The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- November 06, 1893
    Polish Farm Settlement Association Holds Meeting

    About a hundred and fifty people interested in a Polish co-operative agricultural settlement gathered at the restaurant hall near Milwaukee Avenue at three o'clock yesterday [Sunday] afternoon. Henry Lubienski was called upon to preside over the meeting, and he in turn, named I. Machnikowski secretary.

    John Wrzesinski read a carefully prepared report giving an account of the tour made by himself and Lubienski through Nebraska, Wyoming, and Colorado, the object of which was to find a suitable site for the settlement. The speaker gave a competent estimate of the land costs and economic conditions in a number of the places visited; he pointed to the benefits which could arise from establishing the settlement in eastern Nebraska, where the beet sugar industry has begun to develop.

    Lubienski confirmed the facts stated in Wrzesinski's report and discussed the most expedient methods of acquiring farms; he expanded on the possible profits 2from the cultivation of sugar beets, either for the two beet sugar refineries already existing in Nebraska, or a new one which could be established. [He said that] this can only be successful through co-operation, and that if a greater number of Polish colonists agree to settle on the same site, the costs will be much smaller and much better terms can be arranged. Many attractive propositions have been offered.

    The speaker also mentioned [the fact that] the Reverend Jakimowicz, a pastor of Omaha, was favorably inclined toward the project and had rendered the delegates many important services; he spoke of the friendly information and advice given by Prasecki and Knota, two farmers who have lived at St. Paul, Nebraska, for a long time.

    J. Rybakowski supported this colonization plan. Machnikowski asserted that he knows of a few score families who are ready to move to the colony and who possess the necessary means.

    [S. F.] A. Satalecki agreed as to the competency of Wrzesinski's report and 3spoke in favor of turning the attention of the Poles to farming as an escape from the poverty which threatens them in the overpopulated American cities. The speaker believed in the possibility of establishing a sugar refinery which would be the property of the settlers themselves. They could soon pay off the debts on their land from the profits of beet production and could then share in the profits from sugar refining. The speaker regarded this idea as a sound and useful one.

    P. C. Broel warned that the Association should make agreements with the railroads as to freight charges, in order to prevent later exploitation [by the railroad companies].

    Rudzinski spoke of his experiences with sugar beet production in Poland, where the farmers rapidly became prosperous wherever the beet sugar industry developed. He made a motion that a new delegation be dispatched to Nebraska for the immediate purchase of the necessary land.

    The gathering accepted this motion and the meeting was adjourned. The next 4meeting will be held on Saturday, November 11, at seven o'clock in the evening, at the same place.

    Twenty-three new names were added to the membership list of the Polish Farm Settlement Association in addition to the original fifteen.

    About a hundred and fifty people interested in a Polish co-operative agricultural settlement gathered at the restaurant hall near Milwaukee Avenue at three o'clock yesterday [Sunday] afternoon. Henry Lubienski was ...

    Polish
    I D 2 b, I L, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- November 13, 1893
    Meeting Concerning the Projected Polish Colony in Nebraska

    A meeting[in the matter of the Polish colonization project]was held Saturday at Fiszer's Polish restaurant near Milwaukee Avenue. In the absence of H. Lubienski, the meeting was opened by I. Machnikowski. He explained that Lubienski, accompanied by [S.F.A.] Satalecki and Majewski, had gone to Nebraska to purchase land for the colony. He then called upon Mr. Wrzesinski to preside over the meeting; the appointment was unanimously approved by the gathering.

    The chairman named Machnikowski secretary and then addressed the meeting at length on the aims of the project. His arguments, supported by statistics and experiences of his own from the old country, were favorably received. When he had finished, he asked other members of the gathering to take the floor.

    Mr. Hewel's question as to whether persons who do not possess any ready 2cash can take part in the colonization, was answered in the affirmative by the chairman. Mr. Wozniak asked whether there are any limitations on the acreage that each settler can possess. The chairman explained that the smallest farms will probably be about forty-five acres, and that, as a matter of fact, each settler can purchase as much land as his capital allows, although a certain limit as to the largest number of acres will probably be set. Such a limitation will be made in order to prevent too great a difference between the richest and the poorest farmers.

