not employ minors under fourteen years of age. Every employer shall keep a register in which must be recorded the name, age, place of birth, and the address of every minor under sixteen years of age, and such institutions shall not employ minors supply the employers with a sworn statement containing the age and birth date of their child. If the child has no parents or guardians, it must make such statement itself. These statements must be presented for examination to an authorized labor Department inspector.

    Every employer of minors under eighteen years of age, must exhibit in a conspicuous place a printed schedule showing the number of hours worked by each minor every week, and in every room where children under sixteen years of age are employed, the schedule must indicate also their names and ages. Commercial houses shall not employ children under sixteen years of age who cannot read and write easy sentences in the English language, 3except during the vacation time. Authorized Labor Department inspectors have the right to demand doctors' certificates showing the physical fitness of minors employed by commercial houses, and they also have the right to forbid the employment of minors who have no such certificates.

    The term commercial house used in this bill means every place or establishment where articles are sold for profit; hoever, it does not include small places where less than five persons are employed.

    The owners of commercial houses, or their agents, shall keep all elevators n goo order and use all precautions. The stairways of commercial houses shall be provided with suitable railing on both sides and the steps covered with rubber mats if necessary, according to the decision of safety inspectors. The stairs and stairways of commercial institutions must be free from all obstructions and the doors leading to them must open both ways, in and out, ad must not be locked during working hours. Commercial buildings of more 4than three stories must be provided with strong and safe iron fire-escapes, according to the specifications of safety inspectors. Safety inspectors have the right to condemn any dangerous or defective fire-escapes. The platforms of fire-escapes must be built under two windows of each story and in a convenient location. The stairs must be 24 inches wide and at a 45 degrees angle.

    The owners of commercial homes or their agents, must send a written report to safety inspectors of all accidents or misfortunes which may occur to their employees, not later than forty-eight hours after the accident. The report must contain all details of the accident. The inspectors will have the right to make an investigation and suggest any changes that may eliminate the recurrence of such accidents in the future.

    Every commercial institution must be provided with comfortable lavatories and toilets, which should be kept in a sanitary condition and well ventilated; 5and where women are employed, there must be a separate toilet room and a dressing room. The rest room where the lunches are eaten should be separated from the lavatories and toilets.

    Every employer is obliged to provide suitable seats for women employees, and they should be permitted to use them for health measures. Negligence of this duty by an employer will be considered a violation of the law.

    Commercial institutions are not allowed to employ women or children in basements that are unsanitary or damp on account of water seepage or that are filled with injurious gases, or condemned by Labor Department inspectors.

    Not less than 45 minutes must be allowed for lunch time in any commercial institution. The Labor Department inspectors, however, have the right to issue a written permission for a shorter lunch period if it is necessary at certain times of the year, but such written permission must be displayed at a conspicuous place.

    6

    In this State Labor Department inspectors and their assistants are obliged to enforce these regulations and bring to justice those who disregard them; therefore, they have the right to inspect any commercial institution at any proper time and as often as necessary. Any owner or manager of any commercial institution who hinders, delays, inconveniences or resists such investigation is committing an offense. The Labor Department inspectors and their assistants will have the authority of a notary public in taking oaths in the course of their investigations.

    State's attorneys of every county in this State have the right, and it will be their duty, to prosecute at any court any person who violates these regulations, of such action is demanded by a Labor Department inspector or his assistant.

    Every person violating or neglecting these regulations, or employing minors in spite of them, shall be guilty of breaking the law and punished by a fine 7of not less than ten dollars and not more than one hundred dollars, or by imprisonment of not less than thirty days and not more than ninety days.

    A printed copy of these regulations should be displayed at every institution and at every location in this State where persons are employed to whom this regulation refers.

    This law is effective at once.

    The introduction of Congressman Kwasigroch's bill at the State legislature created great interest among the working class. Kwasigroch's bill proposes that no person under the age of eighteen, or a ...

    Polish
    I H, I A 1 a, I D 1 a, I D 1 b, I B 2
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- June 15, 1891
    What Was Accomplished by Illinois State Legislature (Editorial)

    Right now, since our State Legislature has adjourned its sessions, is the time to review its accomplishments.

    Were we favored with many beneficial laws? What political party had the strongest influence in making new laws? Which of these laws are most beneficial?

    Every citizen of the State of Illinois ought to be interested in this important matter. The Poles in Chicago, never before were so keenly interested in politics as this year. Never before have they tried to understand so thoroughly city, state, and national politics as at present. Not long ago these Poles attracted the attention of all nationalities on account of taking a great part in political activities. They had their representative in the State Legislature, (J. Kwasigroch) and two representatives in the City Council, 2(Kunz and Dahlman, Aldermen). And in the City Hall (P. Kiolbassa, City Treasurer), and on the County Board (W. Bardonski, a county commissioner). They would certainly like to learn and memorize the most important of these laws, and are certain that Dziennik Chicagoski will publish their review.

    We will do this though we cannot go into details. Attention is called to articles which have already appeared in our journal. Those who read our paper carefully do know that there was no shortage of these articles during the last half year. However, we are willing to supply any one with better information on this or any other issue in the future numbers of our paper, if some one demands it.

    The Dominating Party

    The dominating and victorious group during the last Illinois State Legislature was the Democratic party. It enacted many practical laws, and gave impulse 3to those which could not be passed on account of a strong opposition, so that they would be passed in the future. The opposition, the Republican party, limited its activities to objecting, interfering, and opposing democratic principles, and hindering the propositions presented by the Democrats. It was a hard fight, but it would not have been so hard if the Democrats had had a decisive majority. This year, however, our State Legislature was in such a condition that in reality, no party had a decisive majority. The Democrats had one hundred and one members, the Republicans had one hundred. The so-called farmers, who leaned to either side, which of course, made that party victorious, had three members. Furthermore, the Republicans had a decisive majority in the Senate, for they had twenty-six members, and the Democrats had twenty-four, but the Democrats had the decisive majority in the House of Representatives. They had seventy-seven members, and the Republicans seventy-three. The three farmers were also members of the House of Representatives.

