The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Zgoda -- January 12, 1887
    Attempts to Organize Polish Clubs and Societies in America

    Dear Editor:

    We hope that the writer of this article has in his heart some of the true feelings Polish people in this country received after reading his article. When I receive letters from different parts of our city, telling of organizing new church societies and political clubs, I am surprised that no attempts have been made to organize a Polish national club in our country for the benefit of all Polish people.

    Sooner or later all Polish immigrants in this country will concentrate on the organizing one big Polish club, which will take care of all Polish affairs pertaining to the welfare of the Polish immigrants in this country.

    It is assumed, that the Polish National Alliance will take full charge of this great movement, but the disinclined will have to change their attitude about this movement; otherwise it will be dropped because one club cannot take care of this alone without the support of all the Polish people.


    This Polish national club will take the utmost interest in all Polish affairs and be of great help to the Polish immigrants.

    I haven't any doubt that no matter where we go this land of freedom will give the Polish people the opportunities they have been seeking.

    In about 30 or 50 years, the population of the Polish immigrants in this country will be a few millions. Our hardships in our native land, and our faith in the Lord are well known, but our main ambition won't be realized any too soon. Judging by our intentions and hard work, we have one thing that means everything to us, freedom.

    Let us always bear in mind that Poland was our native land, but now in the land of freedom, let us all learn to speak a new language, let us not lose faith that some day our native land will fight against its rulers and be a free country. Then we can return to her and have riches and good luck, which are awaiting us.


    All this will not happen unless the poor class of people defy the treacherous rule of the rich. Before the rich will consent to this change and agree to be treated as equals with the poor, the blood of many patriots will flow in our native land.

    In this land of freedom we need many churches where we can receive our daily bread or communion, and we ask that all Polish people take part in this religious obligation, the same way as they have done in Poland.

    We should have a committee to see that the Polish children attend school, that they have books published at a reasonable price, have intelligent teachers, maintain and run the old schools, and build new schools, and organize Polish libraries in the neighborhoods inhabited mostly by Polish people.

    A committee of finance, consisting of trusted and intelligent men of high standing, should take it upon themselves to see that the Polish soldiers and the Polish churches are kept in the best of conditions.


    I am interested in only one thing; that the Polish papers and the employees take the utmost care in publishing articles concerning the welfare of all Polish people. Almost daily we hear of Polish societies and churches being started, which is a good sign that soon we will be a strong group, united as one.

    Let this idea of unity remian deep in our hearts, so that the new Polish immigrants may profit by our sincere and hearty efforts. I hope the editor can place a few of these words in his paper.

    A. Patriofil.

    Dear Editor: We hope that the writer of this article has in his heart some of the true feelings Polish people in this country received after reading his article. When ...

    III A, III B 2, III C, I A 1 a, I E
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 05, 1891
    Progressive French (Editorial)

    France is the only country in Europe that has non-sectarian schools. Much as in the United States, no catechism or religion is taught in them. But France has more experience than the United States. The French government is aware that children will grow into citizens; that the nation must have good citizens if it desires to keep up with the standards of other countries; and that children must acquire certain ideas, certain basic principles, which will help them develop qualities of good citizenship. Because of this, a course in civics was introduced in French schools. The course embraces the following subjects:

    A. Moral Duties: 1. Parent-child relationship: Duties towards parents and elders are obedience, respect, love, gratitude (During this course of study, children are instructed that they should assist their parents with work, and that it is their duty to support them at their old age or during sickness).


    Duties towards brothers and sisters: Children should love one another, and older children should help younger ones. Duties toward other members of the family: Children are taught to treat them with kindness. 2. Child at school: The country, its greatness, its misfortunes. Duty towards the country and community.

    3. Duty towards Self: The body, cleanliness, moderation, sobriety, exercises.

    4. Possessions: Thrift, avoidance of debts, gambling, love of money, extravagance, miserliness.

    5. Industriousness: Time should not be wasted, every person should work; respect for common work.

    6. The Soul: Love of truth, sincerity, ugliness of prevarication, self-respect, dignity, that we should not disregard our faults; avoidance of pride; the disgrace of not knowing anything; laziness; bravery in danger; danger of anger; animals should not be mistreated.

    7. Duties toward others: Justice and forgiveness. We should not endanger life, property or reputation. Goodness, brotherly love, patience and respect for faith and conviction of other persons.


    B. Duties of a citizen: 1. General knowledge of the government. Citizenship, its duties and privileges. 2. School duty, military duty, the voting privilege. 3. The township, the mayor, the city council, the county, the state, the courts, the country and its judicial body, the executive power, the legislature (These instructions are intended for elementary schools, which teach children 9 to 11 years old).

