The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 21, 1891
    The School Question Polish Parochial Schools (Editorial)

    The English language, along with Polish, French, Bohemian, and Italian, is taught in parochial schools equally, if not even more carefully than other languages.

    That the forgoing statement is true, can be proved by the fact that the graduates of the parochial schools are gladly accepted by the higher institutions of learning, public and private, if their parents desire to give them a better education. No boy, who has finished a Polish parochial school, has ever been rejected by any college on account of poor knowledge of English. Many boys who once attended St. Stanislaus' Polish parochial school in Chicago, are attending colleges and other institutions of higher learning, including the Jesuits college. All of them are making very good progress, and it appears that they have 2a good elementary education, equal to the training received in the public schools. Some of the boys are employed by the telegraph companies, banks, and other institutions, where a good knowledge of the English language is necessary. Still others are studying in Europe, where they would not be accepted, if their elementary education were poor.

    After examining the school books used by the Polish parochial schools, and studying the educational system, European like, practiced by them, any impartial person must admit that the standard of the parochial schools is much higher than that of the public schools, and that the instructions in the language of the country are excellent. There might be exceptions in some small parishes, but not in Chicago. If necessary, we can supply the names of the Polish boys who attend colleges and European institutions, and also names of those who hold good positions in Chicago and vicinity. We have a gew of these names on hand. They are graduates of St. Stanislaus' Parish elementary 3school. This is a sufficient proof that the standard of the Polish parochial schools is not lower in teaching children the English language than that of the public schools. In other respects, however, the standard is higher.

    Is it necessary to prove the foregoing statements? We do not think so. Even the opposers of parochial schools must admit that these schools teach true morality, that they are developing moral principles, the purpose of which is to bring up children as righteous men and women, good citizens, and good patriots of Poland, and of our adopted country, the United States. Who will not admit that their aim is to stir up, and propagate the patriotic spirit in and among children. Is this done by the public schools? This proves that the Poles care more for the welfare of their children. For this reason, they should avoid public institutions and send their children to Polish parochial schools.

    The Catechism

    4

    Children in Polish parochial schools are studying the catechism, but it is not the only subject taught there, as stated by the malicious enemies of parochial schools. Only one hour a day is devoted to this important subject by every class. Catechism teaches children that they should respect their parents more than anybody else in the world, and that they should support them in their old age. Catechism does not teach them how to be clever in evading justice and earthly punishment, but it teaches them how to live in order to receive and eternal reward. The catechism does not teach them how to be clever with their fellowmen, but how to be honest. The catechism also teaches them to respect the laws of the country, otherwise, how to be good American citizens. For this reason alone, children are taught catechism in parochial schools, and since the Bible is not used in the public schools, the parents should not send their children to the public schools, but to the parochial schools.

    No one should say that the mother will not teach her children the prayers, or that the teachings of the priests are not necessary, and that it is 5useless to learn the whole catechism from memory, because it will be forgotten later on. It is true that some of the teachings learned from the catechism are forgotten, but not the foundation upon which the whole life is built, just as a foundation of a building which cannot be seen, yet it upholds the whole structure. The same principle also applies to spiritual foundation. It will uphold the whole life, even if it is hidden, providing it is well-grounded.

    Patriotism

    Love for the mother country, a desire to belong to one's nationality, is developed only at the parochial school, and this desire is destroyed by the public schools, and by the association with other children on the streets. The parents, alone, cannot build a foundation. The Irish know that, and for this reason, they do not sent their children to the public schools, notwithstanding the fact that the language of the Irish is English. This is also known by the Germans, who have their language in the public 6schools, yet they have their own institution. Not only German Catholics, but also German protestants defend parochial schools, and as long as they remain good Catholics, or good protestants, they do not send their children to the public schools. Only those who are unpatriotic, and indifferent to religion, send their children to the public schools.

    Some Bohemians, who have lost their faith, their nationality, their refinement, and are afflicted with anarchism, or masonry, which was spread in this country by the Germans, do not wish to learn patriotism. Only such Bohemians are trying to establish the Bohemian language into the public schools; by this action they try to persuade other Bohemians to send their children to the public schools. Other Bohemians are misled by the first group. Should Poles imitate Bohemians?

    The English language, along with Polish, French, Bohemian, and Italian, is taught in parochial schools equally, if not even more carefully than other languages. That the forgoing statement is true, ...

    Polish
    I A 2 a, I A 2 b, I B 3 b, I B 4, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- September 05, 1891
    Sketches Depicting American Poles Too Late

    It was indeed a great pleasure to describe the first two sketches--the "Self-made Man" and "Lucy"--because they represent persons of whom Poles in America may be proud, for such individuals bring credit to the Polish element in this country, for which they are respected and loved by our countrymen. And yet--I have been assailed on account of it, and it brought me unpleasantness because several persons discovered their own features in these sketches [and] came to the editor of Dziennik Chicagoski and demanded a correction, stating that a certain particular was not true, that this or that feature was false or omitted, that this detail was not stressed enough or that that one was stressed too much, and the result was that the editor, in reality, jumped all over me.

    But these visits at the newspaper's office and these objections only prove that I have sketched typical characters, and that these sketches were taken simultaneously from different persons.

    2

    With fear, I am going to describe the next sketch, because it is impossible for me to back out now, since I have already announced it and promised Dziennik Chicagoski Verbum Nobile Debet Esse Stabile. I am approaching this task with fear, for I am afraid that I will infuriate not only a few but many angered little damosels who will recognize themselves in this sketch. I am fortunate that they do not know me, especially Annie, whom I will try to sketch.

