The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Skandinaven -- January 26, 1892
    Scandinavian Central Committee

    Last night a meeting was held at 278 North Market Street, where a Scandinavian Central Committee was organized. The Scandinavian Workers' Central Committee was also born at the same time.

    This is evidence of new unity among the Scandinavians. May it succeed.

    Last night a meeting was held at 278 North Market Street, where a Scandinavian Central Committee was organized. The Scandinavian Workers' Central Committee was also born at the same time. ...

    III B 2
  • Skandinaven -- March 16, 1892
    The Norwegian Relief Association

    The Norwegian Relief Association is a legal body and is authorized to give relief to needy Norwegians. The following will bear out our statement:

    "The committee, appointed in accordance with the resolution of the City Council, for the purpose of formulating its report desires answers to the questions contained on this sheet. Answers should contain all necessary particulars, and you are requested to return same in the enclosed envelope.

    "1. What is the proper name of your society?

    The Norwegian Relief Association of Chicago.

    "2. When was it organized?

    November 30, 1886.

    "3. State the purpose of your society.

    To render temporary aid to the Norwegian people in the city of Chicago who are in distress.


    "4. State the total amount received by your society from all sources since its organization.

    About $8,500.

    "5. State total amounts actually expended in relief work since time of organization, exclusive of all costs of maintenance, salaries of employees or officers, etc.

    About $7,200.

    "6. Have you any paid employees or officers? If so state the number, their employment or office, and their respective salaries.


    "7. State total amount of revenue received during the last fiscal year of your organization (giving date when such fiscal year ended), and the sources of such revenue.



    "8. State amount unpaid to employees or officers during fiscal year.


    "9. Give amount of all other expenses (exclusive of amounts actually paid out for relief) during such year, and itemize such expenses. None.

    "10. What amount (if any) did you pay to collectors or agents for collection of money for your society during such fiscal year? None.

    "11. What is the amount expended in actual relief by your society during such fiscal year?

    About $800.00.

    "12. State the number of persons to whom relief was given during such fiscal year.

    About 200.


    "13. Have you any paid agents?


    "14. How many and what are their duties?


    "15. What method (if any) do you pursue to investigate applications for aid from your society?

    At present by the members only.

    "16. What class of persons do you consider as proper objects of assistance from your society?

    People in extreme need through sickness or death of their supporter.

    "17. Are you connected with any other charity organization?


    "18. Do you pay commissions to any one for obtaining subscriptions? If so, state amount.



    "19. Are you willing to submit your books and records for inspection by this committee?


    "20. State anything else in regard to your organization that you may deem important for this committee (In connection with this answer, send in your last report if same is printed, your bylaws, or any other documents showing the scope and standing of your society.) Have made no printed reports, but enclose herewith a copy of our constitution and bylaws."

    R. Lund, President, R. Monrad, Secretary,

    19 Potomac Avenue 183-187 N. Peoria Street

    This report gives an idea of the standing of the society. Not only did it pass, as to eligibility but according to its books it was considered a worthwhile society to support.

    The gentlemen, Lund, Nordahl and Blegen, are in charge of the finances.

    The Norwegian Relief Association is a legal body and is authorized to give relief to needy Norwegians. The following will bear out our statement: "The committee, appointed in accordance with ...

    II D 10, III B 2, I C, IV
  • Skandinaven -- July 31, 1892
    The Diakonisse Hospital and Home

    Lately the daily press has printed a number of vicious articles about the "Norwegian Diakonisse Hospital", and the "Diakonisse Home".

    The lies printed, especially in the Herald, were so vicious and slanderous, that we felt something should be done about it. So we asked the Department of Health to make an investigation. When the investigation was completed, a copy of the report was mailed to the Herald, but that honest (?) newspaper refused to print same, stating that they did not care "a damn" about any report--they knew the truth.

    In order to clear up the situation, we publish the report-which reads as follows:


    City of Chicago, Department of Health

    John D., Wace, M. D., Commissioner

    E. Garrott, M. D., Chief Medical Inspector

    July 28, 1892

    Dear Sir:

    As per your request, I visited the Norwegian Lutheran Deaconess Institute at 190 Humboldt Street, yesterday afternoon, and remained there about one hour,carefully inspecting this place, which is also called the Diakonisse Hospital, and all that appertains to its sanitary environs, and herewith respectfully submit the subjoined report for your perusal.