    C. Children from 11 to 13 years old will be taught the following subjects: A thorough knowledge of political, financial and judicial management of the country. The constitution, the president of the Republic, the Senate, the Chamber of Deputies. Government of circuits and towns, public offices, civil laws, army, elementary course of practical law. The community, the rights of the working men, the right of ownership, inheritance, capital, labor, and other subjects.

    After reading this plan, especially paragraph A, we come to the conclusion that the subjects are taken either from a catechism or from a prayer book, excluding 4of course all paragraphs referring to Divine service; and that it will be almost impossible for the teachers to teach these subjects without explaining to the children the origin of these - commandments which indeed are God's commandments. Some day the child will ask some one about the origin of these commandments, even if it has learned them.

    The "cause in morality" is nothing but the teaching of catechism, but abbreviated and incomplete. The French, after twenty years of teaching without catechism and the supervision of priests, come to the conclusion that in order to avoid cathechism it must be introduced into the schools.

    When will Americans make a similar "unexpected" discovery?

    This plan will be introduced in Paris public schools and later on in the country, as soon as the teachers receive the necessary authority.

    France is the only country in Europe that has non-sectarian schools. Much as in the United States, no catechism or religion is taught in them. But France has more experience ...

    I A 1 a, I A 2 a
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 13, 1891
    Polish Patriotism in America (Editorial)

    Ibi Patria, Ubi Bene (there is my country, where all is well) is apparently one of the guiding principles of Mr. Thaddeus Wild. His other principle is that one cannot be an American and a Polish patriot at the same time. It is either one or the other.

    Let us adhere to the example we gave in yesterday's issue.

    A boy has a guardian who cares for him as his own father would. He also has a father who is mentally ill and who has been an inmate of an insane asylum for a number of years. According to Mr. Wild's theory, this boy should stop loving his father because his guardian gives him shelter, education, and other necessities of life. Now, let us suppose that this father needs the boy's help, that he needs his assistance in getting a physician. Then, according to Mr. Wild, the boy should be very sympathetic 2towards his unfortunate father, and deeply, but not necessarily actively interested in his fate.

    Let us assume that the father of the boy has been cured and, being still unable to take care of his son, entrusts him to a merciful guardian for some time. Then this boy, in order to be a good and grateful foster son, must get rid of his filial love and abandon his father to his fate because the guardian has more right to his gratitude. Such attitude could be possible if the foster son does not remember his father, but if he has loved his father such behavior would be impossible and contrary to the laws of nature.

    Should we renounce our love for the mother country just because she is unfortunate?

    Should we deprive ourselves of our most noble sentiment just because our mother country does not appear on the map of Europe? And if she really 3needs us, if we can help her with money, good advice or by shedding our blood, should we not help her because we are American citizens? Did Kosciuszko and Pulaski think that way? Is this the attitude of the Irish residing in America?

    It would be difficult for anyone of another nationality to understand the feelings of an Irishman or a Pole. It is obvious that Mr. Wild is not a Pole, for he cannot understand this sentiment. He is merely an Austrian who can speak Polish. Unfortunately, there are many individuals in Galicia (Austrian Poland) who cannot comprehend Polish patriotism.

    "Deeply but not necessarily actively interested" means that we as Americans citizens should not give any assistance to Poland, our mother country, and at least we should not instill in our children any desire to help her. We should bring up our children only as Americans so that when we are too old instead of taking our place they may ridicule our noble sentiments. In the opinion of Mr. Wild they as Americans, should not spend their 4accumulated money, or risk their health and even life, for any mother country other than that of their adoption.

    Yes. We should kick the mother who could not feed us; we should deny her in the same manner as the enriched parvenu denies his poor father. We should proudly call ourselves Americans just because gold was found here. We should change our names from Lasowski to Wood, from Lisowski to Fox, from Slowikowski to Nightingale, from Czarnecki to Black, only because real Americans have difficulty in pronouncing them.

    Mr. Wild, is this the kind of morality and American patriotism taught in public schools?

    Yes, if our whole generation would receive this education, the nihilistic principle of no God, no father, no mother, nothing but the dollar, would would spread very quickly.

    Fortunately, there are persons who complete their education by studying 5at home or abroad; fortunately, there are parochial and private schools which cultivate healthy principles, and on account of that the people as a whole have not accepted nihilistic principles. We wish to call Mr. Wild's attention to our terminology as regards the word "Nihilistic," which used in its proper sense, does not mean either "anarchistic" or "bombers," which denote entirely different things.

