The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- November 12, 1891
    Answer to Mr. I. J., a Minstrel from Detroit (By the Editor)

    Inspired minstrel! I am not gifted with the art of striking harmoniously the strings of a silver harp, but I have feelings and a heart. Whoever desires to have a heart-to-heart talk, he will get a response from my soul--he will always receive a cordial answer, even if the difference between his opinion and mine is as opposite as heaven and earth.

    Minstrel! Why do you draw your inspiration from wrong convictions which are treacherously spread? Why do you allow your beautiful lute to caress the ear with perfidious melodies and to poison the soul with insidious venom by spreading false whispers of instigators?

    Listen, minstrel, I respect you, for it appears that your heart speaks through your tones!. Your tones indicate that you are not as yet acquainted with our conditions. 2It is possible that you have been only a short time in this country and that you, without proper investigation, condemn that which you should defend.

    And here are your lines, minstrel!

    "I remember the time when we were forbidden to sing our native songs in churches.

    The people became indignant and accomplished their purpose,

    And "Swiety Boze" (O Holy Lord!) rings again through the hamlets.

    Shall we forsake these ancestral treasures

    Because there are no signs of persecution here?

    Shall we praise God in [an] unknown tongue,

    3

    And follow the priest as our leader?

    If thou forbideth us our Polish songs,

    And if thou acquainteth not children with the history of our fathers,

    For perhaps you fear a bishop's anger,

    Then you harm Poles and betray the fatherland."

    [Translator's note: The above is a literal translation].

    How terrible and how false are your accusations in these few lines. Look around. Do you know or can you find a Polish priest here in this country, even if he is not exemplary, who forbids praying in Polish? Can you find a priest who would deprive his countrymen of patriotism? Can you find a bishop who favors denationalization or considers patriotism a crime?

    4

    Look around! Who built Polish schools--which is sometimes a heroic feat? Who cares for them and endures being scoffed and sneered at on account of them? Who defends them if not the priests? Who deserves credit for teaching our children about the kings Chrobry, Casimir, and Krzywousty? Who taught them about King Jagiello and King Batory? Look around! The traitors quite often denounce the parochial schools as a poison and advise us that we should send our children to public schools, that the children should be taught Polish at home in the evening. And who else but the priests whom you attack opposes this suggestion, publishes Polish readers and Polish history, and defends the Polish language against these real traitors of the fatherland?

    Yes, the priest has a very difficult task; the task of inculcating patriotism in children, and the priest does that despite the opposition, despite the intrigues, scoffing and jeering of the people of ill will.

    But the priest has yet another task. When he defends truth and fights for it, he must also rebuke its opponents. You are mistaken when you maintain that the 5priests condemn the Polish National Alliance or the Polish Roman Catholic Union on principle only, in order to bark and bite and spread discord among our countrymen. Examine the annals of our discords. If a priest does his duty and points out the treacherous, harmful, and ugly deeds of some individuals, if he shows that these individuals are attempting to destroy religion or patriotism, if he gives a warning that some members of the organization are in danger of being misled by these instigators, then immediately there are protests, insults, and accusations that the priest spreads discontent in the society, that he forces religion upon the people, that he is despotic, that he is trying to establish slavery in a free country, and that he causes quarrels and sows discord.

    Look around carefully. That there are priests with faults, big faults, cannot be denied. Priests are human beings and as such they err. But we cannot, with the hand on our heart, make such grave accusations against our clergy in general, that is, against the majority of our priests, as you do, if we wish to speak from our heart. Tune your lute first so that it can sing praises of real merit and 6then you may change its pitch so that it can hurl thunderbolts of indignation at those who really spread depravity, at those who are trying to denationalize children, at those who support only public schools, scoff at Polish books, at patriotism, spread disbelief by giving bad example, and then you will accomplish your mission.

    You ask for harmony, yet you exude venom, because you are presenting this matter in a false light. You fail to see merits and you invent faults. Your lute is melodious and yet it is treacherous, for it leads to perdition instead of salvation; for it leads into dangerous waters, like a mermaid in the days of yore.

    Stanley Szwajkart, Editor.

    Inspired minstrel! I am not gifted with the art of striking harmoniously the strings of a silver harp, but I have feelings and a heart. Whoever desires to have a ...

    Polish
    III C, I A 1 a, I A 2 a, III A, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- December 15, 1891
    Dziennik Chicagoski Is One Year Old (Editorial)

    Today [December 15, 1891], a year has passed since the first issue of Dziennik Chicagoski appeared. Did it serve any purpose? Did it benefit anyone morally or materially? What were its merits and deficiencies? If its publication is to be continued, should it make any changes or add anything?

    These questions ought to be answered by the readers, not by the publishers. The publishers may only guess at the wishes of the readers; they can make deductions from verbal remarks and newspaper criticism, be they orderly and constructive or malicious and destructive.

    Three hundred and six issues of Dziennik Chicagoski have been published with clock-like regularity during its first year of existence--14 in 1890 and 292 during this year. There were no issues on 59 days--52 Sundays 2and 7 holidays. Some of these holidays were national; others Catholic. Consequently, there can be no objection to this. Polish newspapers in Europe publish still fewer issues in a year.

    Dziennik Chicagoski, in the first place, brings material benefit indirectly to those who advertise in it. This is proved by the fact that no advertisement was withdrawn for lack of good results; also, by the fact that more and more business people advertise in it. The policy of Dziennik Chicagoski is not to accept certain advertisements, even if they are profitable.

    Dziennik Chicagoski has also brought material benefit to those who looked for employment in its help-wanted columns, as well as to those who placed these advertisements in it. Finally, Dziennik Chicagoski must have brought some material benefit to those who have bought articles advertised in its columns. These material benefits point out the usefulness of this newspaper and the necessity for its further existence.

    The moral benefit which Dziennik Chicagoski has brought and should bring is 3manifold, and it will be still greater as the newspaper develops. As a political newspaper, devoted to the interests of the Poles in the United States, Dziennik Chicagoski enlightens its readers on political questions. The Poles are primarily concerned with affairs taking place on Polish soil. They are also interested in the affairs of the Poles in America, as well as in American public affairs, in which Poles should take and active part. Finally, the Poles are interested in the affairs of other countries (especially of those which concern us most--hostile Russia, Germany and Austria) and of the United States. That we have diligently supplied our readers with information concerning Polish and other affairs will be admitted by any reader of Dziennik Chicagoski. To prove this, we will give a brief account of all events during the year before it is over. This will serve as evidence that our newspaper has fulfilled its purpose.

    The moral benefit of a newspaper should not be limited only to furnishing facts. The columns of some newspapers are full of news items that do not bring any benefit. On the contrary, they rather spread moral corruption. Some of the great thinkers of this free United States realize this and are trying to remove this evil by a legislative measure prohibiting publication of sensational news, especially descriptions of crimes, scandals, unconfirmed gossips, etc. That such 4prohibition would not affect us, we can say with clear conscience. As to other Polish newspapers, let them answer that themselves with their hands upon their hearts. Besides furnishing facts, a newspaper has also other tasks, such as making suggestions, creating or influencing public opinion, and stimulating thought, action, and plans which bring benefit to the public.

    We do not claim that we are perfect in this last respect. Perhaps it was possible to accomplish more than we did.

