The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 14, 1891
    America and Poland (Editorial)

    Come to me all you who are oppressed and enslaved. You, who are not allowed to act, speak, feel, and think, according to the dictates of your heart in your own land; come under "protecting wings of freedom." Here you may profess your religion, express your emotions, and love your country openly, for here we have freedom and independence.

    Free America appeals to the Irish, Poles, and all similarly oppressed nations. Those who have lived in bondage can seek freedom here. Here they breathe freely, and rest in peace, and here, with pride, they become citizens of a free country, which is not ruled either by the Czar or knout.

    To this country have come the Germans, Frenchmen, Italians, Spaniards, Englishmen, and Swedes, whose fatherland they will always cherish, but 2their government was a burden to them. To this country have come all nationalities for the purpose of creating a great Republic of the free, and unfortunate; here also have come those who are unworthy of freedom and liberty, and for this reason the right kind of citizens must make laws which will protect us against the evil influence of the undesirables.

    However, a person does not cease to be a son of his motherland on account of becoming a naturalized citizen of this country. His presence and exemplary life in this country are a living protest against conditions created by a certain clique in his native land. It is an example of a life which he desires to see in his fatherland. It is an endeavor to introduce these conditions in a country which he left.

    If we wish to make this example affective, if we wish to open the eyes of the blind, or of those who abuse authority, we must enact practical laws and obey them.

    3

    This example is workable, for it operates in all countries which have introduced democratic constitutions, except in Russia.

    These reforms in the democratic countries have been affected by the good example of the United States. This example has opened the eyes of the oppressed, and also of the oppressors; the first demanded more rights, and the second granted them. If the governments of those democratic governments do not function properly, it is because the example was not, and is not yet perfect. Let us improve this example. Let us make it worthy of imitation, and the results produced by its influence in the next hundred years will be more apparent.

    In order to accomplish this, we must have, above all, good schools, for "knowledge is mother of wisdom, and ignorance is mother of bondage. We must have good schools, schools that educate mind and heart, because one is incomplete without the other; schools which teach knowledge and morality; schools that are not below the standard of those in Europe, 4if we wish to bring up good citizens, an example for Europe.

    Freedom does not mean giving up the faith, language, or traditions, of the fathers. Only the Czar's government is depriving its people of these things by means of the knout. Democratic governments do not do that.

    The English language has been adopted as a medium of thought exchange in the United States, because the English originally, were predominant in this country. As good citizens, we should know the language of the country, but this does not mean that this country is forcing any one to give up his native tongue. A country must have a common language for the good of the whole nation, and every good citizen should know it.

    Come to me all you who are oppressed and enslaved. You, who are not allowed to act, speak, feel, and think, according to the dictates of your heart in your ...

    Polish
    I C, I A 1 a, I A 3, I F 2, I F 4, I F 6, I E
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 13, 1892
    Evening School

    On Thursday, January 14, 1892, evening classes will begin at the school of St. Stanislaus Kostki's church at Bradley near Division, where the following subjects will be taught: A. English Lanugage. (1) Reading, writing, and grammar; (2) Arithmetic (to be given in Polish to those who are not advanced in English; those advanced in English will be given mathematics in that language). Polish and English teachers will serve as instructors. Tuition fee in these classes will be fifty cents a month for each subject taken.

    Notice: Those who desire advanced instruction in English and Polish should call at the office for registration. Special arrangements will be made for them.

    B. Polish language. (1) Reading, writing, and grammar for boys and men who do not know how to read or write; (2) Instruction in religion; (3) Mathematics: The rudiments of arithmetic to the beginners.

    2

    Those interested should apply to the office of the school, Thursday at 6:30 P.M. Registration will begin promptly. Classes will be officially opened.

    Free Sunday Classes

    For the younger generation who have received first holy communion, free afternoon classes will be held. History: United States and Poland. Bible history and religious instruction will complete the program.