    Please do not, after reading this long introduction, think that Annie is an unsympathetic person or what would be worse wicked, very bad, or worst of all ugly, unpleasant. On the contrary, she is a very charming person, and if I were a historian or a novelist I would say something about her carmine lips, blue eyes, pearl teeth, luxuriant locks of hair, pleasant personality, delightful manners, and other qualities. It would be impossible to describe all particulars in a sketch, therefore, I beg Annie to forgive me if I will see her in a different light than I saw her in the past, a light in which many of her admirers probably see her today. And I look upon her with pity, for she ought to be different from what she is in reality if she desires to belong to the Polish element in America.

    It is not entirely Annie's fault that she is different; her father, like Lucy's 3father, is an ardent and well-known patriot; her mother is a Polish woman to the extent that she instilled in her daughter an attachment to the Polish nationality, but she was Americanized to the extent that she preferred the English language to Polish and used it at every opportunity, for she had learned it well during childhood, and for the same reason she used the other language unwillingly.

    This circumstance of neglecting the Polish language was responsible for the Americanization of Annie, which was almost complete.

    The father took good care of his sons' upbringing and education, and therefore had no time to worry about the education of Annie. Recognizing the necessity for his children also to know the English language well, he did not object if his daughter spoke English to him. Later on, very late, unfortunately too late, he became aware that his daughter had acquired a good knowledge of the English language but knew almost nothing about her native tongue; that she used it unwillingly and very seldom; whenever she was obliged to do so, she butchered it unmercifully.

    Annie's father discovered this once when she was fourteen years of age, just 4before she enrolled in high school. He was disturbed by this discovery and decided to rectify it as far as possible, but could not accomplish much for it was too late. Annie was obliged to attend the public school, where the English language is used. Nothing could be done because at that time there were no Polish institutions of learning in America. Instead of that, Annie's father engaged a Polish choir teacher, who could not speak English, as instructor. Besides this, her father had arranged for evening receptions at which all conversations, recitations, and singing were held in Polish. Father encouraged Annie to take active part in Polish amateur plays. The beautiful English prayer book was replaced by a Polish one. Children were instructed to converse in Polish, and mother was also obliged to observe this procedure, at least in part.

    Annie, just like Lucy of our last sketch, thought now and then about it and at times she even tried to overcome the difficulties, but this was only at times and gradually less often, because this task was already too difficult for her. She was at the age when a girl likes to make a good appearance and be admired by her associates, in which, unfortunately, she was encouraged by her mother. When it was necessary for her to converse or express herself in Polish, she lost her humor, self-assurance, and ease. Although they lived among Poles, Annie and her mother did not participate in Polish activities and amusements, which had a 5great influence upon Annie's mind and heart. They frequented English concerts, receptions, and theatrical plays which were sometimes very indecent, and read only English or rather American novels and storybooks because they were so diverting--Polish books were not understandable. They imbibed that which was harmful and disregarded that which was good. This unhealthy effect manifested itself in a short time through Annie's whole behavior, through her attire, her appearance, and everything.

    Annie had ceased to be a Polish woman at the age of eighteen, though she might have thought that she still was. Reading cheap, unhealthy American editions, attending theaters which were also improper, accomplished the rest. Annie lost completely the characteristics of a Polish woman. The object of her life was to be attractive, but only externally and not by the good qualities of mind or heart.

    Her attire, manners, conversations, jests, and even her performances as an amateur actress on the Polish stage, where she tried to imitate American actresses, were not Polish, and when it occurred to her that perhaps she did not act in the manner of a Polish actress, it was too late to change.

    6

    A time also came for Annie to choose a husband, and she also had many suitors, perhaps more than Lucy. There were many kinds among them, but was there any one who would love Annie for the qualities of her heart or mind? Hardly, for she did not possess these qualities any more.

    In the presence of these circumstances and at such an important moment, Annie once more became aware of her Polish nationality and thought that she should choose a Pole for her husband.

    And she did in reality choose a Pole, but a Pole like herself, and this was quite natural. Her future husband was also educated superficially by reading light literature; he also took life lightly, knew very little about Polish, and had a good knowledge of English. It is not strange that her heart longed for him.

    They were married and in a short time the Lord blessed them with a little son.

    And a thought occurred in Annie's mind again--this is a Polish child, born of Polish parents, will he be a Pole? But who will teach him Polish?

    It was indeed a great pleasure to describe the first two sketches--the "Self-made Man" and "Lucy"--because they represent persons of whom Poles in America may be proud, for such individuals ...

    Polish
    I C, I B 3 a, I B 3 b, III A
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 18, 1892
    St. Casimir Young Men's Club Celebrates its Fifth Anniversary

    Last night, the Young Men's Club of St. Casimir's Church celebrated the fifth anniversary of its organization at the Polish hall of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish. An evening of entertainment was given to the members and to the public as well. A variety program was presented, which included guest speakers, drama, music, and a resume of work accomplished.

    Noble Street was crowded with the members of this organization early in the evening. This demonstration of club members was positive proof that the anniversary affair was going to be a success. Many other people had also started to assemble. About 7:30 P. M., the various parochial military societies began to march to the accompaniment of a drum corps. Each military society was garbed in typical Polish costumes of the heroic soldier. They were followed by the members of the club, who marched gallantly like the Polish 2soldiers of Napoleonic times; following them came all the societies that were invited to participate in this affair.

    After the triumphal march, all the participants and visitors were seated in the spacious hall. John Paszkiewicz was elected president of the fifth anniversary of the society. He, in turn, nominated Ignac Machnikowski for secretary. J. Szczepanski, a member of the young men's society, opened the meeting in the following manner:

    "My Dear Friends: Five years have elapsed since the day of the origin of our club, whose foundations were laid several years before by the pastor of St. Stanislaus Kostka Church, Father Vincent Barzynski. Like the flow of the river that passes in its course green pastures, cultivated lands, and sandy plains, this organization has also passed through many stages and faced many barriers. At times, when the hardships were overcome, a little ray of sunshine would appear for a moment, but the clouds would soon approach and cover the glimmering sun, and they would be followed by storms. Then again a new day would be born and 3new hope would take root. The many stages did not spell failure, for each disappointment brought stronger determination, until the road to success was finally reached. We bring this out with pride and happiness.

