The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- April 13, 1891
    Our Representative at Springfield John A. Kwasigroch Introduces an Important Bill at the State Legislature Proposing Protection of Working Women and Children (Summarized Editorial)

    The introduction of Congressman Kwasigroch's bill at the State legislature created great interest among the working class.

    Kwasigroch's bill proposes that no person under the age of eighteen, or a woman employed by a commercial house, should work longer than sixty hours a week or more than ten hours a day, with the exception when they have to make up time. No person under eighteen years of age, or a woman under twenty-one years of age, should work at public places after 9 P. M. or before 6 A. M. However employers will be allowed, by special permission, to employ persons over eighteen years old after 9 P. M. between the first Monday in December and the first Tuesday in January of the next year, providing that these persons are allowed 45 minutes for supper.


    Commercial houses in the State of Illinois shall not employ minors under fourteen years of age. Every employer shall keep a register in which must be recorded the name, age, place of birth, and the address of every minor under sixteen years of age, and such institutions shall not employ minors supply the employers with a sworn statement containing the age and birth date of their child. If the child has no parents or guardians, it must make such statement itself. These statements must be presented for examination to an authorized labor Department inspector.

    Every employer of minors under eighteen years of age, must exhibit in a conspicuous place a printed schedule showing the number of hours worked by each minor every week, and in every room where children under sixteen years of age are employed, the schedule must indicate also their names and ages. Commercial houses shall not employ children under sixteen years of age who cannot read and write easy sentences in the English language, 3except during the vacation time. Authorized Labor Department inspectors have the right to demand doctors' certificates showing the physical fitness of minors employed by commercial houses, and they also have the right to forbid the employment of minors who have no such certificates.

    The term commercial house used in this bill means every place or establishment where articles are sold for profit; hoever, it does not include small places where less than five persons are employed.

    The owners of commercial houses, or their agents, shall keep all elevators n goo order and use all precautions. The stairways of commercial houses shall be provided with suitable railing on both sides and the steps covered with rubber mats if necessary, according to the decision of safety inspectors. The stairs and stairways of commercial institutions must be free from all obstructions and the doors leading to them must open both ways, in and out, ad must not be locked during working hours. Commercial buildings of more 4than three stories must be provided with strong and safe iron fire-escapes, according to the specifications of safety inspectors. Safety inspectors have the right to condemn any dangerous or defective fire-escapes. The platforms of fire-escapes must be built under two windows of each story and in a convenient location. The stairs must be 24 inches wide and at a 45 degrees angle.

    The owners of commercial homes or their agents, must send a written report to safety inspectors of all accidents or misfortunes which may occur to their employees, not later than forty-eight hours after the accident. The report must contain all details of the accident. The inspectors will have the right to make an investigation and suggest any changes that may eliminate the recurrence of such accidents in the future.

    Every commercial institution must be provided with comfortable lavatories and toilets, which should be kept in a sanitary condition and well ventilated; 5and where women are employed, there must be a separate toilet room and a dressing room. The rest room where the lunches are eaten should be separated from the lavatories and toilets.

    Every employer is obliged to provide suitable seats for women employees, and they should be permitted to use them for health measures. Negligence of this duty by an employer will be considered a violation of the law.

    Commercial institutions are not allowed to employ women or children in basements that are unsanitary or damp on account of water seepage or that are filled with injurious gases, or condemned by Labor Department inspectors.

    Not less than 45 minutes must be allowed for lunch time in any commercial institution. The Labor Department inspectors, however, have the right to issue a written permission for a shorter lunch period if it is necessary at certain times of the year, but such written permission must be displayed at a conspicuous place.


    In this State Labor Department inspectors and their assistants are obliged to enforce these regulations and bring to justice those who disregard them; therefore, they have the right to inspect any commercial institution at any proper time and as often as necessary. Any owner or manager of any commercial institution who hinders, delays, inconveniences or resists such investigation is committing an offense. The Labor Department inspectors and their assistants will have the authority of a notary public in taking oaths in the course of their investigations.

    State's attorneys of every county in this State have the right, and it will be their duty, to prosecute at any court any person who violates these regulations, of such action is demanded by a Labor Department inspector or his assistant.

    Every person violating or neglecting these regulations, or employing minors in spite of them, shall be guilty of breaking the law and punished by a fine 7of not less than ten dollars and not more than one hundred dollars, or by imprisonment of not less than thirty days and not more than ninety days.

    A printed copy of these regulations should be displayed at every institution and at every location in this State where persons are employed to whom this regulation refers.

    This law is effective at once.

    The introduction of Congressman Kwasigroch's bill at the State legislature created great interest among the working class. Kwasigroch's bill proposes that no person under the age of eighteen, or a ...