    Before any measure becomes a law it must pass both houses, that is, the House 4of Representatives and the Senate. Besides, it must be signed by the Governor of the State. It was easy, therefore, for the Republicans in the Senate to reject any measure adopted by the House of Representatives. This happened to many measures.

    Consequently, the fight was very hard, and the plurality of one member which the Democrats had, did not help very much. It was necessary to fight with convincing argumentations by the gaining of public opinion, and winning over the stubborn farmers. It was necessary to fight by intelligent reasoning and not by the majority. For this reason, victory brings a great credit, and the Democrats should be proud because they have defeated their opponents in many fights.

    What did the Democrats accomplish at the thirty-seventh State Assembly? In brief: they elected Mr. John M. Palmer to the United States Senate; it gave the State a practical and honest system of voting; established more protective 5laws for miners and out-of-door laborers than have been made in the last thirty years. They abolished Merrit's Conspiracy Law. The Democrats secured for the citizens the right to appoint railroad commissioners. In the House of Representatives, they were instrumental in passing a measure forbidding child labor, and although it was killed in the Senate by the Republicans, it was not the fault of the Democrats, but the Republicans. The eight-hour working day proposition also met its fate in the same way. The Republicans prevented the passing of the Banking Law which provided that all State funds should be deposited in State funds should be deposited in State banks, and accrued interest should belong to the State. Besides these measures, the Democrats confirmed the principle that the United States senators should be elected directly by the people and not by their representatives. Finally, they distinguished themselves by adopting measures of economy, thus reducing the expenses of the session to a minimum.

    They accomplished much, as much as it was possible under difficult circumstances, 6and for this they deserve the approval of all citizens. We will explain some of the new laws more fully.

    Senatorial Issue

    The United States senators are elected in the following manner: In reality, the citizens of the State do not vote for the United States senators, but they elect the State senators and representatives who nominate and elect them. If there are two candidates, then the one who receives the majority of the votes is elected, but if there are more than two, then the winner must have an absolute majority, that is, more than a half of all votes. For example: If there are two hundred and four votes, (one hundred and one Democratic, one hundred Republican, and three Farmer's votes,) the candidate must receive one hundred and three votes in order to be elected.

    It was a bitter fight. The Farmers would not vote for either Republican or Democratic candidate, and because of this, John M. Palmer, the Democratic 7candidate for United States senator, could not get the necessary majority for some time. The Republicans did not support any particular candidate, but they opposed the election of Palmer. Therefore, they picked all kinds of candidates, one after another, but could not agree among themselves. Finally, in order to defeat Palmer, they nominated one of the three Farmers in order to get their support and elect him. But they were unsuccessful because some Republicans opposed this candidate. In the meantime, Palmer was getting his one hundred and one democratic votes every day. This condition lasted for two and a half months. Finally, the Republicans decided to elect Dr. Moore, one of the Farmers, and he, after several ballotings, received almost a hundred votes. The entire United States was watching this interesting fight, and waited with almost feverish fears as the opinion prevailed that this Republican farce would contribute to the defeat of the candidate who was favored by the majority of the United States citizens. They feared that a very little known man, who is supported by a small group, would be elected as a United States senator. But, fortunately, the Republicans could not agree, and two of the members of 8the Farmers' party, (and one of them was Dr. Moore, the candidate himself) cast their votes for Palmer, and thereby elected him as United States senator.

    It was a great victory for the Democrats. The one hundred and one Democrats received great ovations for being faithful to their candidate. If any of them were ill, he asked to be carried to the meeting in order to cast a vote.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, June 16, 1891.

    Miners' Laws

    The legislature enacted many laws favoring workingmen, especially the protective measures for the miners, which were introduced by Senator O'Connor, a Democrat, and Representative Gill, also a Democrat. One of these laws provides that the officials of the mining industry must possess a thorough 9knowledge of mining and prove it by examination. Another regulation reads that the owners of the mining industry must provide for the upkeep of a scaler appointed by the county, who will have a right to inspect the scales, and whose duty will be to report all irregularities to the proper authority. This Legislature increased the inspecting districts from five to six, and provides that each inspector small receive six hundred dollars from the State for expenses. One of the important regulations which was demanded by the miners for many years provides that: "All coal mined, including siftings, must be weighed carefully with scales, and an accurate weighing record of every coal care should be kept. Every miner or interested person shall have the privilege to examine such records. A person appointed and authorized for weighing coal and keeping such records must make an affidavit in the presence of a duly authorized person before accepting his duties and sign it. He will weigh accurately coal taken out of the mine and keep an accurate record of the same. Such affidavit must be displayed near the scale and in a conspicuous place."

    10

    A measure, providing that remuneration for work should be made in legal tender, was also passed. A Bill providing for weekly pay which was introduced by Messrs. O'Connor and Gill also passed.

    Other Measures Beneficial to Workingmen

    The Legislature passed Tom Fern's Anti-Trust Bill and the so-called Trademark Bill, about which we will publish a special article. Wells' Labor Day Bill was also passed. The eight-hour Bill was killed, but the Republican Senate is responsible for that.

    City of Chicago

    The Chicago World's Fair was debated by the members of the State Legislature. However, the State of Illinois will participate in the Fair, and the Department of Agriculture will be in charge of it, for which a sum of $800,000 has been assigned.

    11

    The so-called "West Park Bill," introduced by Senator Mahoney, also became a law and will improve the city. This improvement will be effected by building parks and boulevards on the West Side of the city for which bonds will be issued in the amount of one million dollars. Out of this fund not even a penny will be used for Washington Boulevard, 12th Street, or Ashland Avenue.

    If it is necessary to use private property, the owners of such confiscated property will be notified within two years, according to Mahoney's Bill.