    On Thursday, January 14, 1892, evening classes will begin at the school of St. Stanislaus Kostki's church at Bradley near Division, where the following subjects will be taught: A. English ...

    Polish
    II B 2 f, I A 3
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 14, 1892
    Evening School

    This evening will mark the beginning of evening classes for those of us who wish to make their education more complete and for those that desire to learn the principles of the three R's, reading, 'riting and 'rithmetic. Classes for beginners and advanced students will be given in English and Polish.

    Enrollment begins at 6:30 P.M. at the school office. A tuition fee of fifty cents a month will be charged for each subject. Those who have opportunity to attend evening classes, are urged to do so.

    In the English class reading, writing, grammar, history, and mathematics will be given.

    The Polish class will offer Polish reading, writing and grammar. Religious instruction will be also available.

    For the younger generation desiring to improve their knowledge, free Sunday afternoon classes will be held offering practically the same subjects.

    This evening will mark the beginning of evening classes for those of us who wish to make their education more complete and for those that desire to learn the principles ...

    Polish
    II B 2 f, I A 3
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- April 01, 1892
    The Coming Election

    In a few days election day will be upon us. In tomorrow's and Monday's issues, we will publish a facsimile of the ballots to be used. We will point out to our readers the proper procedure to be followed when casting a vote for a candidate. Although the people have been instructed along this line at many political meetings and through the daily papers, it is our contention that there are still many persons who don't make out the ballot right, making it valueless. Therefore, in the next two issues we are going to give special attention to the proper method of making out the ballot.

    We wish to point out that it is the duty of every naturalized Pole to make use of his right to vote. Under no circumstances should he disregard this privilege, and those who are qualified to vote but do not, are unworthy of being called citizens of the United States.

    In the United States the people govern the country. From a political point of view, this form of government ranks higher than any other form 2of government in other countries. Here the people make the laws and elect individuals to fill the various offices of the government. Because the people as a whole cannot agree upon certain issues, they elect persons to represent them. These representatives are given the instructions that they are to follow. Political factions represent the ideals of different groups, and the stronger a certain group gets in office, the more certain are its ideals or proposals to be adopted. But if the members of any party are indifferent and do not vote, it will be easier for the opposing side to win. It can rightfully be said that those who don't vote are the ones that neglect their privilege of governing the country.

    This is how we choose our city, county, and state officials, and finally our Federal officers.

    Next week we are to elect city and district officials.

    This day is of especial importance to the Poles because certain Polish candidates are running for office. Let there be no one that will shirk his duty as a citizen, for it is his privilege in this free country to pick the candidate he wants.

    In a few days election day will be upon us. In tomorrow's and Monday's issues, we will publish a facsimile of the ballots to be used. We will point out ...

    Polish
    I C, I A 3, I F 2, I F 4, I J
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 31, 1892
    The Value and Importance of Educational Programs by G. A.-- a Worker

    I attended the last meeting of the Polish Patriotic Organization on May 29, with the definite intention of discussing a certain project. Against these strong resolutions there stood yet stronger opposition. The members held a discussion regarding certain suggested improvements relative to some proposed changes to be made in the activity of the well-known Dramatic Circle at St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish.

    These are important matters, I thought, and seeing that by a lively debate, things were beginning to take a turn for the better, I sat peacefully. The late time of the evening caused the adjournment of the meeting at ten o'clock; hence, nothing remained for me to do but to dream of reviving a once-proposed 2project. Nature endowed me with an abundant perseverance, and, because of this, silence for a duration of a month might prove detrimental to my health. I am therefore requesting the Dziennik Chicagoski to extend its courtesy to me by announcing my future appearance at this same organization. It will be then that I shall call the previously proposed project to the attention of the members. I also ask of them to express their opinion and also to make known their future debates.

