The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 06, 1891
    The Press Criticizes the United States Government for Mistreatment of the American Indians (Editorial)

    The United States Government has been criticized very severely by the European and American press for its mistreatment of the American Indians. There are indications that Uncle Sam has discredited himself by his inglorious war with the Indians. Did Uncle Sam, in reality, cunningly bait the Indians into war so as to get rid of his red-skinned children, as is maintained by malicious persons? No! Fortunately, it is not as bad as that. The United States Government has not committed infamous acts, but there is no doubt that it lost its respect on account of the lack of tact displayed by government agents at the Indian reservation camps.

    It does not make much difference to the Indians whether the government of the pale faces has disgraced itself or merely lost its respect. The result is the same. It plunged them into despair. When they took up their weapons, after being provoked and because they did not want to submit themselves to mistreatment and unmerciful beatings, the pale faces began to kill the old masters of this land, the rightful owners of these territories.

    2

    It may be said, however, that the United States is guilty of not watching the fingers of the government agents at the Indian reservation camps, and these fingers were, indeed, very long. They grabbed whatever was possible at every opportunity, and regardless of means. These agents were appointed for only four years; honce, they tried to make it as profitable as possible and, as the control was not strict, they speculated with supplies and rations entrusted to them. This was done is such a way that it was a source of good income at the expense of the Indians. The Indians were driven not only to despair, but almost to madness, and on account of this, a war against the Indians was fought which blackened the good reputation of the United States.

    In this particular instance the deficiency of our institutions is manifested more clearly than in thousands of other cases to which, because of being so common and familiar to us every day, we do not pay any attention.

    There will be no order as long as our public offices (which ought to be filled by men of not only unquestionable integrity but of great ability and long experience) are filled by men who have nothing behind them but a political career.

    3

    All public offices, especially the higher ones, should be entrusted to persons with the proper qualifications, who have passed an examination, and who have a good record. This is practiced not only in all civilized countries, but also in those which are considered uncivilized, as China.

    No one has a right to maintain that it is impossible to establish order in a republic where the highest offices, that is, those of the President and the Cabinet members, must be changed every four years. Where there exists a civil service system, there exists a good foundation which, with good will, can be further developed and gradually adopted everywhere.

    This is the time for establishing order in the Republic of the republics, which is proud of having model institutions. It would save the United States many losses and many humiliations. Much water will have to flow down the rivers before this will be accomplished. In the meantime, the redskins may be entirely exterminated. Today's telegraphic dispatches brought news of stubborn fighting with the Indians, and rumors are being spread that General Mills has been killed. It would be a great pity to lose this man, who would rather appease the Indians, without bloodshed and who might have been able to save the honor of the country.

    The United States Government has been criticized very severely by the European and American press for its mistreatment of the American Indians. There are indications that Uncle Sam has discredited ...

    Polish
    I G
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 22, 1892
    Two Thousand Poles Take Part in Annual Celebration of the 1863 Uprising

    Over two thousand Chicago Poles participated in the annual commemoration of the uprising of 1863, last night, in the auditorium of the Polish School of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish. Just before the opening of the program the parish orders of the Knights marched in and were seated in their special places.

    J. Arkuszewski, who has been asked to become president of the Polish Patriotic organization for the ensuing year, called upon the secretary of the society Ignacy Machnikowski, who asked Father Barzynski to offer a prayer in honor of the anniversary.

    After the prayer, one of the teachers of St. Stanislaus Kostka School Mr. Jarzebski gave an interesting and illuminating reading about the part 2he took in the uprising of the Poles in 1863. He gave a vivid description of his activity in this revolt against Russia, European politics, and their attitude toward the Polish people. The audience was greatly pleased with this. The church mixed choir sang numbers appropriate for the occasion, after which a special drill was given by the order of the knights.

    The well-known member of the Society of the Name of Mary, P. Ligman, delivered the following address:

    "Dear listeners, we have heard what has been read to us about the misfortunes of the uprising of our people. You were told that our Russian enemy, which pounced upon us like a beast, has doubled its cruelty upon our people. Like a child who recalls with feeling the misfortunes and sacrifices of its mother, we are deliberating about the conditions of our people abroad, who were greatly mistreated in 1863, when we were without power. The enemy has torn from our hands the liberty of our fathers and is striving to wipe out the 3remainder of the treasures: the deeply imbedded faith and the love of our people. The latter shows a close attachment to the mother tongue throughout the annals of Polish history. Our enemy, realizing the might of these jewels, is doubling its forces in order to obliterate the last of Polish tradition. But our unwavering love for these two pearls of our people has thus far withstood the ravages of the Tsar.

    "This example can be likened with that of Job, who suffered greatly. Because of his sickness and misfortunes all of his friends and even his wife left him. In this respect France has deserted us after we helped her for many years. Many of our soldiers lost their lives fighting for her cause in former years. Their blood has tainted the soil of Spain, their perspiration the sands of Egypt, their feet the frozen shores of the Volga, and in reality most of the battlefields of Europe. Today, France is renouncing her relations with us in order to win the favor of Russia.

    "Austria has followed in the footsteps of France. And Austria gained her 4freedom by the sacrifice of our flesh and blood. But when we wanted to regain our freedom in 1863, Austria severed all her relations and obligations with us.

    "In this respect we have been deserted by our allies, just as Job was deserted by his associates.

    "Just as Job remained faithful and rose above the disrespect of his wife, who had added to the miseries placed upon her husband by God, many of our people are being unmercifully punished for their faith in God. Because of this the European press has spread propaganda against our religion and clergy. This type of attack is doing us more harm than the violence of the Russians.

    "My dear friends, you all know without any hesitation that a religious Pole is more reliable than a non-religious one. The latter is more vociferous 5than active and likes to boast about his partriotism beside a schooner of beer, while at the same time he tries to intimidate the religion of our youth.

    "Could we call an individual of this kind a patriot? To do this would be unsound, unwise, and dangerous.

    "After a long period of suffering Job was returned to his normal self by the word of God. All his health, all his riches were returned because he withstood all ridicule through his patience and his goodwill toward God.

    "We ought to follow this example for it is apparent that we are undergoing a like test. Let us not falter under this cloak of hardship that is becoming heavier at the present time; let us not waver in our faith in God and in our love for our people, and God will reward us for our patience and faithfulness."

    "Remembrance of Poland," was sung as a solo by Anthony Huntowski.

    6

    Two Thousand Poles Take Part in Annual

    Celebration of the 1863 Uprising

    [continuation from previous issue]

    The first order of the Knights that embodies the young members of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish, under the name of Cadets, garbed in slate-blue uniforms adorned with epaulets and military cords, marched on the stage and in the aisles, displaying their skill in military drill. The audience was greatly pleased by this demonstration and hoped for more. This desire was fulfilled when the regular order of the Knights presented their drill maneuvers.

    The Knights of the Order of St. Martin performed a brilliant demonstration on the large stage floor. Their rigorous training was evident as they executed every order. The gallant command, the response in unison, and 7the various rotations displayed the potentialities of this order in case of war.

    The audience was greatly impressed by this military performance; those who kept indoors because of the severity of the weather missed an unforgettable event. Many persons in the audience showed signs of envy when they saw their friends wearing uniforms of officers. It was apparent when these people sighed that they were sorry for not having joined an organization such as this. Now they are denied the wonder of the public eye, for they are a part of the spellbound public.

    In the place of our noted friend and patriot Mr. Jozwiakowski, who was suddenly taken ill, Szczesny Zahajkiewich our own poet, novelist, and active organizer of the Polish Dramatic Guild delivered an address. He was sorry to see that this spacious hall was not filled to its capacity 8on such an auspicious occasion. He hinted that business interests had detained those who had intentions of attending and that deep in their hearts they cherish the thought represented by this commemoration. "Many of our people, here in America, are afflicted with the disease of religious disbelief. They should be shunned by us. We should believe strongly enough in the hope that we shall see Poland a free country once again, but we must never forsake the thought of God, for without him our cause will be lost. Our patriotism must have in its background the recognition of the will of God; it must be supported by the word of God, which gave Christianity the endurance to rise above paganism, and which will in the end give us the banner of victory and our enemies the flag of defeat."

    At the conclusion of this stirring speech, a men's chorus group came to the foreground. "Song of the Brave" was rendered in true musical style and received as much applause as did the speaker.

    9

    A second order of Cadets performed for the audience. This group's versatility showed that our Polish Church Societies bring good results and allayed all doubt of time being wasted.