    In the first place, we must refer to our long controversy on the school question, which was conducted in the early issues of our journal. This controversy was absolutely necessary, because an attempt was made to discredit parochial schools and to prove that the public schools in America are more beneficial to the Poles than the Polish parochial schools, and because the same interests tried to convince the Polish-American public that the hope of instilling national aspirations in our young generation is merely a dream.

    In the second place, it was necessary for us to prevent the Poles, during the 5spring election, from splitting into two parties, and to encourage them by continuous efforts, urging them to take active part in the elections. Never before did so many Poles vote as in the last spring election, and American newspapers pointed out with astonishment--the fact that the Poles constitute a strong political unit. Is this not meritorious? Does not Dziennik Chicagoski deserve at least some credit for this? Let impartial persons answer this. Other Polish newspapers were making sarcastic remarks about our journal, stating that we devote whole columns to politics. But, was this not our duty at that time?

    There were celebrations commemorating the Constitution of the Third of May. We devoted much space to these celebrations. There were conventions and conferences. Dziennik Chicagoski succeeded in furnishing detailed reports about them and presented its suggestions according to its own viewpoint.

    This viewpoint is somewhat different from the one held by other newspapers. It is not strictly partial, it does not belong exclusively to a certain organization, and it does not deny opposing parties the right to exist, yet it is 6not exactly impartial.

    Dziennik Chicagoski is of the opinion that certain organizations are better, more just, more beneficial, and that others are not so well organized. It does not regard any organization as perfect or worthy of condemnation. It sees merits and imperfections in all of them. It desires that these merits should be increased to the highest degree and that the faults should be diminished as much as possible, and for this reason it carries on politics of conciliatory nature, which gives some persons an excuse to give vent to jeers and malicious attacks.

    Dziennik Chicagoski defends and will defend the Polish clergy, who are furiously attacked by some organizations. We do not understand the phrase, "I am a Catholic, but I do not wish to be led by a priest, or that he should be interested in patriotism." We do not understand this, for it is hard to understand, but we do know that the Poles owe to the priests the circumstance that they are not denationalized. They should also be thankful to the priests for the fact that the police records show very few Polish names; that wherever 7there is a Polish church, the morality of the Poles is admired by other nationalities, while in localities where there are no priests, other nationalities compare them with Italians, Slovaks, and Chinese. The Poles owe even their prosperity to the Polish priests, for properties located near Polish churches are valuable, and their owners have political influence. Polish organizations also are indebted to Polish priests, for, on account of their strength, they have gained influence and their members can obtain better employment. We fought and will continue to fight because we feel that by so doing we benefit the Polish public. We should like to know where these prosperous Poles would be today--whether they would be wealthy if they did not have priests.

    We desire to influence public opinion by other means. We are obliged from time to time to engage in a controversy, but we always try to limit it to the subject--with decency. As soon as our opponents resort to insulting personal attacks, we discontinue it.

    For quite a time, there has appeared in Polish circles and newspapers a project mania, a wave of new ideas. New plans have grown like mushrooms after the rain. But, are they really new? They have one defect--they are quite 8often planned less skillfully than the original ones. If someone blames us for not participating in them, we will answer that we have lived long enough to look soberly at such matters. We certainly will not remain silent if a clear and practical plan is presented, but as long as such projects are only unskillful imitations of the old ones, we prefer to keep silent.

    Summa Summarum. Is our journal useful if it brings material and moral benefit to its readers? The answer must be that it is. But this does not mean that it fulfills its purpose completely, that it has no defects, or that it is not susceptible to improvement.

    The aim of our journal in the next year will be the attainment of perfection. From January 1, 1892, its format and contents will be different. We will keep what was good; what was defective we will try to improve, and what was improper will be changed. The management will be placed in better hands, and the personnel will probably be increased.

    With the conviction that we have fulfilled conscientiously our duty to the 9public, with appreciation for the good will shown us by the public; and forgetting malicious slanders, we are completing the first year of editing Dziennik Chicagoski. It was a successful year for the journal in spite of the ominous prophecies of some persons. This infant, that saw daylight for the first time a year ago today, is healthy, and as far as human eye can see there is no obstacle to its future growth.

    Today [December 15, 1891], a year has passed since the first issue of Dziennik Chicagoski appeared. Did it serve any purpose? Did it benefit anyone morally or materially? What were ...

    Polish
    II B 2 d 1, I A 1 a, I A 2 a, II E 3, I F 4, III A, III C, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- January 27, 1892
    One More Word Relative to the Protest Action (Editorial)

    Articles of a polemic nature are beginning to appear in Polish journals published in many parts of the United States relative to the manifesto issued by the Committee of Fifteen, which was organized by Father V. Barzynski, as a result of a meeting at the New Polish hall on January 15. The articles compounded at this session were printed verbatim in this paper the following day, and carried the collective ideas of those present in protest against the barbarous and abominable treatment of our people by the Muscovites. Although no one dares to deny the evident justness of the protest, some, nevertheless, express doubt for a repeated continuation at the present moment, and believe that whatever steps were taken already, will be sufficient.

    From a free discussion upon important questions, a light has been brought 2into view that spreads doubt upon those of the public who have been convinced of the matter on hand, yet are hesitant, despite the fact that the public, as a whole, has passed its mature opinion upon the subject. This has been proven by reversing the questions.

    The objections raised against the patriotic thought taken up by the Chicago committee have been victoriously repelled, and has finally merited the establishment of a counter plea. Let there be freely added to this discussion a few statements in order to clarify both sides of the issue.

    At the head of all this, we will place Father Vincent Barzynski, whose right as a priest to participate in this mentioned protest, which has been marked with the political stamp, has been questioned by an unjust attack.

    Polish clergy has always lead the way for the continuation of patriotism 3among our people. It has comforted the citizens during the dreadful days of trouble and strife. It has appeased their anxiety during their endless wanderings on the cross-roads of life. It has brought relief to those in pain and despair. In comparison to other classes of people, we had a like number of heretics and traitors. No group has distinguished itself equally on the grounds of consecration, or plucked as many thorns and palms of martyrdom. This continues even today. There is more anger thrown upon the Polish, and more oppression inflicted upon them now than at any other time. This is also true of those under the Russian dominance. The priest, because he has answered a calling, and sacrificed his life to God and the people, is faced with direct poverty, deprived of the many privileges, and subjected to endless police investigation.

    If we will turn back the pages of Polish history to the last years of dying republicanism, we will find Fathers Krasinski, Konarski, Stasycz, Naruszowicz, and Kollataj, making a bold attempt to ease the burdens of 4religious belief, making a change in social reform, and improving the education of the younger generation. And why should not these same brilliant virtues be imitated by our present day Polish clergy?

    Polish ideals have always been united and inseparable with the ideals of Catholicism. It would be useless to separate them. Poland's cause would be mortally wounded by this severance from Roman Catholic religion. This makes the connection of the Church with Poland indispensable.

    This is readily realized by our enemies, therefore, they, above anything else, prey upon the representatives of the church. Our people, filled with the traditions of Poland, try to emulate them. There is no sophistication attached to this, only the pure logic of the common individual. They follow the concepts of their people, of their religion, and their clerical representatives.

