The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 19, 1891
    The School Question (Editorial)

    We have received information that the Bohemians, together with some Poles, residing in Chicago, are trying to pass a school regulation which would entitle a foreign language of any large group of people the same privilege or representation in the public schools as that of the German language. We have asked many of our countrymen their attitude towards this problem, and whether or not they will participate in the agitation. From the answers received, we have come to a conclusion that there are two factions: one of them is for the agitation, and the other is bitterly opposing it. The first faction is quite small, but the second is very large.

    It is easy to find to which faction any group of people belong. Most of the members of the Polish National Alliance have joined that group of Bohemians or faction which originated the agitation. The members of the Polish Roman Catholic Union, however, with the exception of a few, belong 2to the opposing side. There are also Poles who do not belong to either of the two mentioned Polish organizations, and their opinions are also divided. Their number is so small that it should not be taken seriously.

    For the first time since Dziennik Chicagoski has come into its existence, we are going to give our view on the question, which has divided the opinions of the members of two great Polish-American organizations. We are doing this for the first time, therefore, we think it is advisable to state for the sake of clearness that we will treat this particular question objectively. If we mention the names of both organizations, it is not because we desire to engage ourselves in an unpleasant controversy between the Polish National Alliance and the Roman Catholic Union, but because we desire to make the argumentation clear.

    We have stated that the majority of the members of the Polish National Alliance are for the agitation, and that the members of the Polish Roman 3Catholic Union, with the exception of the few, are against the agitation. This is a fact, and we can prove it. However, some of these opinions are personal convictions, for which neither the Polish National Alliance nor the Polish Roman Catholic Union is responsible. The number of these individuals is very small.

    There is a certain number of members in either organization, who have also formed their own opinions, but based on idealistic principles. With these principles, the organization plays a very important part. These members may be classified into several groups, and they support one of the factions for the following reasons: If they belong to the Polish National Alliance, some members, who, for convenience, we will call group No. 1, may see a patriotic act in agitating for a school regulation which would entitle the Polish language the same privilege as that of the German language in the Chicago public schools; but they are prejudiced against the so-called "clerical rule," and (2) for the same reason do not favor parochial schools. They have nothing against the attendance of Polish 4children in the public schools. (3) these members wish to express their indignation on account of the privilege granted to the German language in Chicago schools, and although they know that the Polish language will not be introduced in Chicago public schools, they favor that measure for the purpose of removing the injustice done them. (4) The members of this group are of the opinion that the Polish National Alliance should take an initiative in such "patriotic" undertakings, and as members of the organization, should support the agitation.

    On the other hand, the members of the Polish Roman Catholic Union are of the opinion: (1) that there is a risk for the parochial schools in case the Polish language would be introduced in Chicago public schools, especially in Polish settlements; (2) there are members who think that public schools are too dangerous for the young people, because these institutions are bringing up children without religious principles, morals, patriotic feeling, or healthy view on social life; (3) many of our countrymen think that we would disgrace ourselves in the eyes of Americans, 5Irishmen, and even the Germans, for trying to introduce the Polish language in public schools when formerly we used to defend parochial schools so often and so openly; (4) the fourth group is of the opinion that a protest against the privilege of the German language would accomplish more than an agitation for introducing the Polish language in the public schools. The number of the members, either in the Roman Catholic Union or the Polish National Alliance, who have such convictions is very small, although, they deserve attention and respect.

    Finally, the majority of the members give support either to this or that group because they think it is their duty to approve or oppose their party, quite often referred to as "church-goers" or "patriots." The number of the supporters mentioned last is the largest, and with them the circumstance of belonging either to the Polish Roman Catholic Union or to the Polish National Alliance, plays the most important part. They have no personal convictions.

    As editors of Dziennik Chicagoski, we cannot ignore this important question.

    6

    We must express our opinion on this matter, and as this opinion must agree with one of the two large groups, we are prepared for the accusation that we are opposing one of them. However, we feel that such accusation will be unjust. For this reason, we repeat emphatically that we desire to treat this matter objectively, and if there will ensue any controversy on account of it, let it be limited. We beg you for the sake of the subject only, that is, the school question, let the argumentation be conducted properly, peacefully, and with dignity.

