The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- April 23, 1892
    Pleasant Strangers (Editorial)

    Seven months ago, a Jewish welfare organization was organized for the purpose of helping Jewish persons who have come to Chicago, to establish themselves. The city's richest and most influential Jews became supporters of this benevolent society. Headquarters were established at 154 West Lake Street as temporary quarters for the newcomers. Here assistance of every kind was given. Thousands of Jewish people received sustenance for a few days, and then were sent out West where various kinds of employment were offered them. Some of them, in fact, fifteen per cent, declined to be sent out, because they refused to sacrifice themselves to farming, consequently, they remained and continued to receive free board.


    Finally, the patience of the welfare society was exhausted. The idlers were informed by the officials that unless they found work, they would be forced out. And when they did not heed this warning, they were put out, for room had to be made for the incoming strangers.

    Those that were compelled to leave, returned again and insisted upon being permitted to stay at the shelter. When they were refused, a demonstration was started. These reached such proportions that Mr. Loeb, president of the organization, and Mr. Goldstein, director of the employment bureau, were compelled to call the police for help. As the police arrived on the scene, the demonstrators began to break the doors down. Mr. Loeb pointed out a person by the name of Alper as the chief instigator. He was arrested. But Alper was released by the intervention and pleading of his parents.


    Although the police succeeded in dispersing the mob, they soon returned. The police were called anew. This time Captain Kennedy came to investigate. In the meantime, hundreds of persons gathered. The police had to disperse them before they could confront the rioting Jews. They were informed by the police that they could not be readmitted to the shelter. The Jews began to cry, yell, and scream. All claimed vociferously that they were unable to work because of sickness. This was to no avail. At the end, they had to leave. Many found shelter at the police station.

    Seven months ago, a Jewish welfare organization was organized for the purpose of helping Jewish persons who have come to Chicago, to establish themselves. The city's richest and most influential ...

    II D 1, I D 2 c, I L
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 30, 1893
    Unpleasant Occurrences (Editorial)

    Times are hard--they affect all of us very closely--and they have indirectly been the cause of occurrences that are very unpleasant to the Poles in America.

    We have never attempted to conceal facts, no matter how painful. The readers of Dziennik [Chicagoski]know of the riots caused by unemployed workers in Milwaukee, Detroit, Buffalo, and, finally, in Chicago. Unfortunately, Poles also played a certain part in these riots. We will not repeat the sorry facts here; we wish only to point out that street riots are instigated by individuals or by bands of adventurers who have not stopped is the case, responsibility should not fall upon Polonia in general; actually, however, it does.

    Such incidents are widely publicized by the American press; they are talked 2about by the American public. Poles who take part in street riots, committing robbery and violence, do incalculable harm to themselves and to all of their brethren in America. They create the worst possible opinion of us. They give reason to claims that the Poles are a savage people, devoid of any civilization, lawless, given to violence and crime. They create prejudice against Polish workingmen among employers; they may bring it about that the doors of all factories and business establishments will be closed to us forever--we will be outcasts of American society. In short, such incidents bring disgrace upon our nationality, and may stop the development of the Polish element in America forever.

    These incidents are the more unpleasant in that they are not justified by absolute necessity; apparently they are the results of ignorance and imprudence on the one hand, and anarchistic agitation on the other. It is difficult to justify such incidents, of course. Times are hard, but as yet hunger stares no one in the face. The majority of workingmen is employed; the unemployed can still take care of themselves. We well understand that poverty is no joke and is hardly conducive to calm thought, but in the face of poverty, 3every one of us ought to remember Christian principles; we ought to remember that crime and violence will gain us nothing. Examples from recent riots are proof of this. Injuries, jail, disgrace--these are the profits. Did any one of the rioters gain at least a crumb of bread by his violence? No. Did it help his family in any way? Certainly not. On the contrary, he has only caused them greater misery by his injuries or his imprisonment. Neither here in Chicago nor anywhere else where the masses are orderly and opposed to anarchism do rioters stand to gain; they expose themselves merely to the worst consequences: long imprisonment or even death.

    We most fervently appeal to the Poles not to permit themselves to be misled by desperation, or what is worse, by the subversive whisperings of evil people who would make of us a living pathway for their criminal agitation. We appeal to them to be temperate and peaceable, to bear misfortune patiently, not to drag their brethren into disgrace--not to be blinded by passion. We ask that they try to improve their condition by legal methods, not by violence and crime; finally, we ask that they follow the example of peaceableness set by American and other workingmen, who are no worse off than we are.


    We stated in advance that the Poles who take part in street riots are exceptions among us. In truth, the Poles are, generally speaking, a peaceful and sensible people. Only certain individuals engage in riots and violence. Who are they? In general, they are people of the worst type. In part, these people are ordinary "bums" (ulicznicy); in part, they are uncouth and unenlightened recent arrivals from Europe; and in part, they are people who are influenced by anarchistic propaganda.

    Unfortunately, this is the truth. If a handful of Poles were found among the rioters, it was, for the most part, the fault of anarchist agitators. Unfortunately we already have several such Poles, with a certain R---[Rybakowski] at the head, this R--- who daily makes shameless and godless speeches on the lake front. The seeds sown by him and those like him and by a few anarchistic newspapers have germinated. As a result, the entire American Polonia may be sunk in poverty and despair.