    Therefore, Father Barzynski, whose efforts to establish the Polish 5emigrant in America, are well-known to every Pole, has a perfect right to help the Polish people abroad. And if he is the initiator of this idea, all the better. He took into his hands the entangled threads of Polish affairs and interests in America, organized a great center for them in Chicago, where many other nationalities had a foothold, managed the affairs of many of his parishioners, and gained knowledge of the attitudes of his group in his parish. Having an understanding of the religious attachment of the Polish people, he had in many respects an opportunity to also find out about their feeling for the Poland of old, and her oppressed people. Realizing their desires, and seeing that they did not know how to go about to help their suffering brothers in Russia, or where to go to get this aid, Father Barzynski came to their assistance. His helping hand was unanimously accepted by them.

    The following is the conservative conception of a persistent protest, and its results. A collective protest of all the Poles in America against the actions of Russia, as a primary political act, will bring 6about a favorable result. It will not only bring into the picture the importance of this protest to the many other nationalities living under the wing of liberty, but it will also present a better picture of Poland and her people. It will take fire like a prairie blaze, and spread quickly throughout the country, and throughout the world. This universal notoriety will bring about a new political factor to be reckoned with.... for the world a new picture.... for Russia an unexpected move. This action will be both Christian and human. It will gain the recognition of Americans, who hate tyranny and inhuman treatment of people. This action will also gain unlimited gratitude from our people in Russia, who are under the clutches of a merciless tyrant.

    A majority of the Poles in America have come from Galicia and Prussia. They are not familiar with the crack of the Tsar's whip, which is wielded upon the Poles under his command. It was to their good fortune that they were able to leave the ranks of their brothers, and come to this country to prosper under its democratic rule. Because of this good fortune, they 7ought to join hands with other Polish people living in the United States, and show to the civilized world the monstrosity and vileness of the Russian rule.

    Why should this group stay dormant relative to the joint action of this protest? To offer a helping hand, would be the least they could do against the officially announced and notorious slogan of the Tsar. His statement, "Wipe out everything that is Polish under our rule," reverberated throughout Europe. Why should they tolerate such barbarous ambitions?

    This unpardonable war against a helpless people is imperiling them with extermination. It also endangers the position of the Pole in the eyes of the world. Here in America, we are not so much concerned about historical rights guaranteed by treaties or the privileges of the people, as once existed before the insurrections. However, there is great concern 8about our race, about the self-existence of our people who are being subjected to a systematic scheme, which in the end, will wipe out their existence entirely. A system of cruelty unheard of to the present day in the annals of Christian history.

    There are going to be many objections presented against this protest. However, they will come from a source unfamiliar with the true circumstances. These will be the first ones to voice objections against the idea of a joint protest of the Christian world against the Muscovites. Yet, never in the one hundred year reign of Tsars in Russia was there ever a more shameful mistreatment of people, and against the right of God.

    It is not surprising that as soon as this news of the Tsar's actions reached European countries, and crossed the vast expanse of the Atlantic ocean our people in America became pierced with consternation.

    9

    Tasting the seed of freedom, sharing the liberty that was so well-founded by Washington and Franklin, and upheld by Lincoln, we began to realize what it really means to live on free soil. Our hearts recoiled upon hearing of the severe blows dealt to our people by the hand of the Russian government, of the enforcement of merciless and drastic laws, not mentioning the wilfulness and abusiveness of the barbarous gangs.

    If you will picture in mind the green meadows, the fields of clover which were cultivated by the bloody perspiration of our forefathers, and the pine groves, and compare it with present pillaging of this land and people, you will have some conception of the present situation. And if you will take the one time splendor of the banks of the Vistula, the beauty of the Bug, and the glory of Niemen and present it to the people, and imprint upon their minds the destruction of these lands, along with the buildings and murdering of people, you will be doing yourself and your countrymen an honorable favor.

    10

    A joint protest in this respect will bring the Polish people honor and respect of the entire world. A democratic loving people have always sympathized with those trying to gain the freedom they have lost. The many nationalities in the United States cannot but admire such action of a minority group, for they value the freedom offered them by their adopted country. This stand for the martyred people abroad will create for them a better position as a group in the American scheme of things. We will be regarded with high esteem, out of which will evolve many happy returns.

    This protest action will give out people for the first time an opportunity to voice their protests, which will be heard by all in America and the world at large. This blended voice, filled with the ardour and love for what is Polish, will reach the ears of other Poles scattered the world over. With their cooperation, our voice will quickly span the ocean like a flash of electricity, and reach its goal quicker than a dispatch sent by the ocean 11cable, and give the unfortunate Pole under Russian dominance a ray of hope. This will awaken them from their sleep of the martyred, drive out their pessimism, and restore in them the determination to withstand the ravages of the mad Muscovites. The joy of becoming free will envelop them once again.

    Political quietism, or passive idleness, followed by factions in some countries, has brought about a succession of slothfulness and work abandonment. There is never a moment in the life of a group of people when political thought cannot be reformed, when enacted laws for adequate social action cannot be revised. It never pays to be idle, if one wants to progress. "Per angusta, ad angusta," little but constant deeds will bring great results, providing it is practiced by all with exertion and enthusiasm. Always with God and forward with God!

    Then one of the most important facts to be remembered by our people 12during times of peace is to train itself through such rigorous disciplinary action as to be fit and able to step forth with greater action and decision in case any endangering problems are to be faced. If we would once and for all shed our old habits, which waste our energy and secure our means of existence. This kind of indulgence only leads it to tug at the rope in many directions at once, instead of in one direction. If it would only learn to follow the teachings, which are clear as crystal, of those that fight for the continuation of patriotism, and not listen to the scatter-brained philosophers. If it only persued instruction on a small scale, it would be able to prepare itself for the great events, throw its sword into the arena of world events, and turn the tide of events to our side.

    At the present time, as a dusky veil is covering our horizon, which blights out the least enlightening ray of hope, a voice comes to our assistance from a source least expected. It comes from those that have been forced to go elsewhere to eke out a living because of economic conditions, and 13who were thrown upon the uncertain fields of emigration. These Poles that came to this country under such circumstances had to make the best of anything, without any one's help. They struggled to cut a niche in the American scheme of things alone.

    These are the ones that are a shining example of what can be accomplished by our people. It ought to be followed by all our people, because it teaches self-help. This spirit, so predominant in the Anglo-Saxon peoples, is lacking in our people here in America. In public matters, we have always turned to strange hands, never realizing that this kind of action lessens our position in public affairs, and unmindful of the fact that if we do not do things on our own initiative, and exert our own energy in lifting ourselves from our misfortunes, no one else will. This is proven by the news of our fallen credit from the financial markets. In London's Lombard Street, and the Wall Street of New York City, where precarious business enterprises are readily advancing money, our credit has fallen to zero. These financial centers would not give 14us three pence. It is apparent that no one is interested in our cause enough to take a small risk.

    Therefore, it is necessary for us to get into action. Actions are more readily recognized than arguments. The adage, 'Actions speak louder than words,' is known to many. All the Poles in America should join the ranks of those who have started in this direction by a representative few. A protest of this kind will serve a twofold purpose. It will be beneficial to us, and it will show to the eyes of other peoples that the Poles are progressive.