    If, as in the case of the foster boy, a successful young man who has been brought up in our parochial schools were asked how he gained his good education and position, he would reply that he owes everything to his guardian and, if asked about his father, he would say that his unfortunate father is ill and that he would give anything for restoring his health.

    If a fosterling of our schools, be he a Pole or an Irishman with a high position in a foreign country, were asked about his citizenship he would reply with pride that he is a citizen of the United States, but if he were asked about his nationality or his native land, he would answer with 6sadness that she is in chains, but that as soon as either his native or adopted country needs him he will give up honors, high position, property and even his life in order to help either one of them.

    A Proposition

    Mr. Wild writes: "I have fulfilled my duty and I am inviting all citizens who share my views to express their frank opinions."

    Our proposition: We will donate one dollar for every brother citizen sharing Mr. Wild's views if Mr. Wild will donate only five cents for every brother citizen whose views are contrary to his. With this money we will build a school. If Mr. Wild collects more than we do, we will build a public school; and if we collect more than him, we will build a parochial school.

    Isn't this a fair proposition?

    Ibi Patria, Ubi Bene (there is my country, where all is well) is apparently one of the guiding principles of Mr. Thaddeus Wild. His other principle is that one cannot ...

    III A, I A 2 a, I A 1 a, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- February 14, 1891
    America and Poland (Editorial)

    Come to me all you who are oppressed and enslaved. You, who are not allowed to act, speak, feel, and think, according to the dictates of your heart in your own land; come under "protecting wings of freedom." Here you may profess your religion, express your emotions, and love your country openly, for here we have freedom and independence.

    Free America appeals to the Irish, Poles, and all similarly oppressed nations. Those who have lived in bondage can seek freedom here. Here they breathe freely, and rest in peace, and here, with pride, they become citizens of a free country, which is not ruled either by the Czar or knout.

    To this country have come the Germans, Frenchmen, Italians, Spaniards, Englishmen, and Swedes, whose fatherland they will always cherish, but 2their government was a burden to them. To this country have come all nationalities for the purpose of creating a great Republic of the free, and unfortunate; here also have come those who are unworthy of freedom and liberty, and for this reason the right kind of citizens must make laws which will protect us against the evil influence of the undesirables.

    However, a person does not cease to be a son of his motherland on account of becoming a naturalized citizen of this country. His presence and exemplary life in this country are a living protest against conditions created by a certain clique in his native land. It is an example of a life which he desires to see in his fatherland. It is an endeavor to introduce these conditions in a country which he left.

    If we wish to make this example affective, if we wish to open the eyes of the blind, or of those who abuse authority, we must enact practical laws and obey them.


    This example is workable, for it operates in all countries which have introduced democratic constitutions, except in Russia.

    These reforms in the democratic countries have been affected by the good example of the United States. This example has opened the eyes of the oppressed, and also of the oppressors; the first demanded more rights, and the second granted them. If the governments of those democratic governments do not function properly, it is because the example was not, and is not yet perfect. Let us improve this example. Let us make it worthy of imitation, and the results produced by its influence in the next hundred years will be more apparent.

    In order to accomplish this, we must have, above all, good schools, for "knowledge is mother of wisdom, and ignorance is mother of bondage. We must have good schools, schools that educate mind and heart, because one is incomplete without the other; schools which teach knowledge and morality; schools that are not below the standard of those in Europe, 4if we wish to bring up good citizens, an example for Europe.

    Freedom does not mean giving up the faith, language, or traditions, of the fathers. Only the Czar's government is depriving its people of these things by means of the knout. Democratic governments do not do that.

    The English language has been adopted as a medium of thought exchange in the United States, because the English originally, were predominant in this country. As good citizens, we should know the language of the country, but this does not mean that this country is forcing any one to give up his native tongue. A country must have a common language for the good of the whole nation, and every good citizen should know it.

    Come to me all you who are oppressed and enslaved. You, who are not allowed to act, speak, feel, and think, according to the dictates of your heart in your ...

    I C, I A 1 a, I A 3, I F 2, I F 4, I F 6, I E
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- March 05, 1891
    Polish Activities in Chicago Polish Patriotic Organization Holds Important Meeting

    The Educational Department of the Polish Patriotic Organization of St. Stanislaus Parish held a meeting at St. Stanislaus Hall last night.

    At this meeting the aims of this society were discussed. The principal aim is to spread a general campaign of education in the form of Polish patriotic literature, Polish music, both church and national, among the Polish people. It is also proposed to develop the artistic talents of our people, that they may become able representatives of dramatic art, especially national. Generally speaking, the purpose of the organization is to educate the Polish youth.

