The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- April 13, 1891
    Our Representative at Springfield John A. Kwasigroch Introduces an Important Bill at the State Legislature Proposing Protection of Working Women and Children (Summarized Editorial)

    The introduction of Congressman Kwasigroch's bill at the State legislature created great interest among the working class.

    Kwasigroch's bill proposes that no person under the age of eighteen, or a woman employed by a commercial house, should work longer than sixty hours a week or more than ten hours a day, with the exception when they have to make up time. No person under eighteen years of age, or a woman under twenty-one years of age, should work at public places after 9 P. M. or before 6 A. M. However employers will be allowed, by special permission, to employ persons over eighteen years old after 9 P. M. between the first Monday in December and the first Tuesday in January of the next year, providing that these persons are allowed 45 minutes for supper.


    Commercial houses in the State of Illinois shall not employ minors under fourteen years of age. Every employer shall keep a register in which must be recorded the name, age, place of birth, and the address of every minor under sixteen years of age, and such institutions shall not employ minors supply the employers with a sworn statement containing the age and birth date of their child. If the child has no parents or guardians, it must make such statement itself. These statements must be presented for examination to an authorized labor Department inspector.

    Every employer of minors under eighteen years of age, must exhibit in a conspicuous place a printed schedule showing the number of hours worked by each minor every week, and in every room where children under sixteen years of age are employed, the schedule must indicate also their names and ages. Commercial houses shall not employ children under sixteen years of age who cannot read and write easy sentences in the English language, 3except during the vacation time. Authorized Labor Department inspectors have the right to demand doctors' certificates showing the physical fitness of minors employed by commercial houses, and they also have the right to forbid the employment of minors who have no such certificates.

    The term commercial house used in this bill means every place or establishment where articles are sold for profit; hoever, it does not include small places where less than five persons are employed.

    The owners of commercial houses, or their agents, shall keep all elevators n goo order and use all precautions. The stairways of commercial houses shall be provided with suitable railing on both sides and the steps covered with rubber mats if necessary, according to the decision of safety inspectors. The stairs and stairways of commercial institutions must be free from all obstructions and the doors leading to them must open both ways, in and out, ad must not be locked during working hours. Commercial buildings of more 4than three stories must be provided with strong and safe iron fire-escapes, according to the specifications of safety inspectors. Safety inspectors have the right to condemn any dangerous or defective fire-escapes. The platforms of fire-escapes must be built under two windows of each story and in a convenient location. The stairs must be 24 inches wide and at a 45 degrees angle.

    The owners of commercial homes or their agents, must send a written report to safety inspectors of all accidents or misfortunes which may occur to their employees, not later than forty-eight hours after the accident. The report must contain all details of the accident. The inspectors will have the right to make an investigation and suggest any changes that may eliminate the recurrence of such accidents in the future.

    Every commercial institution must be provided with comfortable lavatories and toilets, which should be kept in a sanitary condition and well ventilated; 5and where women are employed, there must be a separate toilet room and a dressing room. The rest room where the lunches are eaten should be separated from the lavatories and toilets.

    Every employer is obliged to provide suitable seats for women employees, and they should be permitted to use them for health measures. Negligence of this duty by an employer will be considered a violation of the law.

    Commercial institutions are not allowed to employ women or children in basements that are unsanitary or damp on account of water seepage or that are filled with injurious gases, or condemned by Labor Department inspectors.

    Not less than 45 minutes must be allowed for lunch time in any commercial institution. The Labor Department inspectors, however, have the right to issue a written permission for a shorter lunch period if it is necessary at certain times of the year, but such written permission must be displayed at a conspicuous place.


    In this State Labor Department inspectors and their assistants are obliged to enforce these regulations and bring to justice those who disregard them; therefore, they have the right to inspect any commercial institution at any proper time and as often as necessary. Any owner or manager of any commercial institution who hinders, delays, inconveniences or resists such investigation is committing an offense. The Labor Department inspectors and their assistants will have the authority of a notary public in taking oaths in the course of their investigations.

    State's attorneys of every county in this State have the right, and it will be their duty, to prosecute at any court any person who violates these regulations, of such action is demanded by a Labor Department inspector or his assistant.

    Every person violating or neglecting these regulations, or employing minors in spite of them, shall be guilty of breaking the law and punished by a fine 7of not less than ten dollars and not more than one hundred dollars, or by imprisonment of not less than thirty days and not more than ninety days.