    In order to become victorious in our aims, we must follow the example of those who have joined the protest by becoming thoroughly familiar with the situation. We must school and educate ourselves in self-support, self-help, plus the pluck and daring of our forefathers. Although we have brought with us our poverty from our native land, we have an opportunity to rise above this in this free nation. Despite 15our hardships, We are beginning to see a way to the clear road of success and happiness. We try to accumulate knowledge in the public schools, take interest in the affairs of the United States, and also direct our attention to our people abroad. In the latter direction, we are doing the best we can under the present circumstances. With this start, we are able to send a little ray of hope across the seas. Our voice will be heard along all the frontiers of civilization, and our protest will be considered before the tribunal of public opinion.

    Our efforts in America will be pleasing to God, for they have flowed with smoothness and decorum. We should never forget in our troubles the prayer of Jesus Christ in the garden asking for strength from his Father.

    Almighty God, take away from us this cup of bitterness, and deliver us from the evil of our enemies!

    Articles of a polemic nature are beginning to appear in Polish journals published in many parts of the United States relative to the manifesto issued by the Committee of Fifteen, ...

    Polish
    I C, I A 1 a, I B 4, I F 4, I F 6, III C, III H, I H, I J
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- April 26, 1892
    The School Question (Editorial)

    The school question in the United States, which is of especial and vital importance to us, and which has been made a political football by a number of parties, has been discussed many times by exhaustive articles in the Dziennik Chicagoski. Even the brochure of Father Thomas Bouquillon, who is taking great interest in this question at the present time in Washington, has been given full consideration, including the part played by Archbishop Ireland of St. Paul.

    This question is so vital that the European press has devoted considerable space to it. Every important periodical has given the school problem consideration, especially the Catholic papers. We are including the following article which was published in Warsaw in a recent issue of the 2Przegladu Powszechnego (Universal Review) and was written by Father John Badeni:

    "In the United States the school question is being handled in an interesting manner by a number of Catholic groups. This struggle for education is only possible on American soil. Two weeks before the annual conference of American Archbishops at St. Louis the pamphlet of Father Thomas Bouquillon, professor of moral theology in a Catholic University in Washington, made its appearance under the title of 'Education: To Whom Does It Belong?' Who should should and control education? 'The State, the author states, particularly a minor one, either Christian or non-Christian.' In conclusion, as if frightened by his own thesis, the author submits the following proviso: 'I realize that such a theory will meet many difficulties in practical 3application, but the spreading of these difficulties is not my problem; it is that of the people created by God over the State and the Church. Several comments have been made about Bouquillon's pamphlet in a few Catholic papers and periodicals. Bishop Chatard also mentioned it in an article. The matter would have been completely forgotten if the brochure had not reflected an attitude of Archbishop Ireland of St. Paul. At the Archbishops' conference in St. Louis, Archbishop Ireland came to the aid of the principles set forth by Bouquillon, and when he could not find one supporter, he sought the help of the press to support his ideas. It was after this that a bitter battle was fought pro and con in many journals that contained interviews, editorials, and feature articles. It would be too involved to delve into the details of this fight, but it should be 4sufficient to say that in the St. Paul diocese some of Archbishop Ireland's adherents left the country, who would never have been prompted to leave under different circumstances.

    "Several facts, gathered by an American correspondent for Rome's publication La Civilta Cattolica, will answer to a better extent theories that are popular in free America relative to the compulsion of public ownership of all schools. During the time that Archbishop Ireland entered into the picture, the United States Government was compelled to hear charges against 500 public school teachers who were accused of many disgraceful crimes. In the year 1890, over 737,000 children were attending parochial schools, among whom were 567,000 Catholic children. Besides this, 753,000 attended private schools. There are 637 girls' schools and educational centers 5operated by Catholic orders. The Jesuits' alone operate 27 educational institutions with an attendance of 6,538 students, with an average annual increase of 500. At the Catholic University in Washington 260 students are taking a course in philosophy, 255 in law, and 100 in medicine. What reason would the Catholics have', concludes the correspondent of the Roman newspaper, 'to establish and support with generous contributions all these institutions and schools? What special reason would the countless religious families have, namely Lutheran, Presbyterian, etc., who often send their daughters moreso than their sons, to Catholic schools regardless of expenses, if the public schools would cater to all of their desires and guarantee a good, virtuous education'?"

    The school question in the United States, which is of especial and vital importance to us, and which has been made a political football by a number of parties, has ...

    Polish
    I A 2 a, I A 2 c, I A 1 a, III C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 04, 1892
    The Polish Welfare Association (Editorial)

    The Polish Welfare Association under the guidance of St. John Kanty, organized at St. Stanislaus Kostki's Parish, is working in the best possible manner to alleviate the hardships faced by our people within the locality.

    Thomas Krolik, financial secretary, gave a complete report of the accomplishments of the Association at the regular monthly meeting of directors last night. Fall details will not be revealed until next week when a meeting of the members will be held. It is sufficient to say that the organization has lifted the burden of despair of a few truly deserving families. On the other hand, a number of persons who have applied for aid under the pretext of utter destitution have been exposed as frauds.

    An agreement was reached at the directors' meeting to give assistance to school children, who are deprived of the bare necessities, so that they 2may attend classes regularly. Whenever a school child's family, after a thorough investigation, warrants assistance it will be given.

    At the quarterly meeting of the members next Sunday, cards will be issued which were proposed at a previous session and which were mentioned in an article of the Dziennik Chicagoski. The following information will enlighten those who do not understand the purpose of the cards.

    Every member of the welfare organization will receive cards bearing the full name and address of the society. The members are to give out these cards instead of money to beggars or others who accost them for alms. The office hours of the Association are plainly printed upon these cards, and anytime during these hours the recipient can call upon the financial secretary for help. Whenever one of these cards is issued to one asking for assistance and that individual cannot read, information about the organization should be given verbally, including when and where to call.

    3

    The financial secretary is duty bound to take the name and address of any person who comes to his office for assistance. This is done in order to enable the investigators to check up and determine whether or not aid should be given. In the event of an emergency, the person asking for help will receive a few cents or dollars, depending upon the circumstances. A careful check up will immediately follow. The contents of the report will be the deciding factor as to whether the assistance will be continued or not.

    Every card given to a member will have a value of five cents. Each member will receive these cards in proportion to his contribution or payment to the Association. That is, if he has given a dollar he will receive twenty cards in return. These cards, however, will be valueless to the pauper who receives them. No matter how many cards are presented to the financial secretary by any one person, he will receive the same treatment as the person who brings in only one card.

    4

    Cards can also be obtained by those who are not members of the organization. Twenty will be issued for a dollar. It will be a grand gesture if all those persons who from time to time give money to beggars would purchase blocks of these tickets and give them out in lieu of money. In this way our streets would be clear of beggars and panhandlers in a short time. Those virtually in need of help will be gladly looked after.

    The Polish Welfare Association as yet does not have a sufficient number of members in order to continue this work on a substantial scale. The present funds make it possible to take care of only emergency cases. During the past four months, the members have only contributed two hundred and forty dollars. This money was handled in a very efficient way by the officers. In order for this welfare work to continue on a larger scale, it is necessary to have more members in the Association. The more members, the more contributions and the more help will be rendered. Because of this lack of membership we are disclosing the following important matter in the hope that it will bear abundant fruit.