    We know that the beginning is very hard, for it is the custom of the Poles only to look at one another everytime anything not immediately practical is proposed.

    One of our difficulties in America is that many of us who lack the necessary qualifications for a given job refuse to improve ourselves by hard study.


    We have no courage to acknowledge it, and even refuse to believe that this deficiency can be overcome.

    The Educational Department desires to do away with this deficiency by conducting special conferences in which the youth may get together and discuss different subjects.

    If the members of the Department will work steadily, efficiently, and systematically, there can be no doubt that the result of their labors will be evident in a short time. Not the one who only plans, but the one who plans and executes accurately is the one to conquer difficulties large and small. Cooperative work always brings its fruit.

    Let us act, brother patriots! Mutual confidence, understanding, orderly meetings and patient performance of our obligations will make us benefactors of the Polish youth.

    Your deeds will be written in gold letters in the book, of life and in the hearts of those for whom you will open treasures of knowledge, treasures 3of beauty; for whom you will open temples of universal and national wisdom.

    Those who doubt should retreat; let them be silent; they should not discourage others.

    The one who discourages others takes a great responsibility upon himself before God and country.

    There are people who criticize everything no matter how good it is, and who are glad if they succeed in spoiling the work of others.

    Such satisfaction is disastrous and will be punished by God, let alone that quite often the people discover such foxes.

    The harder the beginning the more courage, understanding and cooperation we need. Constructive criticism is useful too if given at the right time.

    The Educational Department of the Polish Patriotic Organization of St. Stanislaus Parish held a meeting at St. Stanislaus Hall last night. At this meeting the aims of this society were ...

    III B 2, II B 2 f, II B 2 g, I A 1 a
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- April 13, 1891
    Our Representative at Springfield John A. Kwasigroch Introduces an Important Bill at the State Legislature Proposing Protection of Working Women and Children (Summarized Editorial)

    The introduction of Congressman Kwasigroch's bill at the State legislature created great interest among the working class.

    Kwasigroch's bill proposes that no person under the age of eighteen, or a woman employed by a commercial house, should work longer than sixty hours a week or more than ten hours a day, with the exception when they have to make up time. No person under eighteen years of age, or a woman under twenty-one years of age, should work at public places after 9 P. M. or before 6 A. M. However employers will be allowed, by special permission, to employ persons over eighteen years old after 9 P. M. between the first Monday in December and the first Tuesday in January of the next year, providing that these persons are allowed 45 minutes for supper.


    Commercial houses in the State of Illinois shall not employ minors under fourteen years of age. Every employer shall keep a register in which must be recorded the name, age, place of birth, and the address of every minor under sixteen years of age, and such institutions shall not employ minors supply the employers with a sworn statement containing the age and birth date of their child. If the child has no parents or guardians, it must make such statement itself. These statements must be presented for examination to an authorized labor Department inspector.

    Every employer of minors under eighteen years of age, must exhibit in a conspicuous place a printed schedule showing the number of hours worked by each minor every week, and in every room where children under sixteen years of age are employed, the schedule must indicate also their names and ages. Commercial houses shall not employ children under sixteen years of age who cannot read and write easy sentences in the English language, 3except during the vacation time. Authorized Labor Department inspectors have the right to demand doctors' certificates showing the physical fitness of minors employed by commercial houses, and they also have the right to forbid the employment of minors who have no such certificates.

    The term commercial house used in this bill means every place or establishment where articles are sold for profit; hoever, it does not include small places where less than five persons are employed.

    The owners of commercial houses, or their agents, shall keep all elevators n goo order and use all precautions. The stairways of commercial houses shall be provided with suitable railing on both sides and the steps covered with rubber mats if necessary, according to the decision of safety inspectors. The stairs and stairways of commercial institutions must be free from all obstructions and the doors leading to them must open both ways, in and out, ad must not be locked during working hours. Commercial buildings of more 4than three stories must be provided with strong and safe iron fire-escapes, according to the specifications of safety inspectors. Safety inspectors have the right to condemn any dangerous or defective fire-escapes. The platforms of fire-escapes must be built under two windows of each story and in a convenient location. The stairs must be 24 inches wide and at a 45 degrees angle.

    The owners of commercial homes or their agents, must send a written report to safety inspectors of all accidents or misfortunes which may occur to their employees, not later than forty-eight hours after the accident. The report must contain all details of the accident. The inspectors will have the right to make an investigation and suggest any changes that may eliminate the recurrence of such accidents in the future.