    In our opinion, the Poles should not participate in the agitation of the Bohemians.

    We have received information that the Bohemians, together with some Poles, residing in Chicago, are trying to pass a school regulation which would entitle a foreign language of any large ...

    Polish
    I A 1 b, I A 2 b, III C, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 05, 1891
    The Vicious Circle or the School Question Again (Editorial)

    Again we find two, or rather two and a half answers in Zgoda (a Polish weekly) on the school question, but how are we going to combat them? Our arguments have not been answered by contradictory disputation, our proofs have not been disproved, there are only never ending evasions, going around in circles, eluding the subject itself, and a tendency to start a controversy on some other subject, because they have no means of defending this one.

    It seems that these controvertists have only one argument and this argument is: The parochial schools are worthless because they are supervised by the priests. Public schools are good because they are 2not supervised by the priests. It is not necessary to prove that there is something wrong with that supervision, because in the heads of the opponents of the parochial schools such an axiom as two times two are four is wrong.

    We did not state that the parochial schools in America are better than the public schools just because they are supervised by the priests, but we did state that the parochial schools are better because they teach the English language as efficiently as the public schools. This is proved by the fact that the boys from the parochial schools are accepted by colleges and other institutions of higher learning, and besides, they teach religion, morality, and patriotism, the principles which every person needs in order to become a decent citizen later on. We have 3made a statement that these better schools are supervised by the priests because no one else is eager to supervise them, for no one else is establishing them.

    If any one desires to contradict our statement let him prove first that parochial schools, in reality are deficient in educating children, and if it will be necessary later on to transfer children from the parochial to the public schools on account of that deficiency. It will then be easy to prove that we should try to introduce the Polish Language as one of the subjects into the public schools.

    Zgoda continues: "You have no sympathy or support of the public, because among the united Catholic Poles (Polish Roman Catholic Union) you have only five or six thousand sympathizers out of every million." Has any 4other organization more sympathizers? That sympathy proves that our organization is the largest. If we take in consideration all adult male Poles, and we refer to those who really care to belong to any organization, the percentage belonging to this organization (the Polish Roman Catholic Union) is indeed very satisfactory.

    You ask: "Why are not Polish private high schools established?" They are being established and for girls also. The author of the article in Zgoda undoubtedly refers to Chicago. Is he not aware that there is a Polish high school for the girls in Chicago, located on Division Street, or does he ignore it purposely? But in order to have high schools, it is necessary to start with lower ones and have you established any school, even a lower one?

    "Piety ought to be inculcated at home" you say. Then why not education 5also? It is much harder to teach piety than reading or writing. Besides, the parents have neither qualification nor time for that, and for this reason they ought to send their children to qualified teachers." Religion should be taught by compulsion, not by the priests, or in schools, but by the parents at home." And if the parents will not exercise this compulsion, should the country allow the children of such parents to grow up as outlaws? Compulsory morality is indispensable for the country, therefore, the country should care for its early development in children, even where children are neglected by the parents or protectors, if they are orphans.

    And again, the old worn out accusation: "We know from history that this course and guidance of the priests have kept nations in darkness for centuries." In order to make such accusation, it is necessary to have some historical proofs, facts, and dates. This is a favorite melody of those "Catholics who respect the priests as clergymen, but they were accustomed to seeing the church 6and the clergy under control of the parishioners." But where are the proofs? Yet Jan Dantyszek, Peter Skarga, Nicholas Copernicus, Adam Naruszewicz, Ignace Krasicki, and so many others were priests and bishops. Dates, facts, and names, not mere hearsays constitute proofs. No true Catholic will think that the clergy should be controlled by the parishioners in respect to faith and morals, only when management of property is concerned.

    The author of the article in Zgoda also charges that the articles in Dziennik Chicagoski are "made to order." Then he refers to the Polish parade in commemoration of the Polish Constitution of May 3, and the attacks made by Thomas Krolik and others. The object of this argumentation is obvious. They are trying to evade the real issue by engaging in other subjects because they have no proofs in the question at issue.