    "The building is a neat two-story and basement frame structure, erected (all aboveground) upon the rear portion of a lot 41x120 ft., and contains 3eight rooms on two floors. Four rooms are on the main floor, with pantries, closets, etc., and four rooms with large closets comprise the second floor. Conveniently located in the basement is a water closet which is flushed thoroughly with water; also the laundry with the necessary conveniences, such as kitchen, drying rooms, etc. The plumbing throughout the building is excellent. The traps are good; above and under the sinks the area is dry, sweet and clean. The rooms are well-lighted and well-ventilated, and without describing everything in detail, such as beds, bedding, floors, facilities for caring for patients, etc., the interior appearance is pleasing and is kept scrupulously clean by the Christian Lutheran Sisters in charge.

    "Some of the rooms are of moderate size, one of the largest is the front room situated on the second floor, and may be named a men's ward. This ward contains four beds; each is occupied by an adult male patient; three of the patients have typhoid fever, two of whom are convalescents, while the 4other bed is occupied by a paralytic male adult. Adjoining this room is a smaller front room with one bed which is occupied by an adult male convalescent typhoid case.

    "To the rear of the large ward just described is a women's ward, occupied by two adult patients, one of whom is an aged woman who is a paralytic case, while the other woman occupant of this ward is Margrita Johnson, age 38, afflicted with uterine cancer. Adjoining this rear women's ward is a smaller women's ward, occupied by two patients, one of whom is a convalescent typhoid patient named Miss Sarah Gunderson, age 56.

    "The other patient occupying this ward is Miss Gertie Figwed, age 23; her malady is phthisis.

    "This concludes the number of patients who occupy the four wards of the second floor, summarized thus:


    Four men and one woman whose illness is of a typhoid character; four of these--three men and one woman--are convalescent; two aged cases, both of whom are paralytics, one male and one female; one case, uterine cancer; one case phthisis pulmonalis; this patient sits up most of the time. This is the young lady referred to above.

    "The front room of the first floor is large and airy, and is occupied by Sister Matie Langanet who is seriously ill with typhoid fever, her illness having already extended over a period of four weeks. Her constant companions or nurses are Sister Bertha Berg, Diakonisse, and Sister Amalia Kittelson, Diakonisse, who alternate night and day in tenderly administering to their afflicted sister; if her illness should prove fatal, it can truthfully be said of her that she gave up her life in devotion to the cause of nursing and relieving others.

    "In addition to the sisters named, there is Sister Esther Koldrup, Secretary 6of the Tabitha Deaconess Society; she, however, does not reside in the hospital as do the others.

    "Reverend N. C. Brun is the estimable president of the Society; his residence is No. 64 Humboldt Blvd.

    "You asked me to report upon the treatment, or rather the disposition of the body of Chas. J. Ellefsen. Mr. Ellefsen died of typhoid fever at the hospital a few days ago. To be exact, his death occurred last Saturday morning, the 23rd; his body was embalmed and placed in a casket, thence carefully removed at 10 A. M. from the second story of the hospital, via the outside stairway leading from the yard to the room where he died. This course was adopted because otherwise the undertaker and his two assistants would have been obliged to pass with the casket containing the body through the room where poor Sister Matie Langanet was ill, before reaching the small house in the rear of the adjacent lot where the remains of Ellefson were placed. This was done carefully and decently, and the casket remained there, carefully secured until 7nine o'clock Sunday morning. There was nothing revolting in this procedure, on the other hand, the improvised death house or morgue has the appearance of cleanliness throughout its interior, and I took special pains to inquire into the condition of these premises also.

    "Pastor Brun preached a funeral sermon Sunday morning, the 24th, over the remains of Ellefson, at the church whence they had been taken for this purpose, and after this Christian service, the remains were borne to one of the cemeteries for interment.