    I H, I A 1 a, I D 1 a, I D 1 b, I B 2
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 24, 1892
    The Tribune and the Lotteries (Editorial)

    The American press finds pleasure at times, even in greatly exaggerated articles, in defending certain legislation, although it may be inappropriate. In its day, the Republican press, The Tribune, praised itself about its strict adherence to the rules governing the usage of mails for lottery purposes. We are also basically opposed to lottery; we are not opposed to the ban placed upon the use of the mails to send circulars, tickets, papers supporting and propagating lottery, and the like. We have conducted ourselves accordingly and evidently we have not instituted it (with, perhaps, the exception of bazaars or raffles for benevolent purposes) nor would we give it support.

    The Tribune, on the other hand, is itself conducting a lottery. They print a blank in their columns intended for its readers to guess who will 2receive the presidential nomination from among the Republican candidates at the convention to be held on June 7, 1892, and by what majority. It adds that one may submit as many guesses as he chooses, which infers that it encourages the purchase of several or more editions of their paper for the purpose of cutting out these blanks. "Whichever "prophecy" shows to be the nearst to the true result of the convention will receive a reward of $50.00. It is evident that by the known desire of the Americans to construe prophecies of that nature, The Tribune will sell so many more editions of its periodical that the $50.00 will be manifoldly covered and, simultaneously, the circle of its readers would be widened. Is this not lottery?

    The American press finds pleasure at times, even in greatly exaggerated articles, in defending certain legislation, although it may be inappropriate. In its day, the Republican press, The Tribune, praised ...

    II B 2 d 1, II E 2, I F 5, I B 2, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- July 23, 1892
    Observance of Holy Days (Editorial)

    There is a distinction between respecting and observing a holy day of obligation. To us, as Catholics, Sunday is a holy day and we have always supported this assertion with word and deed--with word, by encouraging others to participate in the Sunday church services, to refrain from work, and not to submit to noisy, drunken, or improper debaucheries; and with deed, by abstaining ourselves from attending dances on Saturday evenings, or picnics on Sundays before noon since these amusements lead away from the observance of the Sabbath day.

    However, we do not share the views of those hypocrites who, under the cloak of piety, obstruct others from taking part on a Sunday afternoon in some proper, moral, and useful recreation, since recreation affords a well-deserved rest after the week's work is over. Rather than condemn recreation, we advise the people to have as much of it as possible. Recreation not only affords the necessary rest but it also keeps us from wasting our leisure time in taverns 2or in the company of undesirable companions.

    It is for this reason that we are in favor of having the World's Fair open on Sundays, since for people who have to work on week days this is the only day in which they can enjoy themselves without loss in salary.

    We are so mindful of the need of recreation that we are in favor of those workers who demand that their employers do not compel them to work on Sundays. Incidentally, we have not remained silent in the movement to have the stores located on Milwaukee Avenue remain closed during Sundays. All the workers and officials employed in these stores demand this, and justly so. Some of the store proprietors have already agreed on this, and beginning tomorrow many of them will be closed. Some stores, however, will take advantage of this and will keep open on Sundays.

    Such action is improper and undeserving of praise or support. Every one should do his shopping on Saturday instead of waiting for Sunday to do it. In this manner unscrupulous store owners will be convinced that the public does not shop on Sundays and that it doesn't pay to open.

    There is a distinction between respecting and observing a holy day of obligation. To us, as Catholics, Sunday is a holy day and we have always supported this assertion with ...

    I B 2, III C, I B 1
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 25, 1893
    A Letter from the Polish Patriotic Educational Youth Society of St. Adalbert's

    We received the following letter with a request that it be published:

    "Living here in a foreign land amidst foreign customs, our youth is in constant danger of losing interest in their mother tongue. The spread of Americanism engulfs tens, perhaps hundreds of our young people, who become lost to Polish society forever. We have no quarrel with Americanism, as in our opinion it is possible to be both a good American citizen and a good Pole. However, to forget one's mother tongue and to be ashamed of one's descent, simply because one lives in a foreign land, is not at all proper. With the purpose of awakening the Polish youth to a love of their language and a realization of the Polish spirit, the Polish Patriotic Educational Youth Society was founded eight months ago. As with all good things, this had its enemies, but in spite of opposition it is developing successfully. The Society possesses a number of Polish books on various subjects, dictionaries 2maps, and newspapers.

    "Honorable Polish Youths! Here you have a good opportunity to join a purely Polish society at a very low expense. Do not delay, but come to the next meeting and we shall welcome you with open arms. Remember that here you will learn to respect your mother tongue. You will become acquainted with the history of our once great nation; you will be convinced that the descendants of Sobieski, Pulaski, Kosciuszko, Mickiewicz, and others have no cause to be ashamed of their heritage.

    "Parents! if you desire that your children do not forget the Polish language; that instead of frequenting saloons and street corners they spend their time in reading worthwhile books and in acquiring an education, send them to the Polish Patriotic Educational Youth Society."

    We received the following letter with a request that it be published: "Living here in a foreign land amidst foreign customs, our youth is in constant danger of losing interest ...

