The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 27, 1892
    One More Word Relative to the Protest Action (Editorial)

    Articles of a polemic nature are beginning to appear in Polish journals published in many parts of the United States relative to the manifesto issued by the Committee of Fifteen, which was organized by Father V. Barzynski, as a result of a meeting at the New Polish hall on January 15. The articles compounded at this session were printed verbatim in this paper the following day, and carried the collective ideas of those present in protest against the barbarous and abominable treatment of our people by the Muscovites. Although no one dares to deny the evident justness of the protest, some, nevertheless, express doubt for a repeated continuation at the present moment, and believe that whatever steps were taken already, will be sufficient.

    From a free discussion upon important questions, a light has been brought 2into view that spreads doubt upon those of the public who have been convinced of the matter on hand, yet are hesitant, despite the fact that the public, as a whole, has passed its mature opinion upon the subject. This has been proven by reversing the questions.

    The objections raised against the patriotic thought taken up by the Chicago committee have been victoriously repelled, and has finally merited the establishment of a counter plea. Let there be freely added to this discussion a few statements in order to clarify both sides of the issue.

    At the head of all this, we will place Father Vincent Barzynski, whose right as a priest to participate in this mentioned protest, which has been marked with the political stamp, has been questioned by an unjust attack.

    Polish clergy has always lead the way for the continuation of patriotism 3among our people. It has comforted the citizens during the dreadful days of trouble and strife. It has appeased their anxiety during their endless wanderings on the cross-roads of life. It has brought relief to those in pain and despair. In comparison to other classes of people, we had a like number of heretics and traitors. No group has distinguished itself equally on the grounds of consecration, or plucked as many thorns and palms of martyrdom. This continues even today. There is more anger thrown upon the Polish, and more oppression inflicted upon them now than at any other time. This is also true of those under the Russian dominance. The priest, because he has answered a calling, and sacrificed his life to God and the people, is faced with direct poverty, deprived of the many privileges, and subjected to endless police investigation.

    If we will turn back the pages of Polish history to the last years of dying republicanism, we will find Fathers Krasinski, Konarski, Stasycz, Naruszowicz, and Kollataj, making a bold attempt to ease the burdens of 4religious belief, making a change in social reform, and improving the education of the younger generation. And why should not these same brilliant virtues be imitated by our present day Polish clergy?

    Polish ideals have always been united and inseparable with the ideals of Catholicism. It would be useless to separate them. Poland's cause would be mortally wounded by this severance from Roman Catholic religion. This makes the connection of the Church with Poland indispensable.

    This is readily realized by our enemies, therefore, they, above anything else, prey upon the representatives of the church. Our people, filled with the traditions of Poland, try to emulate them. There is no sophistication attached to this, only the pure logic of the common individual. They follow the concepts of their people, of their religion, and their clerical representatives.

    Therefore, Father Barzynski, whose efforts to establish the Polish 5emigrant in America, are well-known to every Pole, has a perfect right to help the Polish people abroad. And if he is the initiator of this idea, all the better. He took into his hands the entangled threads of Polish affairs and interests in America, organized a great center for them in Chicago, where many other nationalities had a foothold, managed the affairs of many of his parishioners, and gained knowledge of the attitudes of his group in his parish. Having an understanding of the religious attachment of the Polish people, he had in many respects an opportunity to also find out about their feeling for the Poland of old, and her oppressed people. Realizing their desires, and seeing that they did not know how to go about to help their suffering brothers in Russia, or where to go to get this aid, Father Barzynski came to their assistance. His helping hand was unanimously accepted by them.

    The following is the conservative conception of a persistent protest, and its results. A collective protest of all the Poles in America against the actions of Russia, as a primary political act, will bring 6about a favorable result. It will not only bring into the picture the importance of this protest to the many other nationalities living under the wing of liberty, but it will also present a better picture of Poland and her people. It will take fire like a prairie blaze, and spread quickly throughout the country, and throughout the world. This universal notoriety will bring about a new political factor to be reckoned with.... for the world a new picture.... for Russia an unexpected move. This action will be both Christian and human. It will gain the recognition of Americans, who hate tyranny and inhuman treatment of people. This action will also gain unlimited gratitude from our people in Russia, who are under the clutches of a merciless tyrant.

    A majority of the Poles in America have come from Galicia and Prussia. They are not familiar with the crack of the Tsar's whip, which is wielded upon the Poles under his command. It was to their good fortune that they were able to leave the ranks of their brothers, and come to this country to prosper under its democratic rule. Because of this good fortune, they 7ought to join hands with other Polish people living in the United States, and show to the civilized world the monstrosity and vileness of the Russian rule.

    Why should this group stay dormant relative to the joint action of this protest? To offer a helping hand, would be the least they could do against the officially announced and notorious slogan of the Tsar. His statement, "Wipe out everything that is Polish under our rule," reverberated throughout Europe. Why should they tolerate such barbarous ambitions?

    This unpardonable war against a helpless people is imperiling them with extermination. It also endangers the position of the Pole in the eyes of the world. Here in America, we are not so much concerned about historical rights guaranteed by treaties or the privileges of the people, as once existed before the insurrections. However, there is great concern 8about our race, about the self-existence of our people who are being subjected to a systematic scheme, which in the end, will wipe out their existence entirely. A system of cruelty unheard of to the present day in the annals of Christian history.

    There are going to be many objections presented against this protest. However, they will come from a source unfamiliar with the true circumstances. These will be the first ones to voice objections against the idea of a joint protest of the Christian world against the Muscovites. Yet, never in the one hundred year reign of Tsars in Russia was there ever a more shameful mistreatment of people, and against the right of God.

    It is not surprising that as soon as this news of the Tsar's actions reached European countries, and crossed the vast expanse of the Atlantic ocean our people in America became pierced with consternation.


    Tasting the seed of freedom, sharing the liberty that was so well-founded by Washington and Franklin, and upheld by Lincoln, we began to realize what it really means to live on free soil. Our hearts recoiled upon hearing of the severe blows dealt to our people by the hand of the Russian government, of the enforcement of merciless and drastic laws, not mentioning the wilfulness and abusiveness of the barbarous gangs.