    Elections and Registration

    The Australian system of voting, which was fully explained in our journal, will become a law on July 1, and so will the regulation entitling the voters to register their names as voters fifteen days before the registration day.

    12

    We wish to mention Noonan's Bill, which introduces new regulations for building tradesmen and contractors. This Bill was introduced for contractors, architects, supply men and labor unions of Chicago, and was supported by Judges Tuley, Altgeld, and Tuthill.

    Building and Loan Associations

    These Associations will be controlled, at least in part, by the Government. According to the new regulation introduced by Senator Noonan, every building and loan association will be obliged to make a report every year of its condition to a Government inspector. Such report must be sworn to by the secretary of the Association, and accompanied by four dollars as a fee. If several members of such Association will make an affidavit that their Association is in poor condition, the inspector will have a right to examine the books and establish order. If such a report is false, the members making such affidavit must defray the expenses of the investigation.

    13

    Among the new laws passed by the last Legislature there is a very important measure respecting aliens who neglect their naturalization papers. They probably will not be allowed to buy real estate property after July 1, 1891, or become owners of such. This will be discussed by us more fully in the future. It is very important, therefore, to have naturalization papers or at least the first ones, in order to avoid embarrassment.

    The Democrats also tried to increase the number of the members of Cook County School Board from fifteen to twenty-one. All representatives of Cook County helped to pass this measure. The Governor will probably sign this bill in a few days. The mayor of our city, Mr. Washburne, has already appointed the new members, but unofficially because he is not allowed to do this without the Governor's signature.

    This year's Legislature was very economical, and led by the spirit of economy, the Senate reduced the original budget of the two houses to four million dollars.

    14

    For this economy, they deserve praise for all work done with one exception. We believe they erred when they reduced the one million dollar allotment for participation of the State in the World's Fair to $800,000. Large appropriations were made for hospitals, schools, and other public institutions.

    Right now, since our State Legislature has adjourned its sessions, is the time to review its accomplishments. Were we favored with many beneficial laws? What political party had the strongest ...

    Polish
    I F 3, I F 4, I F 5, I H, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 04, 1892
    Continuation of the Polish "Filaretow" Society Written by Helen Sawicki (First article printed in January 2, 1892 issue.)

    Through these worthy efforts, those who were willing to learn, both young and old, were lifted from the path of ignorance. However, this did not continue for long. This youthful movement for liberty was soon put to a stop by the Russian government, yet the seed of fraternity was well scattered.

    Soon after a reorganization took place in Thomas Zan's ranks, and a new order was founded. This time it took on the name of "Filaretow" (Lovers of Virtue). This new body undertook the same platform of the former society, nevertheless there were a few changes. A new unit was added, bearing the name "Lovers of Education." At the beginning, there were only seven virtues, but this figure reached twenty later.

    2

    The "Lovers of Virtue" were headed by the following: Thomas Zan, John Czeczot, Adam Michiewicz, Onufry Pietrowicz, Ignacy Domejko, and several other outstanding Polish notables. This new organ carried the banner of the previous one, but its doors were guarded with secrecy. This was done in order to avoid interference of the university and government. Whoever could pay, contributed a monthly fee, which amounted to about two and a half dollars in American money. These dues were converted into many useful means. Books were purchased, a reading room was kept, and many other incidentals were bought.

    This organization was composed of groups. Each group met separately. At the head of each was a president, secretary, and treasurer. There was a circle of lawyers, authors, mathematicians, medical authorities, etc. The election of officers was open, and those that received the most votes were 3chosen for the respective offices. Each group held separate meetings at which the by-laws were read, the progress discussed, and plans for future programs were made out. At times, delegates from other units were invited. These representatives would tell of their work. During these sessions, the members would not only be instructed in the art of rhetoric, but open discussions were held and vital subjects were frequently presented. Exact interpretations of what went on were given. Public speaking was practiced to a great degree.

    Besides these educational and instructive gatherings, parties of a social nature were held. Various affairs were held at which singing, reading, drama, and speech were given an open range. There were also annual Maytime festivals. These parties served a twofold purpose. They not only enlightened the burden of the hard work, but also instilled gaiety and friendship.

    4

    Several organizers of this organ were responsible for these social functions. The backbone was composed of Thomas Zan, John Czeczot, A. Michiewicz, and Mr. Wolowicz (no first name given). Zan represented beauty and morality over which he exerted great influence for he had high respect for his office, and his zeal for these virtues was limitless. Mr. Czeczot was the agent of sincerity and happiness. Brotherhood was representative of Mr. Wolowicz. A. Mickiewicz, one of the later prophets of the people, brightened and added life to the parties by his songs and his poems. Oratory and poetry were under his banner. He devoted his entire life to help his people. He wrote many verses primarily to bolster the spirit of his brothers. These poems in turn were memorized by many, and passed by word of mouth to others. One of the many poems written by him is the following, which reflects the spirit of the organization he so devotedly worked for:

    5

    Let your eyes with gladness shine,

    And garlands of joy cover you,

    And in new hope entwine,

    For we are friends - one and two,

    One for all and all for you.

    Lift your poor heart from sorrow

    Fill up with hope and glory -

    Holy this will be tomorrow;

    Pride, greed, and luxury

    Sweep it away in hurry.

    6

    This you should gladly do:

    For our people guard the life

    Of learning and of virtue

    At home, at work, or in strife;

    And keep it sharp as a knife!

    Be sure that this in your mem'ry stays:

    Your people --- learning and virtue --- always!

    All of the flowering youth of the University of Vilno gave itself to the purpose of this brotherhood. They studied and passed on what they have been taught to others. The shroud of greed, hatred, and selfishness, was gradually shed through this brotherly atmosphere. Many individuals, after grasping the full purpose of this noble fraternity, devoted all of their 7lives to furthering its cause. They realized that through the education of the masses to the conditions, the Poland of yesterday could only be restored.