    "While at the hospital I conversed with the pastor and the sisters above-named upon various matters, and also (unaccompanied by any of the attendants) with Carl Oulie, age 23, six weeks ill with typhoid fever; John Johnson, age 34, who had been there four weeks, suffering with this disease; P. S. Lee, age 42, who had been three months ill with typhoid, he having suffered a relapse a few weeks ago; Miss Gertie Figwed who had been there eight weeks, for previously mentioned reasons; Miss Sarah Gunderson, who had been there 8two weeks; Mrs. Margrita Johnson, who had been confined for the past six weeks, and with others, and they all united in expressing the highest words of praise, regarding the universal kindness these sisters had extended to them while at the hospital.

    "The garbage refuse is cremated in the large range in the kitchen. The water used is first boiled, then filtered or strained through a linen cloth, placed in a fine sieve, and afterwards placed in a zinc receptacle in a large refrigerator containing an abundant supply of ice.

    "The alley to the rear of the building, extending north from Cortland Street, is in good condition, no decaying vegetable or organic matter was noticed.

    "The Society operated by these good Sisters charges $7.00, $5.00, and $3.50 per week for nursing, professional services, medicines, food, etc., and in indigent cases (the latter are probably the greater number admitted), no 9charge is made. The hospital was first opened November 1st, 1891. One month later, December 1st, the first patient was admitted, and to date ninety-nine patients in all have been received, one patient having typhoid fever being admitted during the hour and a half that I was at the hospital yesterday. Of this number, six have died from the following diseases:

    "Two of consumption, one of old age (85 I was informed), one of brain disease, and two of typhoid fever. The last named was Ellefson who was brought to the hospital in a moribund condition, and was not expected to recover.

    "The Society admits sufferers from all types of disease except small pox, scarlet fever and diphtheria. Patients of all creeds and nationalities are admitted, although to date none but Scandinavians have applied for admission. I might state in addition to those I have named, that there are other women nurses, besides two scrub women, one washerwoman, one cook, and one night watchman.

    "So far as I am aware, this is the first hospital of the kind established by 10this Society anywhere in the West, and I am pleased to add in conclusion that there are other points I could suggest in this report is necessary. The fact that this Society is performing a Christian and noble duty, their devotion to cause and principle, almost without hope of pecuniary reward, I may say, should merit success and the best wishes of a well-disposed and philanthropic public".

    Very respectfully yours,

    Liston H. Montgomery,

    Medical Inspector.

    Lately the daily press has printed a number of vicious articles about the "Norwegian Diakonisse Hospital", and the "Diakonisse Home". The lies printed, especially in the Herald, were so vicious ...

    II D 3, II B 2 d 1, III B 2, I K, IV
  • Chicago Tribune -- January 08, 1893
    [Masquerade Ball]

    The seventh annual masquerade ball of the Leif Erikson Lodge, No. 9, R.H.K., was held last evening at Aurora Turner Hall. The dancers were led by Professor Hans Hansen. The entertainment was under the direction of Messrs. Ronneng, Tingstad, Nelson, Narjal, Carlson and Johnson.

    The seventh annual masquerade ball of the Leif Erikson Lodge, No. 9, R.H.K., was held last evening at Aurora Turner Hall. The dancers were led by Professor Hans Hansen. The ...

    III B 2
  • Skandinaven -- May 04, 1893
    [Urged to Greet "Viking"]

    All Norwegians societies and corporations in Chicago are invited to join together, by the request of the World's Fair Arrangement Committee, to receive the Viking in a grand manner and to show the crew that we appreciate their grand work in getting here.

    All Norwegians societies and corporations in Chicago are invited to join together, by the request of the World's Fair Arrangement Committee, to receive the Viking in a grand manner and ...

    III B 2, II B 1 c 3
  • Skandinaven -- August 26, 1896
    Save the "Viking" (Editorial)

    The arrival of the "Viking" on July 12, 1893, will be remembered as one of the most interesting and memorable incidents in the history of American Scandinavians. It was only after much effort and trouble that it was arranged, and the Scandinavians here can now say that the effort was worth it.

    The "Viking's" reception in this harbor was the most brilliant naval demonstration Chicago has ever witnessed. The whole city turned out to view the coming of the swan-like craft, and the press extended generous and enthusiastic greetings to the ship and its crew of brave, daring sailors..... The voyage of the "Viking" had been a victorious one from the hour it left its home port until it approached the port of the "white city". Great and enthusiastic crowds lined the shores of the inland waters it traversed, and the reception given it on the coast of New England has been repeated everywhere that its sail has been furled. The "Viking" is an especial object of eager and justifiable pride to our Scandinavian population.