    If you will picture in mind the green meadows, the fields of clover which were cultivated by the bloody perspiration of our forefathers, and the pine groves, and compare it with present pillaging of this land and people, you will have some conception of the present situation. And if you will take the one time splendor of the banks of the Vistula, the beauty of the Bug, and the glory of Niemen and present it to the people, and imprint upon their minds the destruction of these lands, along with the buildings and murdering of people, you will be doing yourself and your countrymen an honorable favor.


    A joint protest in this respect will bring the Polish people honor and respect of the entire world. A democratic loving people have always sympathized with those trying to gain the freedom they have lost. The many nationalities in the United States cannot but admire such action of a minority group, for they value the freedom offered them by their adopted country. This stand for the martyred people abroad will create for them a better position as a group in the American scheme of things. We will be regarded with high esteem, out of which will evolve many happy returns.

    This protest action will give out people for the first time an opportunity to voice their protests, which will be heard by all in America and the world at large. This blended voice, filled with the ardour and love for what is Polish, will reach the ears of other Poles scattered the world over. With their cooperation, our voice will quickly span the ocean like a flash of electricity, and reach its goal quicker than a dispatch sent by the ocean 11cable, and give the unfortunate Pole under Russian dominance a ray of hope. This will awaken them from their sleep of the martyred, drive out their pessimism, and restore in them the determination to withstand the ravages of the mad Muscovites. The joy of becoming free will envelop them once again.

    Political quietism, or passive idleness, followed by factions in some countries, has brought about a succession of slothfulness and work abandonment. There is never a moment in the life of a group of people when political thought cannot be reformed, when enacted laws for adequate social action cannot be revised. It never pays to be idle, if one wants to progress. "Per angusta, ad angusta," little but constant deeds will bring great results, providing it is practiced by all with exertion and enthusiasm. Always with God and forward with God!

    Then one of the most important facts to be remembered by our people 12during times of peace is to train itself through such rigorous disciplinary action as to be fit and able to step forth with greater action and decision in case any endangering problems are to be faced. If we would once and for all shed our old habits, which waste our energy and secure our means of existence. This kind of indulgence only leads it to tug at the rope in many directions at once, instead of in one direction. If it would only learn to follow the teachings, which are clear as crystal, of those that fight for the continuation of patriotism, and not listen to the scatter-brained philosophers. If it only persued instruction on a small scale, it would be able to prepare itself for the great events, throw its sword into the arena of world events, and turn the tide of events to our side.

    At the present time, as a dusky veil is covering our horizon, which blights out the least enlightening ray of hope, a voice comes to our assistance from a source least expected. It comes from those that have been forced to go elsewhere to eke out a living because of economic conditions, and 13who were thrown upon the uncertain fields of emigration. These Poles that came to this country under such circumstances had to make the best of anything, without any one's help. They struggled to cut a niche in the American scheme of things alone.

    These are the ones that are a shining example of what can be accomplished by our people. It ought to be followed by all our people, because it teaches self-help. This spirit, so predominant in the Anglo-Saxon peoples, is lacking in our people here in America. In public matters, we have always turned to strange hands, never realizing that this kind of action lessens our position in public affairs, and unmindful of the fact that if we do not do things on our own initiative, and exert our own energy in lifting ourselves from our misfortunes, no one else will. This is proven by the news of our fallen credit from the financial markets. In London's Lombard Street, and the Wall Street of New York City, where precarious business enterprises are readily advancing money, our credit has fallen to zero. These financial centers would not give 14us three pence. It is apparent that no one is interested in our cause enough to take a small risk.

    Therefore, it is necessary for us to get into action. Actions are more readily recognized than arguments. The adage, 'Actions speak louder than words,' is known to many. All the Poles in America should join the ranks of those who have started in this direction by a representative few. A protest of this kind will serve a twofold purpose. It will be beneficial to us, and it will show to the eyes of other peoples that the Poles are progressive.

    In order to become victorious in our aims, we must follow the example of those who have joined the protest by becoming thoroughly familiar with the situation. We must school and educate ourselves in self-support, self-help, plus the pluck and daring of our forefathers. Although we have brought with us our poverty from our native land, we have an opportunity to rise above this in this free nation. Despite 15our hardships, We are beginning to see a way to the clear road of success and happiness. We try to accumulate knowledge in the public schools, take interest in the affairs of the United States, and also direct our attention to our people abroad. In the latter direction, we are doing the best we can under the present circumstances. With this start, we are able to send a little ray of hope across the seas. Our voice will be heard along all the frontiers of civilization, and our protest will be considered before the tribunal of public opinion.

    Our efforts in America will be pleasing to God, for they have flowed with smoothness and decorum. We should never forget in our troubles the prayer of Jesus Christ in the garden asking for strength from his Father.

    Almighty God, take away from us this cup of bitterness, and deliver us from the evil of our enemies!

    Articles of a polemic nature are beginning to appear in Polish journals published in many parts of the United States relative to the manifesto issued by the Committee of Fifteen, ...

    I C, I A 1 a, I B 4, I F 4, I F 6, III C, III H, I H, I J
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 15, 1892
    Contributions to the Holy Family Orphanage Continue

    Last week the Holy Family Orphanage received two unusual donations. One came from Valentine Pyterek, the other from an unknown visitor.

    Mr. Pyterek, who celebrated his fiftieth birthday recently, contributed fifty dimes as a token to God for letting him reach the half century mark. The Orphanage wishes him another fifty years of life.

    A young gentleman visited the place last Tuesday and, upon leaving, pressed something into the hand of one of the girls. She in turn gave the bill to Sister Maria Rosamunda. The bill turned out to be ten dollars.

    Donations of any sort are always welcome.

    Last week the Holy Family Orphanage received two unusual donations. One came from Valentine Pyterek, the other from an unknown visitor. Mr. Pyterek, who celebrated his fiftieth birthday recently, contributed ...