    As to farm buildings, the chairman explained, in answer to Mr. Kotecki's question, that the Association will probably foot all construction costs, and each farmer will repay this in yearly installments according to the size of his farm. In reply to another question, Mr. Machnikowski stated that beets bring from six to eleven times as much profit as wheat.

    Mr. Korejwo inquired about the conditions on which land may be acquired. The chairman replied that twenty-five per cent of the value of the land will 3be payable down, while the balance will be payable in rates spread over several years. The aim of the Association to be formed will be twofold: first, acquisition of its own land; and second, establishment of its own sugar refinery. Railroad companies have already promised to co-operate with the Association.

    The discussion, though in general harmonious, was disturbed by J. Rybakowski, who made personal attacks on individuals concerned with the Association's affairs. He foresaw exploitation by a few, impoverishment, and abandonment of the farms. The chairman refuted his arguments. Mr. Broel explained that Mr. Rybakowski's outburst was caused by his removal from the committee that went to Nebraska; the[real-estate]agent had denied him a railroad ticket on the grounds that he is an anarchist. Mr. Rybakowski did not deny this and thereafter kept his silence.

    Twenty-four new members joined the Association.

    I. Machnikowski, secretary.

    A meeting[in the matter of the Polish colonization project]was held Saturday at Fiszer's Polish restaurant near Milwaukee Avenue. In the absence of H. Lubienski, the meeting was opened by I. ...

    Polish
    I D 2 b, III A, I L, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 16, 1896
    The Stock Company Store in South Chicago (Letter)

    Despite all kinds of interference, the project of the Polish Stock Company, organized to carry on a co-operative store in South Chicago, is going forward steadily. Notwithstanding the obstacles of our erstwhile friends and Jewish agents, the project is continually gaining friends among the Poles here in South Chicago.

    Although the factories have suspended work for an indefinite period, the shares of stock are eagerly sought, and, to date 800 shares amounting to $8,000 have been already sold. It is to be expected that the factories will soon reopen. This will contribute greatly to the success of this project.

    The next meeting of the propaganda committee of the Business Corporation of South Chicago will be held on Friday, January 17, at 7 P. M., in the rectory, Bond Avenue and 83rd Street.

    W. Pacholski.

    Despite all kinds of interference, the project of the Polish Stock Company, organized to carry on a co-operative store in South Chicago, is going forward steadily. Notwithstanding the obstacles of ...

    Polish
    I D 2 b
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 16, 1896
    Poles Organize Co-Operative

    At its meeting last Sunday, January 12, the John III Scbieski Society of South Chicago decided to purchase 122 shares of stock (ten dollars per share) in a Polish co-operative store to be organized in this community.

    At its meeting last Sunday, January 12, the John III Scbieski Society of South Chicago decided to purchase 122 shares of stock (ten dollars per share) in a Polish co-operative ...

    Polish
    I D 2 b
  • Dziennik Związkowy Zgoda -- April 09, 1908
    Poles in Chicago

    Convention of the White Eagle Business Mens Assn. The White Eagle Polish Business Men's Association will meet at a convention in the Town of Lake Villa early in May. The time for the convention is almost here, and we are sure everyone is mystified as to why so little publicity is given, either to the members or the community. At a convention of this kind, it is possible to bring about reforms and new projects that should be carefully discussed and acted upon. We have on numerous occasions written a great deal about our businessmen's organizations.

    The readers of this daily paper, therefore, know also that to the present time,none of these have been realized. This fact is due to a great deal of talk and no action. This organization at the present time is made up of four groups; the oldest, of which is in the Jadwigowo community and is about five or six years old, with a membership of about 100.

    A program of activities is very plainly and definitely outlined in the constitution which varies but little from the average benevolent organization. They meet 12 times a year, about one-fourth of the members are usually present; they also have one banquet each year.