    Every commercial institution must be provided with comfortable lavatories and toilets, which should be kept in a sanitary condition and well ventilated; 5and where women are employed, there must be a separate toilet room and a dressing room. The rest room where the lunches are eaten should be separated from the lavatories and toilets.

    Every employer is obliged to provide suitable seats for women employees, and they should be permitted to use them for health measures. Negligence of this duty by an employer will be considered a violation of the law.

    Commercial institutions are not allowed to employ women or children in basements that are unsanitary or damp on account of water seepage or that are filled with injurious gases, or condemned by Labor Department inspectors.

    Not less than 45 minutes must be allowed for lunch time in any commercial institution. The Labor Department inspectors, however, have the right to issue a written permission for a shorter lunch period if it is necessary at certain times of the year, but such written permission must be displayed at a conspicuous place.


    In this State Labor Department inspectors and their assistants are obliged to enforce these regulations and bring to justice those who disregard them; therefore, they have the right to inspect any commercial institution at any proper time and as often as necessary. Any owner or manager of any commercial institution who hinders, delays, inconveniences or resists such investigation is committing an offense. The Labor Department inspectors and their assistants will have the authority of a notary public in taking oaths in the course of their investigations.

    State's attorneys of every county in this State have the right, and it will be their duty, to prosecute at any court any person who violates these regulations, of such action is demanded by a Labor Department inspector or his assistant.

    Every person violating or neglecting these regulations, or employing minors in spite of them, shall be guilty of breaking the law and punished by a fine 7of not less than ten dollars and not more than one hundred dollars, or by imprisonment of not less than thirty days and not more than ninety days.

    A printed copy of these regulations should be displayed at every institution and at every location in this State where persons are employed to whom this regulation refers.

    This law is effective at once.

    The introduction of Congressman Kwasigroch's bill at the State legislature created great interest among the working class. Kwasigroch's bill proposes that no person under the age of eighteen, or a ...

    I H, I A 1 a, I D 1 a, I D 1 b, I B 2
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- May 08, 1891
    Poles Celebrate the Proclamation of Their Constitution (Summary)

    (Tuesday, May 5, 1891. The third day)

    According to the program, May 5 is the most important day of the Polish National Hundredth Anniversary Celebration, and it was so in many respects.

    At 8 A.M. delegates from all over the country gathered at the school hall, and their names were registered together with the names of the clergy.

    At 10 A.M. a solemn Pontifical religious service was celebrated at the church.

    At 9:45 A.M. the uniformed Knights of the church societies and all delegates went to meet Right Reverend Feehan, the Archbishop of Chicago, and a few minutes after 10 A.M., the procession escorted the Archbishop into the 2church, which already was filled with people. The procession consisted of uniformed knights and school girls dressed in white, after whom strode the ecclesiastical dignitary, the Archbishop, escorted by sixteen clergymen. The delegates followed the clergy. The Archbishop occupied the throne prepared for him, and Reverend Simon Kobrzynski, assisted by the clergy, celebrated a Pontifical Mass. The knights kept honorary guard.

    Reverend Snicurski delivered a patriotic sermon, in which he encouraged concord and brotherly love. His sermon impressed the participants so profoundly that some of them wept at the end.

    Credit is due to Mr. A. Kwasifroch, the organist, who trained and prepared church choirs for the occasion. The choirs accompanied by a good orchestra, sang at the Pontifical Mass melodies composed by Reissinger. Deserving 3special attention is "Ave Maria," which was sung at Offertorium Tercet by Mrs. Pauline Kiolbassa with great success. Miss Rose Kiolbassa sang alto, also with great success.


    At 2 P.M. the delegates and clergy gathered at the Polish hall for the purpose of holding a strictly national conference, at which the clergy did not take any part other than as observers and advisors. Mr. John Koziczynski was chosen chairman of the meeting and Reverend Barzynski was asked to be a spiritual advisor.

    Three important issued were taken up at this meeting, namely: (1) Proper understanding of the Constitution of the Third of May, (2) Creating of national and political unanimity and solidarity among Poles in the United States, (3) Eradication of the discord that checks the enlightenment of the Polish people.


    As we cannot describe this conference in detail, we will outline only the important points.

    The delegates decided that, according to the constitution of the Third of May, the Poles in the United States are and should remain Roman-Catholics. However, the word "dominating" employed in the Polish constitution was not adopted because there is no dominating religion in the United States.

    As to the second issue, it was decided to hold a general convention of all American Poles, or contact all Polish societies, or seek the cooperation of other organizations, provided that the Roman Catholic Religion will not be attacked. A committee of seven men were chosen who will take charge of this issue.

    As to the third issue, the delegates agreed that all slanders should be considered a crime against the country.