    II D 4, I B 4
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 16, 1892
    Polish Welfare Association's Membership Continues to Swell

    The Polish Welfare Association, officially organized last Sunday to aid poverty stricken Poles, has finally completed a program to be followed during the present year. A committee of twenty-one directors has been elected to execute the resolutions adopted at a meeting held Sunday after-noon at the New Polish hall. The board of directors have already chosen the assistants to aid them in their work. Out of the large crowd that came, sixty people joined the welfare organization.

    The organization of this society is an important step forward. The execution of the adopted resolutions did not end with the first few meetings; therefore, it is necessary to continue these gatherings over a period of time. The problem of alleviating the critical situation of our poor will be discussed at future sessions, when solutions will be offered.


    Sunday's meeting has placed this organization on a good footing. The road for its success looks very bright.

    Important resolutions passed at the gathering are as follows:

    1. The name of the society shall be:

    Polish Welfare Association No. 1 of Chicago, Illinois, located at St. Stanislaus Kostki's parish.... The organization will be placed under the guidance of St. John.

    2. The aim of the society will be to practice Christian kindness among the unfortunate, especially our own people in the vicinity of St. Stanilaus Kostki's parish. The activities of the association may be extended to other Polish parishes and neighborhoods in Chicago by the organization of groups sanctioned by the central board. Polish societies in the city can do their share by following the example of this organization, that is, they can name a committee to enroll members at a dollar per person. Members may pay a dollar every quarter, or four dollars for the whole year.


    Those not wishing to belong to this welfare association, or those not having the means to pay, are urged to contribute as much as they can afford. Money, food, and clothing will be welcome at all times.

    The Intelligence Bureau is working on plans to find employment for the able-bodied needy. As soon as this department completes its study of the needs of the poor, it will be ready to offer assistance. The time will be announced.

    By the aid of ballots, Father Vincent Barzynski was elected president; Victor Bardonski, first vice-president; Thomas Krolik, second vice-president and financial secretary; Stanislaus Szwajkart, secretary; Jacob Mucha, cashier; Paul Ratkowski, visiting case worker; and Wladislaus Nowaczewski, guardian.

    The next meeting of directors will be held February 24 at 8 P.M. at the parish hall. The question of a permanent place for the financial office will be decided.


    At the present time, the twenty-one members at the board of directors do their work without pay.

    The Polish Welfare Association, officially organized last Sunday to aid poverty stricken Poles, has finally completed a program to be followed during the present year. A committee of twenty-one directors ...

    II D 10, III B 2, II D 8, I B 4
  • Zgoda -- February 17, 1892
    The Affair of Polish Churches in Chicago

    1. The priest receives a suitable lodging and board for his services with a pension of $800 yearly, and in case the parish grows bigger, the pastor endeavors to procure a priest or priests to aid him. Every one of these priests also receives a pension and lodging.

    2. The parish financial committee must inform the tutelar of various changes made and consult with the pastor about its needs.

    3. The priests, organist, teacher or teachers and the church servants, receive also a pension from the treasuries of the parish, consisting of funds received in the parish.

    4. All of the money collected in the church and parish, for the use of the pews and schools, belongs to the treasury of the parish.

    5. The parish treasury should be in care of the cashier of the parish, but under the guidance of its committee and pastor. The cashier must receive and safely retain in his possession the money.

    6. The secretary of the parish should have a book, and the pastor another, these books should show the income and the expense of the parish. The financial statistics in the parish should be revealed at least twice a year, that being the duty of the committee and the pastor.

    7. The priest who directs his parish and church cannot be dependent on or concerned with any other parishes or priests, but his own.

    1. The priest receives a suitable lodging and board for his services with a pension of $800 yearly, and in case the parish grows bigger, the pastor endeavors to procure ...

    III C, I B 4
  • Zgoda -- February 17, 1892
    The Affair of Polish Churches in Chicago

    1. The priest receives a suitable lodging and board for his services, with a pension of $800 yearly, and in case the parish grows bigger, the pastor endeavors to procure a priest or priests to aid him, Every one of these priests also receives a pension and lodging.

    2. The parish financial committee must inform the tutelar of various changes made and consult with the pastor about its needs.

    3. The priests, organist, teacher or teachers and the church servants, receive also a pension from the treasury of the parish, consisting of funds received in the parish.

    4. All of the money collected in the church and parish for the use of the pews and schools belongs to the treasury of the parish.


    5. The parish treasury should be in care of the cashier of the parish, but under the guidance of its committee and pastor. The cashier must receive and safely retain in his possession the money.

    6. The secretary of the parish should have a book and the pastor another; these books should show the income and the expense of the parish. The financial statement in the parish should be revealed at least tqice a year, that being the duty of the committee and the pastor.

    7. The priest who directs his parish and his church cannot depend on or be concerned with any other parishes or priests but his own.

    1. The priest receives a suitable lodging and board for his services, with a pension of $800 yearly, and in case the parish grows bigger, the pastor endeavors to procure ...

    I B 4
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 23, 1892
    Forty-Hour Devotion Comes to an End at St. Stanislaus Kostki's Parish

    February 21, 22, and 23 have been three days of great devotion at St. Stanislaus Kostki's Church. Thousands of people attended services and offered prayers during this annual forty-hour Devotion. During the day and evening both churches of the parish, the upper and lower were filled with devout people.

    During the adoration of the Blessed Sacrament, groups of children representing various orders sang and prayed. The girls were dressed in white.

    Both churches were decorated with fresh flowers, ferns, and fan-like palms. The center altars were lighted by hundreds of candles glowing magnificently. Six sermons were given every day. The visiting priests extolled the word of God, moved the people to repentance and prayer, and guided them on the path of Christianity. After the sermon, the devout took their places at the confessionals.


    Many visiting Polish priests, who had come to help Father Vincent Barzynski, were instrumental in making this year's services a great success. Three from Milwaukee, one from Hammond, and nine from Chicago participated in the rites.