    2

    The South Chicago group has always been the most active, but at the present time they are reneging. This group has ventured into the cooperative field, and bought a large quanity of goods. They later, established a wholesale business which was a failure. At present dissensions are dominant among its members, due to a misunderstanding arising out of the proposed projects which were intended to be farsighted, and profitable to the organization. It is now evident that a new organization, not related to the White Eagle Polish Businessmens Assn. is about to be formed. This is a sad state of affairs.

    The third group of the White Eagle Polish Business Mens Association, exists in the Town of Lake Villa, and has a membership of about 40. This group appears to be dormant. This same group, however, proved enough initiative to suggest that the Polish Business Men use trading stamps. These were printed a a cost of $100; and were to be used by all members; nevertheless, they are not being used, and are at present, deteriorating in the storeroom of one of the members.

    The newest organization is group number four of the Holy Trinity Parish community. This group seems to be the most active, and from all appearances holds the most promising future. They have a membership of nearly 50. Among these are educated men-well educated men, men that understand business-organization.

    3

    The officers of this organization are recruited from two groups, namely, from Jadwigowo and from South Chicago. It may be possible, with a new membership, bring about reforms that will make for greater progress.

    The constitution of the organization, as far as I could ascertain from the members, is not very favorably received. It is not flexible enough, and too cramping. There is no doubt that energetic understanding men, could do things in a big way, but not existing conditions; radical changes will have to be made.

    We have one more organization, not mentioned above, this one, too, seems to lie dormant. It is located in St. Adalbert's Community. They too, should be invited to the convention, and through the united efforts of all members, something can be done for the benefit of the Polish Businessmen's Organization. Our best wishes to them, for the benefit of all Poles concerned.

    Convention of the White Eagle Business Mens Assn. The White Eagle Polish Business Men's Association will meet at a convention in the Town of Lake Villa early in May. The ...

    Polish
    II A 2, III B 4, I D 2 b, I D 1 b
  • Dziennik Związkowy -- June 04, 1908
    The Big Problem and Task of the Polish Businessmen's Association (Editorial)

    From all sides we hear menacing complaints about the steady increase of prices of staple articles and factory products; a tendency which has been repeating itself year after year. There are several outstanding causes which force market prices upward, the first of which is the steadily increasing demand on the market. The second lies in the raising of the workingman's wages, while the third, and most important factor lies in the operation of big industry. Based on large capital, industry creates exchanges, and establishes trusts; and, by these dictates such market prices as it deems attainable.

    Because of the high tariff which bars the foreign manufacturer from our markets, foreign competition is not feared by our industrialists, who, in many fields control the markets. Rising prices hit, not only the consumer, but also the merchant as the middleman, whose income was reduced to a minimum. Rather than discourage the customers or indulge in controversy over the proportionate raise of price, he will sell at the lowest possible margin. High and steadily rising rent, increased wages, overhead and expenses in general, add to the many burdens of the merchant; depriving him of a profitable income. The only recourse a merchant has in a situation of this kind is to establish or join trade groups; thus, merchandise is bought in larger quantities at a lesser price, which enables the merchant to sell at a better profit.

    2

    Forming merchant groups, will make it possible to consume the usurping impulses of the manufacturers, and even to boycott the unjust middlemen. Such trading and mercantile groups could organize factories and other enterprises, of their own, and have a ready market for their own group. We believe therefore, that the merchant should accept this suggestion with genuine regard for the betterment of his existence, and for the welfare of his employees as well as that of his family.

    We hope that this suggestion will be regarded in a grave manner by the Polish Businessmen's Association and it is for this reason that we are bringing up that matter today; and shall do so again and again, until we see the coveted results.

    From all sides we hear menacing complaints about the steady increase of prices of staple articles and factory products; a tendency which has been repeating itself year after year. There ...

    Polish
    II A 2, I D 2 b
  • Dziennik Związkowy Zgoda -- January 13, 1910
    [Co-Operatives]

    We are constantly writing and talking about the high cost of living, about the constant increase in price of the bare necessities of life. Many reasons are advanced for the cause of these conditions. Some blame it on the trusts, on the new tariff laws, the middle man, etc., but regardless of this the consumer is the one who pays.