    A printed copy of these regulations should be displayed at every institution and at every location in this State where persons are employed to whom this regulation refers.

    This law is effective at once.

    The introduction of Congressman Kwasigroch's bill at the State legislature created great interest among the working class. Kwasigroch's bill proposes that no person under the age of eighteen, or a ...

    I H, I A 1 a, I D 1 a, I D 1 b, I B 2
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 05, 1892
    Building Concession

    James Wucha has been permitted to build a three story flat building at 1073 W. 19th street at a cost of $3,600.

    James Wucha has been permitted to build a three story flat building at 1073 W. 19th street at a cost of $3,600.

    I D 1 b
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 12, 1892
    Building Concession

    A building concession was granted to G. Piasecki for a one-story addition to a building at 8261 Ontario Avenue. Cost will be $2,000.

    A building concession was granted to G. Piasecki for a one-story addition to a building at 8261 Ontario Avenue. Cost will be $2,000.

    I D 1 b
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 13, 1892
    Building Concessions

    A building concession was granted to M. Dorszinski to build a two-story flat building at 583 Francisco Avenue, at the cost of $3,100. A similar permit was given to Frank Lewadowski, to erect a two-story flat building at 2815 Stuart Street. The home will cost $3,000.

    A building concession was granted to M. Dorszinski to build a two-story flat building at 583 Francisco Avenue, at the cost of $3,100. A similar permit was given to Frank ...

    I D 1 b
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- June 08, 1892
    Why Don't We Establish Associations?

    The question, "Why don't we establish associations?" should be asked by every Pole. Let us omit the other Polish communities and pause to consider the Chicago group. There are more than one hundred thousand Poles in this city. Many Polish citizens have lived in Chicago for over twenty years. Despite this fact, it is disappointing to find so few of the larger establishments and factories remaining in the exclusive possession of our people. True, there are several manufacturers and a few businessmen in our groups, but their transactions are conducted on a small scale. The gigantic German enterprises and even those of our "Jewish Poles" who have willingly settled in our communities, are beyond a comparison with the Polish businessmen.

    These good-natured and credulous people are easier to swindle than are the American "Yankees". Saloons are the one thing we have in abundance. These, in reality, are too numerous. Were some one to present a comparative chart 2drawn from the various national groups, the greatest percentage of saloons would fall within our group. It is doubtful whether this could be considered a benefit. In the first place, were one to judge by such statistics, the Poles would be considered as the greatest sots and drunkards, which, thank God, is not true. Secondly, the great number of saloons in the Polish sections have a very meager business. The saloonkeepers (especially the newer ones) have little business, and their future is not bright. This proves that our people are not such drunkards.

    One frequently hears statements and reads voluminous advertisements in the newspapers [to the effect] that the Poles should buy only from their own people. There is some truth in this. But do all the Polish businessmen exert their efforts toward giving as good quality at low prices as do the large stores and even the Jewish establishments in the city? This question remains unanswered. Attention is called to the fact that many of our people have been seen making purchases at the establishments of our most bitter enemies--the 3Germans--as well as at the places of those leeches--the Jews--who, it seems, would be willing to wander in search of Polish patronage even as far as Brazil. These Poles have often been requested to explain their failure to patronize their own people. The answer always was that the price was higher at the Polish stores and the selection not as great as in the city proper. Others, again, claim that all their purchases are made in the Polish stores exclusively--in reality, however, they do the same as the group just mentioned.

    Whose fault is this? The manufacturers and businessmen will answer: "not ours". The consumers also disclaim any responsibility, basing their contention [on the fact] that they prefer to do business where the quality is better and the price lower. It is not surprising, after all, that such an attitude prevails. An old maxim has it that "the undershirt is closer to the skin than the dress". It is surprising to discover that many of our people will immediately render an unfavorable opinion about a Polish store or manufacturer, even if their 4arguments for doing so are unfounded. The Polish manufacturers and businessmen, on the other hand, claim to be patronized mainly by other nationalities. They assert that it is impossible to rely upon Polish support alone. We concede that point. A shoe-store proprietor, for example, if his place of business is established in a cosmopolitan city, should endeavor to sell his merchandise to all and not limit his trade to his own people. A Pole cannot be accused of any lack of patriotism if he finds it necessary to patronize the German or Jewish establishments, however far away they may be. Despite the purchaser's good intentions, he is unable to secure the goods he needs in Polish stores. The fact that many Poles fill important posts in America, be it in the administrative or business spheres, will verify the statement that they are capable of conducting extensive enterprises. We must admit, however, that very few of the larger businesses are under Polish control. Small stores can exist in small settlements or towns, but in cities such as Chicago--if the [large and] prosperous firms do not engulf them--they will exist only from day to day, with no future. Some one 5might reply that requisite capital is necessary to conduct a larger business. It must be remembered, however, that the Irish, Germans, and Jews did not arrive here with the millions they now possess. They were as poor as we; but the difference at present is enormous. They own railroads, streetcars, gigantic factories and large stores; and what have we?....Smoke-filled saloons and....small grocery stores.