    These weeds must be torn out by the roots. Away with anarchism and crime from 5among Poles! The mass of honest Polish workingmen should cast out the comparatively few lawless individuals from among their midst;they should protest loudly against the activities of agitators and they ought to state clearly that they not only have nothing in common with rioters, but condemn them severely. The Poles in general, Polish priests and leaders, ought to take the newly arrived, less enlightened Polish elements, and teach them that although America is a free country, it has laws; crimes are punishable here just as in the old country, perhaps even more severely. They should be taught that excesses against the existing order are crimes against God, country, and brethren.

    That is one of our duties, but there is yet another. The other depends upon our giving material assistance, according to our means, to those who have really been affected by hard times, those who are really in need--if there be any such people. We repeat: if there be any such people. We learn from reliable sources that one of the "unemployed," "hungry" workingmen, a Pole named Harowicz, who was arrested in a riot at the City Hall, had three hundred 6dollars in Stensland's bank [Milwaukee Avenue State Bank]. This is an official fact. Such a scandalous fact, however, should not deter us from giving aid to those who are really in need.

    To determine which people are really in need, and to give aid to these people is our second important duty.

    Times are hard--they affect all of us very closely--and they have indirectly been the cause of occurrences that are very unpleasant to the Poles in America. We have never attempted ...

    I D 2 c, II D 10, II E 1, III G, I C, I E
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- October 05, 1893
    News from St. Michael Archangel Parish of South Chicago (Correspondence)

    October 2, 1893. Last Friday, September 29, we observed our Patron Saint's Day in this parish, during which the Most Reverend P. Feehan, Archbishop of Chicago, administered the Sacrament of Confirmation to many parishioners, both young and old.

    Already on Thursday, several priests from Chicago had arrived to hear confessions of the many faithful who gathered here. Again on Friday, several more priests arrived, and, from early morning until noon, solemn services were held, during which hundreds of the faithful partook of the Holy Communion. Our parish societies, both military and civil, received the Communion.

    Those who saw the great numbers of people who took the Sacrament during 2these two days must appreciate the vastness of the task accomplished by the priests who were kind enough to come here to receive the pious confessions of so many hundreds of people. In addition to attending to their duties in the confessional, several of the visiting priests delivered inspiring sermons.

    For your labors in behalf of our salvation and our spiritual elevation, Reverend Fathers, please accept the parishioners' sincerest thanks, best expressed in the time-honored Polish words: "Bog zaplac"[May God repay you]. We, more people, cannot repay the good you have done us--only God can reward you properly.

    Early in the afternoon, most of the parishioners gathered at the church, from where they were to proceed to the Cheltenham railroad station to welcome Archbishop Feehan. The procession was led by our military societies and a band, followed by the other church societies, the rest of the parishioners, and outsiders, among whom were many people of other nationalities. The 3grand marshal of the parade was Francis Rydzewski.

    After a short wait, the train bearing the Archbishop, accompanied by the Reverend Adolf Nowicki, our pastor, arrived, and he was triumphantly escorted to the beautiful rectory. At the rectory, he changed to his pontificial robes and proceeded to the church, which, although it is a large one (86 by 150 feet), was literally filled to capacity with people from our own and neighboring parishes, who had come to witness the solemn ceremony and to see the splendid welcome we had prepared for our Archbishop.

    The Archbishop administered the Sacrament of Confirmation to a hundred and thirty-five individuals, both young and old. (The older people were these who have recently arrived from Russian or Prussian Poland. The difficulty of fulfilling religious duties there is well known to us. Many people age and die without having seen a bishop.)

    After the confirmation rites, Archbishop Feehan visited our school, which 4consists of ten classrooms, each especially decorated for this occasion by the Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth. He visited all of the classrooms and everything pleased him, especially the kindergarten, where the little children sang, recited, and performed various drills to his immense pleasure.

    In the upper grade classes, through which he was conducted by Ignace Machnikowski, the pupils welcomed the Archbishop with speeches in Latin, French, German, and English, and with choral music, in which they were trained by our capable organist, Wiedeman. It may be mentioned here that we are always justly proud of the beautiful choral music during services in our church, for which fact we owe our gratitude to the organist Wiedeman, whose untiring efforts have produced a well-trained choir.

    After the Archbishop had visited the school, he was escorted by Cadets to the rectory, where supper was served. Following this, Father Nowicki accompanied him back to the city.


    The priests who honored us with their presence were the Reverends S. Kobrzynski, Vincent Barzynski, Joseph Barzynski, E. Siedlaczek, John Radziejewski, Stanislaus Radziejewski, Moneta, of Lincoln, Nebraska, our South Chicago neighbors A. Snigurski, B. Pawlowski, Ratz and Van DeLaar. The fugitive from Russian persecution, Reverend Matthew Krawczunas, of Lithuania, was also present.