    As a result, there is a movement at present to form co-operative organizations, which would check or curb abuses of these speculators and price manipulators.

    For example: a Michigan farmer receives from $1.00 to $1.20 for a barrel of apples at the Chicago market but by the time these apples finally reach the consumer the cost is about five cents for each apple. Now let us see what profit this farmer made on this barrel of apples at $1.20. The cost of the barrel is 30 cents, freight by boat 20 cents per barrel, the balance must cover taxes, production, packing and general overhead. From these figures it is evident that the producers' profit is insignificant.

    Immense profits are realized on farm products before they finally reach the consumer. The speculator and price manipulator always get their profit first. Some people think high prices are due to a shortage of apples in the United States. This, however, is not true, because Europe considers the United States the source of the finest apples. It is one of our best customers.

    2

    To combat these evils, there is a movement on foot to organize co-operatives. These organizations will buy in large quantities direct from the producer and resell to the ultimate consumer at a great saving, for the profits of these middle men will be eliminated.

    The cooperative idea is not a new one. In Europe there are a great many of these organizations. They are functioning profitably, to the advantage of both the organization and the consumer.

    Very few of our people are engaged in this produce business, therefore, we do not realize any of the profits of these middle men. We are the consumers; that is why it would be wise on our part to organize a co-operative system. Our people would save hundreds of thousands of dollars on all purchases. Throughout Europe, co-operatives of this nature have been formed, in both the smaller, and the larger cities. Products of the farm and factory go directly to the consumer at a great saving. Products of the farm reach the consumer without stopping off at the cold storage warehouse.

    We are constantly writing and talking about the high cost of living, about the constant increase in price of the bare necessities of life. Many reasons are advanced for the ...

    Polish
    I D 2 b, I D 1 a
  • Dziennik Związkowy Zgoda -- January 20, 1910
    [Cleveland's Consumers' Strike Will Force Meat Prices Down]

    The eyes of the whole country are focused on the consumers strike in Cleveland, Ohio, where 40,000 people have decided not to eat meat until the meat trust reduces the price of its products. It is understood that meat prices have already been reduced, one or two cents per pound, but the public is not satisfied. So merrily the strike goes on, and the public is eating potatoes instead of meat.

    If all Americans used the strike method of forcing the meat prices down, then the trusts would either surrender to the public will, or they would be put out of business. We do not propose to completely eliminate meat from our daily diet, but we intend to reduce the amount consumed.

    Statistics show the consumption of meat per person and per year, throughout the principal countries of the world, to be as follows: Australia 262.6 pounds, New Zealand 212.5 pounds, United States 185.6 pounds, Cuba 124 pounds, England 121.3 pounds, Germany 115.94 pounds, France 78.9 pounds, Denmark 76 pounds, Belgium 70 pounds, Sweden 62 pounds.

    2

    It is plainly evident, that the healthy, strong and hard working industrial nations such as the Belgians, French and Germans, or the agricultural Denmark or Sweden, consume about half the amount of meat consumed by either the Americans or the English, both of which are more agricultural than industrial.

    It is not necessary to eat meat three times a day in order to maintain good health; once daily, is sufficient. A good piece of meat, cooked with greens and vegetables for soup, is enough nourishment for either the factory worker or the farmer. A great many of the greens and vegetables when cooked, seasoned and prepared properly, are as tasty and nourishing as meat; but it seems, that neither the American or English women know how to prepare them. The Polish, Russian, German, and French women, however, cook soup from a piece of meat and a large variety of greens and vegetables, and season it deliciously. This is considered a whole meal. Whereas an American or English woman serves beefsteak, half raw, and as hard as shoe leather, with half - cooked potatoes and some parsley, and calles it a meal. Six hours later she serves the same, and will probably repeat it again for breakfast.

