The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 09, 1894
    Down with the Anarchists!

    Anarchic pestilence is creeping even into peaceable South Chicago. So it is, gentlemen.

    From the anarchistic and godless Gazeta Robotnicza [Workers' Gazette], we have learned that the so-called Branch No. 4 of the Workers' Alliance, an organization with socialistic tendencies, was organized under the leadership of the notorious J. Rybakowski. We were surprised at this and decided to investigate and get more information.

    Our investigation furnished us with the following information.

    Some time ago, J. Rybakowski and his comrades invaded South Chicago, which, as we know, is afflicted with severe unemployment, and began their subversive activities there. The anarchists were misleading the poor people in the most 2loathsome manner; they promised them, for instance, that those who joined the Workers' Alliance would get work.

    Later on they called a meeting at which gathered many people who had no idea of the kind of trap it was. Slander and calumnies were hurled at religion and our most sacred feelings at this meeting, and the result was that the majority of the people attending it left the hall without yielding to the temptation. However, a small number of thoughtless persons yielded to the tempting lies and joined Branch No. 4 of the Workers' Alliance. But the joy of the anarchists did not last very long. A [moment of] reflection, after a word of persuasion from our clergy, was all that was necessary to wrest this small group of "overpowered" people from the grasp of the "apostles of falsehood".

    There will be no Branch No. 4 in South Chicago.

    Down with the anarchists!

    Anarchic pestilence is creeping even into peaceable South Chicago. So it is, gentlemen. From the anarchistic and godless Gazeta Robotnicza [Workers' Gazette], we have learned that the so-called Branch No. ...

    Polish
    I E, I D 2 a 3, I D 2 c, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 10, 1894
    Polish Socialists Fail in South Chicago

    The Polish Socialist party in South Chicago, organized by the notorious character J. Rybakowski as Branch No. 4, had no success.

    An article on this subject appeared in yesterday's issue of our newspaper. We also received more information on this subject from two sources--one of them a letter, which reads as follows:

    "Socialists were given 'a hot reception' in Warsaw, [probably name of the Polish district], South Chicago.

    "Last Saturday night, J. Rybakowski started the announced meeting at Kosinski's hall, South Chicago, for the purpose of converting American Poles to socialism. The meeting was opened by a certain Pacanowski, who was forbidden to speak when he began to blaspheme and attack everything. There was a great disturbance in the hall, and Pacanowski left in a hurry.

    2

    Rybakowski, fearing rough handling, made his exit through the window, scattering his propaganda literature all over.

    It seems that the socialists in South Chicago were baptized, not with water, but with something stronger. We do not approve of such tactics, neither in this particular case nor in principle; on the contrary, we condemn them. At all events, we wish to advise Mr. R. and his "comrades" that in the future they should not force themselves where they are not welcome, and that they should not use falsehoods and malice as their weapons; then they will surely avoid unpleasantness.

    That there must have been some unpleasantness can be proved by the organ of Rybakowski, Gazeta Robotnicza [Workers' Gazette], for in its last issue we read:

    "To the members of Branch No. 4 in South Chicago: These members who desire to 3remain true to the cause of labor and to the Polish Workers' Alliance in the United States of North America, will kindly send their names and addresses by mail to our Executive Committee. The list then will be sent to the secretary, who will inform you when and where the meetings of Branch No. 4 will be held.

    "The names and the addresses of the members will be kept in secret till the rest of the members be convinced that this concerns only their own welfare. Only members of the Branch, or candidates introduced by them, will be admitted to the meetings."

    This article seems to prove positively that Mr. Rybakowski, has decided to contact Branch No. 4 not "in person" but "by letters".

    In our opinion, even such letters will be useless. No one will remain true to Rybakowski's cause, neither openly nor secretly, and the information on "when and where the meetings of Branch No. 4 will be held" will be entirely superfluous.

    The Polish Socialist party in South Chicago, organized by the notorious character J. Rybakowski as Branch No. 4, had no success. An article on this subject appeared in yesterday's issue ...

    Polish
    I E, I D 2 a 3, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- July 12, 1894
    Reflections after the Strike (Editorial)

    Unfortunately, the strike is almost lost. The Poles did not commit any outrages or lawless acts during the strike. This is a fact. The Poles were only victims of those acts.