    Propriety and decorum reigned throughout every unit. A watchful eye was kept on those that did not regard the by-laws to the fullest extent. Those that lost interest or were endangering the cause were expelled. This was generally considered a disgrace. Through cooperation, all of the spare time of the members was used to a good advantage.

    It was believed that through more strict reorganization the continuance of the fraternity would be possible. However, this budding flower did not get an opportunity to come to full bloom. The despotic government cut down its growing stem once again. When all the units of the central organ were forbidden, all of the books of the organization were destroyed, and its members 8scattered over the entire country. These actions did not stop their mistreatment by the Russians. Despite persecution, this society existed in the hearts of every member.

    In the junior year group at the Vilno University, Michael Plater wrote on the blackboard of his classroom: "Let the constitution of the third of May live." This was more or less a child's prank, yet it was taken as a sign of revolution by the Russians. The right hand men of Constantine, the Russian Tsar in Warsaw, began an investigation concerning this matter at the University. The investigators seized a student by the name of Jankowski, who tried to get into Warsaw through a false passport. Jankowski was a former student of the "Filaretow" Society, but was expelled for his lack of interest. A thorough search of his belongings revealed a pamphlet of the by-laws of the organization. Although he was 9under oath never to reveal any of its secrets, Jankowski, under pressure and with the promise of freedom, told everything he knew. After this, followed a general purge of the already crumbled fraternity. Riots and unjust violences prevailed.

    Further persecutions of those connected with this organ can be found in the third part of Michiewicz's poem, the "Beggers" or "Dziadow."

    This is the history of the origin of the "Filaretow" society. To us, they represent a great symbol of respect, our ideals. For at the present time, we are existing amidst trying conditions. It is difficult for us to uphold these ideals while we are struggling to earn our daily bread. But these traditions that have been brought with us to this country still flourish..... We must remember that there are many of our people abroad that would gladly 10leave their forced drudgery, but cannot because the hope and strength of their struggle has been sapped. They would gladly leave the soil to which they are imprisoned, but have no opportunity to leave. Though this has been true for over a hundred years, the fight for liberty is still being waged.....Although we are in a free country, we are facing many obstacles. Our struggle to be classed on the same level with the other people here is very great, and can be compared with the hardships of those young people that organized the society of "Filaretow" many years ago.

    We are facing new problems here. It is for our own good that we organize and educate our people so that they can orient themselves to their new surroundings. We can take up the banner of the "Lovers of Virtue" here without any fear and blaze a trail for our people. Only through organization and work can we accomplish these aims. The curtain of ignorance can be substituted for one of culture.

    11

    The purpose of the first public meeting at this society here is to restore hope in our once oppressed people. Plans, platforms, and programs, were discussed openly, and an outline of activity was adopted. Therefore, in order to restore hope and position in our people, we must get to work and organize.

    Through these worthy efforts, those who were willing to learn, both young and old, were lifted from the path of ignorance. However, this did not continue for long. This youthful ...

    Polish
    II B 1 d, II B 1 e, II B 2 g, III B 2, I C, I E, I H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 07, 1892
    Disagreement in the Polish Press (Editorial)

    The last number of Zgoda was to be one of a peaceful nature. Various polemic articles and correspondence have been set aside, according to an agreement of the editors. It is apparent that harmony, unity, and cooperation are finally wanted.

    But what kind of articles? Those who have written them are going to shoulder heavy responsibilities. Every unprejudiced person, who desires unity and peace must suffer the consequences of these news stories. Such items should not be published if this union is to be attained, they should never reach the public eye, and true facts should never be misrepresented. For example, Mr. Karlokowski has asked for a vote, and had the motion affirmed relative to the protest against Russian and German oppression of Poland. Immediately following, Rev. Father Barzynski asked for a vote to oppose the proposed protest against Germany because this may change her attitude towards the 2Polish minority. Not only that, but Germany has granted the demands of this group. Rev. Father D. Stablewski has been appointed bishop of the Posen province, and the Polish tongue has been permitted to be taught in the schools. Since Germany has become liberal-minded toward Poland, Father Barzynski pointed out, it would be wrong for this protest to be made, for everything that has been gained would be lost. As a result, the Poles abroad would not only suffer, but over 20,000 Poles in Chicago would probably have their jobs jeopardized. This caused a controversy, mostly because some of the questions and replies were misunderstood. The argument came to an end through the timely suggestion of the presiding chairman, Peter Kiolbassa, who called the meeting to an end, and lead the entire assemblage to church. Here prayers were offered for the success of the mass meeting.

    Why were these facts twisted, why were they so grossly misrepresented? Why is it that the Zgoda, which desires peace and unity, did not publish the copy of the minutes of the secretary of the mass meeting as was requested 3by the Dziennik Chicagoski, and as was agreed upon? Why were the results of the meeting padded with different meaning? Is this the right road to understanding and cooperation? Is not this a deliberate attack? Let those officials and members of the Polish National Alliance that desire unity answer.

    The results of the article that appeared in the Zgoda are summarized as follows: The protest plans of the committee of Fifteen were made in too much of a hurry. The Alliance is going to support this protest, but on different grounds, and after an understanding with our people abroad, along with the study of the situation has been made. Therefore, join the Alliance, and help this cause.

    It would be better for you, gentlemen, to take interest in these mass meetings and attend them. Your suggestions may become very helpful and useful. Instead, you are trying to create an independent stand. Then why are you asking for unity in this work? The mass gathering of January 1 4was just a beginning in our efforts to help our unfortunate people in Europe. Others are to follow, and the subject is going to be discussed more thoroughly. Open discussions will be held. why do you not make these gatherings more successful, why not have your ablest men represent the organization? They will see for themselves that many other minority groups participate. Why not follow the resolutions of the majority as we do? This step would be more favorable than the one which is being followed. Do not arouse the wrath of God by twisting the true facts which have been proposed by the Committee. Do not depend on a solution of this problem on the action of the next Congress at Washington, D. C. This kind of attitude will not bring about a peaceful settlement of our differences.