    Their fellow Americans recognize their special claim to the honors of the day, but insist on sharing the interest with them. The hardy craft that carried its high and doughty stem across ocean billows before the science of navigation had made progress adequate even to the later needs of Columbus is well worth the wonder and admiration with which it is everywhere hailed. Now with the caravels and the "Viking" in port, the waters at the "white city" present a more complete appearance of historical dignity and beauty. The little ships will be among the most pathetic (sic) and noble attractions of the Fair from the time of their arrival until the snows of next winter will hide their frail but heroic forms from view.

    ...The "Viking" comes on a peaceful mission. Its errand is only to remind the people of America of the voyages made by the daring Bjorn, the son of Herolf, in the year 981, and by Leif Ericson, in the year 1000, to the eastern shores of this country. The ancient Vikings have received too little credit for their discovery of the New World; their fame has been overshadowed by that of Columbus and the Spanish navigators. It is not to set history right that the"Viking" is brought here, for history has duly recorded the achievements 3of the Norsemen, but it is to impress the historical facts more deeply upon the minds of the people. The thousands who will look upon the staunch little ship while it remains at the World's Fair will not soon forget that to the Norsemen belongs the honor of first having seen and set foot upon the new continent. That is the lesson the "Viking" is meant to teach.

    .... Today is Leif's day, and the model of his little boat is queen of the Chicago harbor. What a wonderful little craft she is to be sure--this "Viking"!

    Last week you wondered at the caravels and at the skill and daring of the sailors. Now go look at the tiny, open boat in which the bold Norsemen went to sea, not only to discover lands, but to conquer them and to pile up material for the romancers of a later century. It is wonderful, yes, wonderful; no less so whether the stout Leif really went a-continent-hunting or whether he was blown out of his course to the rocky coast of Vineland (sic).

    .... Neither the "Viking" nor the Vikings who sailed it all the way across 4the stormy Atlantic and the great fresh-water lakes can complain that there was any lack of warmth in the reception tendered them yesterday on sea and shore.

    They were received in Evanston by a flotilla larger than that which went forth to greet the caravels, and crowded with men more imbued with exuberant enthusiasm than those who went to meet the Santa Maria and her consorts.

    Nor was the Mayor absent from the reception. The reception at Jackson Park, though late in the afternoon, was a great success.

    .... Another ship of discovery now rides at anchor off the "white city". The "Viking" is at last side by side with the three caravels, the Santa Maria, Pinta and Nina. Their wonderful voyages of discovery were five hundred years apart in time and still wider apart in routes and accessories, but they find common anchorage at Chicago.

    Judging from the public interest taken in the arrival of the "Viking" one 5would suppose Leif Ericson's discovery of America was the beginning of the New World's history. The "Viking" may be said to have come into her own and to have been received with a sense of national fellowship. But even had there not been a Scandinavian in our entire population, the "Viking" would have been assured of a most cordial welcome, for every intelligent American must recognize in that voyage of nine centuries ago one of the most remarkable feats of human enterprise.

    When the route of the original Vikings is taken into consideration it is not surprising that no more came of it. That was before the days of the mariner's compass. America reached from Europe only via Greenland and Iceland would have probably remained an unexplored wilderness. Columbus discovered a practical route, having the compass as a guide to his rudder.

    The "Viking" was ahead of the times. The science of navigation needed to be further developed before the New World could become a veritable annex to the Old World. But the very fact that the Norsemen made their great achievement 6before the day of modern navigation had developed so much as a morning star to relieve the darkness of the horizon, makes it all the more astonishing that Scandinavian sea kings crossed the Atlantic just as the tenth century was making room for the eleventh, and while Europe was still black with medieval night. No welcome could have been more cordial or sincere.

    While she remained at Jackson Park the "Viking" was admired by countless and eager throngs from all parts of the country.