    5

    Offerings to the organization need not be in the form of money. Bread, flour, coal, clothing, shoes, etc., will be accepted for such necessities are needed. Any old clothing in need of repair will also be accepted. In order to save on space, handling of articles, and repair, it has been decided that it would be better if the donors would pledge so many pounds of flour, sugar, etc. As soon as such pledges are received by the secretary, they will be entered in a book. Those receiving help will get requisitions for whatever commodity is needed. Then they will go to the one who has pledged to give these articles to the Association. Only the amount pledged for a month or a year will be given out. Careful bookkeeping will avoid unnecessary overdrawals.

    Thus, if a proprietor of a shoestore pledges five pairs of shoes per year for destitute children, the financial secretary of the Welfare Association would make a record of this. During the course of a year requisitions for only five pairs of children's shoes would be issued, to be given out by this kind storekeeper. The more pledges of this nature that are received, the more people who are destitute will be assisted.

    6

    In this same way a butcher can donate so many pounds of meat, a grocer so many pounds of flour, salt, etc., a baker a stipulated amount of bread, a clothier a given amount of trousers, a coaldealer a certain amount of coal, etc. Such pledges would be beneficial to the Association and the poverty-stricken as well.

    We trust that our owners and patronizers of such stores will approve of this method of contribution and will generously send in their pledges. It is a very simple way of becoming a goodfellow. All those desiring to make donations of such a nature are requested to send in their pledges through the mail, or call in person at the office, located at Noble and Bradley Streets.

    We hope that the quarterly meeting, scheduled for next Sunday afternoon, will include every member and hundreds of others who are interested in giving a helping hand to those in need.

    Further information about the Polish Welfare Association can be secured at the office of the financial secretary, located at Noble and Bradley streets, and at the office of Stanislaus Szwajkart, 143 W. Division street.

    The Polish Welfare Association under the guidance of St. John Kanty, organized at St. Stanislaus Kostki's Parish, is working in the best possible manner to alleviate the hardships faced by ...

    Polish
    II D 1, I A 1 a, II D 10, IV
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- July 19, 1892
    Without a Title

    How everything changes in this world! As long as a person finds himself in a large city, he also feels himself to be great, wise--he has at his command an inexhaustible supply of titles for articles. Nothing is difficult for him, he knows everything--he comprehends everything; all the others, that is, those from the country, are unenlightened, uneducated, and uninformed people, being incapable of acquiring great ideas with which even the air is saturated in the large cities. Such large cities have great ideas and, hence, great people are necessary in them. But how everything does change in them! Usually, when a person leaves the metropolis and this himself to some remote spot in the unenlightened countryside, although everyone respects and honors him as a person coming from the large city and from higher educational institutions, he feels somewhat deprived of these great ideas and views; he becomes so similar to the rural illiterati that he even loses the ability to write a silly title for an article with which he hopes to 2enrich Polish-American literature.

    Not so long ago, I do not recall when, during or after a certain dinner, a prominent and educated man--most likely a professor of the French language in some academy--said the following words: "These people under Prussia (Poles) are the worst people, because each of them knows how to write and read. There Bismarck compelled them under a whip to attend school. Through force, they have somehow learned to spell and scribble. Arriving here in America, when something happens or when something is unfavorable to them, they immediately swamp the press with correspondence." Yes, he is right; I, too, come from Posen, hence, from the Prussianpart of Poland, but I do not recall that anyone compelled me to attend school under threats of physical, corporal punishment. I attended one school, then another which was very distant from my home location. I even visited schools that had great pillars, with large windows, and great massive doors that look like enormous gates--where students just sit with open mouths and drink in the 3words that are poured forth by those great men called professors. Here these last-mentioned schools are called universities. Only great people come out of these schools, but I would not wish to be included among them.

    Although I come from Posen, thus far I have sat quietly. Living in a large city and working from morning until night, although I wanted to feel great, I was compelled on several occasions to bow my head low in humility before the geniuses of the large cities. Enough of this now. There, exhausted from work, on the one hand and from fear of antagonizing literary lights on the other, I was almost forced to keep quiet, examining and admiring the creations of these geniuses of the people.

    Now, however, ridding myself of the idea that these great men are omnipotent, I find myself free of this fear--I can openly come out and express my opinion and I presume that it is not merely a personal one.

    4

    Knowing how to read, I was greatly interested in the fine literature of the Polish-American newspapers, and have often admired the style, the depth of views, the intellectual loftiness and strength of the people writing to these newspapers. At times I was elated beyond measure, and, at other times, the spirit of these ideas have cast me into an abyss of hell. I have read various Polish papers and the thing that particularly induces me to write these words is only the assertion of these newspapers that all of them consider themselves to be Catholic, defending the interests of the Church, and to be patriotic, defending the causes of Poland and the Polish people, although they are most contradictory in their ideas and arguments.

    Some base their Catholicism on some kind of a "pure" gospel; they write calumnously against the Church, on the abuses committed by the Polish priests; they blacken and disgrace them. They thus claim that they always write the "truth" about everyone. They wish to purge the Catholic people of the idlers, fanatics, biased, ignorant parasites, and the like. They 5write that they have no other purpose in their writings but the good of the people. But, I ask, what kind of a good do they wish to inculcate through calumny as well as through moral poison, sowing discord, suspicions, and lack of confidence in the spiritual leaders. True, abuses do occur occasionally, but there is an ecclesiastical authority for this, and it is for the bishops to place a restraint against such abuses. But who gave them the power and authority to treat of matters in their worthless papers; to treat of items which they do not understand and of which they lack the slightest knowledge, published by people deprived of faith; people who could be called moral bankrupts of society, and who were and still are avowed foes of the Church and truth? "Cobbler, stick to your last." That is a maxim that should be applied here and I assure you that the result would be successful. Let the writers express their tendencies clearly, let them abide by them; to camouflage oneself with someone else's mantle is really a Judaic and treacherous procedure, and sooner or later the truth will out, and every honest person will spit in the face of the hypocrite.

    6

    There are a few Polish periodicals that proclaim their Catholicism throatily but no one believes in their assurances because their schismatic tendencies are but too clear. Some of them, presumably carrying this title [Catholic] rightfully, keep quiet and do nothing to enlighten the people and strengthen the faith in the public. They write of everything but the matter that was the cause of a scandal and which should be explained and culpability for it indicated. This they pass over in silence. That is what enables those who sow dissention and misunderstanding openly to give vent to their malice. Others, again, base their Catholicism and patriotism on the habit of scoffing at everything that is not in accordance with their ideas. They ridicule and condemn everything and, in addition, they often resort to words that are improper and use terms that burn the ears. When I remarked, with reference to one of the great Catholic literati, that everything should be treated with dignity and that one should never engage in personal polemics, I received a reply of this type: "But do they spare us, do they not write against me continually?....." An old proverb says, "If some one casts a 7stone at you, then you cast bread at him." That, I think, is the best method of battle. Every matter should be treated Calmly, if I may so express myself. Every matter should be treated with deliberation, dignity, and decorum. If it hurts us when we are scratched, it also hurts the others when we scratch them. What is unpleasant to you should not be done to others. The main principle of Catholic writers should be love for truth and dignity. I believe that if writers were governed by this principle, everyone would readily see their tendencies. He will concieve the principles and know their value.