    III A, II B 2 a, III B 2, III E, I B 2
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 18, 1893
    Political News The Foresters' Meeting

    Last Saturday evening, December 16, a meeting of all the members of the Polish courts of the Catholic Order of Foresters was held in the St. Stanislaus Kostka School Hall, at the call of the chief ranger of the St. Stanislaus Kostka Court, Mr. V. Bardonski. A few hundred persons assembled. Mr. Bardonski explained that this was not an [ordinary] meeting of one or more courts of the Catholic Order of Foresters because they do not usually engage in political affairs, but that this time he considered it just and right to call a political meeting because the election of a brother member was at stake (the organizer of the Court of the Holy Rosary, in Pullman, Illinois) and the chief argument of his adversaries was the fact that he is a Catholic and they harp on this as if it were a crime.

    Mr. Victor Bardonski was selected as chairman and Mr. Frank Fuhl as secretary.


    Mr. Leon Szopinski then read a very enlightening article, in the first part of which he answered, in a convincing manner, the Republicans' accusations that the Democrats are responsible for the depression. He also spoke of the tariff, saying that if it has any influence on labor conditions, it cannot be salutary. In the second part of his speech he read a translation of an article published by the Catholic Order of Foresters about the candidacy or Mr. John P. Hopkins. Reverend Vincent Barzynski, who entered during the reading of the article by Mr. L. Szopinski, spoke to the point and condemned the action of the Republicans for mixing religion with politics, and sharply called to account those among the Poles who have been bribed by the opposition and now are trying to confuse our people. Mr. August J. Kowalski spoke next. Mr. Stanley Szwajkart told the audience who the A. P. A.'s are and translated their oath of membership, which we publish in another space.

    Finally, those assembled, unanimously endorsed the candidacy of Mr. John P. Hopkins and passed a motion to prepare appropriate resolutions. The chairman 3was authorized to select the committee members to prepare [the resolutions] and publish them in the Polish Daily News, and named the following to the committee: Mr. Leon Szopinski, Mr. Stanley Szwajkart, and Mr. Frank Fuhl. The following resolution was prepared:


    "We the members of the St. Stanislaus Kostka Court No. 69, St. Sigismund Court, Kosciusko Court, and St. Boniface Court of the Catholic Order of Foresters, in meeting assembled, are of the opinion that a candidate's religious convictions have nothing to do with his political affairs--national, state, or municipal--as specified in the Constitution of the United States. As it is well known, the Foresters seldom interest themselves in those matters.

    "Exceptional circumstances, not of their making or of their initiative, occurring during the present political campaign for the election of a mayor to succeed 4the late Carter H. Harrison, compel the Foresters, as citizens of the United States, to put aside temporarily these convictions and belief. The circumstances in question are: (1) A fellow Forester has been chosen as candidate for mayor by one of the political parties; (2) His opponents are attacking him solely because he professes the Catholic faith, and advertise this fact as a blot on his candidacy; (3) The political party opposed to his candidacy is acting in the name and under the direction of a powerful, widespread organization inimical to the Catholic faith.

    "In view of these facts and considering furthermore,

    "1. That one of the objects of the Catholic Order of Foresters is to defend the Catholic religion and its believers against the actions and attacks of certain organizations, as well as certain individuals, whenever these attacks concern the profession of the holy Catholic faith;

    "2. That a member of the Catholic Order of Foresters, Mr. John P. Hopkins, a 5man of unblemished character, possessing such ability and distinguished traits that he is well fitted to perform the duties of the highest office in the city, which fact is not disputed by his opponents, who point to his religion as their main objection;

    "3. That the candidate of the opposing party, as it was shown during the campaign, if he were to be elected mayor and compelled to obey the dictates of this powerful anti-Catholic organization, would at all times use his influence to persecute all those professing the Catholic religion;

    "4. That the above-mentioned Mr. John P. Hopkins, as those present at the meeting are fully convinced, if elected, would discharge his duties in an honorable and just manner, and, according to the Constitution of the United States, will not mix political affairs with religion, but will be actuated solely by justice; and finally,

    "5. That this candidate, Mr. John P. Hopkins, is a working man, who has 6actually worked for $1.25; that he possesses exceptional administrative talent as proven on numerous occasions; that he promises the best guarantee of personal liberty; that he promises faithfully, if elected, to compel the railroad companies to raise their tracks, so as to stop the murdering of our people at streetcar crossings;

    "Therefore, the members of the above-mentioned courts of the Catholic Order of Foresters, assembled at a meeting this sixteenth day of December, 1893, do hereby resolve:

    "1. To cast all their ballots on election day, December 19, 1893, for Mr. John P. Hopkins for mayor;

    "2. To exert all our influence so that this candidate will receive the greatest number of votes;

    "3. To publish this resolution in the papers."


    Great Meeting of Poles

    An enormous meeting--in fact the largest ward meeting of the present campaign in point of attendance and second only to the meeting at the Auditorium last Wednesday--was held last night, December 16, in the Polish hall on Bradley Street. The hall was completely filled; some of the morning papers estimate that between 7,000 and 8,000 people attended and claim that this is a conservative figure; others say that the number of people present was much greater. Such a tremendous gathering impressed the American speakers, and every one of them expressed their admiration for the Poles.