    J. Kondziorski, favorite singer of Chicago Poles, sang in his resonant bass voice "Utarczka" (Skirmish), to the enjoyment of the crowd. After this followed a regulation drill of the Guards of the Queen of the Polish Crown. This included a bayonet drill and a mock skirmish. In this latter maneuver one of the guards lost his cap by a sweeping pass by one of the rifles. The soldier's gesture denoted that he was fortunate that it was not his head. This drill brought a light of hope that our guardsmen would fare well in a war dance with the Muscovites. The public was greatly pleased by this army routine.

    The choir of mixed voices sang "Faith" with such ardor that even the audience was prompted to raise their voices and join in the singing.

    10

    The Reverend Father V. Barzynski delivered the concluding speech of the evening in honor of this solemn patriotic anniversary. His speech, filled with the words of God and the indomitable spirit of Polish patriotism, resounded throughout the entire hall. He spoke of the hope that this uprising of 1863 brought to the people, its misfortunes, and its sad results. However, he pointed out that emigration and colonization of the Pole to other countries of the world did not spell doom for the cause of Poland. Instead it was a definite gain, a marked step in the direction of the liberation of the Poles, and the establishment of a free Poland. As a concluding gesture, Father Barzynski requested those who participated in the January uprising of 1863 to write of their experiences, and from time to time they will appear in this paper.

    A prayer for the souls lost in this cause and for all of Poland was then offered by Reverend Barzynski.

    Ignacy Machnikowski,

    Secretary of the Affair.

    Over two thousand Chicago Poles participated in the annual commemoration of the uprising of 1863, last night, in the auditorium of the Polish School of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish. Just ...

    Polish
    III B 3 a, III B 2, I A 2 a, III C, III H, III E, I C, I G, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 23, 1892
    Where There Is Fault, There Is Penalty (Editorial)

    No one society of people can exist without proper and lawful authority. Respect and obedience of this power are also social necessities. Every individual, be he a believer of a monarchic or democratic from of government, must accept these two fundamental axioms. Although there may be some who place monarchic government above republican, one cannot call them fools or cowards because of this. History shows us that a Monarchy can benefit the people within its realm. The people felt safeguarded under the crown of the king or prince. The Jews in the Old Testament tried various forms of government. Finally they desired a king for a ruler, Jehovah granted this wish and the Israelites were given a monarchic government. Some of their kings ruled them in brilliant style; all 2prospered. Dutiful obedience and respect paid the rulers was not harmful or degrading. All this was a result of earnest execution of duty.

    It often happened, and unfortunately it still occurs, that the kings who erroneously ruled their empires had power and still have this power. In their palaces they often imagined that their providence was not for the people, but that the people were created for them, by it. Their prejudices frequently betrayed them in their proceedings. They considered themselves a higher and better class, as if they did not belong to the common people. Because of their pride they looked down upon their subjects with disdain, as if all else was ended from their pedestals.

    The vanity of dominating heads often takes on great proportions from which 3flows despotism that only drags the people into laggardness. It is difficult to explain to oneself how civilized peoples can endure this disregard, abasement, oppression, and persecution.

    It is worthwhile in this respect to look into some of these sad symptoms. It is not only necessary to worship with deep respect the present reigning lords and the older members of the family, but also the small kingly child. Certainly this child of the throne has not passed through any different stages than the average mortal. It has its three-cornered pants changed as often as any other child. Yet it has the right to have the people pay it homage. Beside its crib it sucks the nipple of rich appanages for which the poor subjects must contribute. And what about the approach of the 4wedding day? It certainly would be a great day if these princely offsprings, whose blood has been weakened by marrying into the same strain, would marry a stronger and healthier person from another rank in order to revitalize their blood. However, court etiquette, pride, reason of state, and prejudice does not permit this unless all claim to the throne, etc., are relinquished. Everyone of such marriages, if they occur, is considered an insult to the royal family.

    Whom do the monarchs finally accept and tolerate on their regal steps? Does the ordinary individual from the rank and file have the privilege? No! One must have a certain birthright, hereditary family nobleness; at least a "de" or a "von" before his name. Who gets all the ranking army or civil appointments? Only a person from a count's or a baron's family. And no 5matter how brilliant the avera e person may be he must always make way for the chosen. There is only one trouble with this and that is: the people are not treated "al pari" but "a la parias" (as equal but after the equal).

    If this were only an end to all this, now fortunate many peoples would be! But pride of the kings, ambition of the tsars, and godless state rights of monarchs go much further.

    Who carries out these bloody wars that ruin nations? Who drives the youth, the flower of the people, to horrible slaughter and death? These drives are carried out by kings, tsars, and monarchs. Is it for the good of the people? Rarely do these rulers demand the laurels of Mars. These killings, 6this blind wasting of people is usually useless ambition - personal greed. For what did the soldier fight for at Woerth, Metz, Paris, etc.? For freedom and prosperity of the people? Oh, no! He fought in order to have a crown placed upon the Prussian resent, who is now nearing his grave, to make him a monarch and to fill his coffers with gold. He sacrificed his life so that generals could be decorated with medals for their valor, but this was not all. His force helped to take away from France two provinces, to pillage the churches, to take away the land of the bishops, like a Shylock taking away the last piece of life-giving bread. The bishops and priests were mistreated, the schools placed under non-religious tutorship, and the native tongue of the French, Danes, and Poles, were restricted. Representatives of the church shared the filthy cells and deathly dungeons 7with thieves and murderers. The poor soldier was also used to destroy monasteries and to kill the inmates who had sacrificed their lives to serve God and the people. For all of this the Catholic soldier spilled his life-giving elixir upon the horrible frontiers of war and reward: To see the Prussian banner fly with its black eagle.

    Today a relatively new and young prince has begun a different policy in respect to the treatment of people. He has a nobler heart, his love for the people is more sincere, his concern is of their interests. The Polish people under his rule have been rid of the shackles placed upon them by the Prussian political reactionary Bismarck. This cruel executioner of our people is now living his predatory existence in seclusion. He has been 8deserted by his clique and by his people.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Jan. 25, 1892.

    Austria, as a Catholic nation, has never oppresed our people from a religious standpoint. Other benefits of which our people are proud to boast about under the Habsburg regime, although not a result of love and justice, were bestowed because of political necessity. The Austrian Empire, glued together from various nationalities, could not force all these peoples under the German strickle. Each nationality, entering into the 9Habsburg realm, had its own past, history, religion, and native language. To amalgamate all these peoples into one was and is an impossibility, especially, since they have been knocking each other about for the rule of one another since the dawn of civilization. Therefore, Austria has chosen a different road. The many sections of this united country have been fused into a solid political bloc by giving each nationality the privilege of autonomic government, the right to continue the mother tongue, and the perpetuation of national tradition.

    There only remains one European country that does not foster this kind of treatment for other peoples under its rule. This one country is Russia.

    10

    This barbaric, this Tartar wild country, this godless nation filled with the upbringing of Byzantine vileness; today is wiping out alien peoples under its rule, and this is especially true of those of Poland.

    Our religion, our maternal language, our sprouting youth, etc., today is becoming the target of the Tsar's brutal murderers. There is no talk of justice, for the Muscovites have no knowledge of mercy. Righteousness cannot be found in the dictionary of the Tsar. Murder, robbery, falsity, treachery, imprisonment, and other barbaric words are on the tip of the Tartar, Mongol, Muscovite tongue. And what for? Only because these people happen to be Polish and Catholic. The clergy is abused, the churches are confiscated for loathsome Russian orthodoxism, and the schools 11are filled with vile Muscovite teachings that deny the right of Polish thought. The Polish nobility is being materially wasted because of compelled contributions, taxation and especially by economic experimentation.

    What are free Poles in America going to do about this? Are we to kindle the fires of revolution and conspiracy? Never! What for? Today on a field of battle or revolt one can easily be lost - never victorious. St. Thomas Aquinas, the angelic doctor of the church, tells us in his writings that only rebellion against tyrants is just and excusable when there is hope of throwing off the ties of bondage. The present situation in Russia warrants no such action. It would be suicidal. It would also be futile 12to become murderers. This would only bring us greater miseries, deathly burdens.

    There remains only one salvation for our people today: public protest. A protest that is general and loud enough to reach the ears of the entire civilized world. A protest in the name of heaven and earth to end this uncivilized and unmerciful attack on innocent people.

    We have a just right to protest against such savage treatment of people. We do not need the permission of any government to make this denunciation, for we do not acknowledge any of the present powers. There can only be one 13national government for our people and that is the Polish government. Some day our people will triumph and have their own country, their own government, and our people will find a place in the European scheme of things. Until that day we will not recognize any of the ruling countries. We have always scorned and we will continue to scorn any imposters who try to get into our graces, be they English, French, Spanish, or American. Demagogues will never be recognized by us!