    3

    Large quantities of meat are consumed, but the benefits of nourishment are small because the amount not digested by the stomach is wasted. Reduce by one - half the amount of meat you consume, prepare less of it, but prepare it so it will be tempting and tasty, and more easily digested. The use of greens and vegetables with meats is very desirable, and less expensive. True, vegetables are also expensive and yet, a head of cabbage costs only five cents while a pound of meat cost twenty or twenty-five cents - a very noticeable difference.

    By establishing co-operative stores we can reduce the cost of living, because farm produce can be obtained from farmers in and around the Chicago area; and groceries are not as yet controlled by trusts. But the establishment of new co-operative stock-yards is out of the question. Our only weapon against the meat trust is the strike. If it helps to bring down the prices of meats, - good - if not, we must resort to other methods.

    The eyes of the whole country are focused on the consumers strike in Cleveland, Ohio, where 40,000 people have decided not to eat meat until the meat trust reduces the ...

    Polish
    I D 1 a, I D 2 b
  • Dziennik Związkowy -- November 17, 1911
    Polish Language in Parochial Schools Reply to Criticisms of Mr. Felka

    To Mr. Felka, who considers the article published in Dziennik Zwiazkowy, under the caption "Can We Condemn Parochial Schools in America?", somewhat exaggerated, the author of this article is grateful. He is grateful to Mr. Felka for stating his criticisms, because our purpose in writing is to get the general public to read and to express its opinions, and not to use the unread newspaper for wrapping up lunch to take along to the factory. I have tried to answer my honorable opponent briefly and completely, with all due respect for some of his apt observations.

    1. To Mr. Felka, [praise for] the teaching of the Polish language in the Polish schools appears laughable, because he says that it is the purpose of Polish schools to teach Polish. Mr. Felka contradicts himself immediately by declaring that America is not Prussia or Russia, where children are forced to 2study German or Russian. Apparently Mr. Felka does not know that even in some states in America, the same battle is being waged as in Prussia or Russia, where the teaching of the Polish language is absolutely prohibited during school hours. How will Mr. Felka answer this? "Sapientibus sat!"

    2. Mr. Felka condemns the Polish clergy and Polish teachers on the grounds that they evidently do not know how to inculcate a love for the Polish language in Polish children, since these children speak English at home, on the street, and even in school. Invent, Sir, a medicine for inoculating Polish children with a love for their own language, and we will acknowledge you the genius of the twentieth century. My colleague was a missionary in England for six years, and presents this picture of how the masses absorb individuals. At Uddingstone, in Scotland, there are more than seven hundred Poles employed in the coal mines, and about one hundred Irishmen. The Irish children there speak Polish more fluently than English. That is not all! The British consul 3at Warsaw complains that his children cannot speak English, while they do speak Polish fluently. What will Mr. Felka reply to this? Are the clergy or teachers responsible for this? It fills us with deep regret to have to ask--even to beg--our compatriots for money for schools and teachers, in order to bring children up in the Polish spirit. And what is the result of our efforts? A sad one, because the children speak English, feel like Americans, and consider themselves Americans! I know several priests who prohibit the use of English, and punish children severely for using it, but it is of no avail. I know also of priests who give little presents to children who speak Polish, and this too is of no avail. I know also of parents who love their language and sincerely want their children also to speak it, but their punishments and threats do no good. The only way in which the Polish language could be preserved in America would be to concentrate all the Poles in one state, but then we would be separated from the Yankees by a Chinese wall, and the resultant economic situation would be intolerable. The Jews, deeply attached as they are to their religion and language, complain that 4their children are losing their national identity in such places as Warsaw or Cracow. What will Mr. Felka say to this? Are the parasitic priests responsible for it?

    3. Mr. Felka declares that Polish priests, under pressure from American, or rather Irish bishops, and fearing for their jobs, neglect Polish children. Naturally, we as soldiers must obey the commands of our superiors, but many of our bishops understand the difficulty of our position, and let us make our own decisions. It is true that there are priests who are too much concerned with climbing to a higher position in the church hierarchy; they agree to everything in advance, instead of explaining their position to their bishop, who would certainly show them some consideration.