    So solemn a day as this will long remain in our memories; our hearts will long be filled with gratitude to the visiting priests who, where our faith or nationality is concerned, do not spare themselves, but exert their utmost strength for our well-being. Finally, I cannot but give due credit to the one who is responsible for everything that has happened, that can happen, here. That we have a large, beautifully furnished church, with three Gothic altars, two confessionals in the same style, a beautiful pulpit, stained-glass windows, a sacristy abundantly stocked with ceremonial robes, a clock and four large bells in the belfry, a beautiful rectory encircled by a lovely garden, and that the Church and school affairs are managed with utmost competence, is due entirely to our pastor, the Reverend 6Adolf Nowicki. His ant-like activity and capable leadership have given the parish everything it possesses--its beautiful church, its school, the ample parish hall, and most of all, love and fraternal harmony throughout the community.

    This worthy priest does not spend all his time in praising God; he is an ardent Polish patriot, of which the national celebrations held in this parish amply testify. In addition, he is a real father to his parishioners, for he always, and especially in times such as these, does what he can to help those of us who meet with misfortune. He helps us by giving good advice, by calling upon those of us who are richer to give to the poor, and by organizing committees to help the unemployed find work. Last Sunday, our pastor called a mass meeting, which he conducted very skillfully. We chose a committee of seven, which will present a petition to the mayor, asking for work for our unemployed. In addition to this, we discussed political questions in connection with the forthcoming elections. But the most important problem considered was that of representing our parish as well as possible in the Polish Day celebration. Every one of us, rich and poor alike, 7will be there, for when our pastor appealed to us, and especially to the richer members of the parish, it was unanimously decided that the poorer people must be aided so they too can participate in the parade, which will bespeak us to the whole world.

    And so, dear editor and readers, everything is all right with us, and we owe it all to our pastor, Father Nowicki.

    Long live Polish Day!

    Long live our pastor, Father A. Nowicki!

    A Parishioner.

    October 2, 1893. Last Friday, September 29, we observed our Patron Saint's Day in this parish, during which the Most Reverend P. Feehan, Archbishop of Chicago, administered the Sacrament of ...

    III C, II B 1 c 3, I A 2 a, I D 2 c, I B 4, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 11, 1893
    Christmas Cheer for the Poor St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish is Bringing Help to the Poor; Contributions Coming in from the Patriotic Organization; Mr. Albert Jendrzejek's Donation

    Hard times and a cold winter--these two terrible conditions--have brought suffering not only to the Poles but to all other residents in Chicago likewise. There is lack of work, the depression is general, the people are suffering from cold and hunger--such is the universal theme. The depression does not affect us all in the same manner; still the times are terrible and heart-rending for many. Many of our brethren need our help. To help them is a praiseworthy Christian act. Everyone of us is no doubt suffering in some degree, but this does not free those who are faring better than others from helping the poorest, who have no bread, fuel, or even a shelter.

    This Christian duty is more apparent today than ever before.


    Christmas is coming, the star will shine in the heavens on this day of happiness for the entire Christian world, on this day when the Saviour was born. How many orphans, widows, and beggars of every description will shiver from cold and hunger during this coming Christmas season! Shall we do nothing about it? Doesn't charity command us to help the poor widows? Surely, it commands.

    Others--Americans, Germans, Swedes, Dutch, French, Jews even--have initiated this relief plan on a large scale. They are collecting contributions from everybody, supplying shelter for the poor in an attempt to alleviate their despair and satisfy their hunger.

    And the time has arrived for us Poles to do something for our own poor. And we have already begun.

    In the St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish

    As we know, there has existed for some time in our own parish a charitable 3society which, although possessing meager funds, helps the poor as much as possible. This society depends solely on the contributions of its members, so it is evident it cannot do very much. Today, when the need is so great and Christmas cheer for the poor requires larger expenditures, it would be too difficult for it to be able to perform this task properly.

    Realizing this, the administration of the St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish has decided to call on all of its parishioners, without exception, for their wholehearted help in this great necessity, to appeal for general contributions, to ask for the widow's mite from everybody who can afford to give. Our parish clergy has raised a strong voice in this matter also. This sincere effort has brought results. The voice of the priests has reached the hearts of the faithful.

    Immediately after the church services, a group of citizens met in one of the school rooms. Reverend Vincent Barzynski urged those present to give, and spoke very earnestly. It was decided then to organize an extraordinary citizens' committee, which is to gather donations for the Christmas cheer 4for the poor and, additionally, to co-operate with the existing Charitable Society in helping the poor unfortunates.

    A Christmas cheer committee was then selected: Mr. Thomas Krolik was chosen secretary and Mr. Jacob Mucha, treasurer. Additional committees were appointed to gather contributions and to distribute them. Donations flowed in immediately. Over one hundred dollars was collected on the spot (itemized list of contributions will be published in this newspaper tomorrow). A separate regular collection was made for the Charitable Society. It was decided to continue energetically the collection of contributions.

    In order to help the men, our women, who have always had warm hearts, also decided to do something. Today at two o'clock in the afternoon, at the meeting of the Ladies' Patriotic Society, this matter will also be thoroughly considered.

    In general, our parish teems with workers. Everyone is thinking of the poor; everyone is hustling to bring them some relief. It is possible that the Christmas cheer will be distributed in grand style in the school hall.


    Mr. Jendrzejek's Donation

    Mr. Albert Jendrzejek, one of the most prominent Polish citizens of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish, made the day outstanding through his generous and sincere donation.