    The delegates decided that religion should not be taken up at controversies and whoever attacks it in journals and newspapers should be branded an apostate, and such periodical should not be supported.

    The same delegates declared that disrespectful expressions about the clergy, and especially slander, cannot be reconciled with religion and should also be considered a national crime, a treason against the fatherland.

    The delegates also stated that those who send their children to non-sectarian schools, depriving them thereby of the principles taught by the Holy Roman-Catholic Church, and also those who do not try to teach their children the native tongue, violate their national honor.

    Finally the delegates expressed their sorrow on account of lack of patriotism at Polish societies and asked the clergy for cooperation in their respective parishes. Every pastor should instruct his parishioners how to fulfill this important duty.



    Tuesday night the hall was so filled that many persons were turned away. The attendance was great because the program included two attractions. It read that Reverend E. Kozlowski, a pastor of a Polish parish at Manistee, Mich., one of the greatest orators in America, would speak. The other attraction was the famous play "Jasnogora" or "The Siege of Czestochowa."

    The program must have been very interesting, for this large audience of approximately five thousand people behaved as if there had been only a few persons throughout the entire program. The subject of Reverend Kozlowski's message was "Our Holy Patriotic Duty." He moved the hearts of the listeners with his masterly dissertation, which was frequently interrupted by applause. Whoever heard this speech, will never forget it.

    As to the play "The Siege of Czestochowa," it is said that a play so successful was never staged in Chicago. The leading role, that of Father August 7Kordecki," was played by Mr. B. Klarkowski, who was greatly complimented by the critics. The author of the play took the role of the "Haughty Nobleman," and played it admirably. Other roles were in good hands. The play was well written and well played; it was a great success. We are not in a position to give a description of its six acts. We regret that we cannot give all details of this great patriotic celebration. We wish to add that we were honored by many prominent persons among them two church dignitaries and many clergymen from all over the country.

    <p/> (Tuesday, May 5, 1891. The third day) According to the program, May 5 is the most important day of the Polish National Hundredth Anniversary Celebration, and it was so ...

    III B 3 a, I A 1 a, I A 2 a, I A 2 b, III C, I C
  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- June 02, 1891
    Education (Editorial)

    In the last issue of Nowe Zycie (New Life), which under its new editor has abandoned its extreme socialistic principles, we find a lengthy article with the above title. The editor evidently desires to engage in a mild and peaceful controversy on the question of the basic principles of education. The editor will probably favor us with other articles. His article refers to the question discussed in Zgoda a few weeks ago, but it differs so much from the one in Zgoda in the expounding of theories that it not only encourages controversy but even makes it very pleasant.

    The article in Nowe Zycie attacks parochial schools. We shall not pretend that the editor of Nowe Zycie has read our discussions with Zgoda, which appeared in our paper; we shall therefore refrain from referring to them, and shall once more answer his arguments very briefly.

    The author points out that it is the duty of every Pole coming to this country 2to become a good American; however, he should also remain a good Pole. Of course, this applies equally to other nationalities such as the Irish, the Germans, the French, the Bohemians, the Swedes, etc. On this point we agree with the author of the article. To prove our stand, we recall the many statements appearing in our paper to the effect that any newcomer who stays here and is not interested in our form of government and has no desire to adopt and defend its principles is unworthy of receiving any benefits from our institutions.

    A person may be a good American and also a good Pole, since it is possible to reconcile being the one with being the other. The author will surely agree with this statement; therefore it need not be argued. We Poles should be good Americans by conviction, because the United States is at present the most advanced country in the world, and because, in addition, we owe this nation a debt of gratitude. We should also be good Poles by conviction because on the one hand it is cowardly to renounce one's oppressed and downtrodden nationality and on the other hand it is honorable to profess allegiance to such a nationality, to take active part in the protests against the most abominable political crimes perpetrated against it, and to try to punish the guilty and 3establish justice.

    According to the opinion of the author, a person may be a patriotic American and still feel that he is a good Pole, or, in other words, being the one does not interfere with being the other. If this is true, then neither the duty to be a good American nor the duty to be a good Pole should stand in the way of those Poles who were brought up as Catholics and who desire to remain loyal to their faith when they come to this country. Only a strong religious influence can preserve morality among those who have freed themselves from bondage, and morality is a very important factor in a country where people rule themselves.

    Let us suppose, for the present, that the author of the article agrees with the theory that our descendants should be good Americans, good Poles, and religious persons. Now, let us take the author's reasoning under our consideration.