    Especially during the last days, a certain widely publicized "Catholic" paper, "whose title begins with capital W, and which is edited in a city whose name begins with W, began to fill its columns, even entire pages, with the most detestable calumnies against greatly respected and worthy priests, religious orders, and Polish institutions.

    8

    Two W's are evidently too many, and I should not wish to admit that the author of this filth and these lies is a man who has supposedly attended great schools, the ones that have great pillars, large windows and enormous doorways, and in which professors teach. No, I should not wish to attribute that title to the author of such a work. All those who have or have not finished great schools call him "King of authors". In my opinion I would use the two capital W's and would call him "The Great Ox" (Wielki Wol), for, like an enraged beast he will throw and cast himself on the people, destroying and crushing everything he meets. An enraged animal stampedes ahead; it does not look ahead nor does it see any danger to itself until it falls and perishes. So too, will it be with the author of the calumnous articles. It is hoped that he will take note before that happens, because I believe that he will be unable to run that way very far.

    Really, upon reading these articles, knowing the style of the writing, knowing who their author is, I wonder whether that man suffers from a 9fever,or from attacks....In truth, it reflects shame on the author, shame on the writer, who publicizes any such thing and at the same time claims vociferously that he is a Catholic, that he states the truth to all, that he has the good of the Church and the good of the Polish people at heart. May God protect us from such a plague and from a similar attack. For my part, I claim that everyone who supports this writer with his money, degrades himself because he supports a writer that degrades and dishonors his brothers. The writer of these articles is contemptible and deserving of the name of a liar--because through lies and insults he dishonors the good name of his brothers.

    Everyone who feels himself to be a Catholic should hold in contempt such a filthy writer who dares call himself a Catholic. So long as he will not alter his tactics he should be thrown out through the door so as not to degrade the home.

    10

    Only now do I see that the professor of the French language was justified in making the previously mentioned statement, because it is really better not to know how to read or write than to fill columns with filth, which every respectable person must hold in contempt.

    Thus, toward the end, various ideas began to come to my mind, as to the title, but these were so confused that it was difficult to make a selection and for that reason I leave it as it was written.....

    How everything changes in this world! As long as a person finds himself in a large city, he also feels himself to be great, wise--he has at his command an ...

    Polish
    II B 2 d 1, I A 1 a, III C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- July 22, 1892
    Our Materialism in America

    The desire for bettering one's condition in America, which has caused our brothers to emigrate from their homeland, has here developed into a feverish desire for gold. Just as every passion blinds a man in his action, so also does the desire for gold compel many of us to close our eyes upon this: that such one-sided material direction retards our political and national development in America. It is true that one should strive to obtain money, without which life in the present time is almost impossible. But it is also true that a useless striving for money creates a fat materialist out of even a most perfect man. It creates a slave of money. The result is that such a man forgets about everything and, his nationality as well, being devoured only by the desire of possessing money. There are many such slaves among us, therefore, evidently, one concludes that many forget about our nationality and, as a result, bring about its stagnation.

    This is no place to speak of the crimes caused by the unnecessary passion 2for money, but of the harm that this desire causes to our nationality among respectable Poles. Naturally, this applies only to those who do not make contributions for national purposes in accordance with their wealth.

    We complain of the lack of unity among the Poles in America and this unfortunately, is justifiable. There are societies that have death and other benefit insurance for their members. Undoubtedly, they are good in themselves and we wish them great progress. However, how many societies are there which, without an assurance of any material benefit, would have a respectable number of members? Few, very few. Our Polish theatrical productions are played most frequently in the presence of a comparatively small number of spectators. Some begrudge the money--materialism--others would rather go to the saloon--materialism--finally, materialism will not allow others to see the great moral and national benefits, nor the arousing of the feeling of beauty that comes from the plays. If among the Poles residing in, let us say, the northern part of the City of Chicago, if only every tenth person appeared at every play, the disheartened, self-sacrificing amateur artists would not act in half-filled halls!

    3

    How many members does the very useful Polish Welfare Association have? In proportion to the general amount of Poles, the number is insignificant.

    What can be said of our emigration home in New York? Every one has recognized its usefulness, many emigrants have received effective care and assistance, but materialism does not allow its successful development. Materialism does not permit everyone to bring financial aid to this home. From the one-and-a-half million Poles residing in the United States, at least $20,000 should come for this home in the first year, of which one-half could be turned over into an iron fund. But a frivolous love for money and for enjoyment, materialism, makes us inconsiderate, insensible to the fate of our arriving brothers, who are exposed to a purely Egyptian misery and slavery. Hence, our national stagnation and the subsequent political stagnation.

    We have spoken of our materialism manifesting itself in several public matters. Let us now pass over to private affairs. The fever of quick acquisition of wealth causes a majority of the Polish parents to send their children to work 4at hard labor as soon as possible, though they are not yet completely developed physically or morally, so as to bring in as much money as possible in the shortest space of time. The environment in which they find themselves, the words that they hear there, the labor too difficult for their undeveloped strength, create veritable physical and moral dwarfs of these Polish children. By so doing we will become slaves in this free America, the servants of other nationalities. Such action is particularly hostile to the acquisition of an education, and hence to a belated occupation of an important position among other nations. In America too, as elsewhere, and even faster, do conditions change. At present the father can get some sort of a job even without any higher education, but in about twenty years that will be an impossibility for his son. While the other national groups, as for example, the Germans progress so much higher in education, we retrogress because of the indifference of the parents toward the school, until, finally, the time will come when every passer-by will push us with contempt as a bad and worthless object.

    This same materialism manifesting itself in the desire for a rapid acquisition of wealth discourages the Polish youth in America from [learning] the Polish language; it causes the careless parents to send the Polish children to English 5schools in opposition to pedagogic, national and Christian principles, and as soon as they have received their first Holy Communion they turn them over to the shops and factories, where the corrupted atmosphere and even more corrupted moral conditions destroy our youth and render it worthless for Polish and American national political life. Hence our national and political stagnation, quick retrogression and approaching early downfall!

    This same materialism even destroys the family ties amongst us. The father and mother are elated that their son or daughter, though young, already earns so much; then they are able to pay "board" to the parents. Father and mother! You have gained a "boarder" but have lost a child. The meager money which you receive from him will tear away his love and respect for you. It will cause the child to be on an equal basis with you; it will cause him to renounce his obedience to you and shower you with insults because he already is an independent "boarder". We have seen instances where the children have evicted their father from the home because he did not contribute in any way or could not pay for his "board". It could not be otherwise; a family of that type is not a family [living] in accordance with the Divine 6will, but merely a "boarding-house." The laxity of family ties leads these families and an entire nation to moral, financial, and political degradation.

    Let us cast out from amongst ourselves this degenerated and shameful materialism; let our families base themselves upon the Divine law, which is opposed to materialism. Let us strive incessantly toward more elevating, honorable, and Divine goals, and then our political and national stagnation in America will come to an end.

    The desire for bettering one's condition in America, which has caused our brothers to emigrate from their homeland, has here developed into a feverish desire for gold. Just as every ...