    Pullman, the hypocrite and exploiter of workingmen, is responsible for all that has happened. His name will be written with black letters in the history of the United States. His refusal to arbitrate is an act which is being condemned even by most capitalistic newspapers.

    Who plundered and burned the freight cars? Perhaps the deputies of the United States Marshal. At all events not the Poles.

    As far as the general strike was concerned, "There was a great storm but very 2little rain" [a Polish proverb].

    One more question: Why was there no announcement that on Saturday the soldiers would "shoot to kill"? Why was no one warned before the shooting began?

    We were and still are with the workingmen--against the capitalists who exploit them. But we are always with the law and against outrages and violence.

    Debs fought like a man.

    Even the Tribune condemns Pullman for his stubbornness. Even the Tribune maintains that he should have submitted the grievances to arbitration. His failure to do so will prove very costly.

    The railroad companies have won, but let them not triumph. Above them there still is public opinion, which will not allow the working people to be crushed. The whole American nation condemns Pullman for his stand.

    3

    The Catholic Gazette maintains that the railroad employees perhaps might have accomplished more by contributing a dollar a week for the strikers in Pullman than by starting a dangerous strike. This may be so, but no one should be discouraged by one failure.

    Anyhow, this great strike taught us something. The government should control the relations between capital and labor through an arbitration board. There is no doubt but that such a board for handling disputes between capital and labor must be established.

    Unfortunately, the strike is almost lost. The Poles did not commit any outrages or lawless acts during the strike. This is a fact. The Poles were only victims of those ...

    Polish
    I D 2 a 3, I D 1 a, I H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 13, 1895
    Welfare Department of Polish League Put into Action

    Meetings were held on December 3 and 6 by the newly organized Welfare Department of the Polish League. This new branch elected the following officers: Stanislaus Szwajkart, president; John Nering, vice-president; W. Burda, recording secretary; Francis Kwasigroch, financial secretary; Reverends Vincent Barzynski and Adolph Nowicki, spiritual directors (sic); F. Wleklinski, W. Jedrzejek and W. Jozwiakowski, civil directors.

    A number of motions were adopted at the initial meeting. A committee worked out the regulations for the Welfare Department which were adopted at the second meeting. It was agreed to divide the various duties among a number of committees, one of which, the Financial Committee, was chosen; others are in the making. This committee will be headed by F. Kwasigroch, W. Jedrzejek, and W. Jozwiakowski. The secretary was urged to make haste in getting in contact with the secretary general of the Polish League relative to the needs of all its agencies.

    2

    A questionnaire is being prepared and will be sent out to all agencies. The purpose of this is to find out the conditions prevailing in each agency so that proper measures may be taken to remedy any situation that might hinder the development of the agencies. Among the other actions adopted by the Welfare Department were: organization of labor societies, political groups, building and loan associations or saving banks, according to the needs of Polish communities in various cities. It was also agreed to set up a Polish bank in Chicago, since there is no need to organize any building and loan association, because many are already in existence.

    Plans are being made to have all representatives of the League convene in Chicago in January.

    It must be added that, although the Welfare Department is set up to help the Polish League and its members, it will also give assistance to the general Polish public.

    From the beginning, as long as all the committees are not chosen, meetings 3of the Welfare Department will be held weekly.

    This organization is also going to come to an understanding with the Educational Department, another department of the Polish League, and co-operate with them in their endeavors. The first step in this direction has already been taken Mr. Jozwiakowski, who is a member of the Educational Department, has been made a director of this group, and he has been consulted on plans for mutual assistance.

    Meetings were held on December 3 and 6 by the newly organized Welfare Department of the Polish League. This new branch elected the following officers: Stanislaus Szwajkart, president; John Nering, ...

    Polish
    III B 2, I D 2 a 2, I D 2 a 3, II B 2 a, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 20, 1896
    The Polish Catholic Congress Advance Conference Held in Detroit, Michigan, to Discuss Program

    As is known to our readers, about two weeks ago an invitation was published in various papers, and also was mailed to members of the Polish clergy and to some outstanding laymen, to meet in a preliminary conference at the Polish Seminary, in Detroit, Michigan, for the purpose of deciding on the date, the place, and the program of the Polish Catholic Congress.