    "The aim of the society is to further the development of morals, education, and a higher standard of living. Each member is instilled with patriotism toward his native country, familiarized with the historical background of Poland, and acquainted with her literature. We do not wish to brag too much about our accomplishments, but I will say that we do as much as lies within our power and as much as our spare time permits. I wish to take this opportunity to thank the clerical members of St. Stanislaus Parish for their invaluable support, and to thank the parishioners for their kind response to our various activities. Without this splendid co-operation we would long ago have failed in our purpose. It is this assistance that enables our organization to grow."

    After the applause had subsided, the outstanding singer of the church choir, J. Kondziarski, in his resonant bass voice, sang three verses of the well-known 4Polish number, "Smutnoz To Smutno, Bracia Za Dunajem". Quietness filled the auditorium as soon as the opening bars were sung, for the audience did not want to lose any of the richness of words and melody. At the completion of the song, the singer left the stage. The audience began to applaud, and no amount of persuasion could make them cease. The likable singer returned to the stage to acknowledge the applause, and graciously sang."With Us Life Is Rough", also in Polish. Again the audience enthusiastically applauded him.

    Francis Kiolbassa, the younger brother of City Treasurer Peter Kiolbassa, and one of the officers of Stensland's Bank, gave an oration on "Orden's Fortifications". (Julius Constantine Orden, 1810-1887, was a Polish army officer in 1831, and a great here.)

    The Nowicki brothers, directors of the orchestra, played as a clarinet duet a variation of R. Eilberg's "A Child's Soul". Their playing was received by the audience with enthusiasm; continued applause brought then out for an encore.

    5

    Peter Kiolbassa was called onto the stand by the president of St. Casimir Young Men's Club to give a talk. He gladly accepted the invitation. The City Treasurer, an expert judge of American Poles, excused himself in his inimitable manner for not being prepared to give an interesting speech. These in attendance were net much concerned about this, because it is known that wherever he has spoken his words have been remembered long after the occasion. It is well known that his speeches are always full of life and overflow with sincerity, religion, and patriotism. It would be a heart of stone, indeed, that did not respond to his words. Mr. Kiolbassa, despite his modesty, has accomplished a great deal as a Pole in Chicago. May God give him the opportunity to continue his work for a long time to come.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Jan. 19, 1892.

    Peter Kiolbassa paid fine tribute in eloquent style to the fifth anniversary celebration of the Young Men's Club. He pointed with pride to the fine example of the society.

    6

    "Great strides", he said, "have been made in the instruction of Polish history and folklore, and, what is more important, greater heights have been reached in the instruction of English. It is laudable of the parents to have their young man belong to this organization. Although these young people work hard for a living during the day, they work equally as hard in the evening to further the principles of their institution. Many of then support their mothers and fathers, and sometimes even younger brothers and sisters, yet they find a few spare hours to spend among volumes of Polish history and literature. In this manner, they lift the banner of our younger generation in Chicago to a better position. Their example ought to be followed by many of us. We ought to support such a noble cause.

    "Recreation after a day's work is a prime essential for mental and physical stability, but this recreation must be instructive, so that it will not bring any bad results. This is how the members of the club spend their free time. They look after the interests of the club with the same ardour as members of similar groups in the Poland of yesterday. Their work is done with such zeal 7that it sometimes surpasses the efforts of our older members.

    "However, among most of our younger generation there is a lack of esteem toward adults. There is also a lack of respect for the fair sex, honor and respect for which would bring a better understanding of the relations between the sexes. This would prove extremely advantageous, for out of it would come the development of praiseworthy manners. The parents should look after the behavior of their sons. When such things are uncovered, the boys should be reprimanded for their errors.

    "Young ladies should avoid the company of young men who do not have the manners of a gentleman. In this respect, with the co-operation of the parents and young women, a great deal can be done to enlarge the horizons of our boys. In the long run, they will nature into fine citizens, likable companions for our girls, and respectful husbands.

    "A youth having respect for everything that is Polish, learning Polish history 8and literature, and observing every religious oath with ardour, merits high admiration. A youth who believes in God and is loyal to the concepts of the church can be a fine Polish patriot.

    "The young men of St. Casimir's club fall into this category. This is why we lock upon them with confidence. When we leave these fields of life, it will be with calm minds, for our places are going to be filled by competent men. This is why we beast about this club, and why we boost it, because we feel that many, many more ought to belong to it. We would not only like to see another fifth anniversary, but also a fiftieth anniversary."

    Loud applause greeted Mr. Kiolbassa as he left the rostrum. Walter Dombek, a guest artist, was next on the program, and he acquitted himself admirably. He sang a beautiful song called "Anchored", with the spirit of a true artist. For an encore, he sang the memorable ballad, "The Hymn That Mother Sang".

    S. Ciwinski gave a reading which dealt, in popular style, with the entire life 9history of St. Casimir. He received a great ovation for his commendable reading. The applause for him would probably have continued even longer, had it not been for the announcement that the popular Miss Rose Kiolbassa was next on the program.

    Her interpretation of "Evening Star", from the German, which was sung in English, kept the entire audience spellbound. Her rendition was so well liked that she repeated it in Polish and then in English again.

    She was followed by J. Oszwaldlowski, who gave a recitation on the "Polish March". A musical background was supplied by the St. Stanislaus Kostka church choir, under the able direction of Mr. Kwasigroch.