    Polish
    I C, I A 1 a, I A 2 a, I B 3 b, I B 3 c, I D 1 a, II D 1, I F 4, III A, III H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 11, 1892
    [The Movement to Keep the Clergy Out of Old-Country Politics] (Editorial)

    The so-called intelligentsia mentioned in yesterday's article could have rendered very worthy services to our immigrants, had they come to this country with other intentions and ideas than the ones they have expressed so far. The majority of our so-called intellectuals is composed of adventurers and people extremely presumptuous. At this time, we shall omit the adventurers and dwell on the presumptuous.

    The latter, having a better training because they had a little schooling, upon arriving here considered themselves too superior and too well educated, especially among the former peasants and common laborers, to stoop down to enlighten the ignorant. They did not even care to adapt themselves to their new environment or to the living conditions they were about to face. Neither 2did they attempt--unless it was for the sake of showing off--to effect a change in the peasants they expected to find here.

    In an overestimation of their own wisdom, they believed they were the chosen ones to keep culture and knowledge alive. They knew that the priests had something in common with the people, yet they wanted to make us believe that besides prayers the priests have taught nothing else. Regarding themselves even superior to prayer, they set out to enlighten the people in their own way.

    However, the common people turned out to be entirely different from what they had imagined. With little or no schooling at all--because a time never came when they could avail themselves of book learning--the peasant and the laborer had become American citizens; their minds were more developed; they had clear ideas, and their outlook on the world, as free citizens, was the outlook of an equal among equals. A change had taken place; the peasants and laborers were different. The allegedly "learned" had underrated the 3"ignorant" people, who, in turn, saw through them, looking down on them because they lacked the knack of settling down, as the earlier settlers had done, and because their only endeavor was to impress the public with their knowledge and studies. Among them were many adventurers who, unable to earn an honest living, resorted to different schemes and abused the confidence of others with dishonorable tricks, thus exploiting the gullible public. As a result, a certain distrust developed toward these "propagators of culture." The clergy would not give them any support, because they, too, had been victimized. Consequently, the distrust harbored between the two resulted in dissension. To begin with, these "intellectuals" depended on the priests for help and support. Obviously, they promised to mend their ways and took recourse to every conceivable move that would ingratiate them to the clergy, in the hope of gaining their support and help. But when, on account of their behavior, they lost the confidence of the clergy, they became their secret adversaries.

    All other avenues to the gullible closed, they decided to get to them through 4their weaker side--patriotism. They concluded that their claims to higher learning would not accomplish anything and decided to advance through a new road, safer and certain.

    A year of preparation for this struggle--which by now takes on a definite scope--furnished them with important and effective material.

    Above all, to redeem public confidence they have sought legitimate means of earning a livelihood, a fact which we do not hold against them. This was not as difficult as it may seem, since anybody willing to work will undoubtedly find employment in America. Thus, they turned over a new leaf, and became apparently decent. The adventurers either remained as such, disappeared, or else met with ill fate.

    Endowed with the ability to speak fluently and write well, it was not long before they found friends among the people. At patriotic events--then mostly conducted by priests--they were allowed to address the people, soon 5becoming well known. Having thus gained their popularity, they began to sponsor various national events on their own initiative, so as to inculcate in the people the belief that patriotism is a thing aside from religious sentiment. Not wishing a clash with the religious feelings of the people, in their speeches they pretended to be interested in religion, mentioning now and then the Polish Shrine of Czestochowa, the piety of our ancestors, and their reverence for the church. In spite of all these assertions, their real task was to instill gradually in the people the belief that the Church has no business in affairs of the state. At the same time, they made use of the reputation of certain priests to further their cause. In fact, among the immigrated clergy there were some who were actually setting bad examples to the public. So these great patriots scrupulously uncovered these matters, presenting them to the public in glaring colors, in the form of an outburst of rage, or disguised with crocodile tears under a mask of pity for the transgressors. To complete their wicked preparation for the struggle with the clergy, they succeeded in gaining new allies, partly from among the less worthy clergy, 6and partly from among the worthy ones, who were too credulous and could not foresee the ultimate purpose of the dissension--to separate the public from religion. Instead of seeing the truth, these clergymen let themselves be trapped with sweet-sounding words of pretended patriotism and a written guarantee of reverence for the faith of our fathers.

    Thus were influenced a vast number of people, who didn't suspect they were being weaned from religion, and who believed that by turning their eyes to patriotism they were on the way to rebuild Poland. And so it was that the movement to keep the Church out of patriotic affairs gained its momentum--so it was that faith in these "great leaders" and distrust toward certain priests developed.

    As the forces of this faction increased, the distrust of certain people toward the priests, even the most exemplary, became worse. It was not long before the priests--the original propagators of culture, founders of churches, schools, and societies--were visited by people who had 7their own personal interests at heart. The widespread defamation did the rest. Even monks without any real estate or other possessions were accused of accumulating wealth, of exploiting the hard-working class, of being a lot of hypocrites, and of a thousand other vices. The clergy--regarded in the past as upright, patriotic, and beneficial--became despicable to many people, with the result that the ranks of their opponents grew bigger every day.

    The opponents became bold, made their appearance in the open, without reserve. Their ranks reinforced, they at last decided to throw away their masks. Their first move was to get rid of the priests; the very same priests they pretended to regard as indispensable before were now to be put aside.

    Finally, the eyes of some in the ranks of the opponents opened to the truth. For some, however, it was too late to leave the ranks, as by so doing they would forfeit all benefits promised to them when they joined the ranks. Others who liked the new doctrine have adopted it, so that their conscience is clear.

    8

    Still others remain with the opponents because they don't know any better; their lack of reasoning power being the only thing that keeps them there. As the time passed, the intentions behind the masks of these leaders became more and more discernible. Soon they began, in their newspapers, to slander the clergy--the priests who were beyond reproach as well as the others. Some of their articles urged the Poles to send their children to public schools instead of parochial schools. Other articles intended to prove that only a minority of Poles profess the Catholic religion, and that religious indifference is essential to true patriotism. All in all, these articles were written for the purpose of instilling, maintaining and spreading hatred toward the priests. Those at the head called themselves the choice of the national will and called the priests obtruding leaders. Setting the latter aside, they strove to retain the monopoly of patriotism for themselves. Eventually, it was revealed that these leaders belong to secret associations forbidden to Catholics, or else they are Jews or Calvinists--in a word, enemies of Catholicism. There is no other explanation for this struggle against the Catholic clergy, since 9most of them are good patriots who, since the very beginning of the immigration influx, have given many proofs of their patriotism.

    It is not true that the majority of the immigrants, as stated in the Emigration Review, [published in Poland] is entrenched against the clergy. Of this we shall write tomorrow.

    The so-called intelligentsia mentioned in yesterday's article could have rendered very worthy services to our immigrants, had they come to this country with other intentions and ideas than the ones ...

    Polish
    I C, I A 1 a, I A 2 a, III C, III G
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 12, 1892
    [Polish Priests in National Affairs] (Editorial)

    The impending clash between the camp friendly to the clergy and the camp unfriendly to it, will be a struggle for supremacy. From one angle, the priests, who are the virtual founders of Polish parishes, schools, and societies--a fact their adversaries cannot deny--would like to exert their influence on the immigrants here, so that they remain loyal to the faith of their fathers and guide themselves in accordance with the principles inculcated on them by the Catholic Church. These principles, in political life as well as in national affairs, will keep control of the immigrants' purposes. On the other hand, the opposition, so to speak, wants to make a monopoly out of patriotism, and, announcing itself as the national choice, intends to compel the priests to confine their activities to religion, or--if they wish to participate in national affairs--to submit to a directorate.