    As early as seven o'clock in the evening, Mr. August J. Kowalski called the meeting to order and, after briefly explaining the purpose of the gathering, called upon Mr. Boleslaus Klarkowski to act as secretary. Alongside the secretary sat the reporters, while on the platform our foremost political leaders took their places. In a short while, however, the entire stage was packed, as there was no room left in the hall.


    The first speaker, Judge [J.] La Buy, comparing the two candidates for mayor, pointed out why no Pole, no workingman, no citizen who has the welfare of our city and inhabitants at heart, should cast his vote for Swift, who never has shown any sympathy for the workingman and oftentimes worked contrary to their interests.

    Next Mr. Peter Kiolbassa, in a beautiful speech, announced that peace reigns in South Chicago in spite of the rumors that the Poles have split. Then he explained why, after belonging to the Republican party for 20 years, he had left it, just as some of the better known statesmen and politicians had done when they found out how scandalously it had begun to work. He sharply criticized those Poles who even now are attempting to defend the Republicans, and who dare even to distribute pamphlets couched in silky words. These persons, unworthy of being called Poles, who are notorious anarchists and dynamiters and never did anything worth while for their countrymen, sign their names to these circulars, in which they suddenly speak of the necessity of building new churches. Feeling sure that Mr. Hopkins will win by at least a majority of 10,000, 9Mr. Kiolbassa explained how dangerous it would be if the Poles should be split, and how important it is to be united in a solid front for those things that may prove beneficial to them. He then spoke of the hard times caused by the Republicans, compared the two candidates for mayor, urged the Poles to educate themselves so that they may be able to hold political offices, and said he hoped this would soon happen. He concluded with a request for a thrice-repeated cry for Hopkins, which the audience did willingly and enthusiastically.

    Reverend Vincent Barzynski spoke next. Referring to the article read by Mr. Leon Szopinski the day before, he pointed out that the question of the tariff has no connection with the depression, and that it has been proven that workers in industries protected by the tariff earn less than those not so protected. He condemned the Republicans for bringing up the question of religion, which should have no connection with politics, and stated that we should never inquire about the faith of a candidate when it comes to support or oppose him. He further belabored those who fool the people for personal reasons and even now speak in 10favor of the Republicans, and in conclusion exhorted all, as working-men, as citizens, as Poles, as Catholics, to support the candidacy of Mr. Hopkins with all their strength.

    During Reverend Barzynski's speech, the new Chicago postmaster, Mr. Washington Hessing, entered the hall amid great applause.

    It is to be regretted that Mr. Washington Hessing, who began beautifully, was not able to finish his speech.

    He began by describing his travels through Europe seven years ago, how amazed he was when traveling through Warsaw, Cracow, Torun, and that then he had come to the conclusion that the Poles were emigrating to the United States primarily in search for freedom, which is their main and foremost aim, and to improve their condition. He mentioned the Kosciusko Mound, the Copernicus monument, many prominent statesmen, and spoke of Kosciusko, Prince Poniatowski, Copernicus, Sobieski, Pulaski, saying that if these great could now look down upon our 11present-day Poles, they would gratefully see their love for the ideals which they themselves held sacred. He enumerated the true points of freedom, which the Democrats are defending, and had barely mentioned the anonymous letters being broadcast by the Republicans, when Mr. John P. Hopkins entered the hall and was hailed with indescribable enthusiasm. The cries for Hopkins lasted a few minutes before the audience quieted enough to permit him to speak.

    Mr. John P. Hopkins speaks in a fast, businesslike manner and strictly to the point, without using any oratorical phrases, any humorous anecdotes or mannerisms, but so convincingly that one can instantly recognize in him a man who knows exactly what he wants and will accomplish what he attempts. He began by remarking that the Republicans, at their meetings, talk about matters foreign to the city government and its affairs, and that, they, furthermore, are resorting to unfair campaign tricks. For example, they have distributed orange-colored cards that read: "Candidates to be voted for on December 19, 1893. George B. Swift, Protestant; John P. Hopkins, Romanist," He added: "I stand before you as a 12candidate, a citizen of the United States, and on this basis I ask for your support. I do not consider religion and abhor such actions." So saying he threw the card away. He then described the Democratic platform, which he wishes to defend with all his strength. He raised three points: (1) The separation of politics from police administration. The late Carter H. Harrison freed the fire department from the shackles of political influence; he desired to free the police also, but was unable to finish the job. He pledges to do this when elected mayor, and he believes that we will elect him. (2) Speedy railway transportation by elevated railroads. (3) Elimination of murderous streetcar crossings. Mr. Swift liked this Democratic platform and accepted it, but he has already violated the first point by nominating Shippy and sending sixteen policemen to interfere in the first ward primaries. As to the last point, Swift is indifferent to it (later on Judge Prendergast said, that Swift calls this a whim of the people). Then Mr. Hopkins gave assurance that he would not interfere with the people's enjoyment on Sundays, as long as it does not disturb the peace, whereas Swift plays the role of saint in this matter. Finally the speaker mentioned the accusations against him--besides the fact that 13he is a Catholic. The accusations were that he has never held any public office and that he is too young....He triumphantly answered both, and as to the second one, he said that he was born 36 years ago and that for 20 of these years he had worked hard for a livings. He ended by assuring all that as soon as he is elected mayor he will grant the demands of various nationalities and will give the city an honest and frugal administration. Tremendous cries were raised in honor of Mr. Hopkins, who then seated himself and remained in the hall until the meeting ended.