    My particular interest is in recalling the project of conducting regular programs, whether for the members of the Polish Patriotic Organization or for a more extensive audience. The committee on education was entrusted with this activity, but this young group gives little evidence of life, due, perhaps, to the rains and.....cold weather. Public programs are, nevertheless, of great importance and of proven benefit. They were introduced among the Germans of Chicago and are patronized considerably. They are held in the Polish societies 3of our homeland, in Upper Silesia. The Polish newspaper, Faith And The Nation, informs us that programs have been given in the Polish Merchants' Society, in Wroclawa, Poland, for the past thirty years and this activity has been maintained even to the present time. The Poles in America are in need of enlightenment based upon sound education. Lack of time does not permit everyone to acquire an education. Not every hardworking laborer, burdened sometimes with large families, can afford to purchase educational literature. Everyone, however, has at least a half hour of time per week in which to attend a program. After each such narrative, written in an understandable manner and, if need be, clarified in sketch form on the school's blackboard, different debates of a more difficult type could be developed. Even if only two or three new facts were learned and remembered after each such program, it is only natural to believe that a great deal more would be known in a period of a year than was known at the time these programs began. A person could submit one question, in writing, after every lecture, an answer to which 4would be given at the following meeting. The program itself could suggest the material for such questions. Articles found in the newspapers which are not too clear may also serve as excellent material for such questions.

    Personally, I am not in favor of holding these programs in a close hall after spending an entire week in a humid shop. We could go en masse to Humboldt Park, for example, where every flower, every tree offers a topic for an excellent educational discussion or for a regular composition. Who will sponsor these programs, these discussions? I do not doubt but that those interested in the social affairs of our people will willingly sponsor such activities, whether they be dramatic productions or patriotic programs.

    The Polish Patriotic Organization has people who are interested in educational affairs. Would they refuse to "break bread" with their younger brethren?

    5

    There can be no doubt of their willingness and I know that they want us to turn to them. A request is, therefore, made to the members of the Polish Patriotic Organization to express their opinion on this measure, to state sincerely their views on the revival of this project.

    I attended the last meeting of the Polish Patriotic Organization on May 29, with the definite intention of discussing a certain project. Against these strong resolutions there stood yet stronger ...

    Polish
    I A 3, II B 2 d 1, I C, III B 2, III H, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- June 02, 1892
    [Role of the Polish Newspaper] (Editorial)

    The author of this article, in reviewing some of the Polish-American newspapers which pose as having a pretext of leadership over the others, has frequently read the bombastic phrase: "Education of the people." Every editor who takes over a newspaper makes the most lengthy comments on the need of reformation in our press. He accuses his colleagues of lack of qualification, charges them with inconsistency, ill will and the like. He, himself, on the other hand, promises constant adherence to an avowed course, and promises to extend his efforts only in behalf of the American people. This praiseworthy attitude, however, soon undergoes a change. The highly enthusiastic editor fails to fulfill his administrative oath, which was solemnized by the words--"so help me God." He more often selects the different paths leading to money. Enlightenment is then set aside as being inopportune. The newspaper finally becomes a mere copy of the other papers, differing only in name.

    2

    By reading only one of our Polish-American newspapers, one can truthfully say that one has read them all. And what about the promises? How many Polish-American newspapers are there in America? True, there are a score of them, but have any of them kept within the scope of their assigned sphere of action? The personal ambitions, greed, and desire for a sudden amassing of wealth, like weeds, smother the mere budding of the good intentions of the vigorous crusader. In a Don Quixotic fashion, he begins to war with windmills and works to the detriment instead of the welfare of this countrymen.

    What, then, can the besmirching of the private lives of our scholars and their past create? What gain can accrue from the differences of other people or from the arguments of the editors, which, at times, occupy several lengthy and expensive columns? Of what benefit can these be to others? There are people of good will among the Poles, who endeavor to fulfill their obligations conscientiously. These, however, are few in number. The news of their efforts is lost in spacious columns dedicated to the results of administrative elections, meetings, announcements of societies and the like, or, what is even worse, to a 3comical (if not painful) game of reciprocal face slapping by the "knights of the pen."