    The mere statement made by you "that the government has already taken certain steps to solve the question of Poland in order to have this before Congress, that the government is going to use various means in voicing its protests against the violent offenses of the three conquering nations of Poland, and 5then if we are convinced of favorable results shown by the next Congress, which is practically Republican, towards Poland, we will act." It is impossible to convince anyone through debates. This is hardly sufficient for such a grave problem. You want to be convinced first that this will bring results, and then agree upon it. Gentlemen, gentlemen, this is not the road to mutual agreement.

    Come to the next meeting if you have a desire. Familiarize yourselves with the procedure, but do not resort to the unpleasant road of distorting the news in the paper, for you will never be able to get the support of the press in general for many years to come. Let our papers serve us an instrument which will present our problem in an understanding manner. By enlightening the world at large with clear facts we will be able to elevate public opinion, and gain its assistance. Let our papers play this role, and public opinion will be with us. Let us not make it a battlefield for controversy.

    6

    This is the role we should play. This is the road we should take. There is no other way, no other route to solidarity. Drop any ideas of what Washington is going to do about the Polish question to the wayside, Let all of us strive to create better public opinion about our beloved country; let us become the guiding star for future betterment of our cause. Let us help those people who are trying to win a place in the world. Let Congress, as soon as it wishes, offer its help, but the freedom of making laws and resolutions should be left to the public.

    The last number of Zgoda was to be one of a peaceful nature. Various polemic articles and correspondence have been set aside, according to an agreement of the editors. It ...

    Polish
    I C, I F 2, I F 3, I H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 13, 1892
    Charitable Organization to Help Unfortunate Poles

    Sunday afternoon at 4 o'clock, the elder members of St. Stanislaus Kostki's parish will meet to organize a committee to aid the destitute in the vicinity of the parish.

    The first duty of the committee will be to investigate the condition of the poor and then follow a definite program for the solution of their problems. Every effort will be made to help the Poles who are poor.

    Almost everyone knows how little the few outlying private social organizations help. Their chance assistance is very meager, and those needing relief do not know where to apply for the necessities of life nor how to change their predicament for the better. Many do not even know what is waiting for them the next day. In many cases, those who give assistance to the poor do not know whether they are helping the right person or not.

    As a result, the poor have no alternative and turn to begging in the streets, and soon become habitual beggars. Those who hand out a few 2pennies to these unfortunate souls never get the satisfaction of knowing whether or not they have done the right thing, for many beggars are nothing but parasites.

    Unorganized charity creates a class of false beggars, parasitic leeches, and others who under the guise of poverty prey in the streets upon the people who help the poor. At every opportunity they fool and even rob the kindly donors. Such condition tends to create barriers for the really destitute. The generous givers become aware of the fact that they are being taken advantage of and become indifferent to their pleas. It is not enough to give to the begging poor: one must know the person whom one gives to, whether or not he is actually in need of help. The how, what, when, and who of giving is very important. The mere giving to the poor is a weak charitable substitute. What about the person who is ill in bed and not able to beg? What about those who need something to eat? Is it the proper food? All this only helps to break the morale of the destitute.

    This condition is pointed out to inculcate in the mind of our fellow citizens the gravity of the situation. Something must be done to alleviate 3the sorrowful plight of many of our people. The mere giving of alms, be it in pennies or dollars, does not solve the problem; on the contrary, it complicates it. What is mostly needed in many cases is the personal supervision of each unfortunate family. Through this means, the people will not only be helped materially but spiritually as well. Here personal attention can be given; sincere hope and hospitality imparted.

    I raise my head heavenwards and pray to the Lord for assistance. I do not ask for diamonds or gold to fall upon us, only for the hope the He will step on earth garbed in the cloths of man and direct the charitable work for the poor and bring to them everlasting joy and peace.

    (Signed)

    Father Vincent Barzynski

    Sunday afternoon at 4 o'clock, the elder members of St. Stanislaus Kostki's parish will meet to organize a committee to aid the destitute in the vicinity of the parish. The ...

    Polish
    II D 10, I C, I H, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 23, 1892
    Where There Is Fault, There Is Penalty (Editorial)

    No one society of people can exist without proper and lawful authority. Respect and obedience of this power are also social necessities. Every individual, be he a believer of a monarchic or democratic from of government, must accept these two fundamental axioms. Although there may be some who place monarchic government above republican, one cannot call them fools or cowards because of this. History shows us that a Monarchy can benefit the people within its realm. The people felt safeguarded under the crown of the king or prince. The Jews in the Old Testament tried various forms of government. Finally they desired a king for a ruler, Jehovah granted this wish and the Israelites were given a monarchic government. Some of their kings ruled them in brilliant style; all 2prospered. Dutiful obedience and respect paid the rulers was not harmful or degrading. All this was a result of earnest execution of duty.

    It often happened, and unfortunately it still occurs, that the kings who erroneously ruled their empires had power and still have this power. In their palaces they often imagined that their providence was not for the people, but that the people were created for them, by it. Their prejudices frequently betrayed them in their proceedings. They considered themselves a higher and better class, as if they did not belong to the common people. Because of their pride they looked down upon their subjects with disdain, as if all else was ended from their pedestals.

    The vanity of dominating heads often takes on great proportions from which 3flows despotism that only drags the people into laggardness. It is difficult to explain to oneself how civilized peoples can endure this disregard, abasement, oppression, and persecution.

    It is worthwhile in this respect to look into some of these sad symptoms. It is not only necessary to worship with deep respect the present reigning lords and the older members of the family, but also the small kingly child. Certainly this child of the throne has not passed through any different stages than the average mortal. It has its three-cornered pants changed as often as any other child. Yet it has the right to have the people pay it homage. Beside its crib it sucks the nipple of rich appanages for which the poor subjects must contribute. And what about the approach of the 4wedding day? It certainly would be a great day if these princely offsprings, whose blood has been weakened by marrying into the same strain, would marry a stronger and healthier person from another rank in order to revitalize their blood. However, court etiquette, pride, reason of state, and prejudice does not permit this unless all claim to the throne, etc., are relinquished. Everyone of such marriages, if they occur, is considered an insult to the royal family.