    Judge Prendergast in a very comical and happy manner described the good points of his friend, G. B. Swift, or rather Goodbye Swift; because on Tuesday we will yell, "Goodbye, Swift!"

    The serious part of the judge's speech consisted mainly in proving that Swift is not a friend of the working class, that only corporations can receive any benefits from him, that he is too saintly for this world, that we should wish him, not one pair, but a few pairs of wings so that he can leave this rotten 14world and take up his abode among the angels; while we, a sinful people, prefer a mayor who, like Hopkins, will not be scandalized by Sunday entertainments. Speaking of the depression, he reminded his listeners that we suffered a similar depression during the Republican administration and during the tariff enforcement in the years 1837, 1857, 1873, and 1877, when conditions were much worse than they are now.

    Then Mr. Frank Lawler very convincingly pointed out that the Republicans are the cause of this depression. Grover Cleveland saved the country from complete ruin by compelling Congress to revoke the Sherman law, and Sherman himself helped correct his reputation by helping the president to do this.

    In conclusion, Alderman Stanley H. Kunz emphasized the necessity of voting and explained how to vote and blot the cross with a blotter so that it would not show in another circle, thereby invalidating the ballot.

    Thus ended a meeting the like of which as to size had never been seen before in 15the Polish hall of the St. Stanislaus Kostka School.

    Two Polish meetings in South Chicago are proof that the Poles in that district are working in harmony and peace, and everybody is solidly supporting the Democratic candidate, John P. Hopkins.

    At three o'clock in the afternoon a meeting was held in Mr. A. Templin's hall on Commercial Avenue. Mr. Stephen Szulski presided, and Mr. [Joseph P.] Szymanski acted as secretary. The first speaker, Mr. Peter Kiolbassa, eloquently described the machinations of traitors working for the Republican party, anarchists who presumably are working to build more churches and distribute odious circulars. Captain Kinney explained what the Democrats are doing for the working people and what laws benefiting them were passed by them. Cries for Hopkins were given three times. Mr. Hogen also spoke, remarking that the Republicans had never given an office to a Pole, while the Democrats did. The fourth speaker, Mr. John Kondziorski, said he had heard that some Republican mentioned that if anyone went to South Chicago with a Democratic speech, he would 16be hanged. Everybody laughed and cried out that on Tuesday the Republican party will be hanged.

    In the evening another meeting was held in Mr. R. Retmanski's hall, corner of Buffalo Avenue and 84th Street. Mr. J. Koziczynski presided and Mr. J. Chima acted as secretary. The chairman gave a biographical sketch of Mr. Hopkins and assured his listeners that the latter would favor the Poles in the Polish communities. Mr. P. O. Salomon spoke in the same spirit in English, and Mr. John Kondziorski spoke at length (he was frequently applauded). The other speakers were Mr. J. Merrill, Mr. R. Retmanski, and Captain Kinney.

    Other Meetings

    Last Saturday evening a Democratic meeting was held in the 28th precinct of the Sixteenth Ward, in a hall at 51 Fry Street. The speakers were M. Kalasa, J. Rapacinsk, John J. Dahlman, and others.

    In the Thirtieth Ward a meeting was held at three o'clock in the afternoon in 17Columbia Hall, corner 48th and Paulina Streets. Mr. M. Gryszczynski presided and spoke; other speakers were E. Z. Brodowski, Senators Johnson, M. McInerney, and M. H. Madden.

    Polish Youth--May it Live!

    That our young people are taking an active part in political matters in a sensible manner is proven by the existence of the Polish Youth Democratic Club of the Sixteenth Ward. At the meeting held last Saturday night, the club passed a resolution condemning the actions of those Polish gangster businessmen who for a few paltry Republican dollars betray the Democratic party by selling out to Swift.

    Some Additional Notices

    Tomorrow is election day. We believe and hope that Mr. John P. Hopkins, the Democratic candidate for mayor, will receive a plurality of 10,000 to 25,000 votes for the following reasons:


    1. Because he is a candidate of the workingman, a defender of the working class, a man who has worked as a laborer and thoroughly understands their needs;

    2. Because he was nominated on a platform so excellent that nothing was left for the Republicans but to attempt to steal it for themselves;

    3. Because he is virtuous, honest, experienced, energetic, impartial to those born here or abroad, clever, understands the needs of the city and its in-habitants, and possesses all the necessary qualifications to supply them.