    Did we reach our simple and meager fortunes by an easier method than did the others their millions? Not in the least. Our ownership of homes, vacant lots or some type of business or factory--they are the result of our hard labor. The Poles have often denied themselves even the immediate necessities of life in order to save for their old age when they would be deprived of the strength to work. Our people have only on occasions allowed themselves simple pleasures, recreations that are due every laboring man. Despite this, the results of the efforts of our people are far smaller than those of the Jews, for example, who have seldom earned an honest dollar.


    Where does the cause of this evil lie? The national misunderstandings, lack of mutual confidence and the insane jealousies among our people might serve as an answer to this question. The Poles should organize into associations and conduct large enterprises. Only then will our people be in a position to withstand competition. When such a time arrives, the Poles will not search for strange gods--they will find them among themselves. The working people of Polish extraction will not be abused in the Irish or German factories because they will find employment among their own nationality. The Poles are not lacking in capable men. What they need is a little more confidence in their own people. They should not be of the opinion that everything made by Germans is good. There are plenty of German products of inferior quality.

    Let us consider, for example, the so-called real-estate enterprises. Who conducts this type of business and how is it managed? An association is formed of Irish or German capitalists. Millions of acres of land are purchased 7by this syndicate at a very low price. This property is then divided into farms or lots which are then sold at a higher rate to our people through Polish agents. Who, in this instance, realizes a greater profit, the agents or the syndicate? Naturally, the latter and the agents aid them in this. Were the Poles but to understand the enormous sums they have spent thus far to enrich the Germans in this manner--they certainly would organize similar associations themselves. All the lots in Hammond, Cragin, and other localities could be purchased by our people at a lower rate and would thus enrich our own group and not the strangers. The Poles would then become co-owners and not mere agents.

    It is possible to obtain the necessary funds for an enterprise of that nature. If some two hundred Poles combined and each of them set aside an average of five dollars per month, within one year a sum of twelve thousand dollars would be accumulated. A large tract of land could be purchased for thirty-six thousand dollars, using the twelve thousand dollars as a down payment. Monthly 8payments of one thousand dollars could then be made by this Polish association. The property thus obtained could be divided into lots or farms, independent of the debt, and then sold on easy payments in the same manner as the other nationalities are doing at present.

    This would show that a great deal more could be realized through such operations than from the type of businesses so common among our people. Yet, if the Poles even anticipated taking steps in this direction, they would receive nothing more than discouragement from their compatriots. Why? If the Poles sell farms as agents at a profit, why could they not sell Polish lots and farms at an equal remuneration?

    At one time, an organization consisting of lovers of the hunt was formed among the local Poles. This association wished to give a more practical purpose to their organization, based upon the American method. One of the provisions of their constitution required of every member that he acquire at 9least two shares of stock in a building bank. The money thus obtained was to have been used for the purchase of larger tracts of land which would then be divided into lots and farms. Originally, some forty members, with one hundred and four shares in all, enrolled into this association. It seemed at first that this idea would find general support and that every Pole who wished to save several dollars each month would subscribe to this organization. Unfortunately, several malicious individuals, who felt some personal indifference, began to make secret charges as to the sincerity of the association's purpose and its administration. Actions of this type only helped to disrupt the association to such an extent that at present, after an existence of a year and a half, many discontented members have withdrawn while others are obliged to wait indefinitely for the realization of their plans. If the Poles were not so eager to pass judgment, especially against their own brethren, they would pay no heed to the false tales of malicious people. They would attend one of the regular monthly meetings, examine the constitution and become convinced that the aims of this 10organization, as a whole, are honorable. The best proof of this is that the association had members who enjoyed a reputation for honesty not only among the Poles, but also among all the other nationalities residing in Chicago. Today, after an existence of a year and a half none of the former members of this association can charge that the Huntsmen's Organization acted unjustly toward him. No one can say that he was exploited and yet, despite this, the growth of the organization does not measure up to expectation.