    There was a time when one nation would bear the tyrannical treatment of another nation but time has changed this; conditions have altered and the people have altered with them. Today the wind is blowing in another 14direction everywhere. Kings and tears ought to sense this new trend and replace their old ideas about ruling people with ideas of catering to them. Nations in many parts of the world are turning to self-government-to republicanism. Old thrones are weakening, virtually tottering under this new movement. And if in the process of ruination the ruins spell oblivion for these tyrants and demagogues, it will be their own fault. They themselves have laid the foundations and the principles of their thrones. Wilhelm has as his slogan "Zerschmetern" and "Voluntas regis," while the Tsar's palace displays on its banner the words that were horrible to Nebuchadnezzer, "Mane, Tekel, Phares." They should take a hint from the words of the wise and remember the words of a former ruler of people, David. His profound words were: "Et nunc reges intelligite, qui judicatis terram."

    No one society of people can exist without proper and lawful authority. Respect and obedience of this power are also social necessities. Every individual, be he a believer of a ...

    Polish
    I C, III C, III H, I G, I H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 07, 1892
    Election Aftermath (Editorial)

    Again we have been defeated. Last year we were beaten by a split in the Democratic ranks, but this year we have been defeated by a division within our own ranks. In the preceding year, we at least were rewarded by having our own candidate elected to the office of city treasurer. This year, we find no such consolation.

    Last year, as well as this year, we can blame no one but ourselves for our sad showing in the election returns. The same individual was responsible for the results each time. Will this be a lesson to us?

    Let us ponder over these two elections. Last year, as it is known, there was a split in the Democratic party. Heavy clouds of doubt shrowded its ranks. It was feared that the Republican candidate for mayor would get into office, 2although there was a slight misunderstanding in the Republican ranks also. But this break in the Republican ranks was not as severe as the break on the opposing side.

    In the many public mass meetings and in some of the daily papers, the failure to agree upon a Democratic candidate for mayor was blamed upon the Poles. It was pointed out that the good of the party depended upon a solid vote for the regular Democratic candidates by the Polish citizens of Chicago. Only this solid support would avert the crisis in the Democratic ranks. It was emphatically pointed out to the Polish citizenry that the fate of the party lay in their hands, that if they divided their votes defeat was inevitable, and would be followed by heavy losses to the party and to their group.

    Yet, persons were found who favored a split in the regular Democratic party. They expended untiring effort in creating friction in the party ranks, especially in the Sixteenth Ward. It was in this ward that great pressure was put on the Polish citizens to vote for a German candidate. At the head of 3this faction was the former alderman, who called himself a Pole, but worked for the benefit of the Germans at the expense of the Polish people.

    What were the results? It is true that a polish candidate for city treasurer was elected, truly a proud victory for the Poles. Also, Alderman Kunz was victorious, despite the intrigue. However, a Republican candidate for mayor, Hemsted Washburne, was elected by a plurality of a little over two hundred votes. This in itself was an example to our people. It definitely proved that if the Polish people had voted as they were told, and had not listened to the agitators, a Democratic mayor would have been elected by an undisputed majority. As a result, a score or even a few hundred Poles would have benefited by being placed in the various vacancies that come with a change of government in the city hall. Instead, many lost their positions.

    What happened this year? We tried to assure the victory of one of our own candidates for west Town collector. This was no easy task. Not merely one ward 4was concerned, but fourteen. In most of these wards, the Polish population was small. But the support of the Democratic party, plus that of the Labor party, gave August Kowalski a splendid opportunity to emerge victorious. What made us concerned was the entrance of an independent candidate for Alderman in the Sixteenth Ward. The same individual who could not get enough votes in the primaries to be nominated, and who last year and responsible for the break in our ranks, again tried the same trick.

    The Germans in the West Side were gravely insulted. They had just reasons. They had been promised a share in the victory of the Democratic party if a Polish candidate for West Town collector were elected; because of this, the Poles of the Sixteenth Ward wanted to work for the regular German aldermanic candidate. Besides, they had the promise of the before-mentioned "Independent" that the would drop out of the race as soon as the primaries showed that the votes were against him. But, instead, this person stepped out and tried to wrench victory from a German candidate. The Germans had a right to feel offended.

    5

    They said, "If this is the way the Poles are going to cooperate with us, then we will not support them." The German population greatly outnumbered the Polish in these fourteen West Side wards. The Poles could only boast of a strong Sixteenth Ward, and it was there that the split in the vote occurred.

    The outcome of the election was as expected: A Democratic supervisor and clerk were chosen, the collector's chair went to a Republican, and, as a result of the Democratic party split, the assessor's office was virtually given to the Republican candidate. All the German candidates were elected.

    The Germans have been triumphant. The Dziennik Chicagoski saw the danger and sounded a warning that the Polish candidate's chances of election as West Town collector were imperiled. A. J. Kowalski issued a last warning to the Polish people. He urged them not to listen to the agitators who had already caused enough harm during the last election. But what happened? This paper was severely criticized for supporting a German candidate for alderman in the 6Sixteenth Ward, and was called unpatriotic. The vituperations were so load that the Germans who were going to support the regular Democratic ticket decided to get revenge by voting for a Republican candidate for collector.

    Therefore, Kowalski lost a position that would have been his had it not been for the split in our ranks. We are indebted for this to a few score self-made "ardent" political patriots and their cohorts, men who last year used patriotism as an excuse for supporting a German instead of a Pole, and this year used the same idea to oppose a German. As a result, neither side made a gain. Will this be a lasting lesson to us? We have some doubts, for last year's lesson did not do us any good in this year's election. The political agitators again sacrificed an important office to further their small inconsequential ambitions.

    Again we have been defeated. Last year we were beaten by a split in the Democratic ranks, but this year we have been defeated by a division within our own ...

    Polish
    I F 1, I F 4, I G, I F 4, I C, IV, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 30, 1892
    Memorial Day (Local News)

    By the time many of our readers receive the Dziennik, a solemn ceremony of decorating the graves will be in progress. Proper ceremonies will be conducted at all the cemeteries and we hope that tomorrow we will be able to present a general outline of these ceremonies.

    A solemn unveiling of a statue took place yesterday at the Bohemian Cemetery at Irving Park, commemorating the fallen Bohemian soldiers in the American Civil War. An enormous bronze statue represents an ordinary soldier holding a banner in his left hand, grasping a rifle and bayonet with the right. The statue is an impressive pose, symbolizing the defense of the flag. A corner-stone for this statue was laid some two years ago. Approximately five thousand persons had congregated for the ceremony of unveiling the statue. Carter H. Harrison delivered the main address.

    By the time many of our readers receive the Dziennik, a solemn ceremony of decorating the graves will be in progress. Proper ceremonies will be conducted at all the cemeteries ...

    Polish
    III B 3 a, II C, I G
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 30, 1893
    Decoration Day (Editorial)

    It cannot be denied that Americans know how to select fitting days for national celebration--and to celebrate them accordingly. On the Fourth of July, they celebrate joyously the signing of the Declaration of Independence; the twenty-second of February is the anniversary of the birthday of George Washington, the father of his country; the last Thursday in November is set aside for the purpose of giving thanks to God; and it speaks well for their religious feeling, regardless of creed, that Christmas Day is included among the national holidays, so that everyone observes it, Christian and non-Christian alike.

    Equally stirring is the holiday which Americans celebrate today, May 30. While other days have been set apart for the celebration of happy events, this day is one of sadness. On this day, homage is paid to the soldiers who died for their country, irrespective of whether or not they had achieved 2fame. Everyone who fights for his country deserves to be remembered for the simple fact that he has offered it his life. Today, wreaths will decorate the graves and monuments of fallen defenders of liberty.

    Decoration Day is observed usually in cemeteries and about the monuments of great national heroes. It is not a day of mourning in the strict sense of the word. In accordance with the conception of most nations, he who dies in defense of right and justice is not to be mourned, but honored. We lay wreaths upon the graves of dead soldiers to show that we have not forgotten those who have served us, and that we are grateful to them.

    Appropriate exercises will be conducted today in various public buildings, especially in schools, where teachers and others will speak to the children on American history. Classes will be closed; in some states, all public offices are closed also.

    Practically every national group in America has its own heroes whom it honors 3on Decoration Day. The Poles have Kosciusko and Pulaski, besides many whose names are unknown. Let us hope that in not so long a time, we will have a monument to Kosciusko in Chicago, before which, on Decoration Day, we can conduct special Polish exercises in honor of our great hero.