    The church choir of mixed voices included the following feminine members:

    Miss Kwasigroch, Miss Constantine Kaminski, Miss W. Chlebowski, Miss Rose Stas, Miss Rosalie Siuda, Miss Mary Gorzynski, Miss Anna Nering, Miss Frances Jesska, 10Miss Pearl Werner, Miss Rose Kiolbassa, Miss Anna Borkowicz, Miss Julia Dominikowski, Miss Mary Czerwinski, Miss Leona Ekwinski, Miss Frances Switala, Miss Casimira Murkowski, Miss Ann Krysiak, and Miss Olenczak.

    The following male voices were also included:

    J. Kendzierski, Frank Kwasigroch, W. Dembek, Anthony Huntowski, John Nering, W. J. Jozwiakowski, F. Kinkel, J. Ogurek, and Jacob Mruczkowski.

    This choir of mixed voices sang several numbers after the completion of the recitation. The numbers were of typical Polish European atmosphere, and brought back memories to many in the audience. "The River of Our Village" was the outstanding number. It is needless to say that the director and the choir were given a great hand.

    W. J. Jozwiakowski, a member of the club noted for his many activities in the organization, spoke directly to the younger people in attendance. The orchestra 11then played a medley of Polish airs.

    It has been observed before, on other entertainment programs, that there was a lack of Polish melodies. This was one occasion where such was not the ease. The Nowicky brothers had made a varied arrangement of many of the outstanding Polish airs, much to the liking of all present. These melodies were well arranged, which pleased the many amateur singers who were accompanied by the orchestra. However, it must be pointed out that, although the entire performance was to be in Polish, some of the guest artists sang in English. Their musical repertoire was not as complete as that of the Nowicky brothers.

    This was the theme of the speech of Father Vincent Barzynski, pastor of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish. As he rose upon the rostrum, his countenance was filled with sadness. His opening words were equally sad.

    12

    It was difficult for the pastor to talk on such a very delicate subject. But, once he began, he did not hesitate to speak the truth. His first words touched some members of the audience who have desired to hear more speeches of criticism in this direction. Many regretted that there were not more speakers who could speak so fluently in the native tongue about the Poles and Poland.

    The other part of the pastor's speech acted more like a soothing balm for the wounds inflicted upon our nationality by the many radicals, and suggested important steps to be taken as a cure for all these hardships.

    "This concerns", said the reverend speaker, "everyone of us vitally, and fills us with hope. One of the rays of hope within our circle is the grand work of the Young Man's Club of St. Casimir. These boys work hard to attain their objectives, in order to create more respect for our people. Unfortunately, we cannot say this about all of our young people in Chicago. We view this with sad hearts, because these youths are gradually dropping out of our circle, out of our nationality.

    13

    "Today, there was a typical occurrence which confirms my statement. As a priest, it is my duty to go wherever my assistance is needed within the parish. As I was making a call, I met a group of boys and girls out in the streets who had no thought of attending this anniversary celebration here this evening, nor did they recall that this day was set aside to God, nor did they observe in their hearts the recent holiday ceremonies. To put it differently, what are they looking for--loitering in the streets, using a different language? Most certainly not the will of God, nor the respect of our people!

    "Thus--it is sad to reveal, but it must be done--our younger generation is gradually falling away from our ranks. Our younger generation is falling away, and it is primarily the fault of the parents.

    "It is sad for me to see that the ranks of St. Casimir Young Men's Club, the pearl of our parish, has so few within its ranks. Why are there so few? Because the parents do not encourage their children to join this fine organization. Parents should not, because of hardships, discourage their children from joining.

    14

    Nevertheless, every step in the direction of fulfilling our love for our country is costing us a heavy price. It is becoming difficult to redeem the younger generation from its waywardness. Yet, if definite steps are not taken to remedy this situation, we will be faced with a serious problem. We will not be able to determine whether we are advancing, or merely existing, or dying out.

    "If we are dying out, let us expire in glory. Our work is that of martyrs, but this is not strange, for we are the offspring of martyred people. Our people have always withstood the most fearful onslaughts with the aid of the sign of the cross, although on the borderline between Asiatic and European countries. The cross is the symbol of martyrdom; consequently, our nation has struggled under trying conditions for freedom and recognition, in a struggle which was both against oppressor nations and against paganism. In this battle, our people did not have time to rest, and there was no spare time in which to develop intellectually, for the fathers of the nation were always on horseback, with saddles serving them as pillows. When they, in their idleness, began to seek rest without the sign of the cross--it was then that they began to fall.

    15

    "As many times as the Polish people want to solve their problem worthily, as many times as they desire to become recognized, they must stand and upheld the banner of the cross and show that they are descendents of martyrdom. Therefore, upon the true flag of the Polish people there should always be found the sign of the cress.

    "If the Poles in Chicago were united, if they had regard and respect for their banners and the sign of the cress was found upon them, if they would solemnly observe all of their historical memories while they are trying to save their souls, there would be no split, no discord in our ranks, and our younger generation would not be falling away.

    "Alas! evil papers, sinful pastimes, and unfortunate imbibing are ruining our younger generation and also our older members. Great responsibility rests upon the shoulders of those who permit themselves to be seduced by these papers, the words of which are food for the mad, if not for the vile.

    16

    "But, thank God, the majority of Poles in Chicago have not forsaken Polish ideals; therefore we have hopes. Our young people have surpassed us in some of our fields. There is hope from this source--their example will recruit many of the younger people into their ranks.