    The Resurrection Fathers, noted for their European hospitality, prepared an interesting schedule for their visiting brethren. The entertainment was patterned after that of old Poland.

    Would to God that this sacred religious ceremony may implant in the hearts of those who participated in the services, as well as in the hearts of all the people of the world, a lasting belief in the word of God.

    February 21, 22, and 23 have been three days of great devotion at St. Stanislaus Kostki's Church. Thousands of people attended services and offered prayers during this annual forty-hour Devotion. ...

    I B 4, III C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 26, 1892
    The Pope's Special Dispensation (Editorial)

    Because of the prevalent spread of the grippe throughout the world, the Pope has issued a dispensation which permits the Catholics not to observe Lent. This has been done to enable the people to fortify themselves with reserves of energy and thus be able to safeguard themselves against this rapidly spreading epidemic, the ravages of which are so great that every precaution should be taken.

    It must be remembered that as a general rule the sick do not have to fast. Also exempt from this practice are those who work too hard, children, old persons, and pregnant women. This shows that for many years certain restrictions were granted during the observance of the lenten period.

    The Pope's dispensation saves a great deal of worry to many priests and their assistants, not to mention the followers of the faith, who thus are free from many doubts and unnecessary contrition.


    This dispensation, however, is not intended to prohibit fasting or to discourage people from it. Those desiring to fast may do so as in previous years.

    The gist of the Pope's order is that those who observe the fasting period but disregard other important duties by becoming negligent in observing them, will be like the Jews during the biblical days, when the Lord, through one of his prophets, said: Ye have fasted, but your will was only in the fasting.

    Fast is primarily a holy, religious, and advantageous practice when it is done in the name of God. What the prophet says, "Be angry, but do not sin," should be especially remembered during Lent. Fast, or do not fast, but do not sin.

    If you are in a position to fast, do so in the name of God. Do not attempt to critize or accuse people who are unable to follow the dictates of the Church because of physical handicaps, working conditions, or economic standing.


    Perhaps if these people were in different circumstances, they would abide by the laws [of the Church] without as much as an unkind word.

    Would a fasting mother be considered a good mother were she to deny her child its vital food?

    Fast Brother, but do not imbibe! There are many people who have become habitual drinkers. Accustomed to the use of liquor through a long period of years, they spend most of their lives fasting because they cannot eat, and as a consequence they walk about with a bloated appearance, loathsome to themselves and others, derelicts unfit for prayer or work, becoming unsightly beggars. Shamelessly they walk the streets to while away their time begging, not for food but for liquor. As soon as they get some money, they hurry as quickly as possible to quiet their burning desire for alcohol, a desire which is never quenched and which makes them to live the life of the condemned.


    O Brothers, now is the time to give aid to the helpless, the time to teach them to eat whenever they wish and whatever they want. Let them eat bread or meat on Friday on Sunday until they learn to eat and break away from the disgusting habit of drinking. Now is the time for them to become men of honor and pride!

    There are others who like to fast, but they like to slander those who do not give them praise for their sacrifice and their hypocritical religious belief.

    There are also those who fast, but the more they abstain the more mordant they get. As a result, they become aroused with anger and blasphemy. Their fasting is worthless, Godless.

    If you are to fast, do it without ostentation, slander, anger, and blasphemy. Do it of your own volition. The lenten and other days of abstinence will be easy to follow. We advise to those who brag about their sacrifices to 5eat three meals a day with as much meat as they wish until they will become worthy and of better heart to make this small sacrifice in the name of the Holy Father.

    This is what one of the Apostles said: "Although I would speak in all languages ... and become dried to the bone of fast, it would be of no avail if.I did not do it for the love of God."

    Those who believe in the concepts of the Roman-Catholic Church and follow its teachings willingly, are the ones that benefit most from these indulgences. They are the ones that need not be told time and again, for they have observed the tenets of the Church for many years. They realize that fasting is not practical for those who are unhealthy or who belong to the hard working class.

    These words of Christ should always be before them: "Guard yourselves in order that you would not show your acts of righteousness before others," that is, do such things in a way that others would not see. "and when you fast, do not be like the sad hypocrites." ...

    Because of the prevalent spread of the grippe throughout the world, the Pope has issued a dispensation which permits the Catholics not to observe Lent. This has been done to ...

    III C, I B 1, I B 4
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 29, 1892
    The Consecration of St. Mary of Perpetual Help Church (Editorial)

    The St. Mary of Perpetual Help Church was consecrated yesterday amidst solemn rites. Twenty-six Catholic societies led by an orchestra, took part in the ceremonies. Main, Lurel, 31st and 32nd streets were so crowded it was almost impossible to pass. The people of the neighborhood, mostly Poles, jammed the streets and sidewalks.

    The ceremonies began at three o'clock in the afternoon, when the societies from Town of Lake and 17th Street made their appearance, each led by a mounted marshal in colorful uniform and represented by a band. As these bands passed by, one by one, it seemed as if they were trying to outdo one another.

    After reaching 32nd and Laurel Streets, the societies entered the portals of the new church. When the last group had entered, Father Dowling, general chaplain, and his assistants, Fathers John Radziejewski, Hayer, 2Barzynski, and Raszkiewicz, came out from the rectory to perform the blessing of the church.

    Solemn vespers, under Father Dowling, began at 4 P. M. Father Radziejewski acted as deacon and Father Hayer as sub-deacon. A sermon was given by Father Urban Raszkiewicz.

    Father Raszkiewicz talked about the sacrifices mentioned in the Old and New Testaments. He emphasized the importance of observing Holy Mass on Sunday and compared the offerings made by the people to the church during biblical days with those of the present day. Contributions, attendance, and prayers play an important part in the Church of God. The giving of a few cents will not make anyone poor. Any donations in support of the church will bring to the donor blessings from heaven. In conclusion, Father Raszkiewicz urged all the Poles to unite and become a harmonious whole. The fact that one came from a province and the other from another, should be forgotten. After all, all are brothers and sisters of one mother, the Blessed Virgin.


    After the sermon, solemn blessing ceremonials began.