    Gentlemen! I am not, in truth, a literary person by vocation, and much less an editor or an aspirant for that position (I assure you of this, on my word of honor). As a person of a little more foresight, I note and state that you are far from the goal toward which it is your duty to aspire. Cease your private arguments. Set aside your self-love and personal ego. Don't work merely for money or glory, but with a view that your efforts may be beneficial to the people. It is time to terminate your scandalous antics. Cease making the other the greater sinner that you may appear "whiter." Give greater care to the selection of this mental food which can be either poison or health-giving medicine to the people. You gentlemen have combined in some type of an organization, but to me it seems to be ineffective. That is unfortunate. This union would be good and greatly beneficial, providing it did not end in factionalism. We have had enough of this! If such union does exist, then we will heartily exclaim: "long may it live!".

    4

    Although unasked, for once I have taken it upon myself to give counsel--I cannot, however, omit one further statement. Everyone will admit that the Dziennik Chicagoski and the Faith and Fatherland are the two newspapers closest to the Polish-American ideals. The more wholesome work and conscientious administration of these two papers are deserving of recognition. Although there are people of ill will who would obstruct our activity, they should be disregarded in their outbursts of jealousy and personal unwillingness, while the good work should continue to progress. These two newspapers serve so great and so holy a cause that they cannot and should not deviate from their once chosen course merely to satisfy individuals. Thus far, they are the leaders among the Polish-American newspapers. They should not work only with a view toward material profit but also for the benefit of its readers. Believe me, if the writings of J. Verne were not interesting, the works of Kraszewski, the poems of Mickiewicz and many other Polish authors would bring greater reward. Nature studies, the discussion of old inventions and the noting of new discoveries, with particular reference to those of Polish origin, would be more desirable than a list of the societies of some particular faction. Thus my advice is: increase the scope of your educational work as much as possible; in 5your columns under the heading of "Feuilleton," print the works of our authors and do not order the annihilation of those articles. These two departments--"Feuilleton" and educational topics--should be printed in supplements so that a collection of them could be bound and preserved.

    I trust that you gentlemen will accept this counsel in a favorable light since it comes from the heart of a well-wishing individual, from one who allows himself the liberty to offer you advice. This he does because, on several occasions, he has investigated the opinions and views of others regarding this matter.

    I conclude with the words: "Let not my plea remain as the voice of one calling in the wilderness.".

    A Doctor of Medicine.

    6

    (This newspaper has submitted the above correspondence without change, thereby indicating that it is ever attentive to the voice of its readers and is not antagonistic to criticism. It does, however, reserve the right to recommend to the author that he listen first to many voices that he may later be in a better position to give a proper decision. We hear these voices frequently. There are many readers who prefer political articles; others, again, desire information from their mother country; still others, favor brief local news, etc.. The newspaper must endeavor, as much as possible, to satisfy all its readers and it, therefore, cannot dedicate all its space to educational articles. When the Dziennik Chicagoski becomes sufficiently developed to be on a par with the English type of newspaper then sufficient space will be found for everything.

    Verne's story has been printed in this newspaper upon the direct request of its readers. The original Polish tales, such as: "The Tomb's Cross" (Krzyz Mogilny), "The Gray Dust" (Szary Proch), and others, have been printed in the Dziennik Chicagoski at some previous date. As soon as the Verne serial is completed, this newspaper will begin to publish the already prepared work of Boleslawits, entitled: "The Wanderers.")

    The author of this article, in reviewing some of the Polish-American newspapers which pose as having a pretext of leadership over the others, has frequently read the bombastic phrase: "Education ...

    Polish
    II B 2 d 1, II B 1 e, I A 3, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- June 06, 1892
    (Editorial)

    Education, enlightenment -- these are very beautiful things. That person is indeed fortunate who has had an opportunity to acquire a real education. An old maxim states: "All that glitters is not gold;" so too can it be said that not everyone is educated, that is, not everyone is a participant of enlightenment who poses as being educated or wishes to pass as an educated person.