    It cannot be denied that Americans know how to select fitting days for national celebration--and to celebrate them accordingly. On the Fourth of July, they celebrate joyously the signing of ...

    Polish
    II C, I G
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- June 15, 1893
    Militarism in Europe (Editorial)

    Today is election day in Germany. The elections will decide a very important question, namely: Will Germany, and with it, all the other powers of Europe, continue to develop militaristically, or has the time for a change arrived? The question whether there will be peace or war in Europe rests entirely with Germany.

    Naturally enough, if Germany decides to reinforce its army, other nations, willing or not, will want to follow suit. What will follow? It is difficult to foresee with accuracy. It is certain that a European war would be a lesser evil than a whole series of revolutions of the people against governments that are heaping unheard-of burdens upon them as the price of militarism.

    And these burdens are indeed enormous. A well-known political journalist, 2who writes under the pseudonym of Jacques St. Cere, has prepared a very interesting table showing the growth of European armies from the year 1869 to 1892. According to this table, European armies at full war strength in these years would be as follows: [Table omitted by translator.]

    As we can see from the table, Europe had a total of 6,598,000 soldiers twenty-three years ago. Today it has more than three times as many--22,248,000. Such rapid growth in so short a time is astounding. Just as eloquent is the table which shows expenditures of nations for military purposes over the same period of time. [Table omitted by translator.]

    The above table shows that the European nations spent 2228 million francs (443 million dollars) for military purposes in 1869, while in 1892, the same nations spent a total of 4069 million francs (813 million dollars) or twice as much--and this was not enough for some.

    Such a state of affairs cannot exist for long. The burden of taxes carried by the subjects of these governments is enormous; it cannot be increased 3indefinitely, although each government seems to be engaged in an indefinite increase of its armies. Is there a way out? The only rational escape would be a general disarmament; which the Pope, with his usual sagacity, suggests. But the great powers have no intentions of disarming, and the smaller nations must keep their forces on a wartime footing for their own safety. In such a condition, there remains nothing to be done, perhaps, except a cutting of the overstrained strings with the sword. Such will be the consequences as shown by the figures given above, in spite of all assurances of peace by the statesmen. It is also a result of the growth of German militarism, the fate of which will be decided in today's elections.

    Today is election day in Germany. The elections will decide a very important question, namely: Will Germany, and with it, all the other powers of Europe, continue to develop militaristically, ...

    Polish
    I G
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- October 10, 1893
    Polish Day Celebrated in Chicago Fifty Thousand Poles Participate in Greatest Day in History of American Poles

    Polish Day at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago will be inscribed in the history of the Poles of America in gilded letters. It was truly a magnificent spectacle, the like of which the Poles in America had never seen before. Even the Poles in Europe have not seen anything like it for many, many years. Exiled as we have been to another hemisphere by fate, we have shown that we have lost none of our nationalism or patriotism. We have proved that we exist on this side of the world, and that we are always ready to sacrifice ourselves for Poland. We have shown that here, in this most virile country in the world, we have been able to make a place for ourselves; we have established ourselves on a firm foundation, without having lost any of our national characteristics. Our parade through the streets of Chicago amazed the hundreds of thousands of 2people who witnessed it.

    The celebration at Festival Hall was magnificent; it was imbued with the traditions that united Kosciusko and Pulaski under the same banner with George Washington. On the one hand, our Day reminded America and the world of Poland and its bondage; on the other, it placed us in the proper light before the Americans, showing our strength and the high level of civilization we have attained. There is no Pole whose pulse did not quicken at the sight of so many thousands of people united by a common purpose, so many banners, amidst which the starry blue of the American flag served as a background for Polish white eagles, or at the words reminding us of our misfortunes, our heroisms, predicting a much happier future. The seventh of October was truly a day of triumph and joy for us!

    But we hasten to describe the events of the day, which will long be remembered by American Polonia.

    3

    Huge Colorful Parade

    The first part of the Polish Day program consisted of a huge parade through the city streets. Participants were fearful of the weather during the latter portion of the week. On the Saturday before, the Irish had celebrated their day, which had been utterly ruined by a downpour of rain. On the succeeding day and until Friday, the weather had been unsettled; then on Friday, it rained heavily all day. How many Polish hearts trembled with fear and uncertainty! Undoubtedly, Polish Day would have been held even under pouring rain, but how? The floats, which were the most magnificent spectacle of the parade, would not have been able to appear; instead of thousands of people barely a few hundred would have participated. The whole manifestation, which had been so carefully prepared, would have been well-nigh ruined. But as night fell on Friday, the skies began to clear, and the Poles were a bit heartened. Saturday morning dawned bright and clear, without a cloud in the sky. It was a beautiful day--Polish Day had to be a success.

    4

    The Poles of the Northwest Side gathered on Noble Street, in front of St. Stanislaus Kostka and Holy Trinity churches. In addition to the societies of these two parishes, the societies from St. Hedwig's and St. Josephat's also met here. It was a pleasure to see national and church societies marching side by side, hatreds and rivalries forgotten, a tear of emotion in each eye, joy and brotherhood in each heart.

    The communities from the south of Chicago gathered in St. Adalbert's parish. Two triumphal arches had been erected there, one in front of St. Adalbert's church and the other in front of Pulaski Hall. The colorfully uniformed members of societies from Bridgeport, Town of Lake, South Chicago, and St. Casimir's parish met there.

    It is unnecessary to add that all Polish neighborhoods were decorated with flags and flowers for Polish Day. Town of Lake also had its triumphal arches.

    5

    Finally, at about eight o'clock in the morning, two huge columns moved out toward Wood Street and Jackson Boulevard, (near Union Park), where they joined together under the leadership of Peter Kiolbassa, grand marshal of the parade. The parade then moved east down Jackson Boulevard, watched by throngs of spectators.

    The parade was headed by the Polish policemen of Chicago, who presented an inspiring sight. Then followed Peter Kiolbassa and the marshal of the first division, J. Napieralski. Mayor Carter Harrison rode alone in a carriage, followed by the carriages of the alderman and the Polish Day Central Committee. Then came the military and civil societies of St. Adalbert's parish. The sun, glistening on bright helmets and sabers, heightened the color of the red Krakus uniforms. Three enormous and costly floats from St. Adalbert's parish aroused wonder and admiration. One of the societies from the same parish carried large American flags, the corners of which were held by members. The girls dressed in Cracovian costumes, followed by the float "Poland in Flower," were generously 6applauded by the spectators.

    The societies of St. Stanislaus Kostka parish followed under the leadership of Joseph Paszkiewicz. The first of these was a troop of horsemen, numbering more than a hundred, who aroused the intense admiration of the watching throngs. The spirited horses, the uniforms of the men with their sashes of Polish national colors, presented a truly splendid sight. The float, "Slaughter of the Unites," followed the horsemen; then came the Cadets, the Falcons, and carriages with priests and prominent individuals. The figure of "America" was embodied in a float representing Poles on American soil. The float was followed by military societies, who in turn were followed by countless members of civil societies, both with and without Konfederatki [four-cornered caps], then more floats, more military societies, and finally, carriages. Everything was beautifully decorated with Polish and American flags and floral pieces.

    The second great division was led by A. Lisztewnik, who was surrounded by his numerous staff. Next in order was the well-trained Kosciusko Guard, of 7Milwaukee, followed by the Polish National Alliance Central Administration's beautiful float," Third of May". Then came the Central Administration itself, military societies, civil societies whose members wore Konfederatki, and then the floats and societies from Holy Trinity and the South Chicago parishes. Great applause greeted the float furnished by Mr. Meclewski, "Poland in Chains," and the St. Michael Archangel parish float, "Defense of Czestochowa". The members of military societies of both South Chicago parishes distinguished themselves by the splendor of their uniforms. The children's Cadet and "Kosynier" [originally soldiers of Kosciusko's army, armed with scythes] societies, led by L. Machnikowski, evoked great applause from the spectators. The ladies of the Star of Victory Society followed in carriages.

    Town of Lake was prominent in the third great division, which was led by Z. Schmidt. "Wanda" [Polish legendary figure] on horseback and a resplendent troop of mounted Uhlans followed behind the marshal and his staff. The young ladies of Town of Lake, dressed in colorful national costumes, presented a very pretty picture. Farther back, were the St. Hedwig parish float, "Christening of Lithuania," and the societies from Bridgeport and St. Josephat parish, 8with two large floats. The "Cracovian Wedding," and especially the float preceding it, representing a comical Jewish band, caused much merriment. A troop of mounted Uhlans from Bridgeport followed. Societies from St. Casimir's parish and their float, "Resurrection of Poland," brought up the rear of the procession.