    The article reads: "One of the fundamental principles of the United States Government--a principle which is a guarantee of our freedom--is the separation of Church and State. In the parochial schools, especially those which are 4Catholic, church matters and obedience to the Pope are the most important subjects, and they are driven into the young minds of the pupils. Other subjects are considered as less important and as secondary to religious matters."

    We cannot understand how anyone can make such statements without presenting some proofs, such as a list of the courses of study taught in the parochial schools, or an account of the system of teaching, or the contents of schoolbooks.

    If the author had looked over the schoolbooks used, or if he had read the outline of subjects taught in the parochial schools, he would not make such statements. If we look at the list of subjects taught in Catholic colleges we shall be convinced that the subjects taught in the public schools are also taken up in Catholic colleges. That parochial schools teach religion in addition to other subjects is true, but for this reason the study period is prolonged by one hour. Of course the study of religion does not occupy a secondary place in Catholic colleges, but neither are other subjects regarded as secondary to the study of religion.


    Furthermore, well-equipped parochial elementary schools have the same equipment as well-equipped public schools. That not all parochial schools are properly equipped is true, but on the other hand we must admit that neither are all public schools exemplary. But when a certain principle is involved we must confine ourselves to the well-equipped schools of both sides.

    And now as for "obedience to the Pope." This common objection voiced by the opponents of Catholicism and disproved so many times refers only to the dogmas or the doctrines of faith which are decided by the Pope. These doctrines of faith, especially of the Catholic faith, do not contradict the principles of the Constitution of the United States. Therefore, they cannot be opposed to these principles. One of the precepts of the Catholic Church (and this precept is known and observed by every faithful Catholic) says that we should acknowledge and obey civil authority ("Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's"). Moreover, a priest always prays for the ruler of the country at every mass.

    The author asks: "Will a child educated in these schools know the difference 6between the Church and the State?" Indeed, such a child will know this because he has learned it, whereas in the public schools nothing is taught on the matter. The indifference with which a child is educated in the public schools inoculates his mind with a false conviction that the country will not permit him to profess any particular religion, whereas in the parochial schools the child learns that State and Church are two different things, and that we should obey both the State and the Church in their different spheres. The child also learns that one may be a good Catholic and a good American at the same time.

    The author continues: "Can such a child be as liberal as the Constitution of the United States, after he has grown up and become a citizen?" Certainly, because the Constitution of the United States does not permit atheism, and allows the citizen of this country to profess the faith which he considers as the best. The parochial schools have actually adopted the principles of the American Constitution, which they put into practice by teaching us principles of religion, thus protecting us from atheism. The public schools, on the other hand, have no opportunity for teaching or applying these principles.


    These and similar questions are answered by the author himself as follows: "It is not necessary to answer these questions for history has already answered them. It suffices to mention the history of the Polish National Alliance in the United States."

    The history of the Polish National Alliance has not, as yet, come to an end. The next convention will reveal how sad its condition is. Its history, however, has nothing to do with the question of schools and education.

    The following statement is evidently a conclusion reached by the author of the article: "Only public schools can provide us with the assurance that our children will at least learn what is taught in the parochial schools and, in addition, how to understand and properly appreciate the institutions of our country."

    The textbooks, the courses, the satisfactory results of entry examinations taken by the pupils of the parochial schools at higher institutions of learning, among them the United States Military Academy at West Point--all of these prove that in the parochial schools the students learn at least as much as 8pupils do in the public schools, and that they do learn how to understand and properly appreciate our institutions.

    But the foregoing statement may be reversed to read: "Only the parochial schools can provide us with the assurance that our children will at least learn what is taught in the public schools, and, in addition, will learn the principles of religion and their native tongue." The author should not maintain "that no one prohibits the establishment of special schools at which only the Polish language and Polish history, but no religion, would be taught." Should we send our children to two schools?

    Let us accept the principle that the study of religion, of the native tongue, and of the language of the country are not secondary subjects. We will then recognize the importance of the parochial schools, because if any of these subjects is considered to be of secondary importance in the upbringing of our children, then the latter will not grow up into citizens of whom we should be proud.

    In the last issue of Nowe Zycie (New Life), which under its new editor has abandoned its extreme socialistic principles, we find a lengthy article with the above title. The ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- July 01, 1891
    The Holy Family Academy A Polish Secondary School Conducted by the Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth.

    On June 29, annual examinations were held at the Holy Family Academy on Division Street, in the presence of four clergymen and the parents of some of the pupils. The clergymen were Reverend S. K. Kobrzynski, Reverend Lange, Reverend W. Barzynski, and Reverend J. Barzynski. Twenty-two boys and eighty-seven girls attend this school.