    The structure and interior decoration of the church are of unusual beauty. The edifice is patterned after the Roman and Byzantine styles of architecture. Although the portals are impressive, the spacious height of the interior of the church is even more so. The large tall pillars, the beautiful arches, the stained-glass windows, and the tall central dome are bewitching to the eye.

    The completion of the murals will make St. Mary of Perpetual Help Church one of the most impressive churches in Chicago. Thus far it has cost $100,000. One of the many important features of the church is the acoustics, thanks to which very little effort is required by the speaker to make himself heard.

    Reverend Stanislaus Nawrocki is pastor.

    The St. Mary of Perpetual Help Church was consecrated yesterday amidst solemn rites. Twenty-six Catholic societies led by an orchestra, took part in the ceremonies. Main, Lurel, 31st and 32nd ...

    III C, I B 4
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 29, 1892
    What Kind of Societies Does the Roman Catholic Church Condemn? (Editorial)

    It is three years now since the doctors of theology of the Polish National Alliance have been trying to prove, convince, and persuade their 'people' through their mouthpiece, Zgoda, that Catholics are permitted to join any society or organization, including masonic lodges and other orders. It happens at times that statements are made in such a way that tend to tell the people that Bishops who make attempts to prevent Catholic people from joining other societies violate their bishopric attributions. Priests, especially Polish, who try to dissuade the people should be punished and suspended from their order.

    This is the kind of theology the Alliance theologists are trying to expound. It not only jeopardizes the position of the bishops and priests, 2but also is dangerous to our people. It leaves them open to advances of nonreligious and socialistic groups.

    It is plainly evident that such statements and such articles are false. They only tend to deceive the rustics. Every Catholic who has any common sense of judgment relative to the moral concepts of the Catholic Church, and the decrees and orders of the Pope and bishops, can sense that such articles are trying to pervert the minds of the people.

    Before we attempt to prove the falsity of these articles by argumentation and the highest laws of the magistracy of the Catholic Church, we must above all bring etymological enlightenment on certain phrases, and point out their true meaning.

    We must bring out the definitions of the following words: permission, not allowed, forbidden, and ex-communication.


    Not allowed and forbidden mean the same thing. This means that certain things under law of man or God are not permitted to be performed.

    Because we are especially concerned about societies that have been forbidden by an order of the Church, we frankly state that every society is forbidden which the Church has passed a ruling against for not observing its laws.

    On the other hand, all societies are allowed and not forbidden, providing they observe every ecclesiastical law enacted by the Church and permits Catholics to membership.

    The words ex-communicated and forbidden, or ex-communicate and forbid have separate meanings.

    A society that is ex-communicated is also forbidden, however, a forbidden society is one that has not been, as yet, ex-communicated.


    Every society that has been ex-communicated by the high orders of the Church becomes condemned, and excluded from the community and association by faithful Catholics.

    Ex-communication, or condemnation, is a positive penalty decreed by the Church.

    The ecclesiastical order of the Roman Catholic Church can be compared to that of a nation or state, but it has this difference: It cannot impose any monetary fines or physical penalties to violators of its laws. It has only the power to render ecclesiastical punishment, and that is ex-communication, or condemnation.

    Ex-communication can be 'latae santentiae,' that is, providing the Church makes an announcement of this decision, stating that this or a like offense carries with it the same punishment, 'ipso facto', or ex-communication.

    Ex-communication can also be 'ferendae sententiae', that is, after a hearing 5has been held and judgment passed by an ecclesiastical body on a certain violation, only then can it be announced that the guilty party has been handed down the penalty of condemnation.

    Certain like societies cannot be nominally ex-communicated (nominally, by name), however, they can be forbidden and also condemned.

    Finally, certain societies which were neither condemned nor forbidden can be classed as 'dangerous', because of their practices and principles, or because of the corrupt members who are likely to endanger and influence others.

    To substantiate the above statements we quote the following:

    "Public sentiment and opinion is greatly mistaken to believe that only Masonic lodges are ex-communicated, and are forbidden to all Catholic people. Proof of this is borne out by the holy decrees of the Third Plenary Concilium of Baltimore, namely:


    1. All the decrees and constitutions of the Roman popes condemn societies which oppose the Apostolic See, especially as pointed out in Bulli: 'Constitutio Apostolicae Sedis', according to the Papal authorities are still valid.

    2. That all Masons, Carbonari, and Irish Fenians are nominally ex-communicated.

    3. All other societies, are not branded by ex-communication, but because of their pernicious tendencies, are compared with the above mentioned organizations, that is, all those societies that oppose the Church and agitate against its concepts.


    4. The faithful people, especially the younger generation, should be constantly on the lookout for such societies, and take special precaution not to join those that are considered dangerous or uncertain relative to morals and religion by the Church."

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Mar. 1, 1892.

    In the General Instruction of the Holy Roman Inquisition of May 10, 1884, we have found the following: 'There are many other societies that judgment cannot be passed on, whether they belong to the ex-communicated organizations, or should be forbidden under mortal sin because they oppose the teachings of the Church, or are dangerous from a moral standpoint.'... In this respect, it is the duty of every bishop to warn the people in his diocese against any such organization that tries to pollute its members with dangerous moral and religious ideas.

    From the above statement, it is plainly evident that the Masonic, Carbonari, 8and Fenian societies are not the only societies ex-communicated by the Church. There are many other similar organizations which are not mentioned, but are forbidden to all Catholics under mortal sin.

    There are societies "implicite" which fall under the ban of the general law, others that fall in the category of dangerous are also forbidden. As it happens many times, the priest at the confessional does not give absolution to the confessor because he deems that the membership in a certain society is dangerous to him and his soul.

    Everyone of our readers well understands that we are not concerned with religious or nonreligious societies, but that we are primarily interested in our own Polish organizations, be they Catholic or national. If within our own ranks we find clubs that poke fun at our religion and tend to demoralize our people, then they fall into the category of "implicite" societies, and according to the general edict, are forbidden. If such society lies on the borderline of uncertain principles of faith and unmoral 9attitude, it is the duty of the priest and the bishop to warn the people about them.