    The invitation was signed by Reverend J. Pitass, Reverend P. Gutowski, Reverend Frank Mueller, and Reverend J. Dabrowski.

    In response to this invitation the following clergymen and laymen met yesterday, at 2 P.M., at the Polish Seminary in Detroit, Michigan:

    From Detroit, Michigan: Reverends P. Gutowski, J. Dabrowski, Frank Mueller, 2D. Zmijewski, John Mueller, Zgudzius, Buchaczkowski, and Kisielewicz, and Messrs. Joseph Kromke, Louis Szymanski, Valentine Budnik, John Dalman, Frank Jaworski, Michael Lesman, and Ignatius Wolf.

    From Chicago, Illinois: Reverends Eugene Sedlaczek, John Kasprycki, and Adolf Nowicki, and Messrs. Clemens Bielinski, Albert Jendrzejek, Paul Giersz, Peter Kiolbassa and Stanislaus Szwajkart.

    From Buffalo, New York: Reverends Deacon J. Pitass, Flaczek, and Swiniarski. and Mr. Jacob Rozan.

    From Toledo, Ohio: Reverend Simon Wieczorek and Felix Matulewski.

    From Cleveland, Ohio: Reverends Rosinski and Cwiakala.

    From Berea, Ohio: Reverend Suplicki.

    From Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Reverend Tarnowski.

    3

    From Pittsburg, Pennsylvania: Reverend Rydlewski.

    From Port Austin, Michigan: Reverend F. Gzelba.

    It is worthy of mention here, that Reverend Tarnowski announced that he also represented many priests of New York, New Jersey, and parts of Pennsylvania, whom he had met at various parishes during forty-hour devotions and other church celebrations, and who had requested him to act in their behalf.

    The Congress will be held.

    The conference was called to order by Reverend Gutowski, who explained the purpose of the meeting and requested those present to select a chairman; he himself proposed Reverend Swiniarski of Buffalo for this office. Those present unanimously endorsed his proposal and Reverend Swiniarski took over the position of chairman. Mr. Stanislaus Szwajkart was selected as secretary.

    The first question brought up for discussion was whether a Polish Catholic 4Congress should be called.

    There was some doubt expressed as to whether those assembled could decide such a question, because not all the Polish parishes or even all the states were yet represented.

    After a brief debate the assemblage decided that the time had come to take action. The papers had published a great number of letters from priests and laymen, who had proclaimed that they favored the calling of a Polish Catholic Congress and who gave their reasons for it; many of them could not come to Detroit for this conference because it was being held on a day of devotion and also because of the lenten season. Since it was impossible to delay further if the Congress was to be held this year, it was decided to settle the question at this conference and to elect a committee to take care of the details of arranging the Congress.

    Then it was decided, practically without debate, that the Congress shall be held in Buffalo, New York.

    5

    After a short debate it was decided that a committee, consisting of twenty-one persons, eleven priests and ten laymen, should be selected, and that some not present at this conference, but who had publicly expressed their endorsement of the Congress in various periodicals, might also be selected for this committee.

    This committee was also to have the power to fill vacancies if some of those absent should refuse or could not accept the mandate.

    The Committee was then selected; the following priests were named on it: Reverends Deacon J. Pitass, Eugene Sedlaczek, Tarnowski, Gutowski, Barabasz (from Baltimore), Rosinski, Grembowski (from Polonia, Wisconsin), Gramlewicz (from Naticoke, Pennsylvania), Kwiatkowski (from Jersey City, New Jersey), Stanowski (from St. Louis, Missouri), and I. Tarasiewicz (from Milwaukee, Wisconsin).

    The following laymen were elected to the committee: Messrs. Stanislaus Slisz (from Buffalo, New York), Clemens J. Belinski and Peter Kiolbassa (of Chicago, 6Illinois), Martin Grzadzicki (of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania), W. C. Korpal (of South Bend, Indiana), Valentine Budnik (of Detroit, Michigan), Joseph Gomulski (of Toledo, Ohio), Joseph Slomkowski (of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), Michael Zagorski (of St. Paul, Minnesota), and Aloyisius Nagorski (of Erie, Pennsylvania).

    During these elections, telegrams expressing wishes for success of the conference were received from Reverend Barabasz, Reverend Ignasiak, and Reverend Alexander Lipinski.