    A table was covered with work of the pupils in English and Polish composition, arithmetical problems, also in both Polish and English, and drawings, many of which were commendable. There was every indication that the sisters had worked very zealously, and that they were capable of awakening in the pupils a desire for learning.

    The questions asked by the sisters and the clergymen were answered promptly 2and correctly, especially those which referred to Polish grammar.

    The pupils showed a fair knowledge of simple and complex sentences, and of American and world history. In these subjects, the girls displayed a store of knowledge much greater than could be expected at their age.

    English, reading, and spelling tests were a great success, proving that Miss Moore, a secular teacher in this academy possesses great pedagogical experience and attachment to the subject.

    The needle work, made by the girls of the academy, was admired by the ladies for the skill and good taste displayed.

    Sophia Warszewski and Mary Barzynski distinguished themselves by their recitations. The poetical dialogue, in which seven-year-old Joseph Barzynski, Mary Szulc, and Sophia Warszewski took part, was a success.


    Efficiency of the pupils in arithmetic, from simple addition up to the rule of three, and including commercial bills, assures us that the girls in time will become practical American women of Polish descent, for they are educated in a real Polish spirit. This was proven by Polish recitations and by answers to questions on Polish history.

    This is one more proof that the Catholic schools are of great benefit to our youth, especially to the girls. Polish Catholic schools surpass the public nonsectarian American schools.

    The following pupils distinguished themselves in music: Mary Barzynski, Martha Wleklinski, Sophia Warszewski, Mary Dyniewicz, K. Magnus, and A. Kochanowski. The pupils played a part of "Il Trovatore" accurately, under the direction of M. Barzynski. The pupils were presented with awards, after which a prayer was said, and a song sung to the Sacred Heart of Jesus.


    This concluded the program, and the parents and children went home. The parents were pleased because of the progress of their offspring, and the pupils were happy because of a vacation.

    On June 29, annual examinations were held at the Holy Family Academy on Division Street, in the presence of four clergymen and the parents of some of the pupils. The ...

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  • Dziennik Chicagoski -- September 29, 1891
    Is it Possible? (Editorial)

    In the issue for September 26 of this year of Ameryka--a journal well-known for the publishing of deliberate falsehoods--we read an extensive account of the convention of the Polish National Alliance, which was held in Detroit, Michigan. One of the paragraphs in this article reads as follows:

    "A resolution was adopted to condemn the following Polish newspapers: Wiarus, Polak W Ameryce, Wiara I Ojczyzna, and Dziennik Chicagoski. The editors of these newspapers were accused of dishonesty and branded as outcasts."

    Is it possible that such a public resolution was adopted by the convention of the Polish National Alliance? We will admit that a certain organization may not like the policy of a particular newspaper; we will also admit that such an organization may even, in its private meetings, condemn that newspaper, but to 2accuse the editors publicly of dishonesty or brand them as outcasts at a convention about which even other nationalities talk and write, just because they are exponents of different ideas, would be taking a great responsibility. It would, in fact, be disgraceful.

    We did not believe that the paragraph which we read was true. In order to verify it, we made a private investigation by asking some delegates to the convention whether these reports were true. All delegates whom we asked categorically denied that the second part of the above-mentioned paragraph was true; besides, all of them asserted that Dziennik Chicagoski was not even mentioned at the convention. Others stated, in addition, that the resolution against Wiara I Ojczyzna (Faith and Country) was not adopted.

    At any rate, this curious item was published in Ameryka, and as long as there is no official denial, we will not know whether it is true or not. If it is not true, we expect official retraction. We would like to know and we must know whether the Polish National Alliance takes the responsibility for such 3a resolution or whether Ameryka is guilty of misrepresentation of the facts.

    Ameryka also states that W. Prybeski was elected censor, and Rewerski assistant censor, of the Polish National Alliance, and H. Nagiel, was chosen as editor of Zgoda.

    Finally, we demand that the publishers of Ameryka disclose, according to the permission given them, the name of the correspondent who "can prove" that there is no dependable Polish school in Chicago; that the teachers in Polish parochial schools do not know how to write Polish and yet teach it to others; that the Catholic Church forbids sending children to American public schools, on account of which the Poles are afraid to educate their children; that if any Pole sends his children to a high school and wishes to prepare them to become decent citizens, he is immediately condemned publicly by the priests from the pulpits, and is ostracized by the other Poles; that our priests commit crimes mentioned by the correspondent, and so on.

    In the issue for September 26 of this year of Ameryka--a journal well-known for the publishing of deliberate falsehoods--we read an extensive account of the convention of the Polish National ...

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