    4. My critic, Mr. Felka, does not see that the clergy here has done anything for the enlightenment and welfare of the Poles. If Mr. Felka was born in America, to whom is my honorable opponent indebted for the fact that he can 5read, write, and criticize, if not to the Polish clergy? If by chance Mr. Felka's parents have attended to his education up to this point, he is indeed an exception.

    5. My honorable critic argues further that the Polish clergy as a whole, except for a few individuals here and there, does nothing. He holds up, as an example for us to follow, the clergy in Prussia, who besides Mass and school take an interest in food co-operatives, etc. This is a beautiful, even a miraculous project! Mr. Felka is indeed a Moses, who loves his people. Would that we had more such inventors of projects--we could talk a good Polish nation into existence! I emphasized at the outset of my article that the Polish clergy has done much and is continuing to do much for its beloved compatriots. To whom are we indebted for the fact that parents and especially children do speak Polish?

    [6.] Mr. Felka urges us to institute food co-operatives, loan associations, etc. Suppose that we were to try, do you believe that we could convince you?

    6

    Never! Some priests have established orphanages, to prevent Polish children from being sent to Irish or American orphanages, and to keep them from losing their national identity. What do some of our progressive papers call the founders of these noble institutions? They call them businessmen, penny snatchers, etc. Therefore, would they be likely to admit that we were right and worthy of respect if we were to follow your idea and establish loan associations, etc? I am morally certain that you would bespatter us with mud at the very beginning and report us to our Irish bishops. Mr. Felka will surely ask why the priests in Poznan can do these things. Do they not have to swallow the same kinds of false accusations that we do? Are they not called thieves, etc? There is a great difference between the Polish clergy in Prussia and the Polish clergy here in America. There the clergy is recruited from among educated men, who have graduated from higher institutions of learning, whereas, here--better that I break my pen than dare to write about the education of the Polish clergy in America, lest I collide with my confreres.

    7

    7. Mr. Felka says that my comparison of the Polish clergy with that of the Irish and the Italians is not fair, because our unfortunate country is urging all Poles to try to catch up with other nations. This is true. But the Irish, Italian, and French priests, though they have done nothing for their people in a national sense, are respected and do not have such epithets as parasites, idlers, etc., hurled at them as we so often do. Do you believe that this sort of conduct toward us will encourage us to make greater efforts? Never! How do our people often show us their gratitude when one of the priests grants them a favor? Most frequently they respond by becoming his enemies!

    8. We here in New England know nothing of imbuing children with hatred toward the Polish National Alliance; an aspersion of this sort is new to us; perhaps some such situation does exist in Chicago. If there are priests or teachers who engage in the useless occupation of dividing us into two camps they should be dealt with severely. Who are the members of the Alliance and of the Polish 8Roman Catholic Union? They are the same Poles, the same Catholics who hear Mass, partake of the Holy Sacrament, have the same God, and love the same country--Poland.

    (Signed) Clergyman from New England.

    To Mr. Felka, who considers the article published in Dziennik Zwiazkowy, under the caption "Can We Condemn Parochial Schools in America?", somewhat exaggerated, the author of this article is grateful. ...

    Polish
    I A 2 b, I B 3 b, I D 2 b, III B 2, II A 2, III C, III A
  • Dziennik Związkowy -- January 26, 1914
    Polish Tailors Co-Operative (News)

    A Polish tailors' co-operative has been organized and is registered under the name "New Style Tailors Co-operative." The aim and purpose of this new Organization is to attain a sizable work-shop in which to produce a better kind of garment to the greater satisfaction of customers.

    The capital stock of $5,000 will be sold in shares of $25.00 each. A mass meeting to promote interest in the Co-operative will be held on January 25, at 2 P. M.at Walsh's Hall, corner Noble and Emma Streets.

    A Polish tailors' co-operative has been organized and is registered under the name "New Style Tailors Co-operative." The aim and purpose of this new Organization is to attain a sizable ...

    Polish
    I D 2 b