    Hundreds of decorated carriages were interspersed throughout the parade. Words cannot describe the color and splendor of the picture. Out-of-town military societies from Michigan City, Indiana, and La Salle, Illinois, participated, while delegates from Buffalo, Cleveland, Red Jacket, etc., were also present. Innumerable flags waved, the jingle of the harnesses of the horses filled the air. Many women were dressed in national costumes or in white.

    The parade, which lasted until about one o'clock, presented the most magnificent spectacle at Michigan Avenue and Twelfth Street, where, in countermarching to turn north, the floats drew up side by side. Mayor Harrison viewed the parade from his carriage on Michigan Avenue. He said that he had never expected the 9Poles to produce so magnificent a demonstration. In his opinion, Polish Day was infinitely more impressive than German or Bohemian Day, to say nothing of the Irish.

    All told, there were sixteen floats in the parade. We list them as follows:

    1. "Washington, Kosciusko, and Pulaski" (furnished by St. Adalbert's parish). Figures of the three men stood in the center of the float upon a platform; behind them was the Goddess of Freedom. In front stood a cannon, beside which were four soldiers. At the very front of the float, were two feminine figures, representing "Peace" and "Triumph".

    2. "John Sobieski after the Victory at Vienna" (St. Adalbert's parish). King John, surrounded by a group of knights, stood upon a platform, several Turks kneeling before him. In the center of the float was a cross, before which stood a figure in white, symbolic of Christianity, which our hero defended.

    10

    3. "Poland in Flower" (young women of St. Adalbert's parish). This was the largest float of all. At the very top, toward the end, sat a regal figure representing Poland. Beside her and on descending levels, were a score or more figures, representing the various provinces and districts in Poland, each bearing the appropriate arms. The float was very effective.

    4. "Slaughter of the Unites" (St. Stanislaus Kostka parish). This float showed a little chapel toward which retreated an old man, a woman with a baby, and a number of children and older people. A wounded man lay on the steps of the chapel, a nun bending over him. In the center of the float stood a cross, at the foot of which knelt an allegorical figure representing "Martyrdom". On the opposite side stood Russian soldiers, their rifles aimed at the unfortunate martyrs to their faith.

    5. "Poles on American Soil" (St. Stanislaus Kostka parish). On a high platform in the center of the float, stood a figure with an eagle, representing "America". On one side of it were figures representing Poles arriving in 11America, on the other, a miner and a blacksmith. In the rear stood a group representing Polish-American citizens, among which were two figures in army uniform. This float was generally admitted to have had the greatest effect.

    6. "Copernicus, or The Polish Parnassus" (St. Stanislaus Kostka parish). A figure representing Copernicus seated under a canopy. Beside him was Kochanowski [father of Polish literature]; above him was Cardinal Hozyusz, a figure placing a wreath upon his head. In the center stood a globe covered with stars. In front were figures representing Mickiewicz [poetry], Chopin, with a gilded harp [music], Grottger [painting], and Kraszewski [Literature.

    Kraszewski was the foremost Polish historical novelist].

    7. "Siberian Mines" (St. Stanislaus Kostka parish). A very gloomy float.

    In the center was some kind of a hut cut into a cliff. On both sides, prisoners with their heads half shaved, wearing drab prison costumes, worked continually with pickaxes, their chains clanging. Beside them, Russian soldiers stood on guard. At the front was a prisoner who had collapsed from fatigue; a 12Cossack stood in position to strike him with the butt of his rifle, while a woman, also a prisoner, knelt, begging for mercy. The float was trimmed with pickaxes, knouts, thorns, and chains.

    8. "Constitution of the Third of May" (Polish National Alliance). This float represented Stanislaus Augustus [last king of Poland] under a splendid canopy, presenting the "Third of May Constitution" to Poland. Around him were grouped the representatives of all classes; an archbishop, noblemen, townsfolk, and peasantry. This float was very colorful and expensive. The figures were grouped by the well-known sculptor F. Baracz [winner of the Kosciusko Monument competition].

    9. "Stephen Batory Receiving the Envoys of Ivan the Terrible" (Holy Trinity parish). King Stephen, in armor, stood upon a platform, receiving the Muscovite envoys, who knelt before him humbly; around them stood Polish knights. The platform rested upon two cannons. This float was extraordinarily effective.

    13

    10. "Poland in Chains" (Meclewski and Piatkiewicz). A woman's figure dressed in white and representing Poland, wearing a crown of thorns, was chained to a cross. At her feet stood three young girls, representing Poland proper, Lithuania, and Ruthenia. Off to one side stood a Prussian and an Austrian soldier carrying arms, and a Russian soldier with a knout. A very tragic picture.

    11. "Defense of Czestochowa" (St. Michael Archangel parish). This float presented a large, accurate model of the Czestochowa Monastery, surrounded by figures of the Polish soldiers who defended it.

    12. "Polish Mother Teaching Her Children to Read, with a Sword at Her Side" (Town of Lake). The interior of a Polish home; the children grouped around their mother, who is teaching one of them to read.

    13. "Jadwiga and Jagello, or the Christening of Lithuania" (St. Hedwig's parish). Jadwiga and Jagello represented in beautiful costumes, upon a throne.

    14

    In the center stood a cross, and before it, the newly christened Lithuanians dressed in white. In front, stood an old man, destroying images of pagan gods.

    14. "Cracovian Wedding" (Two floats, Bridgeport). The smaller of the two presented a Jewish orchestra; the other, an elaborate wedding scene, which included more than a score of people in extremely colorful costumes. Grouping by Baracz.

    15. "Labor" (Bridgeport). The decoration of this float was very costly. In the center stood the Goddess of Prosperity, with the horn of plenty in her hand; around her, peasants at work. In front sat girls making laurel wreaths. It was a very effective picture. Grouping also by Baracz.

    16. "Resurrection of Poland" (St. Casimir's parish). This float was modeled after the painting by Elias. The scene presented a broken prison gate, from which emerged a beautiful figure representing Poland. In the foreground lay the figures of a number of soldiers [Russian, Austrian, Prussian].

    15

    The above description can give but a vague idea of the beauty and effectiveness of the floats described. It should be added that most of the floats were photographed during the parade.

    Parade in Jackson Park and Celebration at Festival Hall

    It was 1:30 in the afternoon before the military societies began arriving at Jackson Park. The ranks were re-formed at the Fifty-ninth Street gate by Peter Kiolbassa, who led the parade through the Fair Grounds.

    The parade moved eastward as far as the lake, then it circled the lagoon and the Hall of Commerce and proceeded to the Administration Building, and from there to Festival Hall. At Liberty Bell, the military societies formed a rectangle; at the Terminal Station, they saluted the Polish flag and arms. Previous to the arrival of the parade, Liberty Bell had been struck three times in honor of Kosciusko. The bell rope was pulled by 104-year-old Michael Adamski, 16of South Chicago, Judge [M. A.] La Buy, and others. The bell was decorated in Polish colors, with an appropriate inscription. Mr. McDowell, president of the Columbian Liberty Bell Committee, delivered a beautiful, though short, address expressing great sympathy for the countrymen of Kosciusko.

    The celebration at Festival Hall was one of the most impressive features of Polish Day. It started somewhat later than had been planned, due to the parade in Jackson Park, and ended after five o'clock.

    After the rendition of the "Third of May" polonaise by the orchestra, S. Slominski, president of the Polish Day Central Committee, formally opened the exercises with a short address. He called upon Judge La Buy to preside, and named F. Jablonski secretary.

    The program, which appeared in a previous issue of Dziennik [Chicagoski], was executed with practically no changes. Only Bishop Spaulding, who was to have delivered an address in English, was unable to attend because of illness.

    17

    In addition to a very beautiful musical program, three addresses were delivered, one in Polish by Doctor [C.] Midowicz, and two in English, by Judge La Buy and Mayor Harrison.

    We regret that lack of space prevents us from giving Judge La Buy's speech in its entirety; we submit the most important parts of it below.

    Judge La Buy's Address

    "Nearly every nation in the world is participating in this great industrial, commercial, educational, and artistic exposition. One nation is missing, however, and that nation is Poland. Yet, Poland was once one of Europe's foremost nations, a bulwark, a defender of Christianity. During the time when Jews were being driven from nearly every other country, Poland hospitably admitted them within her boundaries. In her many victories against neighboring kingdoms and empires, she was never greedy for either land or gold.

    18

    Poland defended Austria and Germany against the Turks at Vienna, and how have they repaid her?....Sobieski never demanded reward for his services at Vienna. These same nations are responsible today for Poland's absence from this exposition. Poland's rightful place at this exposition has been usurped by three great despotic powers of Europe.