    Besides the orphans in many private homes, there exists in the confines of the St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish, the Holy Family Orphanage, and Christmas day should be a day of rejoicing for the orphans also. Believing this to be true, Mr. Albert Jendrzejek donated one hundred dollars for a Christmas cheer for the children at the orphanage.

    For this generous offering, Mr. Jendrzejek deserves due honor and credit. May God repay him a hundredfold for his wonderful gift.

    Christmas Cheer for the Poor

    by the Polish Patriotic Organization

    The Patriotic Organization, always first in worthwhile undertakings, is joining 6in this action wholeheartedly. At its meeting yesterday, December 10, it was decided to end the old year with a good deed.

    Believing that on the day when our Saviour descended to the earth everyone should rejoice, and that the tears of sadness of the most unfortunate should be wiped out if only on this one day, it was decided to arrange, not the usual evening entertainment, but an afternoon entertainment on Monday, December 17, in the hall on Bradley Street, the proceeds to be used for a Christmas cheer for the unfortunates.

    The program of the afternoon entertainment will consist of two speeches and a reading, the texts of which will be announced later, solo and choir singing, recitals, piano solo, and our own brave Turners, who will appear in new exercises.

    Admission will be only twenty-five cents for a reserved seat, and ten cents for an ordinary seat.


    We feel that with such a wonderful program and the low price of admission, the hall should be filled to overflowing, and many a poor child will be made happy on the birthday of our Saviour.


    As can be seen, the beginning has been initiated in the St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish. But this is only a beginning....There is so much suffering, so very much....and not only in our parish! Therefore additional contributions are desired in the greatest possible number. It is not sufficient to feed the poor on one day in the year, around Christmas time; they should be helped oftener. So we earnestly urge everyone to contribute to help the poor.

    Send your contributions to the treasurer, Mr. Jacob Mucha, 152 Blackhawk Street. All contributions will be announced in Dziennik Chicagoski. The editors are also offering their services in receiving contributions, which will immediately be sent where they belong. Finally, because there is great suffering in other Polish communities in Chicago, kindhearted and public-spirited 8citizens there will also do their share. As far as we know, similar action has been begun by the Central Administration of the Polish National Alliance. We urge all Poles in Chicago to devote their time and make sacrifices for this cause. All information regarding this matter will be gladly printed in our paper.

    Hard times and a cold winter--these two terrible conditions--have brought suffering not only to the Poles but to all other residents in Chicago likewise. There is lack of work, the ...

    II D 10, I B 3 c, I D 2 c, III B 2, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 30, 1893
    A Warning to Workingmen

    It is evident that some employment agencies are shamelessly taking advantage of the workingmen by accepting a fee and sending them to work on the canal, where actually there is no work for them. It often happens that laborers sent out have no money left with which to pay their fares back to Chicago. In Lemont and other towns bordering on the canal there are many laborers encumbered with their families, waiting patiently for a job. Yesterday in Lemont the number of unemployed was increased by a few hundred workers fired by the Western Stone Company. In Summit, Romeo, and Sag, the same conditions prevail.

    These dishonest practices of the local employment offices should be stopped permanently.

    It is evident that some employment agencies are shamelessly taking advantage of the workingmen by accepting a fee and sending them to work on the canal, where actually there is ...

    II D 8, I D 2 c
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 02, 1894
    The Year of 1893 (Annual Report) (Editorial)

    The year of 1893 has ended--it belongs to the past and we are already looking at its successor's countenance. At such a momentous time--the turning point in our lives that brings us a step nearer to the gate of eternity, the goal for which Providence created us--it is advisable to turn away for a moment from our daily pursuits, our ideals, and examine our past in order to draw inferences for the future. The blunders of the past, if we are able to detect and understand them, will serve us as a lesson for the future. Past failures will incite us to new efforts in the future; our past accomplishments will show us what is yet to be done.


    An analysis of the past, as undertaken by us here, is necessary and beneficial, especially in our circumstances, since it concerns our young and still restless generation that seeks to adapt itself to conditions in America.

    Since we are starting the new year in the name of God, [a discussion of] the Church is most important. If we agree that we Poles in America constitute more or less a community within a community, that besides the usual social obligations we have in common with the people of the United States, we also have a special aim peculiar to ourselves--that is, to protect our Holy Faith and nationality, and to work in the interest of our motherland--then we must admit that the Polish churches and parishes serve as an axis around which revolve national, religious, and moral life.

    Our churches and parishes are called strongholds of faith and nationalism and, indeed, they deserve this name. The character of our very religious people is such that, wherever they are gathered in large numbers, they 3feel the necessity of praying together and in their native tongue to the Lord of Heaven. It is for this reason that they build Polish churches and live near then, each nucleus establishing its own Polish school. Under the leadership of intelligent priests, activity and thought are awakened. After this awakening, there follows a tedious ant-like nationalistic work--a work intended to build up Poles out of the raw material that came from Europe.

    Catholic churches and parishes are the foundation of Polish social life in America. The growth of the Polish churches in the United States has been quite noticeable despite the fact that the inflow of Polish immigrants has been small on account of restrictions and unfavorable [economic] conditions.