    We have an article on hand which was graciously forwarded to us by one of our readers, in which this interesting and rather curious subject is treated. It is with regret that the Dziennik Chicagoski must deny itself the pleasure of printing the forwarded article in full. This omission is made purposely because the article contains too many clear and easily understood allusions to the uncultivated wise men, of whom there are many in America, even among the Poles. The reader could easily see the personal allusions in these attacks,and thus the editor requests the author to forgive the omission of his article.

    2

    There are many people among the Poles who want to "teach the people." There are however very few who really would be qualified to exercise this privilege correctly. A majority of these self-styled educators are people who have completed but several elementary grades and only a few of them have passed through secondary schools. These individuals have learned something of writing, and after acquiring a bit of external polish, they wish to pose as highly educated personages. They give the impression of knowing all and of being an authority on everything. They know how to talk a great deal, and at times even write voluminously. These people know how to include words and phrases in their talks and writings that are pleasant to every Pole--but which sound sacrilegious in their own mouths. It is due to such talks and writings that they at times actually enjoy success among our people. They pass as luminaries of enlightenment, as examples of patriotism, as great educational representatives and (this pays the most in some circles) as defenders of the poor against the fictitious profiteering of the clergy.

    It cannot be otherwise. A truly educated person, one who has studied a great deal and has really learned something in one way or another, that individual is characterized by naturalness in his behavior, simplicity in his association with other people. Experience has taught him that knowledge is gained only 3through effort and sacrifice. A person of that type is, therefore, aware that if he knows something about one subject, another person, even less educated, may know something about another subject--evenmore [perhaps] than he. A truly educated individual arriving in America endeavors to gain [knowledge] systematically and gradually of the new articles he finds here. He willingly allows himself to be taught even by an entirely uneducated person, with this thought in mind, that through his longer stay in this country or through his more frequent association in certain circles, he may gain important information, knowledge which is unknown to a stranger. Simplicity in association with others, which we usually term simplicity of spirit, always characterizes a truly educated person as well as it does an honest and sane, albeit uneducated, individual.

    On the other hand, he who has but "sipped from the cup of education," conducts himself differently. A person of that type, upon his arrival here among the "dark people," as he thinks (but says so quietly for fear that someone may hear him), creates a great commotion. He interferes into matters of which he can have no deep understanding, especially in political affairs, and seeing 4that his better-educated superiors obstruct his greatness, he offers to conduct a bitter battle against them. This he does under the guise that in his heart he feels it his duty to defend the people against the personally discovered abuses, especially against those committed by the clergy. He then begins to organize a separate "educational association" of his own.

    A Lithuanian example of an "educational association" of that type was seen recently. There is a Lithuanian priest here, appointed for Lithuanians by the Bishop. This clergyman has the right to attempt to organize a Lithuanian church in Chicago. The Lithuanian "educational association" attempted to expose this priest as a new "profiteer." As "enlightened people," in opposition to the "narrow-minded" bans against dances held on Saturdays, they arranged a Lithuanian dramatic production to be followed by a dance on Saturday "for the benefit of the newly formed Lithuanian church." The idea was simple: the priest will either accept or reject the proposition. If he consents then it will be evident that the prohibiting of dances on Saturdays was only for "business" reasons and that such affairs conducted for the benefit of the church 5are permissable. If, on the other hand, he rejects it--then it is evident that this priest, "a profiteer as are all the others," wishes to do everything in his own way, refusing to accept the "noble" work of "disinterested persons." This he does that he may not become morally obligated in the future, and may still hold control over the people around him.