    To what will such controversy lead us? To continuous and unnecessary attacks and dissension. If you gentlemen wish to disprove the statements made by 7Dziennik Chicagoski, you must prove that Polish parents ought to send their children to the public schools because those schools teach better English than the parochial schools. Then you will convince every one that we should try to introduce the Polish language into the public schools. Gentlemen, adhere to the subject.

    Again we find two, or rather two and a half answers in Zgoda (a Polish weekly) on the school question, but how are we going to combat them? Our arguments ...

    Polish
    I A 2 a, I A 1 b, III C, IV
  • Narod Polski -- June 20, 1900
    "Polish Language in the Public Schools"

    The activities to remove teaching of the Polish language from Milwaukee, Buffalo, Chicago, and schools of other cities, brought about a new rebellious dispute. This time Chicago is trying to show what it can do.

    Certain organized groups among our people see that permitting the teaching of the Polish language and bringing it into the public schools, will mean the saving of our nationality. We have given this matter considerable time and are trying to show, that teaching of the Polish language in the public schools will gain us nothing, nor help us. We base our decision on good experience.

    Those that best know our parochial schools and children will admit how innate is our indifference and disinclination towards matters pertaining to our nationality.

    Our elders, but mostly our children, are ashamed of their descent; they 2do not care to speak Polish and change their names to English not only in schools, on the streets, but to the police and in courts where they have to testify in case of any accident.

    All the subject matter put out by the schools awakens the interest in children about the Polish language, but to get the children to learn this, extraordinary toil, ability, and pedagogical knowledge is needed on the part of the teacher. Woe unto the teacher who lacks these qualities, for he will discourage the children and they shall learn nothing.

    In order for the teacher to do something about this matter he must devote his body and soul, must use strong measures and not an idle minute, because his work will be futile. We know what it is to be a teacher here; they have many a headache.

    We openly admit that our schools are not an example of ability, likewise the public schools. We claim that in our schools, the child will learn the 3Polish language in two years, whereas in the public school it would take six years, because it is not compulsory.

    The advantage of the Polish language being taught in the public school shall repay us. One of the few advantages is that we will have teachers who shall have steady employment.

    So bringing this language into the public schools, it might affect the average Catholic. But if you are a strict Catholic and care about raising your child religiously, you should send him to a parochial school.

    The activities to remove teaching of the Polish language from Milwaukee, Buffalo, Chicago, and schools of other cities, brought about a new rebellious dispute. This time Chicago is trying to ...

    Polish
    I A 1 b, I A 2 b
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- September 15, 1904
    Doctor Kuflewski and the Germans

    Dr. Kuflewski, a member of the school board, at a meeting held yesterday, brought the anger of Germans upon himself by shouting, "Why do the Germans want to express their feelings openly about the Poles by calling us show-off Poles?"

    Heinrich Heine, German-Jewish poet, when in Paris at a certain coffee shop, made remarks about the Poles to his friends. Seated at a table nearby, listening to his slander, was a Pole. At the end of his endurance the Pole rose and demanded that Heine take back his words. Heine was surprised at this outbreak, but instead of apologizing made another nasty remark.

    The enraged Pole struck Heine in the face. People in the shop anticipated a fight. Heine did not retaliate. The Pole paid his bill and left, unmolested. To get the score even, Mr. Heine wrote a verse about Mr. Krapulinski and Mr. Wraseklapski, called "Polen aus der Polskei, un die zwei Edlen Polen."

    Ever since then it seems as if in every little argument between a Pole 2and a German "edlen Polen" comes into play. The Poles remember this episode. They are convinced a Jew will avenge an insult.

    The Illinois Staats Zeitung, in today's issue (September 15, 1904), called Dr. Kuflewski "der edle Dr. Kuflewski." Camillo Von Lueze, a professor at the Chicago University, persuaded Mr. Leon Wachsneren, owner of a theater, to allow school children and teachers to be present at daily matinees, to convince teachers and students that this was a good opportunity to learn German.

    Dr. Kuflewski greatly opposed this proposition and demanded that a proposition of this kind be given to the mayor (Harrison), and a special investigation be made before making any comment.

    The German newspapers promptly criticized Dr. Kuflewski and Mayor Harrison for their attitude, the papers being greatly in favor of having the German language taught in public schools.

    Dr. Kuflewski, a member of the school board, at a meeting held yesterday, brought the anger of Germans upon himself by shouting, "Why do the Germans want to express their ...