    "After a period of absolute monarchy, which was followed by rule by the aristocracy, a convention or "Sejm" was called in Warsaw in 1778, which proved to be one of the wisest, most discreet, and most sensible bodies that ever deliberated over the rights of man. It was the delegates' intention to prepare a free constitution for Poland. This was just the time when a general movement toward freedom prevailed in all nations. France had shaken off its chains of feudal bondage and unfortunately changed its newly found liberty to a bloody tragedy. Here on the other side of the ocean, George Washington stood at the head of a new and free constitutional government created by his own wisdom and energy. He was aided in this work by our own unequaled patriot, 19Thaddeus Kosciusko. Amid so many historic events which fired the enthusiasm of patriots, the wisdom, sensibleness, and sober judgment of the Warsaw "Sejm" was well-nigh miraculous. The Polish constitution extended civil rights, established religious freedom, and wisely and justly limited the executive powers of the rulers.

    "In the closing years of the eighteenth century, the Polish banner was unfurled in defense of that country's liberty. It fell and rose again; then it fell once more--but never did it fall with disgrace to the nation. The Polish nation was subdued by despotism, tyrannical laws, and untold oppression. Polish exiles settled in other countries under more liberal governments, as in Switzerland, France, England, and finally, in the United States, where two million Poles sought refuge beneath the proud American flag.

    "We are gathered here to thank God for sending that great man, Christopher Columbus, to discover this continent. We American Poles are gathered here to 20declare our allegiance to the laws and government of the American nation. It is well that our ancestors, Pulaski and Kosciusko, helped Washington in his fight for freedom, for we now reap the benefits of that great victory. We are proud of the fact that Polish patriots fought in the battles of Bull Run, Wilderness, Shiloh, Lookout Mountain, and Richmond, in defense of the Stars and Stripes. We are here to congratulate ourselves that we live under the American flag. The American constitution is more liberal than the one accepted in Poland in 1791 [Constitution of the Third of May]; we have civil and religious freedom, which was crushed by tyranny and greed in Poland. We have defended the Constitution of the United States in the past, and we will defend it in the future. Liberty is the common heritage of both Americans and Poles."

    Address by Mayor Harrison

    Mayor Harrison delivered a brilliant address, which we submit in its entirety, reserving comment:

    21

    "Ladies and gentlemen: I was introduced to you as an American, but today I am a Pole. Since the days of my youth, I have admired Poland, and have learned of her tragic history. As a boy, I learned to love Poland. I learned to love Poland for the heroism of Sobieski, who stood as a wall against the Turkish deluge, thus saving Europe from the Crescent, making firmer the foundation of the Cross. I love Poland because it was the motherland of Kosciusko, who fought for the freedom of his own country and was defeated, but who previously had come to these shores to aid in our victorious fight for freedom. (Applause.) I love Poland because of Pulaski, who died in action at Savannah. I love Poland for the victories she has helped us achieve in war--and today I am proud to feel myself a Pole, for I have seen the triumphs that the Poles can achieve in times of peace. (Applause.)

    "Until recently, we had but few Polish citizens, and these were poor people. But they arrived here full of energy, from a land where they had been oppressed. Today, we witnessed....a splendid spectacle.....Nothing of the kind would have been possible in your motherland, in your beloved Warsaw, where the Polish 22language is barred even from the schools. For a century, Poland has been struggling for liberty; for a century now, no Polish child has dared to sing a hymn of freedom. How long would the Czar remain on his throne, how long would he dare trample upon millions of people if it were otherwise, if the children of that country were permitted to learn and sing Polish national anthems?

    "On seeing the street signs once in Warsaw, lettered in two languages--in Polish and, by order of the authorities, in Russian also--I remember thinking immediately of Chicago, which is second to Warsaw in Polish population. Here you can worship God in your own way, you can think and speak in Polish, and no one will deny you the right to do so. I thought to myself of the Poles in Chicago, where no tyrant's guards watch over them. (Applause.)

    "My friends, this exposition was created for the purpose of teaching, of educating; it is the greatest display of human intellect that the world has ever seen You can see here the architect's visions and the dreams of the poet crystallized, 23as if by a magic wand, into a reality that words cannot describe, into something which has never before been seen in any country, in any age. It is a wonderous object lesson, which teaches that only the people rule, while governments should be their servants. The Exposition teaches even more. It shows what can be accomplished by a people living in a free country.

    "That freedom, which is so indispensable here, reflects itself in you. This morning Chicago saw thousands of Poles, joyous, intelligent, respectable; your ladies were beautiful and intelligent; your children were such that I would be proud to be the father of any one of them. (Applause.) I saw many girls and young women on the floats. The sight moved my heart....; the whole parade moved through the streets of our city without mishap. (Applause.)

    "What inference can be drawn from this? The fact that our laws, which permitted the Poles to occupy the city streets to demonstrate their existence to the world, were not made to oppress the people. You have come from a land where 24kings oppress the people in the name of the law, where despots trampled upon you, hanging you, punishing you, all in the name of the law. Here in America, the law is different. Why was your parade permitted to use the streets of Chicago? Because the law here does not molest the people--it protects them. This teaches you that you are the people, you make the laws, you are the rulers. Why should a man resort to violence if the law protects and cares for him? The people make the laws and have the power to change them, for the general welfare.

    "While I stood watching the parade downtown, a man came up to me and asked: 'Why do you, as mayor, permit this sort of thing? Why do you allow the Poles to fill the streets and block traffic, to the inconvenience of other citizens?' I answered: 'How in the name of God and conscience could I refuse the Poles the one most solemn and splendid day they have had in a hundred years?' (Great applause.)

    25

    "It was a great day for me when I saw you marching down the street, delaying the followers of the golden calf in their daily chase; and you did this without police aid, without violence, by the quiet strength of your own dignity. You were Poles and American citizens, and I am sure you are learning to be good citizens. I was convinced of this in April of this year, when you elected me to office. And so I wanted to help you show the world that the American Poles are good citizens who respect the law, who are honest, industrious, and respectable. (Applause.) If this country were in danger, I am certain that an army of at least twenty thousand Poles, led by my friend, Peter Kiolbassa, would be ready to fight for their adopted motherland. (Great applause.)

    "It is a pleasure to talk to you, but everything must have its end, and so does my speech. In conclusion, I thank you for your attention and the good will with which you have received my words."

    26

    Address by Dr. C. Midowicz

    The last address was delivered by Dr. C. Midowicz in Polish as follows:

    "This year the eyes of the whole civilized world are turned upon this 'white city,' this city which houses the great Exposition of the powerful, young United States. Nations enjoying prosperity, having governments of their own, have presented the products of their labor here, staging celebrations and parades in order to attract more attention to their particular exhibits. Thanks to the good will of the city authorities, the flag of our native country, which has no place in Poland, flies here today. We are celebrating, then, a great national holiday--yes, a solemn holiday, for we are gathered here under the eyes of the whole world. We have shown that we exist, in spite of the fact that we have been erased geographically. We will continue to exist as long as a single Polish heart beats and we will settle there where freedom and the rights of man are not denied us.

    27

    "Although from the very beginning we have been an agricultural nation, it can be said that we bore arms from the very cradle of our existence. We fought there where freedom was endangered, either our own or a neighbor's, or when the freedom of mankind was threatened. Thus it is that a people who had learned to love freedom at the very dawn of history, could not but have gathered here to cry: Hail to thee, O Star-Spangled Banner! Hail to thee, O Free Land of Washington! We pay homage to your accomplishments. We have believed in those ideals which form the foundation of your existence, not merely from today but from the very beginning. When you, noble Land, arose to throw off the tyrant's yoke, our motherland produced heroes who came here to help in your struggle.

    "A century has passed, people have come and gone, but the memory remains. That memory touches our hearts, for lo! a hundred years later, the Liberty Bell peals....in honor of our great leader, in honor of him who always defended liberty, in honor of that great son of Poland, Kosciusko!

    28

    "We who live in this country, as adopted sons of a voluntarily chosen motherland, wish it the most successful expansion and the greatest glory.

    "Having no political existence, our homeland could not produce an independent exhibit of its products; but Poland was not altogether absent. In a small way, in the field of fine arts, we are here, unveiling the inner depths of Poland's soul, showing the emotions of Poland's children, and how they are able to express them. And in this field, under different conditions, we might have increased our display a hundredfold, for what we have shown is but a small portion, smuggled out of Poland by stealth. One of the conquerors of Poland boasts of a great painting--the work of our countryman Siemiradzki--as one of its outstanding works. Despite its great size and power, it uses the work of an oppressed people as its title to fame. The conquerors of Poland attempted to deny us the right to participate in the art competition, but thanks to the fair-mindedness of the Exposition officials, the attempt was frustrated.....The oppressed were permitted to compete against their conquerors--our existence was admitted, since the products of our work exist.