    Evidently the priest did not consent. A new field of maneuvers was opened to the "representatives of Lithuanian enlightenment," of which they will undoubtedly make use. In the meantime a new goal is attained: the people, encouraged by the publicity that the income derived from the affair was to be used for the construction of the church, filled the hall. The purpose of the event was then changed; instead of having the affair for the benefit of the newly formed church, the money collected was given to the Kosciuszko memorial fund. The "representatives of enlightenment" have again performed a "great patriotic" deed at a very cheap price.

    This is one of the new pictures of our conditions in Chicago.

    Education, enlightenment -- these are very beautiful things. That person is indeed fortunate who has had an opportunity to acquire a real education. An old maxim states: "All that glitters ...

    Polish
    I C, III C, I C, I A 3, I B 4, II C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- July 26, 1892
    The Polish Printers Association (Poles in Chicago)

    As a result of the statement printed in our Chicago publications during the past week, an imposing number of Polish printers and compositors gathered at the office of Dziennik Chicagoski for the purpose of forming an association that would be adequate to their needs. The meeting was opened by Mr. Migdalski, who was also elected president at this meeting, and the undersigned was elected secretary.

    The entire meeting had the character of a personal chat, revealing mutual understanding, and a desire to build a firm foundation undor this new type of association in America. This worthy aim was achieved. All the delegates declared that an association of printers and compositors was necessary and good.

    At this meeting it was decided to organize also an association for the purpose of teaching the printer's art, and of sponsoring programs and lectures in all the ramifications of historical knowledge; further it was decided to try to bring about an improvement in the living standards of the members by seeking employment 2for them, and giving them assistance in sickness and death. It was decided to charge one dollar as the initiation fee, and monthly dues of twenty-five cents. The other motions pertaining to sick and death benefits will depend upon the decision of all when the constitution has been formulated and accepted.

    After further discussion it was decided that our new association should take an active part in all matters essential to our Polish immigration, but it will be self-sustaining and independent and will not become combined with any Polish or American organization.

    At this meeting twenty-six members enrolled. The following members were chosen to formulate the constitution: Messrs. Migdalski, Olbinski, Zagorski, Sosnowski, Gorecki, Zloczewski, and Majchrzycki.

    The next meeting will be held at the same place, on Sunday, August 7, 1892, at two-thirty in the afternoon, to which we invite all colleagues.

    J. Olbinski, Secretary.

    As a result of the statement printed in our Chicago publications during the past week, an imposing number of Polish printers and compositors gathered at the office of Dziennik Chicagoski ...

    Polish
    I D 2 a 2, II B 2 f, II D 1, II A 2, I A 3
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- October 06, 1892
    Over Five Hundred Poles Naturalized During First Part of October

    Over five hundred Poles were naturalized in Chicago during the first few days of October. This is a marked increase over the previous months of this year. All those who have not as yet obtained their citizenship papers should take advantage of the opportunities afforded by many of the Polish naturalization classes.

    Over five hundred Poles were naturalized in Chicago during the first few days of October. This is a marked increase over the previous months of this year. All those who ...

    Polish
    II B 2 f, I A 3
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- October 13, 1892
    The Sunday and Evening Classes of St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish School

    In the evening classes of the St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish School the boys study catechism, arithmetic, and Polish, Separate classes in English, Polish, and German are held for adults and children. Many adults attend.

    Polish history and literature are taught in the higher grades.

    About two hundred boys attend the four classes that are held every Sunday. Instruction is given in catechism, arithmetic, history, and singing.

    Every father should see to it that his sons attend classes; he should question them about what they are studying.

    Parents should co-operate with the school in the care of their children, for the greatest obligation of the parents is to rear their children as righteous 2Catholic citizens and, above all, as Poles.

    At present there are day, evening, and Sunday classes. Every boy, young or old, should attend one of them. Are parents concerned about this? If not, that is their affair. They will have to give an account of this before God.

    In the evening classes of the St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish School the boys study catechism, arithmetic, and Polish, Separate classes in English, Polish, and German are held for adults and ...

    Polish
    II B 2 f, I B 3 b, I A 3, III A, III C