    A Polish national society that has incorporated within its constitution the observance of the Catholic religion and denies its existence in public is considered dangerous. A society of this calibre is not advantageous to the people. It is dangerous, unsafe, vile, and is forbidden.

    A Polish national society that claims to observe the Catholic faith on the interior, but takes into its fold Jews, nonreligious followers, and persons of questionable character, is also considered dangerous, for a bad society corrupts good morals, therefore it is forbidden.

    A Polish national society that through its organ denounces religion, denies an individual a higher destiny, denies the existence of God, and offers in His stead some undefinable belief of the people, opposes the commandments of God and the Church, replacing them with the free thought of the individual, 10is considered bad, dangerous, and forbidden.

    A society that in its organ or official paper favors socialism, anarchism, sows among the people the seed of discontentment, jealousy, and tries to undermine the peace of the church, the family, and single individuals, according to the tenets of the Church is bad, dangerous, and forbidden.

    A national society that in its organ ridicules the rites, practices, and holy things of the Church, as ecclesiastical vestments and confession, which it mocks by Saturday night drinking parties, influences individuals from performing the duties of the Church, attending mass on Sunday, or tries to make little of the commandments of the Church, is considered bad, dangerous, and forbidden.

    A national society that in its own organs inexorably and with satanical endurance slanders the respect and good name of the ecclesiastical order of the Church, incites the peaceful attitude of the parishioners against the 11shepherds of the soul, stir up people against each other, praises one group only to lower another, brings to public light the smallest incident, or fabricates stories to dupe the people, is considered bad, dangerous, and is forbidden.

    It is needless to write what society we have in mind. From the above statements, one can easily recognize it. Already it is notoriously bad and subversive, one cannot mistake it.

    We warn our faithful readers, and beg them to carefully weigh the above articles.

    Whoever joins the ranks of a similar society today is performing a sinful deed for which he will not receive absolution, because he himself becomes a person of doubtful religious belief.

    Therefore, everyone should take special precaution, and particularly protect his soul from evil, for it is a major duty of every Catholic.

    It is three years now since the doctors of theology of the Polish National Alliance have been trying to prove, convince, and persuade their 'people' through their mouthpiece, Zgoda, that ...

    III C, I B 4, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 03, 1892
    A Picture of the Polish Press in America (Editorial)

    Once a week, or perhaps every other week, we will endeavor to publish an article which will give in concise from a cross-section of the Polish press in the United States. The aim of these articles will be twofold to acquaint the public with some of our outstanding developments in the field of literature, and to add impetus to the advancement of journalism.

    The articles, which will be treated with exactness, will impart a pleasant point of view, and only those of interest to the reader will be printed as an example of Polish effort. In addition we will publish 'Sine ira et studio' articles, 2that is, articles without anger or partiality, intended to better the mental horizon and spirit of sportsmanship of our younger generation.

    We do not intend to play the mentor. Not being infallible, and our indigence being already known, we will limit ourselves to articles touching upon religion and customs as concern Catholic principles. Lay subjects of popular discussion will be handled as logically as possible, in accordance with the opinion of prominent persons, who will be freely quoted. Ideas contrary to popular belief will also be given notice, as long as they are of a peaceful nature and not too radical, and provided they meet with the respect of the public. All articles will be treated objectively.

    Commentaries will be gladly accepted if they are objective and impersonal. We are interested in what a person writes, not in what he is.


    The Pole in America, edited by S. Slisz and published in Buffalo twice a week, has taken a definite step forward in the field of journalism. The emulation of this publication has brought many fine results.

    The publication by this paper of anonymous stories is decreasing and each day there is less copying from other papers, which results in a greater amount of original material. These original articles have a style of their own, a style belonging to the writer, who may be the editor himself or a correspondent of the paper. At times these articles may be long or condensed, but whatever their form, they have sense and substance, particularly those the object of which is righteousness instead of personal interest. It is true that we all cannot agree on the same thing. Sometimes it happens that an article that is not very clear or authoritative has to be re-written by the editor from top to bottom before it is published. We have hopes that someday all this will be changed; that an awakening will envelop the Polish press, an awakening 4from which will evolve better understanding, peace, and harmony both in religious and patriotic matters. The Pole In America will then be able to progress more rapidly and serve its native and adopted countries better.

    Of one of this paper's correspondents, from St. Paul Minnesota, we can say that he writes with sagacity, clearness, zeal, and a bit of humor, irony, and satire. Although he claims not to be a subscriber of Wiara I Ojczyzna (Religion and the People), or familiar with the Dziennik Chicagoski and the Zgoda, he can figure out something to write about them. When he begins to read these papers, his hypochondria, which often seeps out of his writings, will leave him, and his pen will be of greater advantage to the Pole In America.

    However, we must point out to the editors that advertisements of saloons, cafes, breweries, and distilling companies do not harmonize with the nature of Catholic writing. It is bad enough that a drunkard finds his way to the source unaided, let alone giving him directions on how to reach perdition. This is also true 5in the case of the Toledo publication. This policy should be abandoned.

    Zgoda (Harmony) is the organ of the Polish National Alliance. Noble as its title is, does Zgoda adhere to it? The late Bishop Krasicki said, "To bellow freedom is to silence freedom." What has the Zgoda done in this direction?

    The Zgoda is actually adding "liar" to its title. Quarreller' should be its true name. For the past three years this weekly has been setting examples and showing us how not to write in the Polish language.

    This publication, according to its constitution, is intended to be educational; a guardian of the pure Polish tongue, a model for style, and a pioneer in the elevation of the spirit of the Pole. Does the Zgoda follow these precepts? This may be possible, because the members of the Alliance keep silent and delight in its literature, particularly those who are as concerned about the 6purity of the native tongue as we are about the change of cabinet for the queen of Honolulu.