    Whom do the monarchs finally accept and tolerate on their regal steps? Does the ordinary individual from the rank and file have the privilege? No! One must have a certain birthright, hereditary family nobleness; at least a "de" or a "von" before his name. Who gets all the ranking army or civil appointments? Only a person from a count's or a baron's family. And no 5matter how brilliant the avera e person may be he must always make way for the chosen. There is only one trouble with this and that is: the people are not treated "al pari" but "a la parias" (as equal but after the equal).

    If this were only an end to all this, now fortunate many peoples would be! But pride of the kings, ambition of the tsars, and godless state rights of monarchs go much further.

    Who carries out these bloody wars that ruin nations? Who drives the youth, the flower of the people, to horrible slaughter and death? These drives are carried out by kings, tsars, and monarchs. Is it for the good of the people? Rarely do these rulers demand the laurels of Mars. These killings, 6this blind wasting of people is usually useless ambition - personal greed. For what did the soldier fight for at Woerth, Metz, Paris, etc.? For freedom and prosperity of the people? Oh, no! He fought in order to have a crown placed upon the Prussian resent, who is now nearing his grave, to make him a monarch and to fill his coffers with gold. He sacrificed his life so that generals could be decorated with medals for their valor, but this was not all. His force helped to take away from France two provinces, to pillage the churches, to take away the land of the bishops, like a Shylock taking away the last piece of life-giving bread. The bishops and priests were mistreated, the schools placed under non-religious tutorship, and the native tongue of the French, Danes, and Poles, were restricted. Representatives of the church shared the filthy cells and deathly dungeons 7with thieves and murderers. The poor soldier was also used to destroy monasteries and to kill the inmates who had sacrificed their lives to serve God and the people. For all of this the Catholic soldier spilled his life-giving elixir upon the horrible frontiers of war and reward: To see the Prussian banner fly with its black eagle.

    Today a relatively new and young prince has begun a different policy in respect to the treatment of people. He has a nobler heart, his love for the people is more sincere, his concern is of their interests. The Polish people under his rule have been rid of the shackles placed upon them by the Prussian political reactionary Bismarck. This cruel executioner of our people is now living his predatory existence in seclusion. He has been 8deserted by his clique and by his people.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Jan. 25, 1892.

    Austria, as a Catholic nation, has never oppresed our people from a religious standpoint. Other benefits of which our people are proud to boast about under the Habsburg regime, although not a result of love and justice, were bestowed because of political necessity. The Austrian Empire, glued together from various nationalities, could not force all these peoples under the German strickle. Each nationality, entering into the 9Habsburg realm, had its own past, history, religion, and native language. To amalgamate all these peoples into one was and is an impossibility, especially, since they have been knocking each other about for the rule of one another since the dawn of civilization. Therefore, Austria has chosen a different road. The many sections of this united country have been fused into a solid political bloc by giving each nationality the privilege of autonomic government, the right to continue the mother tongue, and the perpetuation of national tradition.

    There only remains one European country that does not foster this kind of treatment for other peoples under its rule. This one country is Russia.

    10

    This barbaric, this Tartar wild country, this godless nation filled with the upbringing of Byzantine vileness; today is wiping out alien peoples under its rule, and this is especially true of those of Poland.

    Our religion, our maternal language, our sprouting youth, etc., today is becoming the target of the Tsar's brutal murderers. There is no talk of justice, for the Muscovites have no knowledge of mercy. Righteousness cannot be found in the dictionary of the Tsar. Murder, robbery, falsity, treachery, imprisonment, and other barbaric words are on the tip of the Tartar, Mongol, Muscovite tongue. And what for? Only because these people happen to be Polish and Catholic. The clergy is abused, the churches are confiscated for loathsome Russian orthodoxism, and the schools 11are filled with vile Muscovite teachings that deny the right of Polish thought. The Polish nobility is being materially wasted because of compelled contributions, taxation and especially by economic experimentation.

    What are free Poles in America going to do about this? Are we to kindle the fires of revolution and conspiracy? Never! What for? Today on a field of battle or revolt one can easily be lost - never victorious. St. Thomas Aquinas, the angelic doctor of the church, tells us in his writings that only rebellion against tyrants is just and excusable when there is hope of throwing off the ties of bondage. The present situation in Russia warrants no such action. It would be suicidal. It would also be futile 12to become murderers. This would only bring us greater miseries, deathly burdens.

    There remains only one salvation for our people today: public protest. A protest that is general and loud enough to reach the ears of the entire civilized world. A protest in the name of heaven and earth to end this uncivilized and unmerciful attack on innocent people.

    We have a just right to protest against such savage treatment of people. We do not need the permission of any government to make this denunciation, for we do not acknowledge any of the present powers. There can only be one 13national government for our people and that is the Polish government. Some day our people will triumph and have their own country, their own government, and our people will find a place in the European scheme of things. Until that day we will not recognize any of the ruling countries. We have always scorned and we will continue to scorn any imposters who try to get into our graces, be they English, French, Spanish, or American. Demagogues will never be recognized by us!

    There was a time when one nation would bear the tyrannical treatment of another nation but time has changed this; conditions have altered and the people have altered with them. Today the wind is blowing in another 14direction everywhere. Kings and tears ought to sense this new trend and replace their old ideas about ruling people with ideas of catering to them. Nations in many parts of the world are turning to self-government-to republicanism. Old thrones are weakening, virtually tottering under this new movement. And if in the process of ruination the ruins spell oblivion for these tyrants and demagogues, it will be their own fault. They themselves have laid the foundations and the principles of their thrones. Wilhelm has as his slogan "Zerschmetern" and "Voluntas regis," while the Tsar's palace displays on its banner the words that were horrible to Nebuchadnezzer, "Mane, Tekel, Phares." They should take a hint from the words of the wise and remember the words of a former ruler of people, David. His profound words were: "Et nunc reges intelligite, qui judicatis terram."