    "Our older people never knew freedom, for they were constantly being stepped on by other nations. In the schools established by the hostile countries, Polish literature and history were forbidden. Our younger generation in this country today has a better opportunity to know Poland, if we could only give it proper impetus.....The St. Casimir Young Men's Club has such potentialities.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, Jan. 21, 1892.

    "Although we are far away from our country--primarily because of this--it would be disgraceful to forget our obligations to our native land. Our own parish here should serve as an example. It is the largest in Chicago, perhaps the largest in the United States. We are making every effort possible against the 17opposition that comes from all sides. The young men of St. Casimir's Club are doing a splendid and untiring job in this direction. Although they must earn a living during the day, and support their families, yet they find time to continue in this field of Polish endeavor. If we follow their example, God will give us victory.

    "If a comparison of the history of Poland is made with that of other countries, it will be seen that her history, although not always noble, is by far the richest. Yet for all our historical accomplishments we were delivered to the will of the Muscovites by France and Germany, and for our struggles for freedom we have been mercilessly treated.

    "During his holy lifetime, St. Casimir had foreseen the early ruin of Poland, and perhaps that is why he did not want to wear the crown of Poland. He had foreseen the evil that spread over the country. But the source of this evil was not found amid our people, but in the German religious papers and French liberal papers. Instead of accepting these stories so easily, the Poles should 18have long before stood by their own religious faith, just as our boys of St. Casimir's Club are doing. This would have been the best means of protection from political and religious decay.

    "Therefore, the parents of our parish ought to make a strong effort to have their children join this organization.

    "Unfortunately, our younger generation does not wish to burden itself with religious and patriotic duties, but desires instead to be free. It desires the freedom which we here in America are enjoying to the fullest extent. But there is as great a differences between good and bad freedom as there is between good and evil, between Heaven and Hell, between a good patriot and a bad one.

    "Our patriotism should be as perfect as possible, and should be supported by religion, for this was the kind of patriotism our fathers upheld. If our patriotism is of this sort, we will withstand all adversities and patiently endure all sufferings. We are all suffering, and our brothers in Europe are 19suffering even mere. Yet, no matter what burdens the czar heaps upon them, they do not give themselves up to him.

    "We ought to bear the pain for the faults of our fathers, for a good son pays the debts of his father. We ought to suffer also for our own faults. If we suffer together, we will all weather the storm, and a brighter horizon will be curs forever."

    The ovation that Father Barzynski received exceeded that accorded to any other artist or speaker of the evening. Following the speech, the orchestra played several traditional Polish tunes.

    A one-act drama, played by fifteen male actors, and arranged by our young poet, Szczesny Zahajkiewicz, was the final presentation of the evening. Outstanding performances were given by Anthony Huntowski and R. Szajkowski. Huntowski portrayed the role of "Kuba" with notable ability. "Kuba" was a Polish 20character who never had enough time between drinks to study the history and culture of Poland, or become familiar with the great names of Poland. In spite of this, the tradition of his native country was deeply rooted within him, for he displayed great indignation whenever his partner, "John," discredited anything Polish, or whenever he praised anything other than Polish.

    The author has well brought out in this short play the Polish-American youth, which has shed completely the native culture of its fathers, and has put on ways unnatural to its origin. As a contrast to this kind of character, the author has introduced in another role the youth of St. Casimir's Club, ably portrayed by Mr. Jozwiakowski. It was he who instructed "Kuba" and "John", and showed them the way to reading the history and literature of Poland. It was he, as a representative of this society, who taught these two and their colleagues what great men Poland has given to the world, and gave them an example of the wayward youth that followed the teachings of radicalism.

    This short but instructive and interesting play, concluded the entertainment of 21the fifth anniversary of St. Casimir Young Men's Club. The entire audience was moved to the roots of their souls by this grand performance of Polish-American youth. It wished these young men a continued success in their work, a continuation of happiness throughout all their efforts, and, finally, not only a tenth anniversary, but a fiftieth, plus an ever increasing membership.

    Signed: Ignac Machnikowski,

    Secretary of the Entertainment

    Last night, the Young Men's Club of St. Casimir's Church celebrated the fifth anniversary of its organization at the Polish hall of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish. An evening of entertainment ...

    Polish
    III E, II B 1 c 1, II B 1 a, II B 1 e, I B 3 b, III B 2, III H, III A, III C, I K, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- April 27, 1892
    Sister Freblowska's Garden

    Because many Polish mothers have to help their husbands earn the daily stipend, the Nazareth Sisters at 130 W. Division Street will open a home to accomodate the children of working parents. It will be called Sister Freblowska's Garden. This home will solve many wearisome problems for working mothers and will save many children from unfortunate mishaps.

    Beginning May.1, those children who are not of school age will be accepted in the Garden. The children will be under the constant care of the nuns from 7:00 A.M. to 7: P.M. They will receive three meals a day: at 10 A.M. 12 noon, and 4 P.M. The fee for those services will be very nominal and the 2benefits will be great.

    Those mothers who find their children a handicap when they are working about the home will find these pleasant accommodations a timely relief. They will be able to do more work and have less worry on their hands. Many Polish mothers who take in homework,such as, sewing, laundry, needlework, will be able to increase their earning power by taking advantage of these services.

    The fee of ten cents per child, or less, will pay in return ten times the amount. Worry, accidents, waste of hours will be averted, while the children will be acquiring new playmates in a homelike at atmosphere.

    Mothers take advantage of these services.

    Because many Polish mothers have to help their husbands earn the daily stipend, the Nazareth Sisters at 130 W. Division Street will open a home to accomodate the children of ...