    This clash has been going on for quite a long time.

    2

    Many of our societies still cling to the old camp, while others have strayed away to join the opposition. The presumption of the author of an article published in the Emigration Review [published in Poland]is unfair, especially when he states that today there are more priests in the camp of the opposition than in the one loyal to the clergy. The truth is that the latter is considerably greater, and no one would dare deny it.

    But if we analyze carefully the type of people who compose the opposition and compare them with the type who compose our side, we shall perceive a great difference.

    By the side of the clergy are most of the early settlers, with the exception of a few who, imbued with the so-called "freedom of thought" and a well-developed hatred toward both priests and religion, had already declared their position upon their arrival here. The children of the early settlers, the majority of whom attended parochial schools, cling to the clergy camp. Only those who have strayed away from the flock, or who have been snatched away from parental care to be educated in nonsectarian public schools, are 3impregnated with freethinking ideas. The serious-minded citizens, abiding by the rules of the Church and by the virtue of honest labor and thrift, have become possessors of real estate and fortunes, of which they dared not dream in the old country. These citizens, not only because of belief but because of gratitude as well, adhere to our camp, to which they owe even their material welfare. Besides--though their number is not great--there are the more educated representatives of the true intelligentsia, whom the clergy have always endeavored to gain into their forces, so that they may be assisted in their numerous difficult tasks. These people have become devout Catholics, and they do not recognize any sophism which forbids the priests to take an active part in national affairs.

    To the other camp--which forever and whenever an opportunity arises boasts of comprising the entire "intelligentsia"--belongs the so-called intellectuals recruited from among the people previously described. However, it wouldn't be fair to say that there are not respectable people in their ranks or that all of them are not loyal to the Church. At the time when some of the priests were in the camp of the opposition, a number of Catholic societies joined 4their camp and still remain in it. The leaders of the camp insist that they are faithful to the Catholic religion and that they only oppose the intervention of the Church in affairs of the state. This exclusive directorate, headed by some foes of the clergy, decided to launch a campaign against the influence of and interference by the priests, so as to free the people from old ideas and prejudices.

    Viewing both camps from the same angle, their forces appear alike, with equal influence upon those outside the camps. It is true that in our camp numerical strength and age prevail, as well as education and standing in this country. However, in the camp of the opposition, our advantages are apparently outshone by noisy claims to Polish patriotism, by an ostentatious exterior, and by such a phraseology, oral and written, as has ever impressed the populace. The ranks of both camps have increased with the influx of newcomers. Now and then a few leave one camp to join the other.

    This dissension has survived various clashes, and more than once a white 5flag was hoisted by both sides. Proposals for a mutual understanding to end dissension have been made from time to time, but at best they have only effected a truce, the struggle flaring anew on the slightest provocation.

    Although uncomfortable and in some respects exposing us to shame, this clash has certain good points, and the final results may turn out favorably. We shall write more on this question in the next issue of this paper.

    The impending clash between the camp friendly to the clergy and the camp unfriendly to it, will be a struggle for supremacy. From one angle, the priests, who are the ...

    Polish
    I C, I A 1 a, III H
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- August 27, 1892
    Our Schools (Submitted)

    In the August 6, 1892 issue of Nowe Zycie (New Life), I read an article, the author of which is greatly indignant over the "importation" of a teacher from the province of Poznan to the St. Stanislaus Kostka school in Chicago. This author is opposed to reinforcing [the teaching staffs of] Polish-American schools with teachers newly arrived from Poland, or "greenhorns," and says that bringing a teacher from Europe is a definite violation of the law which clearly forbids importation of workers of any kind under contract.

    I frankly admit that this article shocked and exasperated me, a "greenhorn". In reading words that spoke so degradingly of the entire teaching profession, which is highly respected in Europe, I could not believe my eyes [when I learned] that the Poles here regard their teachers on the same level with 2common laborers. Can it be that there is no difference between physical and intellectual labor here? Does coal mining or wood chopping mean as much in America as the cultivation of the mind and spirit of man?

    If this is your [New Life's] notion of teachers and education, you should at least keep it to yourselves while Doctor Dunikowski is visiting us, lest he carry away the wrong impression of us. You have evidently forgotten that in our own country [Poland], both lay and secular teachers are highly esteemed, and the people, knowing the need for education, fully realize the loftiness of their [the teachers'] mission. But true, I had forgotten for a moment that I am in America, where people value the dollar above education!

    The author of the article in question protests against the rearing of Polish-American children by people newly arrived [from Europe].

    Why? The author is mistaken when he says that the schools here rear our children, 3whereas European schools teach only academic subjects. Evidently the author has not examined the European school system thoroughly, or he is not at all familiar with European principles of education, if he can make such statements.

    The author goes on to say that even were the teacher the ablest of pedagogues, he could not fulfill his task, and instead of educating the children, he would set them on the wrong course, for education here is based upon different principles. Unfortunately, the author did not substantiate this statement.

    Why should a father, mother, or teacher train a child differently here than in the old country? Is it perhaps because the climate here is warmer, or the temperature more changeable? Are European principles of child training inferior to American?

    Ask any Polish parent, and the answer will invariably be the same: that in the 4homeland, their children were better trained than here in this free country, where freedom has led them to a point where they no longer respect their elders, parents, priests, nor teachers. Such is the strain on family ties here, such excesses and wantonness to which our children permit themselves as were unheard-of in the old country. The whole blame for this rests with the parents who, because of the different environment, are not raising their children in accordance with the Lord's commandments, which, after all, are the same in both hemispheres.

    Finally, the author says that the parents, having often learned from their own bitter experience, ought to try to arrange that their children receive an education equal in every respect to that of Americans. I presume, however, that Polish fathers, if they are in their right minds, would certainly wish nothing of the sort, since American child training is a hundred times worse than European.

    Since fate has brought us here, it is our duty to retain whatever good we brought 5with us from the old country; however, it is not right that we should adopt those things which can only do moral harm to our children. In the struggle for the dollar, it is easy to lose the religion and patriotism that are so dear to us! It may be that in the old country, children are taught blind obedience to various governments and to crowned heads, but it does not necessarily follow that we should cast aside the "greenhorns" whose teaching in Europe has already yielded golden fruit, and that we should turn to American public schools, where all children are supposedly taught to be good American citizens. God pity such an advantage! I do not wish to deny that Polish children sent to public schools become good American citizens, that is, become Americanized; but that they will no longer be good sons of our homeland, that soon they will forget the Polish language and customs, that finally they will not only lose their patriotism, but--God forbid--they will lose our greatest treasure, the religion of our forefathers, the near future will show. Let any sober-minded person say whether such American citizens will do anything worthwhile for Poland.

    6

    It is my opinion that an Americanized Polish child can become a good businessman, but never a Polish patriot, and will do nothing good for our poor, oppressed Poland.

    F. Majer,

    Teacher and Organist at Priceburgh, Pennsylvania.

    In the August 6, 1892 issue of Nowe Zycie (New Life), I read an article, the author of which is greatly indignant over the "importation" of a teacher from the ...

    Polish
    I A 2 a, I A 1 a, I B 3 b, III A