    We will remain silent about the retrograding, anti-religious and anti-nationalistic policies of this paper and center our attention in its style, Polish language, logic, grammar, and even orthography, in which it is a true monster. This, however, does not cause much harm, as the average member of the Polish National Alliance who receives this weekly does not understand the articles anyhow. An intelligent person must toil long over the contents before he can grasp the meaning of this monstrous publication. At times he must fill in the gaps himself. As to its editor, it would not be amiss to say, "No one will give anything, if there is not anything to give," for he exemplifies the biblical saying, "Minus habens," that is, in order to write, one must know how to write.

    We will not offer this weekly any suggestions because we know that they will be disregarded entirely or accepted with insults. We would rather have the 7articles as they are than to put up with polemic editorials so written as to make a colored person blush.

    All we ask of the Zgoda is to print verbatim articles it gets from other papers, that is, facts after facts, without distorting them or treating them with insulting criticism. As to the correspondents of Zgoda, no matter where they may live, we can only thank them for defending us, and we ask them to continue this support. We also ask Mr. Tomasz, of this city, and Mr. K. F., who do not share the beliefs of the Polish Catholic priests, to respect the Catholic religion and those practicing it.

    Having a great deal of patience, we will await the end of the play "Goddess" (Bozenna), which has been fabricated and patterned after a Chinese drama.

    The people's weekly, Wiarus, published at Winona, Wisconsin, has managed to 8acquire a wide following in the country during its three years of existence. Its readers are varied: both the intelligent and the spiritual-minded emigrants have become subscribers. Adherence to the policies of the Catholic Church has brought this paper unlimited rewards. All the articles, editorials as well as news, are free from prejudice and always exact. Papers such as this, with this type of journalism, are valuable to the people and the Church.

    However, it would be much better if the Wiarus would devote more space to the road of Faith than to sensational articles, especially as less publicity to scandals and dubious stories will do more good than too much of it. One bad article can do more harm than a hundred good items can do good.

    Great sadness overcame us a few weeks ago when we came upon an article of this kind in the Wiarus. The article was entitled "Chamy" (Peasants), and was illustrated with the picture of a gallows for debtors. Pictures such as this 9should be kept out of a paper, for their publication will destroy rather than promote good will. To indulge in this, throws a paper out of the road of stars of the path to fame and popularity for poking fun at others has never brought any laurels to anyone. One can operate on a boil only with a delicate instrument, not with a rod or a mace. A boil can be burst open with a stick, but the patient runs the risk of being mortally wounded. Such procedure would not be a medical feat,-it would, be murder. And what about the rod that has been wielded by the author of 'Chamy'? What will be its result? Since hatred and scandal follow vengeance and dishonor, the author's reward will be nothing but disgrace.

    The only remedy is to forgive and to forget these mistakes. We entertain the hope that the Wiarus will alter its policies in the future for its own good and the good of its readers, its crude rod to be replaced by the delicate pen as an instrument of operation. Not until then will the evils of society be treated successfully. Providence has given editors more than one measure of talent. Let them use it in the name of God, for the profit of their 10readers and the betterment of the people.

    There are two Polish dailies in the United States: the Dziennik Chicagoski [in Chicago] and the Polish Courier in Milwaukee. About the first we will not try to write any comment, as we hope the day will come when some Polish person of authority will write to the editors of this paper stating his opinion, pointing out the bad and giving us credit for the good. We shall be grateful for any criticism, provided it is just, for we know that a few editors pattern their style of news after that of Mr. Slisz.

    The Polish Courier, although small in size, plays an important part among the Poles of Milwaukee. Its literary style is comparatively good, and it follows its aims and policies to the letter. In our opinion, this paper deserves the support of the Poles, Its editorial section shows maturity; its style is bright and understandable; its criticisms not severe; its writings impersonal, even though at times the bitter truth has to be told 11about some papers and individuals. But all this is done without insult to anyone.

    The Courier's editorials, which appear daily, are intelligently written. Their meaning is understood by the average reader. The popularity of its editorial section and other features is well deserved and worthy of mention. The road to this editorial page has not been an easy one, but one full of hardships and freelancing. Important articles from other papers are given and reference made to their sources. A publication that treats everything with fairness, as well as the men who represent it, not only deserves support but also merits praise for its efforts.

    In order to give the readers an example typical of the treatment the Courier gives to various important questions, we will cite excerpts from one of its articles.


    The article in question deals with the work of Father V. Barzynski, whose efforts to bring the Poles closer together have brought many jeers from some papers of importance. The Polish Courier in Milwaukee treats the matter as follows:

    "The benefits of the attempt of the Poles to share the olive branch are so apparent that no one is trying to distract his neighbor from that direction. The results of the protest against Russia are so outstanding that it would take an abnormal person to disregard them. For they flow with the understanding of Polish hearts and patriotism. Truly it is something to be regarded as good.

    "Yet, the efforts of Father Barzynski are considered fancy creations of the mind; the protest question being taken as an undertaking doomed to failure, despite the fact that the Polish press, even the liberal New Life (Nowe Zycie), 13has accepted and recognized both.

    "This kind of propaganda fails to succeed because it lacks observance of formality on the part of the initiators, who injure the pride of those who control the right of patriotism. The seed of this propaganda fell upon unfavorable soil, a soil overgrown with the weeds of private warped views full of low ambition and culpable selfishness. The idea of peace was interpreted as a desire to fuse various groups, to discontinue the struggle for certain rights and to put fire and water together. The protest was taken as a move harmful to the good will of our people and unsuitable to the task of rehabilitating Poland. Manifestoes filled with fancy phraseology which could hardly gain a single applause began to appear. Pobudki (Inciter) and Wolnego Slowa (Free Word), papers which are not read by anyone in this country, became in the eyes of some of our leaders the last word in patriotism.

    "This situation is sad but true. Some men like to become great through their ideals alone, and in the attempt they necessarily clash with others. Soon 14heated arguments result, and out of them chaos, from which nothing of value will come."

    In order to show with what fairness the Polish Courier treats certain news, we will give another example.