    Polish
    II D 4, I B 3 b, I B 3 c
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- July 22, 1892
    Our Materialism in America

    The desire for bettering one's condition in America, which has caused our brothers to emigrate from their homeland, has here developed into a feverish desire for gold. Just as every passion blinds a man in his action, so also does the desire for gold compel many of us to close our eyes upon this: that such one-sided material direction retards our political and national development in America. It is true that one should strive to obtain money, without which life in the present time is almost impossible. But it is also true that a useless striving for money creates a fat materialist out of even a most perfect man. It creates a slave of money. The result is that such a man forgets about everything and, his nationality as well, being devoured only by the desire of possessing money. There are many such slaves among us, therefore, evidently, one concludes that many forget about our nationality and, as a result, bring about its stagnation.

    This is no place to speak of the crimes caused by the unnecessary passion 2for money, but of the harm that this desire causes to our nationality among respectable Poles. Naturally, this applies only to those who do not make contributions for national purposes in accordance with their wealth.

    We complain of the lack of unity among the Poles in America and this unfortunately, is justifiable. There are societies that have death and other benefit insurance for their members. Undoubtedly, they are good in themselves and we wish them great progress. However, how many societies are there which, without an assurance of any material benefit, would have a respectable number of members? Few, very few. Our Polish theatrical productions are played most frequently in the presence of a comparatively small number of spectators. Some begrudge the money--materialism--others would rather go to the saloon--materialism--finally, materialism will not allow others to see the great moral and national benefits, nor the arousing of the feeling of beauty that comes from the plays. If among the Poles residing in, let us say, the northern part of the City of Chicago, if only every tenth person appeared at every play, the disheartened, self-sacrificing amateur artists would not act in half-filled halls!

    3

    How many members does the very useful Polish Welfare Association have? In proportion to the general amount of Poles, the number is insignificant.

    What can be said of our emigration home in New York? Every one has recognized its usefulness, many emigrants have received effective care and assistance, but materialism does not allow its successful development. Materialism does not permit everyone to bring financial aid to this home. From the one-and-a-half million Poles residing in the United States, at least $20,000 should come for this home in the first year, of which one-half could be turned over into an iron fund. But a frivolous love for money and for enjoyment, materialism, makes us inconsiderate, insensible to the fate of our arriving brothers, who are exposed to a purely Egyptian misery and slavery. Hence, our national stagnation and the subsequent political stagnation.

    We have spoken of our materialism manifesting itself in several public matters. Let us now pass over to private affairs. The fever of quick acquisition of wealth causes a majority of the Polish parents to send their children to work 4at hard labor as soon as possible, though they are not yet completely developed physically or morally, so as to bring in as much money as possible in the shortest space of time. The environment in which they find themselves, the words that they hear there, the labor too difficult for their undeveloped strength, create veritable physical and moral dwarfs of these Polish children. By so doing we will become slaves in this free America, the servants of other nationalities. Such action is particularly hostile to the acquisition of an education, and hence to a belated occupation of an important position among other nations. In America too, as elsewhere, and even faster, do conditions change. At present the father can get some sort of a job even without any higher education, but in about twenty years that will be an impossibility for his son. While the other national groups, as for example, the Germans progress so much higher in education, we retrogress because of the indifference of the parents toward the school, until, finally, the time will come when every passer-by will push us with contempt as a bad and worthless object.

    This same materialism manifesting itself in the desire for a rapid acquisition of wealth discourages the Polish youth in America from [learning] the Polish language; it causes the careless parents to send the Polish children to English 5schools in opposition to pedagogic, national and Christian principles, and as soon as they have received their first Holy Communion they turn them over to the shops and factories, where the corrupted atmosphere and even more corrupted moral conditions destroy our youth and render it worthless for Polish and American national political life. Hence our national and political stagnation, quick retrogression and approaching early downfall!

    This same materialism even destroys the family ties amongst us. The father and mother are elated that their son or daughter, though young, already earns so much; then they are able to pay "board" to the parents. Father and mother! You have gained a "boarder" but have lost a child. The meager money which you receive from him will tear away his love and respect for you. It will cause the child to be on an equal basis with you; it will cause him to renounce his obedience to you and shower you with insults because he already is an independent "boarder". We have seen instances where the children have evicted their father from the home because he did not contribute in any way or could not pay for his "board". It could not be otherwise; a family of that type is not a family [living] in accordance with the Divine 6will, but merely a "boarding-house." The laxity of family ties leads these families and an entire nation to moral, financial, and political degradation.

    Let us cast out from amongst ourselves this degenerated and shameful materialism; let our families base themselves upon the Divine law, which is opposed to materialism. Let us strive incessantly toward more elevating, honorable, and Divine goals, and then our political and national stagnation in America will come to an end.

    The desire for bettering one's condition in America, which has caused our brothers to emigrate from their homeland, has here developed into a feverish desire for gold. Just as every ...

    Polish
    I C, I A 1 a, I A 2 a, I B 3 b, I B 3 c, I D 1 a, II D 1, I F 4, III A, III H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 27, 1892
    Our Schools (Submitted)

    In the August 6, 1892 issue of Nowe Zycie (New Life), I read an article, the author of which is greatly indignant over the "importation" of a teacher from the province of Poznan to the St. Stanislaus Kostka school in Chicago. This author is opposed to reinforcing [the teaching staffs of] Polish-American schools with teachers newly arrived from Poland, or "greenhorns," and says that bringing a teacher from Europe is a definite violation of the law which clearly forbids importation of workers of any kind under contract.

    I frankly admit that this article shocked and exasperated me, a "greenhorn". In reading words that spoke so degradingly of the entire teaching profession, which is highly respected in Europe, I could not believe my eyes [when I learned] that the Poles here regard their teachers on the same level with 2common laborers. Can it be that there is no difference between physical and intellectual labor here? Does coal mining or wood chopping mean as much in America as the cultivation of the mind and spirit of man?