    Many Polish parishes have been established and many Polish churches have been built or are under construction (in Chicago, Buffalo, Milwaukee). The number of Polish priests has increased considerably too, for many of 4them have immigrated to America and others have been ordained right here. According to the last census, there are 230 Polish priests in America. Many missions and special church services have been held in Polish parishes. Schools have been established; work, both in the nationalistic and welfare fields, has been undertaken.

    In other words, the Polish Roman Catholic Church has been growing, being in reality a torch guiding the traveler and a shelter giving comfort to the exiled. It would be difficult to convince us that we should not continue to work for the success of the Church. On the other hand, those who try to undermine our Church harbor an ominous design against the essence of our national, religious, and social life. To be exact, we will state that the history of the development of the Polish Catholic Church in America is not without a dark passage here and there. Such is the world. There have been sharp disturbances in Polish parishes (in Winona, Baltimore, Philadelphia) now and then--disturbances which have brought disgrace to our nationality. Once an attempt was made to dynamite a Polish rectory in Pennsylvania. In 5Detroit, the apostate Kolasinski--a former Roman Catholic priest who is still misleading a few thousands of stupefied Poles--staged a disgraceful comedy on Christmas Day, when his "self-made church" was consecrated by a swindler posing as an archbishop. These are indeed very sad symptoms [of discord], but this is no time for discussing them. It will be sufficient for the time being to condemn saverely the instigators of these dissensions, whose purpose is to create a source of discord and dishonesty. At any rate, these dark symptoms of discord are outweighed by the large bright field on which they appear, since the main and largest Polish settlements in America enjoy peace and live according to God's will, and since the last year brought about the reconciliation with the Church of one old Polish parish which had been tossed aside by the internal storm. This was accomplished by understanding and Christian love. Let us hope that this same understanding and Christian love will subdue in the future such storms as we had last year by bringing the guilty ones to reason.

    Next are the schools. Here in America by schools we mean the parochial 6schools, which, together with the churches, complete the Polish parishes. According to Church statistics, we have more than 170 Polish parishes in America. The number of parochial schools is approximately 120, if not more. According to last year's reports, several Polish schools were established in 1892. Some of these schools are not very imposing. They are not yet finished for lack of funds, since the memberships of the parishes that maintain them are still too small. All in all, if we take into consideration that these schools are maintained by our hard-working people, the majority of whom live in poverty, let alone that quite often they have been opposed in their undertaking by the Republicans, we will come to the conclusion that we have accomplished a great deal.

    From forty to fifty thousand children receive education at these schools. These children study not only Polish but also English. Incidentally, we should add that some of the Polish schools, especially those in large Polish settlements, operate under standards high enough to enable them to compete with public schools. We may take for example the Polish schools 7in Chicago, Milwaukee, Buffalo, Detroit, and other cities. That Polish schools have a high standard of teaching can be proved by the two awards given them by the Chicago Fair for their work. So much for the elementary schools.

    As to high schools, we have only a small number of them. Our Polish theological seminary in Detroit, Michigan, due to lack of funds, is conducted on a small scale; consequently, it cannot compete with liberally endowed American institutions despite the sacrifices of the faculty. Today the future outlook of this institution looks much better, for at the Polish Clergymen's Convention held in Detroit last December, the decision was made to incorporate and support this institution. This decision is praiseworthy.

    The two Polish parochial high schools--one in Chicago and the other in Milwaukee, Wisconsin--are maintained privately, and its supporters deserve great credit. Reverend Pitass has promised to open a teachers' training 8school in Buffalo, New York, and we are waiting eagerly for this accomplishment. We also have a business college in Manitowoc, Wisconsin, conducted by the Felician Sisters, and it is a success. Here in Chicago, as the Convention of the Polish Roman Catholic Union, the Polish teachers formed an association, the object of which is to foster education, to provide mutual aid, and to arrange teachers' conventions. Our teachers are greatly interested in the Lwow Fair, which will take place at Lwow, Poland (Austrian occupation), in 1894. We wish to point out that the majority of parochial school teachers are women. Our schools are directed and taught by Nazarene, Felician, Notre Dame, and Franciscan Sisters, who deserve great credit for their work.

    The foregoing statements prove that there is great activity, development, and progress in the field of education among the Poles. However, we still need and desire to have more high schools.

    School attendance alone is not the last word in education. Reading popular literature and attending popular lectures are also necessary. These are 9mediums whereby the people can be enlightened and uplifted. Our people are becoming more and more interested in literature; the young people, as well as the old, like to read.

    The newspapers also help spread enlightenment and develop social life, providing they do not become too controversial and engage in scandalous quarrels or cater to the lower desires of the public.

    The past year was successful in educational activities. New libraries were established here and there, and old ones were enlarged by the purchase of hundreds of new books. The libraries of Saint Stanislaus Kostka, the Polish National Alliance, Saint Hyacinth, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as well as the Polish Reading Room in Buffalo, New York, and others, have grown to large proportions. There are from thirty to forty Polish libraries, large and small, in the United States. Here and there a public library has a Polish section. From time to time public lectures were held. Attempts were made on several occasions to organize a Polish educational association to serve as our Polish Alma Mater. Publication of popular literature 10was also considered, and this resulted in the publication of a number of pamphlets. Although it is quite true that these publications consist of reprints and schoolbooks, yet there was some development even along this line. The most important step was the plan to organize a Polish Educational Association which would be impartial and always ready to work for the good of the public.