    No one society of people can exist without proper and lawful authority. Respect and obedience of this power are also social necessities. Every individual, be he a believer of a ...

    Polish
    I C, III C, III H, I G, I H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 27, 1892
    One More Word Relative to the Protest Action (Editorial)

    Articles of a polemic nature are beginning to appear in Polish journals published in many parts of the United States relative to the manifesto issued by the Committee of Fifteen, which was organized by Father V. Barzynski, as a result of a meeting at the New Polish hall on January 15. The articles compounded at this session were printed verbatim in this paper the following day, and carried the collective ideas of those present in protest against the barbarous and abominable treatment of our people by the Muscovites. Although no one dares to deny the evident justness of the protest, some, nevertheless, express doubt for a repeated continuation at the present moment, and believe that whatever steps were taken already, will be sufficient.

    From a free discussion upon important questions, a light has been brought 2into view that spreads doubt upon those of the public who have been convinced of the matter on hand, yet are hesitant, despite the fact that the public, as a whole, has passed its mature opinion upon the subject. This has been proven by reversing the questions.

    The objections raised against the patriotic thought taken up by the Chicago committee have been victoriously repelled, and has finally merited the establishment of a counter plea. Let there be freely added to this discussion a few statements in order to clarify both sides of the issue.

    At the head of all this, we will place Father Vincent Barzynski, whose right as a priest to participate in this mentioned protest, which has been marked with the political stamp, has been questioned by an unjust attack.

    Polish clergy has always lead the way for the continuation of patriotism 3among our people. It has comforted the citizens during the dreadful days of trouble and strife. It has appeased their anxiety during their endless wanderings on the cross-roads of life. It has brought relief to those in pain and despair. In comparison to other classes of people, we had a like number of heretics and traitors. No group has distinguished itself equally on the grounds of consecration, or plucked as many thorns and palms of martyrdom. This continues even today. There is more anger thrown upon the Polish, and more oppression inflicted upon them now than at any other time. This is also true of those under the Russian dominance. The priest, because he has answered a calling, and sacrificed his life to God and the people, is faced with direct poverty, deprived of the many privileges, and subjected to endless police investigation.

    If we will turn back the pages of Polish history to the last years of dying republicanism, we will find Fathers Krasinski, Konarski, Stasycz, Naruszowicz, and Kollataj, making a bold attempt to ease the burdens of 4religious belief, making a change in social reform, and improving the education of the younger generation. And why should not these same brilliant virtues be imitated by our present day Polish clergy?

    Polish ideals have always been united and inseparable with the ideals of Catholicism. It would be useless to separate them. Poland's cause would be mortally wounded by this severance from Roman Catholic religion. This makes the connection of the Church with Poland indispensable.

    This is readily realized by our enemies, therefore, they, above anything else, prey upon the representatives of the church. Our people, filled with the traditions of Poland, try to emulate them. There is no sophistication attached to this, only the pure logic of the common individual. They follow the concepts of their people, of their religion, and their clerical representatives.

    Therefore, Father Barzynski, whose efforts to establish the Polish 5emigrant in America, are well-known to every Pole, has a perfect right to help the Polish people abroad. And if he is the initiator of this idea, all the better. He took into his hands the entangled threads of Polish affairs and interests in America, organized a great center for them in Chicago, where many other nationalities had a foothold, managed the affairs of many of his parishioners, and gained knowledge of the attitudes of his group in his parish. Having an understanding of the religious attachment of the Polish people, he had in many respects an opportunity to also find out about their feeling for the Poland of old, and her oppressed people. Realizing their desires, and seeing that they did not know how to go about to help their suffering brothers in Russia, or where to go to get this aid, Father Barzynski came to their assistance. His helping hand was unanimously accepted by them.

    The following is the conservative conception of a persistent protest, and its results. A collective protest of all the Poles in America against the actions of Russia, as a primary political act, will bring 6about a favorable result. It will not only bring into the picture the importance of this protest to the many other nationalities living under the wing of liberty, but it will also present a better picture of Poland and her people. It will take fire like a prairie blaze, and spread quickly throughout the country, and throughout the world. This universal notoriety will bring about a new political factor to be reckoned with.... for the world a new picture.... for Russia an unexpected move. This action will be both Christian and human. It will gain the recognition of Americans, who hate tyranny and inhuman treatment of people. This action will also gain unlimited gratitude from our people in Russia, who are under the clutches of a merciless tyrant.

    A majority of the Poles in America have come from Galicia and Prussia. They are not familiar with the crack of the Tsar's whip, which is wielded upon the Poles under his command. It was to their good fortune that they were able to leave the ranks of their brothers, and come to this country to prosper under its democratic rule. Because of this good fortune, they 7ought to join hands with other Polish people living in the United States, and show to the civilized world the monstrosity and vileness of the Russian rule.

    Why should this group stay dormant relative to the joint action of this protest? To offer a helping hand, would be the least they could do against the officially announced and notorious slogan of the Tsar. His statement, "Wipe out everything that is Polish under our rule," reverberated throughout Europe. Why should they tolerate such barbarous ambitions?

    This unpardonable war against a helpless people is imperiling them with extermination. It also endangers the position of the Pole in the eyes of the world. Here in America, we are not so much concerned about historical rights guaranteed by treaties or the privileges of the people, as once existed before the insurrections. However, there is great concern 8about our race, about the self-existence of our people who are being subjected to a systematic scheme, which in the end, will wipe out their existence entirely. A system of cruelty unheard of to the present day in the annals of Christian history.