    4. Because the candidate of the opposing party, Mr. George B. Swift, has been an officeholder all his life, does not understand the needs of the workers and acts against their welfare, does not even know how to prepare a platform, calls the demand for protection against crossing murders a human whim, wants to appear as a saint, because he presumably insists on keeping Sunday a holy day, has no regard for the foreign born, openly hates and persecutes Catholics, and, 19while performing the duties of temporary mayor, already has nominated infamous persons previously discharged from the force, supervising officers of the police; and finally,

    5. Because his worst enemies cannot accuse Mr. John P. Hopkins of anything, excepting,

    a. That he is a Catholic, whereas at an election the question of religion has no place;

    b. That he has not held any public office before, which redounds to his credit because he has been untouched by the diseases of political intrigues;

    c. That he is presumably too young. He is 36 years old, and as Mr. Kiolbassa said at a meeting yesterday, if he hasn't acquired wisdom yet then he never will; besides, the creator of that most wonderful act, the Constitution of the United States, was only 27 years old when he wrote it.


    We hope therefore that Mr. Hopkins is victor by a great majority, but there is a possibility that he will not win if the Democrats are again as indifferent as they were in the November elections. Let us, therefore, remember: Every person, without an exception, should vote.

    Vote as early as possible. Voting permitted only until four o'clock in the afternoon.

    Those with plenty of time, should permit others, who must go to work, to vote first.

    Make a cross plainly in the circle of the Democratic party, and blot it with a blotter, so that when folding the ballot the cross will not be duplicated on the opposite side, because this would nullify the ballot. But once again:

    Every person, without an exception, should vote.


    American Protective Association

    (A. P. A.)

    Who are the A. P. A.'s that are supporting the candidacy of Swift for mayor of the city of Chicago, and what are their aims can best be seen by the authentic oath which every member joining the A. P. A. must take, and we advise everybody to read it before he votes.

    The Oath

    To the candidate: "Place your right hand over your heart, give your name, and then keep silent.

    "I hereby solemnly promise and swear that I will not permit any member of the Roman Catholic Church to become a member of this organization; that I will use my influence to support all Protestant businesses the world over; that I will 22not employ any Roman Catholic in any character, if I can possibly hire a Protestant; that I will not help build or support any Roman Catholic church or other institution connected in any way with this religion or sect, but will do everything in my power to push back and break the power of the Pope; that I will not talk about this organization to any Roman Catholic and will not enter into any agreement with Roman Catholics in regard to strikes or any other mutual actions whereby the Roman Catholic workingmen could expose and take the place of Protestants; that in all trouble-some matters I will consult only Protestants, excluding the Roman Catholics, and that I will not inform them of anything that may be decided at these meetings; that I will not support the nomination at any caucus or convention of any Roman Catholic, but will vote solely for a Protestant; that I will endeavor at all times to appoint Protestants to political offices. (Repeat.) I solemnly subscribe and swear to all of this, so help me God. Amen."

    Chaplain: "Marshal, lead them now to the vice-president."

    Marshal: "Mr. Vice-president, I present to you these friends for further 23instructions as to the objects and aims of our order."

    Vice-president: "Let darkness now be dissipated. Remove the clouds so that the light of wisdom can shine before their vision. (Blindfolds are removed from the candidates' eyes.) Consider how wonderful it is to be freed from the oppression of mental darkness, leading to nowhere! My friends, one of the objects of this order is to call the attention of citizens to the fact that they blindly permit papal power to gain absolute control over our educational institutions and over our state and local governments. Even now we are shackled through the terrible influence of the Roman Catholic Church on this continent. Consider it your duty always to help us make others cognizant of the dangers threatening our free institutions." (The candidates face the vice-president, who may deliver a speech from memory.)

    Vice-president: "Marshal, lead these friends to the president for final vows and instructions concerning the secret activities of our order."

    President: "Place your right hand on this confiscated emblem of the Roman 24Catholic Church (a crucifix), and your left hand on your Holy Bible and repeat after me: 'I hereby become an enemy of the Roman Catholic faith. I am an enemy of the Pope living in Rome or elsewhere. I am an enemy of its priests and emissaries and the diabolical actions of the Roman Catholic Church, and do hereby enlist in the defense of Protestantism so that nothing will prevent it from performing its civil duties, and I solemnly obligate myself to defend for all time and in every conceivable manner the good name of this order and its members; so help me God. Amen.'"

    Last Saturday evening, December 16, a meeting of all the members of the Polish courts of the Catholic Order of Foresters was held in the St. Stanislaus Kostka School Hall, ...

    I F 1, I F 2, I F 4, I F 5, I B 2, III C, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 04, 1897
    Against Cigarettes (Editorial)

    The local City Council has recognized that the smoking of cigarettes is detrimental to the health, especially to minors. Whether the smoking of cigarettes on the whole is injurious to the health we will not argue with the City Council. We only wish to call attention to the habits of the Slavic peoples, among whom the smoking habit is widespread, and no one among them calls attention to the harmful effects of this habit.

    No doubt is expressed either in America or in Europe that the minors who smoke become dwarfed, wasted, and short-lived. This is accepted as a fact.

    What kind of cure is there for this? In Europe it has been a long practice to forbid children to smoke cigarettes, cigars, and pipes.