    Surely no one considers the founder of some newly organized American association as the most important factor, but they do give serious thought to the organization's purpose and to the possibilities of its development. In this way, the association either grows or fails. In this respect the Polish point of view is reserved. A proposal to form an association brings forward many people antagonistic to it. They do not search for the reason for its organization, nor do they consider what beneficial prospects it may have. Their 11primary interest is in who is the originator of the movement, and then they become members for personal reasons; or, on the other hand, they obstruct its growth by malicious and unfounded gossip. Should such be the attitude? Is this patriotic behavior? No! A continuation of such views will only result in keeping Poles on a low level, while the Germans and Jews will continue to draw profits from our people.

    Relative to the Huntsmen's Organization, it is surprising to note the attitude of total disinterest among its members in matters of vital importance to the organization. Despite the acknowledged benefits derived from this association, the members neglect to attend meetings and refuse to participate in affairs. This attitude is detrimental and harmful to the possible passage of motions. True, there are those who actually have no time to attend, but there also are many who attempt to justify their indifference by placing the blame on a lack of time.


    The main purpose of this article is not so much to encourage the readers to enroll in any particular organization. Our foremost aim is to call this situation to the attention of all Poles, and prove to them that large capital can be created from small sums, from which vast estates can be purchased. The Poles have all the means necessary to organize such associations. These organizations would not be limited only to purchase of land but would extend to manufacturing and business ventures as well. Faith in the strength of the Polish people and a greater confidence in our brethren are all that is necessary. We admit that other nationalities are wealthier than our people, but none of us wish to search for the reason for this. We condemn every potential project ever undertaken by the Poles as being impossible for our people to achieve.

    A great deal more could be written on this question. Perhaps a more capable writer would wish to indicate the benefits of business associations. The sole purpose of this article was to point out the indolence of the Polish 13people in this respect.


    The question, "Why don't we establish associations?" should be asked by every Pole. Let us omit the other Polish communities and pause to consider the Chicago group. There are more ...

    I D 1 b, I D 1 a, II A 2, I B 1, III A, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- July 13, 1892
    [Are the Churches "Productive"?] (Editorial)

    A new charge has been leveled against the instituting and erecting of Polish churches, especially beautiful, expensive and magnificent churches. The charge is that the churches are "unproductive", that the capital expended for their erection could be turned into more advantageous channels and bring marked profits.....

    Evidently, this charge could have been made only by a comparative stranger, by a person who is completely unacquainted with existing conditions and, moreover, who is completely deprived of practical sense and judgment as to what is really "productive" and what is not. This assertion is not at all supported by the Jews and members of other sects who wish to do business with the Poles, antagonistic as they may be toward the churches. These people, in their desire to subdivide land 2and sell it to the Poles and to establish some Polish settlement, first assign a few lots as a donation to erect a Polish church, because they well know that it will be profitable to them. Certainly they would not do this if the donation of the lands was "unproductive". Whoever has seen the growth of the Polish settlement during the recent years, whoever has compared the present value of Polish real estate in the vicinity of Noble Street with its value in former years--and the same holds true of other parts of the city--whoever, even in the past few years, has watched the development of St. Hedwig's Parish from the time when the church was instituted there and compared it with the previous long period of time in which the locality was known as "the prairie", whoever will even take into consideration only the last few months during which in South Chicago within a few days a "Warsaw" was erected out of a "brush land" as soon as a temporary church was established--that person cannot say that the instituting and erecting of churches is "unproductive". It would require a very limited vision not to see their productiveness; or again, it would be necessary to have a sincere 3hatred for the church to make such assertions public.

    The Polish people are a religious people and even today stand firm in the faith of their forefathers. Consequently, the Poles live around their churches and congregate only where the church is near. The result of this is a rise of prosperity. True, a short-visioned person will not see that out of the five dollars given for the church indirectly either the capital or the interest from it returns to the donor; but what large material gains even these five dollars bring to this same donor over a period of a few years, everyone knows who has lived here for several years. Every foot of his land increases in value by tenfold; every home brings so much the greater profit, every store, every type of undertaking, gains that much in value. And indirectly they also gain who do not possess either land or homes or businesses: in proportion to the increase of prosperity there are created needs of different kinds, and employment is found for musicians, teachers, writers, and the 4like--in the end, everyone residing in such a settlement gains when a church is near.