    If this is your [New Life's] notion of teachers and education, you should at least keep it to yourselves while Doctor Dunikowski is visiting us, lest he carry away the wrong impression of us. You have evidently forgotten that in our own country [Poland], both lay and secular teachers are highly esteemed, and the people, knowing the need for education, fully realize the loftiness of their [the teachers'] mission. But true, I had forgotten for a moment that I am in America, where people value the dollar above education!

    The author of the article in question protests against the rearing of Polish-American children by people newly arrived [from Europe].

    Why? The author is mistaken when he says that the schools here rear our children, 3whereas European schools teach only academic subjects. Evidently the author has not examined the European school system thoroughly, or he is not at all familiar with European principles of education, if he can make such statements.

    The author goes on to say that even were the teacher the ablest of pedagogues, he could not fulfill his task, and instead of educating the children, he would set them on the wrong course, for education here is based upon different principles. Unfortunately, the author did not substantiate this statement.

    Why should a father, mother, or teacher train a child differently here than in the old country? Is it perhaps because the climate here is warmer, or the temperature more changeable? Are European principles of child training inferior to American?

    Ask any Polish parent, and the answer will invariably be the same: that in the 4homeland, their children were better trained than here in this free country, where freedom has led them to a point where they no longer respect their elders, parents, priests, nor teachers. Such is the strain on family ties here, such excesses and wantonness to which our children permit themselves as were unheard-of in the old country. The whole blame for this rests with the parents who, because of the different environment, are not raising their children in accordance with the Lord's commandments, which, after all, are the same in both hemispheres.

    Finally, the author says that the parents, having often learned from their own bitter experience, ought to try to arrange that their children receive an education equal in every respect to that of Americans. I presume, however, that Polish fathers, if they are in their right minds, would certainly wish nothing of the sort, since American child training is a hundred times worse than European.

    Since fate has brought us here, it is our duty to retain whatever good we brought 5with us from the old country; however, it is not right that we should adopt those things which can only do moral harm to our children. In the struggle for the dollar, it is easy to lose the religion and patriotism that are so dear to us! It may be that in the old country, children are taught blind obedience to various governments and to crowned heads, but it does not necessarily follow that we should cast aside the "greenhorns" whose teaching in Europe has already yielded golden fruit, and that we should turn to American public schools, where all children are supposedly taught to be good American citizens. God pity such an advantage! I do not wish to deny that Polish children sent to public schools become good American citizens, that is, become Americanized; but that they will no longer be good sons of our homeland, that soon they will forget the Polish language and customs, that finally they will not only lose their patriotism, but--God forbid--they will lose our greatest treasure, the religion of our forefathers, the near future will show. Let any sober-minded person say whether such American citizens will do anything worthwhile for Poland.

    6

    It is my opinion that an Americanized Polish child can become a good businessman, but never a Polish patriot, and will do nothing good for our poor, oppressed Poland.

    F. Majer,

    Teacher and Organist at Priceburgh, Pennsylvania.

    In the August 6, 1892 issue of Nowe Zycie (New Life), I read an article, the author of which is greatly indignant over the "importation" of a teacher from the ...

    Polish
    I A 2 a, I A 1 a, I B 3 b, III A
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- October 13, 1892
    The Sunday and Evening Classes of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish School

    In the evening classes of the St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish School the boys study catechism, arithmetic, and Polish, Separate classes in English, Polish, and German are held for adults and children. Many adults attend.

    Polish history and literature are taught in the higher grades.

    About two hundred boys attend the four classes that are held every Sunday. Instruction is given in catechism, arithmetic, history, and singing.

    Every father should see to it that his sons attend classes; he should question them about what they are studying.

    Parents should co-operate with the school in the care of their children, for the greatest obligation of the parents is to rear their children as righteous 2Catholic citizens and, above all, as Poles.

    At present there are day, evening, and Sunday classes. Every boy, young or old, should attend one of them. Are parents concerned about this? If not, that is their affair. They will have to give an account of this before God.

    In the evening classes of the St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish School the boys study catechism, arithmetic, and Polish, Separate classes in English, Polish, and German are held for adults and ...

    Polish
    II B 2 f, I B 3 b, I A 3, III A, III C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- October 18, 1893
    Appeal to the Polish Teachers and Organists

    The whole future of the Polish nation in America depends upon the new generation, upon those children who are now attending the parochial schools. These children will be whatever the parents, teachers, and priests make them. Whether today's children will one day be good Catholics and Poles, or whether they will be lost to the faith and Poland, will be answered for before God, not by the children themselves, but by the parents, teachers, and priests.

    Not business, not money, but his children ought to be the primary concern of every good Polish Catholic. Every parent will answer for his child before God and his own conscience, before his motherland and society. Our main business is our children. They are our gold mine, the future of the Polish nation.

    A parent who accumulates money but neglects his child will find that the latter will squander his hard-earned money or spend it in evil ways. On the other 2hand, a poor man who brings up his child in a godly manner will find that although the latter lives on bread and water he is a credit to his parents and his country, for truth and honesty always rise to the top. We need not linger on this subject, however, for every parent and educator knows the importance of an upright education. What the parents do is their own affair; they alone will answer for it.

    The directors of the schools, that is, the priests and teachers, understand their task and would like to take a step forward in the matter of education. Toward this end, the Association of [Polish] Teachers and Organists was formed during the last convention of the Polish Roman Catholic Union. Further aims and advantages to the members of this organization will be enumerated in its constitution, which will be published next month in Wiara i Ojczyzna, the Union's official organ.