    Next followed consideration of what suggestions to give to the committee just elected.

    It was first decided to recommend that, after having chosen the date of the Congress, they issue an appropriate proclamation, and then, that the committee be divided into subcommittees, whose duties it would be to prepare the various subjects to be discussed at the Polish Catholic Congress.

    7

    In order to give the committee certain instructions, various questions that would be proper to consider were discussed. Plenty of material was furnished by the motions submitted by many priests and published by the Polak Wameryce (Pole In America). Reverend Eugene Sedlaczek submitted a brief of these proposals and suggested that the arrangements committee be divided into seven subcommittees to embrace all these subjects.

    After a lengthy discussion, however, it was decided to advise the committee to form only three subcommittees:

    1. A committee on church affairs, which shall prepare briefs to be discussed on (a) the question of organizing the Polish clergy, (b) the question of the independent churches, (c) the question of a spiritual seminary, (d) the question of considering the activities of the Polish National Alliance, and other appropriate questions.

    2. A committee on labor relations, which shall prepare briefs to be discussed on: (a) the question of a general Polish Catholic organization, 8(b) the question of organizing a labor association, (c) the question of the Polish Immigration House, and other proposals.

    3. A committee on schools and education, which shall prepare briefs for discussion on: (a) the question of establishing a teachers' seminary, (b) the question of the Polish press, (c) the question of standardizing studies in the parochial schools, (d) the question of an organization for teachers and organists.

    In addition it was decided, on the advice of Reverend Adolf Nowicki, that after having prepared the program for discussion, the committee should ask for the approval of the bishop of the diocese in which the Polish Catholic Congress is to take place, and also ask for the approval of the apostolic delegate.

    It was also decided to suggest to the Committee not only to publish an invitation to the Congress in the Polish press, but also to mail individual invitations to all priests and to all church societies.

    9

    It was further decided to advise the committee to invite prominent priests and laymen from Europe to the Congress, and when Reverend Pitass announced that he personally would be willing to cover their expenses from his own funds, those assembled received the announcement with a rising vote of thanks.

    Finally a very lively debate ensued over the question of whether members of the Polish National Alliance should be received as delegates to the Polish Catholic Congress, and after a long discussion it was decided decisively that no members of the Polish National Alliance would be received as delegates.

    A temporary chairman was then elected, as was also a temporary secretary of the arrangements committee, whose duty will be to call the committee together in order to elect permanent officers. The Reverend Deacon J. Pitass was selected as temporary chairman and Mr. Joseph Slisz as temporary secretary.

    This concluded the discussions at this conference. The chairman spoke of the 10importance of this first step made by the delegates in preparation for the Polish Catholic Congress, and the assembled delegates arose from their seats and voiced their thanks for his effective handling of his duties. The conference then ended with a prayer.

    The above report is not official; the secretary was authorized to send a copy of the official minutes of the conference to Reverend Swiniarski for his approval and signature, and several days must elapse before this can be done.

    Tomorrow we will publish further details of the conference in Detroit.

    As is known to our readers, about two weeks ago an invitation was published in various papers, and also was mailed to members of the Polish clergy and to some ...

    Polish
    III C, I D 2 a 2, I D 2 a 3, I A 2 a, III H, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 24, 1896
    Polish Tailor-Shcp Workers Are Organizing

    Over four hundred and fifty Polish men and women working in tailor shops have already joined the Polish Union of Tailor-Shop Workers.

    The majority of the owners of Polish tailor shops have not as yet signed up with the union, and do not show much sympathy for the strikers.

    The Bohemian and the German workers have already joined the Union. We sincerely hope that the Poles will do likewise, and that complete peace and harmony will ensue between the tailor-shop owners and workers. It will benefit both sides. When the large shops are forced to raise prices, the workers and the owners are benefited by it.

    We wish to remind those interested, that a meeting of Polish unionists will be held tomorrow, Wednesday, March 24, in Hall No.1 of the school building on Bradley Street. Read the advertisement of the meeting on another page.

    Over four hundred and fifty Polish men and women working in tailor shops have already joined the Polish Union of Tailor-Shop Workers. The majority of the owners of Polish tailor ...