    Polish
    I C, I A 1 b
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 30, 1905
    Polish Medical Association

    Day before yesterday, Saturday evening, January 28, a meeting was held at the Hotel Sherman located at Clark and Randolph streets for the purpose of forming an association of Polish physicians.

    After finishing the usual formalities and the current affairs, the president of this association, Prof. Walter Kuflewski, M. D., explained to the members the program of its activities, which was accepted unanimously. The following is the program: (1) Unification of all Polish doctors in Chicago; (2) Solidarity with and faithful support of all Polish druggists; (3) Popular lectures for the Polish public about contagious disease and sicknesses, particularly tuberculosis; (4) Every member of the Polish Physicians' Association is obligated to present at least one case in the coming year to the members; (5) Unification of all Polish physicians in America; (6) Convention of all Polish physicians in America; (7) Propagation of the Polish language and the systematical efforts for its growth; (8) To enlarge our interests in the different societies, and compel our members to attend meetings regularly; (9) To support all Polish institutions, Polish business men and Polish working men; (10) To hold discussions on affairs of the world with the Polish people; (11) Our strongest efforts are: to unite all Polish people whether they were born under the rule of Germany, under Austria, or under Russia, always bearing 2in mind that if we were united and worked as one group, we would have the largest group of any nationality in the United States; (12) To support the Polish medical periodical.

    Day before yesterday, Saturday evening, January 28, a meeting was held at the Hotel Sherman located at Clark and Randolph streets for the purpose of forming an association of Polish ...

    Polish
    II B 2 c, III A, I M, II B 2 g, III B 2, I A 1 b, II B 2 d 2, I A 3
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 28, 1906
    Mutilating the Polish Language

    Mutilating the Polish language is criticized presently by Polish writers of various Polish newspapers. They claim that the Poles themselves do not respect their own language, so how can we demand from others the respect for our language. This is true beyond all doubt. This condition is much to be regretted.

    But how can it be any other way when as soon as the child leaves the home, he likely does not hear a Polish word mentioned, even in the home. The parents are forced to accomodate themselves with other foreign phrases, in order to be properly understood.

    The most common way to avoid that is to read a let, especially aloud, to yourself, pronouncing the words the way they are written. Let every one of our readers promise himself this duty to perform daily, to read at least one article from the newspapers aloud. Do not get discouraged with the fact that you may not know the meaning of one or two of the words while reading. Because as soon as you meet these unknown words, read over 2the sentence to yourself over again and then try to grasp the meaning, or else ask somebody until you have succeeded. If one doesn't know, the other person will.

    A person with ambition and will can learn everything. If the reader heeds this advice for a certain time, he shall notice how fast he will enrich himself in the art of speaking and in knowledge. It is our duty to familiarize ourselves with our native tongue, and the best tutor in our language for us is the newspaper. The editors try to write simply and understandingly for us.

    Aside of this, let us reciprocally become teachers. As soon as we hear someone speaking Polish incorrectly, we should nicely correct them. Let us admit to criticism likewise if we happen to be wrong. Every language, and above all others the Polish language, is a very difficult one to learn. No one can speak his native tongue perfectly. Let it be known 3that even the best educated persons living - the writers - make mistakes.

    So then let there be no offense if you should happen to be corrected while in the act of reading or speaking.

    Let us strive for distinction in the use of our language and know that the Polish language is one of the prettiest languages in the world.

    Mutilating the Polish language is criticized presently by Polish writers of various Polish newspapers. They claim that the Poles themselves do not respect their own language, so how can we ...

    Polish
    III A, I A 1 b
  • Dziennik Związkowy -- January 21, 1908
    A Polish High School in America

    Let us study the Polish language, the school and the church. "All should strive for an education and should highly value all knowledge derived there-from, thereby rendering a great service to your country, to your nation and to all humanity." These few words have great significance and were placed after the proclamation issued by the students of the University of New Jersey, which appeared in the August issue of Zgoda last year. "Never shall the living lose hope - they should lead the nation with a torch light."