    As to the press, it has other functions besides the ones already mentioned. Let us devote a few words to these functions. We must admit that despite all its defects, the Polish American press has fulfilled its purpose. Whenever a good plan was suggested, our press supported it with all its might; whenever public welfare was concerned, it put aside its own interests to attend to it. It opposed the bad and supported the good. However, there were exceptions. Ephemeral publications sprang up now and then, here and there, before and after election. There were itinerant editors, traveling from city to city, living off the fat of the land. We saw in their ranks open and secret anarchists declaring war against the Cross, but the Polish 11press as a whole was healthy; it cared for the welfare of the public, for which it deserves honor. The standard of many Polish journals has improved. Of special interest is the change in the editorial staff of the Polish National Alliance's organ, which, after four years of poor management, was placed in the hands of an honest man. Let us follow this road and, with God's help, we will benefit our countrymen. We will sow good seed and reap a rich harvest.

    As to our organizations, they are another important factor in our life. In a country as large as the United States, organizational activity is absolutely necessary. Here the associations care for things which in other countries are looked after by the government. Organizations and associations unite those who have the same social, political, and religious ideas and those who share in common the same needs and trades. Organizations help them accomplish their ideals and protect them against their enemies. And so it is with us. We organized thousands of small societies for this purpose, societies which later merged into large organizations.


    We have four such organizations--large and small. The Polish Roman Catholic Union, under the protection of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, and the Polish National Alliance lead numerically. The Union is progressing rapidly. The Roman Catholic Union, under the protection of the Holy Virgin of Czestochowa, is an independent organization. These organizations were not necessarily created to serve different purposes, yet it is not always that they have worked together for the common good. As a matter of fact, they have often fought amongst themselves. We do not wish to express our opinion as to who is right or wrong--what we wish is to avoid further friction. In fact, we are happy to point out that these antagonisms, fights, and storms have subsided. This abatement of the struggle happened in 1893, during the conventions held that year by our most important societies. Instead of discords and storms, these conventions brought us peace and unselfish community work. Dissension, which was the slogan at least for one side, has ceased. At last we have harmony and satisfaction--we were benefited.

    Finally, to top it all, there came the beautiful, magnificent, and wonderful 13Polish Day, a day which is still remembered by all of us. An extraordinary thing occurred then. We American citizens marched under American and Polish banners as Poles, in behalf of Poland and for Poland. We marched side by side--we members of different camps, factions, organizations, and societies--with our hands outstretched and sympathy in our hearts, even though the day before we had been enemies. We have learned to march in the same rank. Pax Dei! Poles have God's peace in America. Let this peace last not only throughout the new year of 1894 but forever.

    Out of this peace, on account of this good inspiration, many good, great, and beautiful things have been accomplished. More will come. Out of the ashes, like the Phoenix, the Polish Immigration House was resurrected. The problem of the Polish seminary was finally solved in the spirit of brotherly love. A very energetic effort was made to send representatives to the Kosciusko Fair, which will be held at Lwow in 1894. Plans were made to prepare lectures relative to the condition and history of the Polish settlements in America. A move was made for closer solidarity between the Poles 14and our historical neighbors, the Lithuanians, and our consanguineous people, the Ruthenians and Slovaks. A plan was made--and it was partly carried out--to organize military, athletic, and other societies. A suggestion was made to organize a Polish League and to hold a Polish mass meeting. These are projects just started but not yet finished. However, we believe that the first steps have been taken, and that the Lord will give us enough strength to go ahead until these things are successfully completed.

    A very encouraging sign was the establishment of relations with our mother country. These relations began with the mission of Mr. Dunikowski, and although this mission failed in part, there is still hope. The Chicago Fair contributed greatly in this respect. Some of the visitors from Poland who came to see the Fair did not judge us fairly--that is true, but many of them made their acquaintance with the American Poles and appreciated us. Mr. Dunikowski's book about us, although not true and just in every respect, brought us closer to Poland. In Przeglad Emigracyjny (Emigrants' Review), 15published in Lwow, Poland, we have a faithful friend and defender who is very well acquainted with our affairs. The last legal congress held in Poznan was greatly interested in the problem of emigration, and our pavilion at the Lwow Fair will accomplish the rest. With less sarcasm and undue criticism between the Polish element in the United States and the European Poles, a noble aim, a friendly relation will be effected between our motherland and the American Poles.

    We have mentioned the Chicago Fair. Even this exposition, despite the unfavorable circumstances, contributed to some extent towards raising the Polish name. The Polish Art exhibit, which we inaugurated so ostentatiously, contained many masterpieces by Polish artists. These masterpieces were greatly admired by people of other nationalities, evoking great enthusiasm among our countrymen. A number of these paintings received high awards.

    As a result of the Fair, we participated in educational congresses. Visitors from Poland participated in artists', singers', anthropologists', and other congresses. Mr. Zmigrodzki delivered a very interesting 16lecture on art. Madame Modrzejewska, in behalf of the Polish women, spoke about oppressed Poland. Polish choirs sang our national songs. To the Catholic Congress we presented an English pamphlet on suitable subjects. In other words, even here we tried to do what was possible.