    The retailer selling tobacco to minors, and parents who permit their children to smoke, are subject to a fine by the authorities. The schools, the folks at home, and society in general constantly warn the children against the evils of smoking.

    In Chicago, however, the City Council has a different practice. It takes advantage of this injurious habit in order to increase the city funds. A one-hundred-dollar tax is placed upon retailers selling cigarettes, thereby taking away a means of livelihood from the poor businessmen who cannot pay such an exorbitant tax. He who can pay this high tax is permitted to sell cigarettes, poison children, and undermine the health of our future citizens.

    In the event a teacher or any responsible citizen sees a child smoking a cigarette in an alley or elsewhere and gives that child not only a sound thrashing but a severe verbal reprimand, that individual can be arrested for cruelty to minors. But the man who pays one hundred dollars receives a permit 3to poison the children, the standard bearers of posterity.

    Despite this absurdity, our city officials consider themselves the representatives of this great country, which is supposed to be one of the civilized nations.

    The local City Council has recognized that the smoking of cigarettes is detrimental to the health, especially to minors. Whether the smoking of cigarettes on the whole is injurious to ...

    I B 2, I B 3 b, I D 1 a, I D 1 b
  • Narod Polski -- March 28, 1900
    The Saloons, Sports, and the Pleasures of Our Youth

    Whoever watches intelligently the physical development of our youth must admit that the children born and reared here are on a much lower level physically than the children raised in "the old country."

    Our young people lack the sturdiness and hardiness of youth in "the old country" and they show neither the strength of body nor the happy expressions on their faces denoting the peace of their conscience.

    Your young people here show certain slowness, drowsiness, lack of energy, and show a considerable "doze" of indifference toward social matters. They also lack that freedom and hardihood of spirit that one finds only in those who stay away from sources of corruption and depravity.

    This distressing state of health of our youth is caused by the conditions of life, sports, and the destroying of even the strongest bodies by pleasures that our youth is given to.


    The excessive use of alcohol and the long hours wasted in the saloons, degenerate a great part of our young people physically and morally. Our children drink too much, chew, and "have a good time" too often. They drink in saloons, at home, and in the homes of their friends and acquaintances.

    Some one may say that the young people of German or Irish descent drink also and it doesn't hurt them in their work nor prevent them from developing into practical people. The Polish writer, Sienkiewicz, gives a correct answer to this question - If a Slav tries to imitate a German in his drinking habits he will drink himself to death.

    We didn't get rid of our inclination for drinking and this is the reason that such a small percentage of our young acquire education even though there are so many opportunities here for education as in no other country in the world.

    Even moderate drinking dulls the critical faculties of man; weakens the memory and slows down all mental processes.

    The environment of our young people, the great number of the dens of 3corruption in Polish neighborhoods are the cause that such a notable percentage of our youth lose their chastity between the ages of 14-18 years.

    It is extremely painful and detrimental to our community that a 25 year old boy is already unfit for marriage and if he does get married demands absolute chastity from his wife while he himself spends nights in saloons or in houses of disrepute. Such a life brings only surfeit and satiety and very often disease. Only the priests are able to stop this terrible epidemic by elevating the youth to higher ideals and making them stronger to resist and fight temptations.

    We are not degenerating numerically but we are disintegrating physically and morally and it will not help us any "if the flower of these millions," the children, are so effeminate that they are not fit for physical or mental labor. Only in healthy bodies are there healthy minds. For the nation to be strong, courageous, and great, the people must be temperate and morally strong. It is the parents' sacred duty to see that their children remain 4chaste the longest time possible and abstain from alcoholic beverages.

    The assertion that our young people are indifferent and listless is based on their lack of interest in joining different groups or organizations. In case they are members of some organized group, their activity is generally limited to paying their monthly dues and occasionally showing themselves on the scene with some lecture or a poetical recitation.

    As a further proof of their indifference is the discontinuance of "The Alliance of Polish Youth," organized with so much pomp and shouting. Their "Alliance of Falcons" is also in the state of disintegration. This sad state of affairs is even more so because, being free to engage in any social work, our young people do not even realize that failing to perform their most sacred duty toward the country is a crime they so thoughtlessly commit.

    Whoever watches intelligently the physical development of our youth must admit that the children born and reared here are on a much lower level physically than the children raised in ...

    I B 1, I B 2, III C, III E
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- June 24, 1903
    Poles in Chicago. Characteristics of Our Polish Alderman.

    In order to protect beneficent institutions, and amongst them one of the best Catholic schools for girls, the City Council passed a law, day before yesterday, regulating night clubs, especially in the neighborhood of Cottage Grove avenue, Evans avenue, 50th street, and many others. Vincent J. Jozwia-kowski voted for this law and Senator-Alderman Stanislaw Kunz voted against it.

    In passing this useful law, protection is given the Catholic school, St. Francis Xavier, located on Evans avenue, between 49th and 50th street. The nuns worked and looked forward to this law being passed, and send their heartiest thanks and blessings to those who supported this act by voting for it and bringing it into being.