    Polish
    I D 2 a 3, I D 2 a 4
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- September 23, 1897
    Polish Union Helps Victims of Latimer Riot

    The Polish Masons Union Local Number 7, has donated five dollars for the orphans and widows of the Latimer, Pennsylvania, riot, in which several miners were killed.

    Sincere thanks to the donors.

    The Polish Masons Union Local Number 7, has donated five dollars for the orphans and widows of the Latimer, Pennsylvania, riot, in which several miners were killed. Sincere thanks to ...

    Polish
    I D 2 a 3, II D 10
  • Zgoda -- March 05, 1903
    Resolutions in the Matter of Kosciuszko's Statue

    At the meeting held on Sunday, February 22, 1903, in the hall of Pulaski, the Society of Polish Industrial Tradesmen, of Group 3 of the Polish National Alliance, passed the following resolution:

    Whereas, the matter of Kosciuszko's statue has been moved speedily ahead and that shortly the building directors are to bring forth their report of the time for erection of the statue; and,

    Whereas, it came to the knowledge of the public that the agreement had with the Park Commissioners, for the creation of said statue in Humboldt Park, has passed the time agreed on for the accomplishment; and,

    Whereas, a great majority of the Poles have opposed the idea of placing a statue of our hero Kosciuszko in Humboldt Park, because such park is controlled largely by Germans and Scandinavians who frequent the park in observance of various popular feasts and like activities; 2proving that this park is regarded as Teutonic,

    Therefore, the Society of Polish Tradesmen in Chicago, one of the oldest societies, totalling more than 100 members, people with trade in various industries as well as men of profession, are taking charge of this at the present time to satisfy the wishes of the public, that the monument of Kosciuszko, built under the care of Polish artists, will not bear criticism. It should be placed for greater glory and honor in Grant Park, but if this is not possible, then place the statue in Lincoln Park, but never in the Teutonic Humboldt Park.

    It was resolved, regarding this monument of Kosciuszko, that this re-solution be sent to the directors building and to advertise this in the newspapers so as to awaken all other societies and make them take an active part in this great undertaking.

    At the meeting held on Sunday, February 22, 1903, in the hall of Pulaski, the Society of Polish Industrial Tradesmen, of Group 3 of the Polish National Alliance, passed the ...

    Polish
    II C, I C, I D 2 a 3, III B 2
  • Narod Polski -- May 17, 1905
    - Do Miners Desire Smaller Wages -

    Throughout Pennsylvania is heard the report that the mining companies are contemplating a lower wage scale in April of the coming year, that is at the time of the expiration of the present agreement. It is true that we still have eleven months before that time, but it is never too early for preparedness.

    Do the miners desire a lowering of pay?

    From all probability no. On the contrary they think, that they are entitled to an increase. But in what way can they prevent the capitalists from carrying out their aims and what way can they try to better their welfare?

    In those districts, where most of the miners belong to a union, there is not even any talk about that whether there can be a cut in the wage scale, and their demands for an increase will be taken into consideration. The owners of the mines acknowledge the strength of the Union, and there only they decide to negotiate in case of a strike, eventually agreeing to the terms of the miners, where there are not and if so very few non-union miners.

    2

    In what way does the question present itself in districts, where just a few members belong to the Union? What will they do? They ought to know, what they should do. The only one way of bettering their conditions is to sign up for a membership in the Union.

    (We call your attention to the article: How much does a ton of coal cost the capitalists.) Editorial column.

    Throughout Pennsylvania is heard the report that the mining companies are contemplating a lower wage scale in April of the coming year, that is at the time of the expiration ...

    Polish
    I E, I D 2 a 3
  • Dziennik Związkowy -- November 04, 1910
    Labor's Fight with Capital (Editorial)

    The city of Chicago is once again the scene of a bitter war between labor and capital. Antagonism of this extent is not frequently seen in the United States. About forty thousand tailors of both sexes are now striking in Chicago. The outbreak of strikes is in various branches of the tailoring industry. Some of the strikes have been marked by bloodshed, but such determination and certainty of the justice of the cause, as is characteristic of the strike of tailors and girls employed in tailoring concerns, is rarely met. Something must really have bothered the employees of tailoring firms to make them resort to the final means--the strike--and to keep it up with all their strength. The thing that is most important is the fact that girls are leaders in this strike--girls, in fact, who were most exploited by their employers, and who were abused on every occasion. Not only were their earnings miserable in proportion to the standard of living in this country, but, in addition to that, they were persecuted at every opportunity by the 2foremen and "bosses". Some of these men even considered their girls as a means of satisfying their sensual desires and treated them as slaves. Girls younger than the law allowed were hired for work, and of course they were paid miserably and were overburdened with heavy and unhealthful work.