    We worked in every field. We protested very vigorously against the American Extradition Treaty with Russia, but in vain. An effort to erect Kosciusko's monument in Chicago was made. We collected eighteen thousand dollars for this purpose. We held a competition for a design of Kosciusko's monument and received four models of high artistic value. One of these models, a design submitted by Mr. Baracz, will probably be executed. When? It is very hard to predict. Hard times are not in favor of this undertaking this year. Instead of that, we will build a Polish hospital in Chicago, and this will be accomplished. A suggestion was made to establish a colony outside of the city for the poor Chicago Poles. We even succeeded in founding a literary competition for Polish-American authors. We will not mention here many small undertakings that came to a successful conclusion during the 17year just ended.

    Although the last year was abundant in achievements, national and social, it had one defect--it was not prosperous. During the second part of the year there was a financial panic which was hard on the working people--many of whom suffered hunger and privation. This encouraged crime. But, even in this respect, our countrymen succeeded in avoiding the worst, and our more wealthy people, led by the clergy, did all they could for their suffering countrymen.

    And this is a brief record of the year of 1893. It was not a year of absolute happiness and joy; it was a year of difficulties and endeavors, a year of work hard to accomplish but which brings satisfaction if performed right. The foregoing lines show the magnitude of the task accomplished. This record should strengthen us in the conviction that much can be accomplished if one has determination, energy, and strong hands. With trust in God, with love in our heart for our neighbor, and with the leading 18star of our ideals before us, we are beginning the new year, and the Lord will help us accomplish that which we started--to reach the place of our destination.

    The year of 1893 has ended--it belongs to the past and we are already looking at its successor's countenance. At such a momentous time--the turning point in our lives that ...

    III C, II B 1 c 3, II B 2 d 1, II B 2 f, II B 2 g, II B 2 a, II B 1 e, I A 2 a, I D 2 c, III B 2, II D 10, II D 1, II D 3, III A, III G, III H, II C

    Secondary listings

    Polish // Contributions and Activities > Avocational and Intellectual > Aesthetic > Theatrical > Festivals, Pageants, Fairs and Expositions (II B 1 c 3) ?
    Polish // Contributions and Activities > Avocational and Intellectual > Intellectual > Publications > Newspapers (II B 2 d 1) ?
    Polish // Contributions and Activities > Avocational and Intellectual > Intellectual > Special Schools and Classes (II B 2 f) ?
    Polish // Contributions and Activities > Avocational and Intellectual > Intellectual > Forums, Discussion Groups and Lectures (II B 2 g) ?
    Polish // Contributions and Activities > Avocational and Intellectual > Intellectual > Libraries (II B 2 a) ?
    Polish // Contributions and Activities > Avocational and Intellectual > Aesthetic > Literature (II B 1 e) ?
    Polish // Attitudes > Education > Parochial > Elementary, Higher (High School and College) (I A 2 a) ?
    Polish // Attitudes > Economic Organization > Unemployment (I D 2 c) ?
    Polish // Assimilation > Nationalistic Societies and Influences > Activities of Nationalistic Societies (III B 2) ?
    Polish // Contributions and Activities > Benevolent and Protective Institutions > Foreign and Domestic Relief (II D 10) ?
    Polish // Contributions and Activities > Benevolent and Protective Institutions > Benevolent Societies (II D 1) ?
    Polish // Contributions and Activities > Benevolent and Protective Institutions > Hospitals, Clinics and Medical Aid (II D 3) ?
    Polish // Assimilation > Segregation (III A) ?
    Polish // Assimilation > Immigration and Emigration (III G) ?
    Polish // Assimilation > Relations with Homeland (III H) ?
    Polish // Contributions and Activities > Permanent Memorials (II C) ?

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 09, 1894
    Down with the Anarchists!

    Anarchic pestilence is creeping even into peaceable South Chicago. So it is, gentlemen.

    From the anarchistic and godless Gazeta Robotnicza [Workers' Gazette], we have learned that the so-called Branch No. 4 of the Workers' Alliance, an organization with socialistic tendencies, was organized under the leadership of the notorious J. Rybakowski. We were surprised at this and decided to investigate and get more information.

    Our investigation furnished us with the following information.

    Some time ago, J. Rybakowski and his comrades invaded South Chicago, which, as we know, is afflicted with severe unemployment, and began their subversive activities there. The anarchists were misleading the poor people in the most 2loathsome manner; they promised them, for instance, that those who joined the Workers' Alliance would get work.

    Later on they called a meeting at which gathered many people who had no idea of the kind of trap it was. Slander and calumnies were hurled at religion and our most sacred feelings at this meeting, and the result was that the majority of the people attending it left the hall without yielding to the temptation. However, a small number of thoughtless persons yielded to the tempting lies and joined Branch No. 4 of the Workers' Alliance. But the joy of the anarchists did not last very long. A [moment of] reflection, after a word of persuasion from our clergy, was all that was necessary to wrest this small group of "overpowered" people from the grasp of the "apostles of falsehood".

    There will be no Branch No. 4 in South Chicago.

    Down with the anarchists!