    29

    "We are gathered here today as representatives of a nation, to pay homage to the progress of this free United States, to express our joy at the remarkable growth of this country, and to assure the American people that, in common with the whole Polish nation, we the immigrants will always do our utmost for the good of America. As citizens who love freedom, we will strive to maintain the honor of its Starry Banner by quiet, persevering, conscientious work, and a deep respect for the law.

    "During the course of today's celebration, the desire to join the United States with another power was expressed. Permitting myself to use a symbolic comparison, I say that no power on earth can conquer the starry blue heaven.....What, if not the peaceful, cloudless blue, should envelop humanity? This symbol of freedom is very dear to the Polish White Eagle. It is our Eagle's desire that the starry blue of America, the blue of freedom, exist forever, and occupy even greater territory. Our Eagle is ready to shatter any cloud which would dim its brightness.

    30

    "A century has passed since two nations arose almost simultaneously in the performance of an immortal work: in America, independence was declared, in Poland, the Third of May Constitution was ratified. In honor of the kindred spirit of these two nations, I raise the cry: Long live the United States of America, and long live Poland!"

    The orchestral and vocal portion of the program was artistically successful. The orchestra, conducted by Mr. Czapek, was thunderously applauded for its rendition of the overture from "Halka" [Moniuszko], "Awakening of the Lion," and "Signals of War," by Wronski. The two numbers sung by the St. Stanislaus Kostka Girls' Choir, under the direction of A. J. Kwasigroch, were also heavily applauded. The girls were dressed in white and carried small Polish and American flags, with which they kept time as they sang "Hail Columbia". Their rendition of Polish songs was even better, if possible. The St. Stanislaus Kostka parish choir, under the direction of Mr. Kwasigroch, sang "Polish Heart". The Polish Singers' Alliance and the Wanda Society, conducted by A. Mallek, also 31sang very well.

    Festival Hall was filled to capacity--from eight to ten thousand people attending. The interior of the hall was beautifully decorated with the Polish colors and arms.

    Polish Day at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago will be inscribed in the history of the Poles of America in gilded letters. It was truly a magnificent spectacle, the ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 09, 1894
    Polish Military Societies in America (Editorial)

    We wish to take up the question of the Polish military societies in the United States of North America--a question which is irritating to many people and which; summed up, is as follows:

    There are approximately two hundred Polish military societies in the United States. Assuming that each one of them has at least twenty members, there are about four thousand Poles busy at the pastime of "playing soldier". Whether this pastime, which is quite expensive, has any deeper motives and significance, being therefore a practical thing worthy of support; or whether, on the contrary, it is only a vain showing-off, harmful at best, is a question which has been debated many times.

    Polish military societies have many opponents, who claim that these "playful knights" spend hundreds of dollars uselessly for showy colorful 2uniforms, fancy shakos, sashes, cords, etc.; that this money could be used for better purposes, for instance, to help the poor Polish working people. In their opinion, this is just a squandering of hard-earned money.

    Furthermore, they claim that the military societies are useless. Although every one of these societies has in its constitution a paragraph which says that the society desires to contribute toward the liberation of Poland--very likely by supplying soldiers--the pessimists maintain that in case of need these societies would be unable to send even a small number of soldiers to the battlefield. They say that our "knights" who settled here are so used to American ways and so burdened with families that they would lack the desire, the funds, and, especially, the military training. These pessimists are of the opinion that the soldiers who belong to the Polish military societies are soldiers in name only, just for parading; that they do not understand military drills, cannot shoot or use weapons; and that they have no competent instructors or officers with professional training.

    3

    Finally, we are coming to the last and the most important objection. The critics hold that, from the American point of view, it is unpatriotic to organize military societies in America for the purpose of using them later against the enemies of Poland. They say that if we are bona fide American citizens and derive benefits as such, we have no right to meddle in foreign politics, which may even be opposed to American idealism; also, that we have no right to create a state within a state. They even threaten us with interference of the American Government against such military societies.

    These three objections have a shade of truth, but only a shade. In reality, they cannot stand criticism.

    We present these objections extensively in order that we may contradict them fundamentally and prove conclusively that the Polish military societies are necessary and useful, that they can exist here and benefit us as Poles and as citizens of the United States. This is our frank opinion.

    4

    Not wasting time on empty phrases, we will proceed at once to analyze all objections made against these societies.

    As to the first objection, indeed, the military societies cost us a great deal. If we allow seventy-five dollars a year per average member for uniforms, weapons, "wasted time," etc., then the expenditure for four thousand Polish-American "Knights" would amount to about three hundred thousand dollars a year. This is a large sum, which, if wasted fruitlessly, would deplete the budgets of our military societies. But it is not wasted.

    As to the second objection, we will try to prove that the Polish military societies in America are not more useless playthings; that, on the contrary, they have very important, practical, civic, and nationalistic aims. This being the case, we must agree that the money spent by these societies is not wasted. Some people may say that there are other needs, more urgent, such as schools, libraries, welfare, etc., for which this money should be spent immediately. To this we will answer: No one can prescribe a common 5standard according to which man and society should satisfy their needs. Bread is essential to life, yet man does not live by bread alone, for he needs religion, education, family life, and political affiliation. He even needs such wholesome recreation as will not endanger his moral development. In other words, the military societies are not merely diversions. Besides the aims which will be discussed in answering the second objection, they also have one great quality, one merit which outweighs all deficiencies. This quality awakens the patriotic spirit in the hearts of our plain people. Polish banners, white eagles, colorful uniforms, rattling sabers, and muskets help awaken a love for the motherland there where it does not exist. Thus the Polish spirit is awakened. Symbols, colors, and ensigns are necessary. If we had no military societies, our Polish Day manifestations, held every year on May 3, would not be so grand; their echoes would not reverberate throughout America; they would not proclaim so loudly our national aspirations. Consequently, the expenditure for the upkeep of military societies, which is borne voluntarily by the members themselves, is not squandered money spent unproductively. This money is donated to an 6orphaned nation for her national cause, and for the donors' own benefit.

    The objection that military societies are useless is erroneous. Other national groups in the United States have societies which have their aims. Why should only our societies be without aims? If the Germans, the Irish, the Italians, the Scotchmen, the Danes, etc., have such societies, why shouldn't we Poles have them too? They are not better than we. Besides, the aims of all military societies, with the exception of special nationalistic aims, are clear and definite. The art of using weapons is of great value to a person everywhere, especially in America, where there is no great army, where civilians may be called upon to furnish their own protection. Furthermore, military drills are healthful, for they furnish gymnastic exercises which develop strength and are beneficial to the body. Finally, it is our civic duty toward our adopted country to be soldiers. It is not improbable that the United States may also be endangered by either an internal or an external enemy. We still remember the war alarms between 7Chile and Italy. This may occur again, and in such case it would be the sacred duty of the American Poles and other naturalized citizens to defend their adopted country. And who can defend it better than those who have been militarily trained?

    Likewise, our military societies could render a great service to Poland by contributing toward her reconstruction. Only we should not demand too much of them or indulge in fantastic dreams. The pessimistic accusation that our Polish-American warriors have no desire to fight for Poland is groundless. On the other hand, it would be madness to suppose that every person wearing a Polish uniform would be in a position to sacrifice himself to the Polish cause. The truth lies between the two extremes. We are certain that if it will be necessary, at any time, to shed blood for our motherland, many volunteers will be found. Means for their transportation will also be found. Some would serve Poland in the battlefield; others by giving her part of their fortunes. This explains why we are making a collection for the Polish National Fund. Our volunteers cannot be considered professional soldiers, but they have enough spirit to 8offset this deficiency. Whether Poland needs us now or at some future time is a question which we will not discuss; however, we are certain that American Poles will give their share whenever it will be necessary.

    Perhaps these considerations seem too fantastic, yet they are practical enough for us to admit that Polish military societies in America are purposeful.