    An outbreak had to come sooner or later. When a strike burst out in one firm, Hart, Schaffner and Marx, reverberations were soon heard in other firms. Masses of tailors poured out upon the streets because exploitation and immoral conditions of work existed everywhere. It was shown here, however, that the fight of labor with capital is not conducted on equal basis: the employees have moral justice on their side, but the employers are protected by the police, the courts, and the money paid hirelings to safeguard their interests. During the first of this war, tens if not hundreds of striking tailors and girl employees were clubbed by the police. The courts will undoubtedly mete out a fine against the "guilty strikers" for "disturbing the peace". The employers, on the other hand, looked through windows behind 3expensive drapes and rubbed their hands in contentment at the thought that their workers were being abused by the police and packed into jails....

    What is worse, it was shown in this strike, as it has been shown in all others, that the goal of solidarity of the laboring masses is still far off and that the worst enemy of organized labor is...the unenlightened laborer himself. At times abusive words and even revolver bullets served as a reply to strikers who were calling upon their fellow workers to cease working for the time being, so that the victory of labor might be greater and more definite. Working women who had been abused in the same manner, but who did not want to strike, ridiculed their striking sisters and cast aspersions upon them. How could organized workers hope for victory in the face of such conditions and such a lack of solidarity of the laboring masses? If numerous groups of strikebreakers had not appeared to take the place of the striking workers, violence would have been unnecessary. The police could not have shown off their brutality and would have been unable to pack the despairing strikers into 4jails. The battle would soon have been won. The employers would have been compelled to lose the economic war if they had not been assisted by the strikebreakers, because they would have had no pretext to summon the police or appeal to the courts against the strikers. Then the strikers, by sitting peacefully at home, without as much as even coming out on the street, would have been victorious.

    Capital is adequately organized and prepared to conduct a war with labor. It stands behind the protective walls of gold, militia, police, and courts. Besides, it has the advantage of combination, whether open or secret. If one firm is occupied with a strike and is conducting a war against organized labor, the capitalist of another firm comes to its aid because he knows that, if this particular factory loses, the cause of other firms will be lost. An occurrence of that type would spell defeat to capital. The employees should adhere to such tactics. If they were organized as strongly as capital is at present, there would be no power strong enough to defeat them.

    5

    The violent acts of smashing windows in factories, destroying buildings or tools, and fighting in the streets with strikebreakers and with police--these are not the kinds of fighting that assure victory, sad experience and facts teach one that in localities where such disturbances are most numerous the workers gain least. The disturbances usually end with strikers wounded and many of the more impetuous and fiery of them in prison. In addition to that, the opinion of the general public, which was at first sympathetic to the strikers' cause, is turned against them, and thus capital triumphs. The goal is not attained and there is very little profit for the workers.

    It is necessary to have a strong labor organization to counteract powerful and well-organized capital. The leaders of labor, instead of inciting the strikers to violence and riots, would do better if they dedicated their time to enlightening the people and organizing them into one great and powerful body, which could actually face capital on an equal basis. There is strength in labor, it can be victorious; but this strength must be used 6wisely, so that victory can be assured these knights of labor--victory without harm to the innocent.

    The working people should be taught, not at a time when they come out on strike unprepared, but before--when they are working and have more peaceful times. A laborer, not being protected by police, courts, or money, must resort to organizing the labor vote in elections so that his friends, not his enemies, will be selected for public offices.

    In any event, the tailors' strike in Chicago will bring about certain benefits to the working class: it will point out their shortcomings to them and encourage labor to organize more firmly against organized capital.

    The city of Chicago is once again the scene of a bitter war between labor and capital. Antagonism of this extent is not frequently seen in the United States. About ...

    Polish
    I D 2 a 4, I D 2 a 2, I D 2 a 3, I D 1 a, I E