    The foregoing poetical axiom appeared in Zgoda on the sixteenth day of January, 1908. Therefore, I ask: "Who dares deny the necessity of a Polish High School in America?" Where shall we, all of us, without any exception, obtain the great treasure, that priceless gem - the torch light with which we are to serve our nation, our country, and humanity? And here is the answer: We 2have no high schools - we are without them because we are poor and lack the necessary funds. But, I will say, we have many churches, which look like sparkling gems on a beggar; and according to a statement made by Dr. Juliuz Szymanski, were built with the aid of our hard earned money. There you will find beautiful lecture halls for our audiences, in the hands of wretched preachers who believe only in commercialism.

    They collect pennies continually; they always need money for something, and we always pay, not knowing for what. The churches we built, however are not ours, they belong to the Irish or German bishops; we Poles have nothing. We need schools more than anything else. This land of Washington and Kosciuszko, is a land of freedom. No one shall deprive us of our language, therefore, we should use it to our advantage.

    There are many Poles in America who have been great but -- they do not know 3the English language, and lack the courage to continue their studies because of this. Therefore, we need a Polish high school in which we can take up higher studies. We wish to call your attention to the fact that to study a subject in the language with which we are not familiar would be impractical. Therefore, in the name of the "torch light," let us build a Polish high school, where we may obtain a higher education.

    Let us study the Polish language, the school and the church. "All should strive for an education and should highly value all knowledge derived there-from, thereby rendering a great service ...

    Polish
    I A 1 b, III C, I C, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 11, 1908
    "H. Sienkiewicz" Literary Circle at St. Stanislaus College

    St. Stanislaus College, besides its regular lessons in the Polish language, literature and Polish history, possesses also another factor which is contributing in a considerable measure to grant this institution a mark of Polish origin, namely, it is from a good many years in existence the "Henryk Sienkiewicz" Literary Circle, whose founders (and these were some of the students) were guided by the light of a glorious thought of a more basic training in the Polish language, at the same time a better mastering of that language. Above that the main aims of this society are: broadening the national spirit, to awaken a fondness for annals of the Fatherland and the guarding of the parental language among co-colleagues. Meetings of the "circle" take place regularly every other Friday afternoon.

    The program of these meetings is made up of readings, debates, declamations, dialogues, etc., conducted by the students themselves. During this year the moderator of the society, Rev. W. Zapala, initiated also appearances of so-called guests or persons, standing beyond the "circle" or the institution so that by this method enliven to a great extent the 2activity of the youth.

    Undoubtedly the work of students from their own free will uniting themselves in a society with such beautiful aims and enjoying the well-wishing support of the Rectorate and group of professors, is giving out the desired results and in its entirety answers to the resolved task.

    Besides that it has also this good side, that left to the students it completes autonomy at the meetings, it prepares them for greater self-activity, for public appearances and becoming familiar with a practical method of organizing societies and the conducting of deliberations. In this aim also the administration of the Literary Circle changes semi-annually. Likewise the institution of three critics, appraising the elaboration of these colleagues, possesses an extraordinary pedagogical meaning because it helps teach the youth sincerity and perpetuates in them the inclination to an impartial rendering of judgments. Also deserving of attention is the Bi-weekly of the H. Sienkiewicz 3Society, in which are placed the works of the students, prepared for the meetings, lists the protocols and conducts somewhat a small chronicle of the institution.

    St. Stanislaus College, besides its regular lessons in the Polish language, literature and Polish history, possesses also another factor which is contributing in a considerable measure to grant this institution ...

    Polish
    II B 1 d, II B 2 f, I A 1 b, II B 2 g, II B 2 d 2, IV
  • Dziennik Związkowy -- November 04, 1910
    The Teaching of Polish in the Schools

    All members of the Chicago Board of Education have received the resolution of the Central Administration of the Polish National Alliance, requesting that the teaching of the Polish language be included in the curriculum of the public schools of this city. We can surmise that there will be little opposition in the school board when this matter is discussed at its forthcoming meeting. No one can honestly deny the righteousness of our demands that the Polish language be taught in the public schools, when the German language is being taught to children of German parents.

    We Poles have been treated unjustly: our people pay taxes to have the children of German parents taught the German language and our Polish children are deprived of the privilege of being taught the Polish language.