    Anarchic pestilence is creeping even into peaceable South Chicago. So it is, gentlemen. From the anarchistic and godless Gazeta Robotnicza [Workers' Gazette], we have learned that the so-called Branch No. ...

    I E, I D 2 a 3, I D 2 c, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- September 29, 1894
    Let Us Speak Polish (Letter)

    Our newspapers have always urged us to speak Polish. Our children, especially those who have not attended parochial schools, speak it poerly--a reason why they seldom use it. As a result we have lost morally and materially. There are many Poles in Chicago but only a few are in a position to give employment to their countrymen in their stores. In business establishments, large and small, conducted by Jews, Germans, Irish and Swedes, almost all clerks or of the same nationality as their employers. The number of Poles employed in these establishments is relatively small, despite the fact that almost all large firms do business with us.

    The question, then, is: What is the cause of this? The answer is simple. It is our own fault. Our indifference to and disregard of the Polish language are responsible for the fact that a large number of our able youth is not 2employed. As there are only a few Polish business establishments, we are forced to support people of other nationalities, more often than not followers of another faith. While trading in these places, the Poles--men as well as women--do their best not to reveal their nationality. Though incorrectly, they speak English rather than Polish, of which they seem to be ashamed.

    If all Poles would talk Polish when they go to the stores, then the storekeepers would be forced to hire Polish clerks to wait on them. And there is a way. We should walk out, without buying anything from a business establishment where Polish is not spoken. Thus we would create employment for many Polish young men.

    Germans and Swedes use this system. There is no shortage of jobs for German and Swedish clerks. The Germans have used this system for a long time with good results. They have greater respect for their language than we, and no American condemns them for it.


    For example, the editor of the Laporte Journal does not wish to know Germans who do not speak their language. He says: "They are not worthy of their language because they are ashamed of their descent."

    Let us respect our native language and we will be respected.

    In a short time we will be buying many things, for winter is approaching. Let the Poles use their language at places of business and demand Polish-speaking clerks. Then our wishes will come true and many Polish young men will be able to find employment and support themselves and their families.

    I. K.

    Our newspapers have always urged us to speak Polish. Our children, especially those who have not attended parochial schools, speak it poerly--a reason why they seldom use it. As a ...

    III A, I D 2 c, I A 2 b
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 22, 1894
    Polish Poor of Pullman Make Appeal for Help

    Dear Brother Poles of Chicago:

    We have been without work for the past seven months because of the strike that has been called here in Pullman. The unemployment situation has brought upon us very trying conditions.

    The hardest hit are the Poles.

    Other foreign groups have long been re-employed, but we, unfamiliar with the English language and American ways, have a poor outlook, and chances for work are very meager. If they will change for the better it will not be soon.

    Consequently, we are suffering greatly in this crisis. Many of us deserve to be given assistance because many of us have wives and children while others 2are the sole support of the household. These wait from day to day for a charitable hand.

    With the approach of the Christmas season, we come to you, dear brothers for assistance in our unfortunate position. God will reward you a hundredfold for whatever you do for us.

    The representative of other nationalities always remember their people. There are among the Poles such individuals, as business and professional men, workers, etc., who will hear and come to our aid.

    The Forgotten Workers of Pullman.

    The undersigned vouches for the authenticity of the above appeal and wish to add that a pitiable condition prevails among the Polish people.

    Signed: Paul Andryczka

    John Dluzak


    The above facts are also confirmed by Dr. J. Goltz, Reverend P. T. Tinaworaz, and Reverend W. Zaleski. Urgent assistance should especially be given the A. Sypniewski family, 630 Fulton Street, Pullman, Illinois, for illness has enveloped this home for over three months.

    This family and all other Poles should be given a helping hand. We gladly support this appeal.

    Dear Brother Poles of Chicago: We have been without work for the past seven months because of the strike that has been called here in Pullman. The unemployment situation has ...

    II D 10, I D 2 c
  • Zgoda -- December 26, 1894
    Address asking help for the poor Poles from Pullman.

    We received the following letter to be placed in this paper the - Zgoda;

    Dear Polish Brothers in Chicago! - We have been without work for the past seven months due to the strike at the Pullman plant.

    This whole misfortune is a trial of conscience, for the Poles.

    Many of the strikers of other nationalities have been back at work for sometime, but we poor Poles are less fortunate, because we do not understand, speak or write the American language, and we haven't any bright prospect for the future, because it will be a long time before we go back to work, if then. We Poles are suffering the most and are the hardest pressed; many with their wives and children are on public charity, and are waiting from day to day for help from some unknown source.

    With the New Year a few days away, we are asking our Polish brothers, to help the unfortunate ones and their families. God will repay you for all the good you do to help these poor.


    The other nationalities remember their needy at all times, because they say "it is our duty to take care of our brothers." Why don't the Polish businessmen, and workers of different organizations look into this matter of their poor brothers and help them, now in their hour of need. This is not merely a letter but a plea, please do not forsake us now.

    Paul Andzyczka

    John Dluzak

    We received the following letter to be placed in this paper the - Zgoda; Dear Polish Brothers in Chicago! - We have been without work for the past seven months ...

    I D 2 a 4, I B 3 c, II D 10, I A 3, I D 2 c