    As to the third and last objection, that the members of military societies have no American patriotism because they are organized for the purpose of helping Poland, we wish to reply that it will not stand criticism. Now we will ask a question: Can anyone living in a country other than his own be charged with lack of patriotism just because he sympathizes with an oppressed nation and is willing to fight for its freedom? Were Lafeyette, Kosciusko, Pulaski, and Niemcewicz bad Polish patriots because they fought for the freedom of this country? Of course, not. Here, too, in view of 9the freedom that is the basis upon which this country was founded, it is not a crime for an American citizen of Polish extraction to have the desire to fight for his native country. The United States Government has a special system. Its representatives belong to many nationalities which are united by one common ideology--the welfare of the country. This does not mean that they have no right to have their special sympathies. We do not believe that the United States would oppose its own policies, that it would support Russia in its oppression of a conquered nation. We also know that in case of need, not only the members of military societies, but also other individuals would participate in the fight, and they have a right to do so. In a word, even if such demand was made from our military societies, it would not be unpatriotic in the eyes of the American people.

    We think that we have proved our contention that military societies may exist here and benefit us as Poles and as citizens of this country.

    Whether or not these societies are in a position to fulfill their purpose is another question which will be discussed in another article.

    We wish to take up the question of the Polish military societies in the United States of North America--a question which is irritating to many people and which; summed up, ...

    Polish
    III B 2, III A, III H, I G
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 24, 1894
    Short Biography of Thaddeus Kosciusko

    On a day when we observe the one-hundredth anniversary of an important national event, it is not amiss to publish a short biography of [Kosciusko], the hero of two worlds. We are, therefore, presenting herewith the dry details of Kosciusko's life.

    Thaddeus Kosciusko was born in 1746. In 1769 he left Poland on an educational trip through France, Germany, and Italy, returning to his native land in 1774. The episode with Miss Sosnowski took place in Sosnowice, where he taught the two [Sosnowski] sisters drawing, history, and mathematics. He sojourned again in France, and in 1778 he came to America. He returned to Poland in 1784 as brigadier general.

    As a general under the command of Prince Joseph Poniatowski, he distinguished himself in a battle with the Russians at Dubienko, on July 18, 1792. The Russian army was brought in by the Polish conspirators of Targowice for the purpose of abolishing the Polish constitution of the Third of May. After the victory at 2Targowice, Poland, he left the military service and retired to private life at Gniezno, Poland. In 1794 he took an oath as commander of the insurrection at Cracow. He was imprisoned in St. Petersburg, where he remained till his release by Emperor Paul in 1796. After his release he went to London and America. He returned to France with a diplomatic mission from America in 1798. After the Congress of Vienna, in 1815, he settled permanently in Solothrn, Switzerland, where he stayed with his friend Zeltner until his death on October 15, 1817, at the age of 71.

    In his late years, he occupied himself with music, painting, wood carving, and sculpture. He loved to be in the company of children. His remains were reburied in Cracow, Poland, on July 3, 1818. The erection of the Kosciusko Monument in Cracow began on October 16, 1818, and was completed in October 1823.

    In order to delineate the life of our leader a little better, we are reprinting a long chapter from the work of J. I. Kraszewski, entitled Poland at the Time of the Three Partitions, Volume III, beginning on page 185.

    3

    "In one of the least-known localities of the former Brzesc Litovsk [Brest Litovsk] Province, near the old highway connecting Brzesc [Brest] with Kobryn, there is a small village, just like other villages, located in the lowlands and surrounded with fields and sandy flats. Here and there in that flat country, a yellow hillock rises, covered with pine trees, junipers, or birch trees. Near the road there stands an old wooden church with a weather-worn turret, and farther on you can see poor huts, and among the trees a manor. This is Siechnowicze, the old abode of the Kosciusko family of Siechnowicze, distinguished by a coat of arms [with the words], 'Roch the Third'.

    "This family was once very wealthy, for as early as the fourteenth century it used the red seal, a privilege enjoyed only by princes of that time. Later on this family lost wealth and importance. The father of our hero, Louis Thaddeus Kosciusko, was a government official at Brest. His mother's maiden name was Thecla Ratomski. The Kosciusko family was related to the most wealthy families of the country.

    "Besides the manor at Siechnowicze, which was given to the Kosciusko family by 4King Jagello, and besides the manors at Liniewicze and Stopiszew, Kosciusko's father had also in his possession the manor at Mereczow, which was given to his family as security by Prince Sapiecha.

    "Andrew Thaddeus Bonaventura [Kosciusko] was born in Mereczow on February 12, 1746. He had one brother and two sisters. Kosciusko's father was greatly respected by the Polish nobility, and it is said that he supported the cause of Prince Czatoryski at the Diet, for which the Prince owed him protection....

    "Prince Czatoryski sent young Thaddeus to the Military Academy in Warsaw, of which he was the guiding spirit. This institution furnished the country with many useful and meritorious men, such as Niemcewicz, Kniaziewicz, Jasinski, Sokolnicki, and others.

    "Here came the 18-year-old Kosciusko eager to learn with the zeal of youth. He used to get up at three o'clock in the morning. He made a request that they should wake him up with cold water, that he might not lose any time allotted 5for studying.

    "On account of his excellent progress in school, he was given a traveling scholarship. He left the country with Joseph Orlowski at the time when the Confederacy of Bar was being organized. This educational travel lasted from 1769 to 1774. He visited Germany, Switzerland, and France. However, he sojourned the longest at Versailles, France, where he attended the military academy, visited fortresses, etc. Here he became acquainted with many military experts. He was so profoundly influenced with the French spirit of that time that it remained with him forever.

    "He returned to his native land in 1774. There was nothing for a military expert to do at that time in Poland, and the country still quivered after the first partition. The 28-year-old, idle, dreaming youth found himself temporarily at the home of Joseph Sosnowski, the marshal of the field forces of Lithuania. Here he taught Sosnowski's daughters languages and drawing. Kosciusko fell in love with Miss Louise Sosnowski, daughter of Marshal Sosnowski, who was as proud as all parvenus. However, his love was not returned. As a result of this episode, 6Kosciusko left the country for America. Prince Czatoryski furnished him with the necessary funds. Miss Louise Sosnowski, whom Kosciusko loved, was immediately given in marriage to Prince Lubomirski. It is said that Princess Lubomirski [former Miss Louise Sosnowski] cherished his memory till the end of her life.

    "Contracting a debt in order to obtain the necessary funds for the journey, Kosciusko went to France, it seems, in 1776 and from there to America. Here, unknown to anyone, he gained the friendship and confidence of Washington and Jefferson during the Revolutionary War. He also gained the gratitude of the whole country. Distinguished by the Order of the Cincinnati, he returned to Poland in 1785. At first he was received rather coolly, for when the Polish king noticed the inscription 'Omnia reliquit servare rem publicam' on the Order, he was supposed to have said, shaking his head, 'I think that besides the public duties there are other obligations. It seems to me that this inscription savors of republican fanaticism.'

    "Koskiusko spent a few years at Siechanowicze, on a small estate in a small village 7between the Biala and the Wlodawa rivers. He hung his Order of the Cincinnati on the altar of the village church. This state of affairs lasted till 1788. In that year, when the republic of Poland needed the services of the young men, Princess Lubomirski, in a letter to the king, recommended Kosciusko, asking the monarch to place him in the army.

    "Conditions had changed and military experts were needed. At a session of the Diet held on June 3, 1789, Ozarowski, castellan of Wojnicz, recommended Prince Joseph Poniatowski; later on, others asked for Orlowski, Zabiella, Wielhorski, and Kosciusko. On October 3, 1789, Kosciusko was made brigadier general. In 1790 Kosciusko took command, almost at the same time at which Prince Poniatowski and Wielhorski took theirs."

    In 1791, Kosciusko's division was stationed at Miedzyborze in Podole. His important activities began in 1792. As our space is limited, we cannot describe in full the unfortunate campaign of 1792, which was directed by Prince Joseph Poniatowski and in which Kosciusko was only a general, second in command. Our 8readers still remember the details of this campaign, for they were published here and in Europe on the one-hundredth anniversary of the battle of Dubienko. Even this campaign brought fame to our hero. In the battle of Zielence, Kosciusko distinguished himself gloriously, and in his report Prince Poniatowski states: "General Kosciusko always gave proof of his great ability and bravery in times of danger." After the battle of Zielence, Prince Poniatowski decorated some officers for bravery, and Kosciusko was one of them. When the Virtuti Militari Cross was established, he was the first one to receive it. Kosciusko was partly defeated in the battle of Dubienko, but he came out a hero.

    Further events in the history of our hero took place in the year of 1794, the one-hundredth anniversary of which we commemorate today, in Kosciusko Year. In the adjoining column we are publishing the account of a historical event which took place on March 24, 1794.

    In other issues of Dziennik Chicagoski we will describe other events in the life of Kosciusko.

    On a day when we observe the one-hundredth anniversary of an important national event, it is not amiss to publish a short biography of [Kosciusko], the hero of two worlds. ...

    Polish
    III B 3 a, III H, I G