    The Association [of Polish Teachers and Organists], which was organized on the third day of the convention, August 24, 1893, is headed by Reverend Eugene Siedlaczek, president; Boleslaus Straszynski, a Milwaukee teacher, vice-president; Szczesny Zahajkiewicz, secretary; and A. Kwasigroch, treasurer. The 3preparation of the constitution was entrusted to a committee of three--Father Siedlaczek, S. Zahajkiewicz, and I. Kowalski. It was also decided that the members would pay no dues during the first year.

    Those members who are in the position to do so will arrange for theatrical performances and recitals for the benefit of the Association's treasury.

    Thus, no one need delay joining the Association because of hard times or because of the initiation fee. In order to become a member and enjoy the benefits of the Association, all a teacher or organist has to do is to submit his name and address to the secretary.

    Theatrical performances for the Association's benefit have already been promised by the parochial school teachers of Chicago, by B. Straszynski, of Milwaukee, by Mr. Riech, of Manistee [Michigan], and by Mr. Kaminski, of Grand Rapids [Michigan].

    The Association of [Polish] Teachers and Organists has a future before it; its purpose is an important one.

    4

    Almost a score of priests have already become supporting members of the Association, thus showing the teachers and organists how highly they value this organization, whose aim is the development of education. It is our hope that before a year is up, all natural guardians of the Polish parochial schools and children, that is, the priests, and all Polish teachers and organists will be members of the Association.

    We request all those who have not yet joined but who wish to become members of the Association of Polish Teachers and Organists, to apply to the secretary.

    Reverend E. Siedlaczek, president.

    B. Straszynski, secretary.

    All other Polish papers in the United States please copy.

    The whole future of the Polish nation in America depends upon the new generation, upon those children who are now attending the parochial schools. These children will be whatever the ...

    Polish
    I A 2 a, I B 3 b, III A, III C, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 01, 1893
    Celebration in St. Hedwig Parish

    The November celebration, commemorating the 1830 Polish insurrection, was held on Wednesday, November 29, in the St. Hedwig Parish School hall.

    The celebration was a grand and successful affair. The hall was beautifully decorated in the national colors, with wreaths and laurel leaves. Our young people dressed in native costumes performed various military exercises during the intervals between the numbers on the program.

    Reverend John Barzynski the local pastor, opened the ceremonies with a strongly-worded speech that was instructive and entertaining. He then called on Mr. J. Jablonski to act as chairman.

    The local choir sang "Bracia Rocznica" (Brothers, The Anniversary) to the accompaniment of the orchestra. Then the Reverend B. Pawlowski spoke about the 2historical events of the 1830 Polish insurrection and explained why it was a failure. He next emphasized the duties of parents, and how they should educate their children to become good and loyal Poles. Reverend Pawlowski argued that the chief cause of the fall of Poland was lack of unity and brotherly love, and he said that if we seek for this brotherly love on a religious and national basis we will undoubtedly have our country restored to us in the near future. The audience greeted the speech with tumultous applause.

    Then Miss A. Kielichowska recited the poem "Smierc Sowinskiego" (The Death of Sowinski), after which Mr. B. Klarkowski read a sketch about Mickiewicz. Mr. Klarkowski spoke vigorously and with feeling about our beloved bard, who, although he is dead, left us a heritage of thoughts and words which warm our hearts and intellects. The sketch was very instructive and was frequently interrupted by waves of applause.

    The local choir sang "Polska Powstajaca" (Poland Arising); Miss M. Kielichowska and Mr. J. Wachowski recited a poem; and then Mr. Mirski recited "Smierc 3Wiezienia Stanu" (Death of a Prisoner of State) with great feeling. This poem illustrates the sufferings and oppression of our poor nation.

    Then Reverend J. Barzynski invited the audience to the evening church services for those killed in the years 1830-1831. He closed the ceremonies by leading the audience, accompanied by the orchestra, in singing the national anthem "Boze Cos Polske" (God Save Poland).

    The St. Hedwig celebration, the first ever arranged in this community, was very interesting. It was instructive, and many of those present were deeply moved; it renewed and strengthened the feeling of patriotism in their Polish hearts. Those who helped to arrange this affair deserve great credit.

    The November celebration, commemorating the 1830 Polish insurrection, was held on Wednesday, November 29, in the St. Hedwig Parish School hall. The celebration was a grand and successful affair. The ...

    Polish
    III B 3 a, I B 3 b, III C, III H, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- November 12, 1894
    Meeting in Behalf of the Polish Youth

    A group of Polish parents met yesterday at Bradley Street Hall for the purpose of organizing their sons, who are leaving school.

    Several hundred Polish fathers, with sons thirteen years old and older, were present.

    The meeting was opened by Reverend Vincent Barzynski, who told the parents that something has to be done for our young, growing generation, that it may not waste its time idly, that it may not lose faith, morality, and love for the country; that on the contrary, it may grow mentally and become successful. Up to now we have had our youth organizations, but these organizations have been without supervision by and participations of older persons, and as a result their work has been useless. This defect in our youth organizations must be remedied by the creation of special committees composed of older persons, 2mature enough to protect and lead our young people along the right path.

    The audience accepted this plan with approval. Some of the parents asked for the floor and expressed their opinions.

    Finally, a plan was adopted to organize a youth society under the name Sodalis Marianus, or Saint Mary Sodality, after the fashion of the old religious society of the same name in Poland, to which knights used to belong.

    The purpose of this society will be to protect our youth, to strengthen it in faith and morality, to enlighten it, to help it complete its education by attending evening and Sunday courses, gymnastic exercises, drilling, etc.

    This plan met with general approval. A special committee will prepare a suitable constitution, after the announcement of which another meeting will be called.

    A group of Polish parents met yesterday at Bradley Street Hall for the purpose of organizing their sons, who are leaving school. Several hundred Polish fathers, with sons thirteen years ...

    Polish
    III E, I B 3 b, IV