    In order to protect beneficent institutions, and amongst them one of the best Catholic schools for girls, the City Council passed a law, day before yesterday, regulating night clubs, especially ...

    I B 2
  • Narod Polski -- July 06, 1904
    About Dances

    A working man, who earns his daily bread by the sweat of his brow, desires and needs some sort of diversion on holidays. The harder and more toilsome his work the greater his desire and eagerness to find amusement.

    In the presence of this, there are amusements not only pleasant but also useful, nevertheless there are instances where amusements are harmful.

    An amusement becomes harmful when it goes beyond the limits of decency and reason, which happens very often, especially in dancing.

    The dance constitutes the favorite amusement of the youth, although it is not in the least restful.

    On the contrary the motion of the dance is often a tiresome exertion, quite often dangerous to health. This applies especially to young girls 2who, desiring to look their best, squeeze themselves tightly with a corset, while during a dance the blood becomes overheated, the heart beats faster and the lungs expand. This is the cause of common fainting spells and even of sudden death of tightly-laced dancers.

    Equally harmful during a dance is the partaking of cold drinks or the sudden change from warm to cold. Persons heated by dancing cool themselves off with cold drinks, go outdoors, or stand near an open window, which, without fail, results in a heavy cold and many times in a fatal illness.

    The fondness of dancing makes young girls subject to excessive spending. Their clothes wear out quickly and soil easily, so more often the thoughtless girl buys dresses, ribbons and other adornments, instead of saving her hard earned cash.

    The dance, particularly becomes harmful because it lasts ordinarily through the night. Returning home about morning the dancers are very tired out and barely falling into a sound sleep have to get up to go to 3work. Therefore, their Sunday's pleasure has used up their strength much more than a whole week's work.

    Rightfully then, careful parents and conscientious employers do not permit the youth to attend public dances very often.

    St. Francis Salezy, a man of great virtues and deep wisdom, said as follows: "About a dance you can say the same as about mushrooms: most of them are poisonous and the best of them are of very little value" - and again he warns Christian maidens to avoid pleasures of dancing.

    The dance arouses passions and like a powerful intoxicant deadens the senses.

    The dance, more so without parental protection, was the cause and the source of many a girl's downfall. The acquaintances made on such occasions frequently do not lead to marriage, but end in disgrace and amguish.


    A respectful and decent young man does not seek a wife at a revelry, but amidst work and wholesome enjoyment, under the protection of elders, because he is not interested in a graceful dancer but in a faithful and loving life's companion.

    The young lady then on the other hand, if she is truly religious and instinctively modest is afraid of such balls, where any person has a right to ask her for a dance.

    How many times has a girl gone to a dance nice and fresh, healthy and innocent and came back infected with a terrible disease or with the unfortunate passion in her heart, which led her on to the evil path?

    Therefore we express our wish that our youth both male and female would rather gather in sodalities and there find the necessary recreation 5which justly belongs to them - such, which strengthens their body, refreshes their mind and incites goodness.

    There are a superfluous number of dances, in each instance they should take place only under the immediate supervision of the parents.

    A working man, who earns his daily bread by the sweat of his brow, desires and needs some sort of diversion on holidays. The harder and more toilsome his work ...

    I B 2
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 28, 1906
    Local Chronicle the United Societies for Local Self-Government

    At the North Side Turner Hall there gathered a few hundred delegates sent out by various organizations representing many nationalities in Chicago, aiming to unite societies to seek Possession of the citizens' rights in arranging meetings, festivities, sundry pastimes, etc.

    The gathering which was beyond any doubt the largest demonstration ever witnessed, was held March 25, and 40,000 persons came in protest to restriction of decent amusement.

    As it is known, the city government for a long time has already restricted licenses to handle "drinks" even for becoming amusements arranged by respectful organizations. This restriction of the citizens rights exasperated many citizens and led to this demonstration, at which were 500 delegates representing 388 organizations.

    At yesterday's meeting many convincing speeches were orated: from among the speakers spoke also Mr. John J. Smulski, who pointed out many interesting facts dealing with the whole situation.

    They arranged a series of resolutions and established a lasting organization called "The United Societies for Local Self-Government." They resolved that the 2committee consist of representatives of all the wards.

    The new permanent organization shall have each year a meeting and shall select its officials, who shall be vigilant in protecting the rights of the citizens. The present year officials are: president, John Koelling; secretary, Geo. A. V. Massow, and vice-presidents are John H. Cervenk, Frank J. Karcz, Stephen Poporic, Vincent L'Aviere, A. F. Olson, Leopold Nevman, and S. W. Haremski. To the executive committee consisting of forty persons belong Poles besides the ones mentioned above like Mr. Karoza and Haremski are the following: Mik Budzban, W. Laszkowski and Com. Frey.

    At yesterday's session many nationalities were represented such as German, Polish, Danish, Hungarian, Italian, Swiss, Croatian, Swedish and French.

    At the North Side Turner Hall there gathered a few hundred delegates sent out by various organizations representing many nationalities in Chicago, aiming to unite societies to seek Possession of ...

    I B 1, I B 2, I C, IV