    In the every day routine of an immigrant, many situations arise. Many times it happens that the revelation from the immigrant's own judgment, conviction, or mere opinion, carries with it many unpleasant consequences.

    We live in a country where lies and sophisms are more favored than truth and sincerity. When a person of our Catholic faith makes a conservative statement relative to a popular question of the day, he is immediately showered with criticism from all sides, including the liberal, the non-religious, and even the anarchical factions.

    The affair, or rather scandal, of the apostasy of the Holy Trinity parish of 15Chicago is well known to all. A majority of our people are familiar with the entire situation and many of them lament the outcome because they see and feel the kind of fate, verily disgrace that awaits our immigrants. But as soon as someone from the conservative side raises his voice against this disgraceful schism, or just permits someone to mention a favorable word or a word of admonishment, he is received with a barrage of blasphemous insults, which pagans even avoid to use. He will be called narrow-minded; a servant and a slave of the priests. This same thing happens to the priest who tries to voice his opinion; he will be greeted with epithets of obstructor, greedy, parvenue, and extortioner. Therefore, it is laudable that the Courier, which has no affiliation whatsoever, keeps to the road it now follows, i. e., that it continue treating delicate subjects not only with sincerity but also with the power of conviction and truth.

    The Zgoda, organ of the Polish National Alliance, has made public a scandalous 16announcement about some kind of non-religious parish committee, alleged to be the source of a Protestant questionnaire. The committee's headquarters were closed by the authorities of the Holy Trinity Parish, but the body operates without the latter's knowledge and permission. The purpose of this committee is to get a new pastor for the church. While making a bid for priests, the committee at the same time stipulates as a conditions that the priest to take over the parish must be independent from other priests, especially from the church authorities of Kolasinski, in Detroit.

    We did not say a word about this because we do not want to be open to any new attacks and intrigues, but the Polish Courier of Milwaukee comes to our assistance as follows;

    "The parishioners of Holy Trinity Church in Chicago are looking for a "Catholic" pastor. They are advertising in certain Polish newspapers that belong to the association of Polish editors. The Zgoda, which received the blessing of a Catholic bishop at the last diet in Detroit for its work, belongs in this group 17by also carrying the advertisement. Among the requirements demanded of a candidate, we do not see the one requiring that he be installed by the authority of the Church. Parishes get their priests through the mediation of a bishop, not by public vote. Because of this, we have reason to believe that something unpleasant is brewing in Chicago, especially since we have been informed that the parishioners are contemplating legal action in the Chicago courts to force the Archbishop to relinquish his title to the church and grounds of the Holy Trinity Parish. No light is thrown upon this situation by any of the Chicago papers. What is this all about?"

    We have already explained the reason why the Polish papers of Chicago have kept silent about this matter.

    A reply to the Polish National Alliance by "The will of the people," has also been left alone. No mention has been made of the affair because the manifestos given to the people by Zgoda have been written in the spirit of Slisz and Malek. This style of writing moves us to laughter and pity, for we are used to usurpers and their empty idiotic phrases. The Courier, upon commenting on this question 18says: "We do not agree with the Alliance's idea that it is 'the only organization formed by the will of the Polish people in America,'

    As we cannot see how we could deny the same right to the Polish Roman-Catholic Union or other organizations.

    "We also do not agree with the type of treatment given to the European political situation by the Central Committee.

    "It is true that we stand on the cross roads and that European relations can change any minute the entire course of the situation, as it is, we lack sufficient data to substantiate rumors about the rebuilding of Poland. The small number of Poles scattered in France and Switzerland can not exert enough pressure to alter the present political set-up.

    "For Poland the days of conspiracy, rebellion and insurrection are gone forever.


    The Polish people will not be sidetracked from their present road of organization by the Knout of the Tsar, the lofty promises of Wilhelm and Franz Joseph, or the latest suggestion of the Central Committee of the Polish National Alliance.

    "This suggestion, lacking in intelligent action and abounding in empty phrases, does not bring any laurels to the Polish people in America, for it does not tend to unite those who have been guided by a spirit of patriotism. In other words, it is not in line with the conservative faction, which has agreed upon a resonable method of protest against Russian violence, a method formulated by the Polish Catholic societies and supported by all Polish papers of importance."

    In another article of the Courier, written in a pleasant style and under the title "The Polish People and Immigration," this paper deals in the following manner with Polish revolutionists who desire to create new revolts by propaganda and uprisings in the ranks of our already unfortunate people:


    "What right have we to determine the fate of our people? What right to take interest in a political policy that will only bring bloodshed to the people of Poland? Is it because we have a large group in the ranks of the Alliance, the Union, and other similar organizations? Do these organizations expect to boast of a strong character just because they have incorporated in their constitutions the rebuilding of Poland?

    "It is evident that we must do something. In view of this, we are doing everything within our power, but we are not prepared to tackle anything unfamiliar that spells inevitable failure and that will only bring ridicule upon us. Our ship in America is too weak to withstand the elements of the raging sea; we must protect it from falling apart and forget that it is iron-clad.

    "Our fortresses are our Polish churches, schools, reading-rooms, books, and periodicals. Let us protect these strongholds and unite for greater protection 21by banding together in organizations, church or national, as long as they are Polish.

    "Whoever is making declamations about rebuilding the Polish nation and at the same time discredits the efforts of the priest or teacher, performs no public good. The person who supports the church and at the same time despises activity in the cultural field or other national endeavor, also serves no good. And the one who serves only his own clique and ridicules the efforts of his neighbor, sows the seed of weed upon the place where hardy seeds of fruit and clover should sprout."

    In concluding this critical study of the Polish Courier in Milwaukee, we can only thank its editorial staff for shouldering the responsibilities of telling the bitter truth to our adversaries. This ought to serve a much better purpose because not one faction made an attempt to disclose the truth, although they were familiar with the situation.

    Once a week, or perhaps every other week, we will endeavor to publish an article which will give in concise from a cross-section of the Polish press in the United ...

    II B 2 d 1, I A 2 a, III B 2, III C, III H, III G, I B 4, I B 1, II D 1, I C