    All members of the Chicago Board of Education have received the resolution of the Central Administration of the Polish National Alliance, requesting that the teaching of the Polish language be ...

    Polish
    I A 1 b, I A 1 c, III B 2
  • Dziennik Związkowy -- November 26, 1910
    The Polish Language in the Schools (Editorial)

    One of the recent editions of the Polish newspaper Dziennik Zwiazkowy contained some news relative to the question brought before the Chicago Board of Education. The matter referred to is the introduction of the Polish language in the curriculum of our local public schools. As is well known, the central administration of the Polish National Alliance prepared a proper resolution on this matter and presented it to members of the Board of Education. This important question was placed on the regular agenda of the Board, and on November 23, 1910, it came up for discussion and was discussed for nearly the entire meeting. The delicate but firm tone of the resolution directed to members of the Board of Education by the central administration made an impression because the reasons presented in these resolutions could not be overlooked by keeping quiet about them or slighted by calling them unjust. If, after all, it is permissible to teach the 2German language in public schools maintained by taxes of citizens of various nationalities, then the Poles have a right to demand that the Polish language receive equal consideration and be placed on at least an equal basis with the German. This consideration is justly due our people in view of the fact that at the present time there are more than 300,000 Poles residing in Chicago.

    This delicate matter concentrated the entire attention of the Board and the Superintendent of Schools, Mrs. Ella Flagg Young. This indicates that rather serious thought was given the matter. Mrs. Young declared herself in favor of introducing the Polish language in public high schools where at least twenty students could be found who wanted to benefit from the courses of the Polish language. Some members of the Board, however--especially those of German ancestry--were dissatisfied with the contents of the Polish National Alliance's resolution and with Mrs. Young's declaration. They, therefore, have attempted to find various ways and means to prevent the teaching of Polish, while they retained courses in the German language in our public 3schools. Seeing that this question could not be settled in such a manner--because our people will not cease to demand rights justly due them--one of the members of the Board, Dr. Guerin, made a motion that no foreign language be taught in public schools. This meant that the German language would also be thrown out, along with Polish and other languages. For the time being, this matter has been placed in the hands of a committee composed of members of the Board, Dr. Guerin, and Attorney Smietanka, as well as Mrs. Ella Flagg Young. The decision of this committee is unknown, but it is almost certain that either the Polish language will be considered and introduced in the public schools or the German language will not have a place there; otherwise one nationality would be favored at the expense of another.

    The Polish National Alliance, through its central administration, has taken definite steps which can have great importance to us Polish-Americans in the future. We are perfectly justified in maintaining that, since we pay taxes for education, we cannot allow our language to be abused while other 4languages are given consideration.

    The Polish language has already been introduced in the public schools of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and it is taught by Polish teachers at those schools. Why, then, could we not obtain the same rights in Chicago, where the Polish people are especially numerous?

    Dr. Guerin, in opposing the introduction of foreign languages in our local public schools, attempts to justify himself by stating that the German language is inadequately taught in the public elementary schools and has no value for the pupils. Mr. Cameron, another member of the Board, supports the arguments of his colleague, and adds that if the Polish language were taught in the public schools then all other nationalities, even if they numbered only a few pupils, would demand courses in their language and a chaotic condition would be created in the schools.

    We care little whether the German language is taught adequately. Nor are 5we greatly interested in the arguments of Mr. Cameron as to whether it is necessary here. People of every nationality have a civic right to use their language in this country, and those who pay taxes for education can demand recognition of their language if they do not want to renounce it completely. Moreover, we do not think that nationalities having only a few pupils here would want to have courses in their language. Neither will the Poles demand that a special teacher be assigned to schools where only a few pupils of our nationality are found. The schools we are interested in are those where Polish children predominate or where they are represented in rather large numbers. The Polish language should be taught by Polish teachers in schools such as these, and it is upon this basis that the Polish National Alliance makes its demands through its leaders. It is not our intention to oppose languages of other nationalities, but we demand respect for our own because there are considerable numbers of our people in Chicago.

    One of the recent editions of the Polish newspaper Dziennik Zwiazkowy contained some news relative to the question brought before the Chicago Board of Education. The matter referred to is ...

    Polish
    I A 1 b, III A, III B 2, I C