    We do not speak here of another type of "productiveness" or "gain" of the Polish churches because it would be incomprehensible to those who do not recognize the need of churches; for the time being, we limit ourselves strictly to "business productiveness" and everyone who bears no ill will or has no extremely limited vision will agree with our statement.

    A new charge has been leveled against the instituting and erecting of Polish churches, especially beautiful, expensive and magnificent churches. The charge is that the churches are "unproductive", that the ...

    III C, I D 1 b, III A, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 24, 1893
    In the Interest of Clerks Working in Dry Goods Stores (Editorial)

    The unfortunate position of clerks employed in the large dry goods establishments is well known to everyone. In order to satisfy the needs of the public, more especially of the working classes, they work not only on week days but on Sundays as well. On Saturdays and Mondays their hours stretch far into the night.

    It is easy to understand how much they must suffer from this overwork. While the average working man is free to rest on Sunday, they must put in at least half a day's hard work. On ordinary week days, they are often at work until eleven or twelve o'clock, satisfying the demands of customers.

    It would be practically impossible to release the clerks in the stores, especially those stores patronized by Poles, from late evening or Sunday work.


    The Poles are mostly poor working people, whose only leisure time for making purchases is often Sunday or a weekday evening--usually pay day, which generally falls on Saturday or Monday. To close the stores at such times would be to inflict a wrong upon them; moreover, it would harm the business interests of the store owners. Thus, when the large dry goods and clothing stores on the Northwest Side shut down completely on Sundays during summer and autumn of last year, the desired result was not attained. The small businessmen did not close their shops, and the people, instead of doing business with the large stores, patronized them. As a result, protection of their own business interests necessitated their resumption of Sunday hours. At present, however, a new step has been taken in this direction. In our opinion--providing the buying public co-operates--this plan could materially relieve the conditions under which the clerks, among whom are to be found so many Poles, work. Representatives of the largest stores or the Northwest Side, especially of those in the vicinity of Milwaukee Avenue, held a meeting on January 17 at Shoenhofen's Hall. They decided that they would all close their stores on Wednesday and Friday evenings at six o'clock. Thus their clerks, working usually from seven in the morning to 3ten o'clock at night, or--taking off an hour for meals--fourteen hours per day, will have at least two free evenings per week, which they can devote either to their families or to amusement. Again, these free evenings will permit numerous small boys and girls (so-called "cash-boys" and "cash-girls") to attend evening school or to further their education in some other way.

    The advantages this decision will bring to a whole regiment of hard-pressed workers are obvious. In creating this respite, the employers have done their part. It remains for the public to co-operate. If the public desires this relief to be permanent, it should refrain from making purchases at stores open after six o'clock on Wednesday and Friday evenings. Otherwise, those stores which have given relief to their employees, will be forced to rescind their decision because of harmful competition. Such action would be a loss to the clerks, among whom are so many of our brothers and sisters. We present this matter to the Poles of Chicago, convinced that they will want to do something to help their countrymen and neighbors in the name of brotherly love.

    The unfortunate position of clerks employed in the large dry goods establishments is well known to everyone. In order to satisfy the needs of the public, more especially of the ...

    I D 1 b, II A 2, I H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 12, 1893
    Building and Loan Associations (Editorial)

    The unreasonable panic gripping large and small capitalists in this country has communicated itself to the shareholders of building and loan associations. It is felt in Polish associations of this kind also; never before has the withdrawal of money been so general as at the present time. Naturally, those who profit the most are the shareholders who do not succumb to the general fear and do not withdraw their money; for the interest lost by withdrawing shareholders is divided up among those who remain.

    Some people justify their actions with the claim that they are unemployed, and, needing money, have no other course. This is a very unreasonable way of thinking. It would be far more profitable for them to use their shares as security for a loan at the very association in which their money is invested.


    Let us have hopes that now, when confidence is slowly returning and money is again circulating more freely, this panic among the shareholders of building and loan associations will also end.

    The unreasonable panic gripping large and small capitalists in this country has communicated itself to the shareholders of building and loan associations. It is felt in Polish associations of this ...

    II A 2, I D 1 a, I D 1 b
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 17, 1895
    Polish Societies of South Chicago Meet to Discuss Plans for a Business Enterprise

    (The following interesting and important article was received by the Dziennik Chicagoski for publication.)

    The announced meeting of all officers of the Polish societies of South Chicago was held on Sunday, December 15. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss plans for organizing and operating a Polish business enterprise.

    Officers from all the societies were present at the meeting. John Szostakowski was appointed chairman and W. Pacholski acted as recording secretary.