    There are going to be many objections presented against this protest. However, they will come from a source unfamiliar with the true circumstances. These will be the first ones to voice objections against the idea of a joint protest of the Christian world against the Muscovites. Yet, never in the one hundred year reign of Tsars in Russia was there ever a more shameful mistreatment of people, and against the right of God.

    It is not surprising that as soon as this news of the Tsar's actions reached European countries, and crossed the vast expanse of the Atlantic ocean our people in America became pierced with consternation.

    9

    Tasting the seed of freedom, sharing the liberty that was so well-founded by Washington and Franklin, and upheld by Lincoln, we began to realize what it really means to live on free soil. Our hearts recoiled upon hearing of the severe blows dealt to our people by the hand of the Russian government, of the enforcement of merciless and drastic laws, not mentioning the wilfulness and abusiveness of the barbarous gangs.

    If you will picture in mind the green meadows, the fields of clover which were cultivated by the bloody perspiration of our forefathers, and the pine groves, and compare it with present pillaging of this land and people, you will have some conception of the present situation. And if you will take the one time splendor of the banks of the Vistula, the beauty of the Bug, and the glory of Niemen and present it to the people, and imprint upon their minds the destruction of these lands, along with the buildings and murdering of people, you will be doing yourself and your countrymen an honorable favor.

    10

    A joint protest in this respect will bring the Polish people honor and respect of the entire world. A democratic loving people have always sympathized with those trying to gain the freedom they have lost. The many nationalities in the United States cannot but admire such action of a minority group, for they value the freedom offered them by their adopted country. This stand for the martyred people abroad will create for them a better position as a group in the American scheme of things. We will be regarded with high esteem, out of which will evolve many happy returns.

    This protest action will give out people for the first time an opportunity to voice their protests, which will be heard by all in America and the world at large. This blended voice, filled with the ardour and love for what is Polish, will reach the ears of other Poles scattered the world over. With their cooperation, our voice will quickly span the ocean like a flash of electricity, and reach its goal quicker than a dispatch sent by the ocean 11cable, and give the unfortunate Pole under Russian dominance a ray of hope. This will awaken them from their sleep of the martyred, drive out their pessimism, and restore in them the determination to withstand the ravages of the mad Muscovites. The joy of becoming free will envelop them once again.

    Political quietism, or passive idleness, followed by factions in some countries, has brought about a succession of slothfulness and work abandonment. There is never a moment in the life of a group of people when political thought cannot be reformed, when enacted laws for adequate social action cannot be revised. It never pays to be idle, if one wants to progress. "Per angusta, ad angusta," little but constant deeds will bring great results, providing it is practiced by all with exertion and enthusiasm. Always with God and forward with God!

    Then one of the most important facts to be remembered by our people 12during times of peace is to train itself through such rigorous disciplinary action as to be fit and able to step forth with greater action and decision in case any endangering problems are to be faced. If we would once and for all shed our old habits, which waste our energy and secure our means of existence. This kind of indulgence only leads it to tug at the rope in many directions at once, instead of in one direction. If it would only learn to follow the teachings, which are clear as crystal, of those that fight for the continuation of patriotism, and not listen to the scatter-brained philosophers. If it only persued instruction on a small scale, it would be able to prepare itself for the great events, throw its sword into the arena of world events, and turn the tide of events to our side.

    At the present time, as a dusky veil is covering our horizon, which blights out the least enlightening ray of hope, a voice comes to our assistance from a source least expected. It comes from those that have been forced to go elsewhere to eke out a living because of economic conditions, and 13who were thrown upon the uncertain fields of emigration. These Poles that came to this country under such circumstances had to make the best of anything, without any one's help. They struggled to cut a niche in the American scheme of things alone.

    These are the ones that are a shining example of what can be accomplished by our people. It ought to be followed by all our people, because it teaches self-help. This spirit, so predominant in the Anglo-Saxon peoples, is lacking in our people here in America. In public matters, we have always turned to strange hands, never realizing that this kind of action lessens our position in public affairs, and unmindful of the fact that if we do not do things on our own initiative, and exert our own energy in lifting ourselves from our misfortunes, no one else will. This is proven by the news of our fallen credit from the financial markets. In London's Lombard Street, and the Wall Street of New York City, where precarious business enterprises are readily advancing money, our credit has fallen to zero. These financial centers would not give 14us three pence. It is apparent that no one is interested in our cause enough to take a small risk.

    Therefore, it is necessary for us to get into action. Actions are more readily recognized than arguments. The adage, 'Actions speak louder than words,' is known to many. All the Poles in America should join the ranks of those who have started in this direction by a representative few. A protest of this kind will serve a twofold purpose. It will be beneficial to us, and it will show to the eyes of other peoples that the Poles are progressive.

    In order to become victorious in our aims, we must follow the example of those who have joined the protest by becoming thoroughly familiar with the situation. We must school and educate ourselves in self-support, self-help, plus the pluck and daring of our forefathers. Although we have brought with us our poverty from our native land, we have an opportunity to rise above this in this free nation. Despite 15our hardships, We are beginning to see a way to the clear road of success and happiness. We try to accumulate knowledge in the public schools, take interest in the affairs of the United States, and also direct our attention to our people abroad. In the latter direction, we are doing the best we can under the present circumstances. With this start, we are able to send a little ray of hope across the seas. Our voice will be heard along all the frontiers of civilization, and our protest will be considered before the tribunal of public opinion.

    Our efforts in America will be pleasing to God, for they have flowed with smoothness and decorum. We should never forget in our troubles the prayer of Jesus Christ in the garden asking for strength from his Father.

    Almighty God, take away from us this cup of bitterness, and deliver us from the evil of our enemies!

    Articles of a polemic nature are beginning to appear in Polish journals published in many parts of the United States relative to the manifesto issued by the Committee of Fifteen, ...

    Polish
    I C, I A 1 a, I B 4, I F 4, I F 6, III C, III H, I H, I J