    The chairman announced the reason for the gathering. He said that the meeting was called for the purpose of working out a plan for the establishment of a large department store (on the pattern of The Fair or other such stores) in 2which all items used in the home may be purchased.

    Money for this venture will be raised through the selling of stock at a par value of ten dollars a share. The reason for setting the par value of the stock at this low price is to give all Poles an opportunity to become a part of this business enterprise. This matter greatly interested the Poles of South Chicago.

    At the meeting the following spoke on the subject: Reverend Adolph Nowicki, pastor of St. Michael Parish, Reverend F. M. Wojtalewicz, pastor of the Immaculate Conception Parish, Mr. Pacholski, J. Dudek, and others.

    All speakers stressed the advantages of such a department store for the Poles of South Chicago. The Jews, the leeches of Polish society, have monopolized business to such an extent among the Poles in this section of town that a number of Polish businessmen have been forced to close their doors. If this condition is allowed to continue all signs of Polish business in South Chicago 3will be destroyed. Only combined Polish effort will be able to compete with the Jewish businessmen.

    That the Poles of South Chicago are aware of this was evidenced by the attendance at the meeting and by the number of shares sold. Four hundred shares were sold, representing four thousand dollars. The officers of each society have taken it upon themselves to promote this idea among the members.

    The following temporary promotion committee was chosen: Reverend Nowicki, Reverend Wojthlewicz, J. Dudek, J. Szostakowski, C. Witkowski, T. Gordon, S. Sulski, Reverend Rydzewski, J. Hyma, W. Folmer, W. Forman, A. Walkowiak, and W. Pacholski.

    The next meeting will be held on Friday, December 20, at the parish rectory on 83rd Street and Bond Avenue.

    Hope is expressed that this project will soon be carried out. All that is 4needed is work, energy, unity, and co-operation. To work, brothers, and God will help us!

    W. Pacholski, secretary.

    (The following interesting and important article was received by the Dziennik Chicagoski for publication.) The announced meeting of all officers of the Polish societies of South Chicago was held on ...

    II A 2, I D 1 b, III B 2, I C, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 22, 1896
    Why Go to Jews? (Editorial)

    Sad indeed for the Poles and Lithuanians in Chicago was the bankruptcy of the two Jewish banking houses of Kopperl, one on Canal Street, the other on Washington Street. These bankruptcies we mentioned briefly before. They are heart-rending. Many of our brethren (especially on the Northwest Side) will lose the money deposited in the Kopperl banks; some will lose money deposited for the purchase of steamship tickets, or to be sent to the old country. These losses are quite large. We were told of two Poles who will lose several hundred dollars.

    We hope this sad lesson will benefit them and convince them, finally, that they do wrong when they fill the pockets of strange, unknown persons, who 2give no guarantee of safety, and, by so doing, ignore their own countrymen, respected and tested.

    Our Poles seem to have a special weakness for Jews. Is there a shortage, among us Poles, of agents, businessmen, doctors, druggists, lawyers, etc.? No, not at all! We have many experienced persons among us, persons who have been recognized by others, and who have worked among us for many years, sincerely and honestly.....Do we give them the right support? Not in the least!

    But let a Jew get busy among us....we rush to him as to a fire! We buy steamship tickets from him, we go to him when we are sick, we trust him with our money, and he then cheats us, profiteers and robs.

    As living proof of this, witness the Kopperls and others like them!


    How often has the Polish press warned our countrymen. "Haven't you your own Polish businessmen? Haven't you your own building and loan associations, and how about the bank on Milwaukee Avenue, where four Poles are directors? Why seek strange and, at that, Jewish gods?"

    And still the Poles do as they please. And you see what happens--tears and gnashing of teeth!

    This is a very important matter.

    A Pole should, first of all, support a Pole. Let this be firmly understood. He will thus benefit himself and his fellow countrymen. He should not chase after strangers, if he can benefit his own. If we do not support one another, who will support us? A Jew surely will not, nor will anybody else.


    Once more we repeat: "Learn your lesson from the Kopperl affair."

    Let us chase away this Jewish "love" for us once and for all. Stay united and help each other, and we will be better off than we are today. Otherwise, it will be just too bad--and that's that!

    Sad indeed for the Poles and Lithuanians in Chicago was the bankruptcy of the two Jewish banking houses of Kopperl, one on Canal Street, the other on Washington Street. These ...

    I C, I D 1 b