    Captain Magnus Anderson intended to present the ship to the national government, and in the fall of 1893 she left Chicago to make her way to Washington by way of the Illinois Canal and River and the Mississippi River. But among the Scandinavians of Chicago it was generally held that the ship ought to remain here. A committee of representative men was formed to ascertain whether the Columbian Museum would accept the "Viking" as a gift from the Scandinavian citizens of the United States, if the ship could be secured for that purpose. To a letter addressed to him by the chairman of the 7"Viking" committee, Mr. Ed. E. Ayer, chairman of the finance committee of the Field Columbian Museum on December 16, 1893, replied as follows:

    "Your letter asking whether the Columbian Museum would like to have the 'Viking', at hand. We do desire it very much. The caravels will be in the Museum, and we want the 'Viking' with them. There will be a special effort made to show the evolution of transportation by sea and land, and nothing would fit in better than the 'Viking'. I trust you will have no difficulty in securing her and having her brought back to Chicago in the Spring."

    This authoritative reply was considered satisfactory. The "Viking" committee immediately went to work to collect funds. The ship was bought from the committee in Norway, and on October 13, 1894 it was formally transferred to the board of directors of the Museum with the understanding that it was to be placed in the Museum in accordance with the letter of Mr. Ayer.

    But thus far the directors have failed to fulfill their part of the agreement. From October 13th, 1894, until last fall the "Viking" remained in the open air without any protection whatever. That she suffered great damage while thus 8exposed to wind and weather goes without saying. Last fall she was housed in with boards and has remained in that condition until recently. Now it is proposed to put her in the lagoon, which cannot but work speedy and complete destruction.

    The Skandinaven is loath to believe that the Museum directors will fail to prevent what would be a flagrant instance of disgraceful vandalism. The ship is a gift to the Museum, solicited by the representatives of the board and accepted on the express condition that it should be put in the Museum to form, permanently, part and parcel of its collection of ethnographic and historical specimens. As yet the board has done nothing to fulfill its agreement, and now it is proposed to make such disposition of the historic craft as would make her speedy destruction inevitable.

    It is impossible to explain the attitude of the directors in this matter by assuming that they have not been fully aware of the precise nature of the terms upon which the ship was presented and accepted. They are honorable gentlemen who would not knowingly commit such a self-evident breach of faith.


    Now that their attention has been called to the character of the contract they have entered into, it is confidently expected that they will take prompt and final action regarding the situation and place the "Viking" in the Museum where she belongs. This paper will do its part to make them do so.

    The arrival of the "Viking" on July 12, 1893, will be remembered as one of the most interesting and memorable incidents in the history of American Scandinavians. It was only ...

    III F, II B 2 d 1, III B 2, III H, II C, I C, I J
  • Skandinaven -- October 13, 1896
    Norwegians Organize New Society

    The new society Norwegian Pioneers of America received its charter on October 7, [1896]. The organizers William Simonson, age 55, who came to America in 1843; George Nereson Hauge, age 36, who came here in 1844; Halvor Nereson Hauge, age 67, who came here in 1844; Ole Flom, age 65, who came in 1844; Halsten Johnson, age 60, who came in 1866; T. E. Kleven, age 72, who came in 1842; Ole Egelson, age 54, who came here in 1843; Balor Bjon, age 70, who came in 1842; Nels A. Lee, age 53, who came here in 1841; and Knud Henderson, age 61, who came in 1849.

    The Society will have branches throughout the country, with a main office in Madison, Wis.

    [Translator's note. This is a social and nationalistic society.]

    The new society Norwegian Pioneers of America received its charter on October 7, [1896]. The organizers William Simonson, age 55, who came to America in 1843; George Nereson Hauge, age ...

    III B 2, III G
  • Skandinaven -- December 31, 1896
    The Norwegian Hospital and its Training School for Nurses

    The first two nurses trained at the Norwegian Hospital (Tabitha) have received their diplomas. It was two years ago that the nurses' school at the hospital was opened. The superintendent, Mr. Oscar Torrison, congratulated the staff on its success, and said:

    "On behalf of the Norwegian Lutheran Tabitha Society of Chicago and its board of directors, I wish to bid you all a hearty welcome to the first graduating exercises of the Norwegian Lutheran Tabitha Hospital Training School for nurses.

    "Our hospital and training school for nurses have been in existence a little over two years. I congratulate the society upon having passed through these two years without any loss or accident by fire or the 2elements, and upon the fact that during these two years of financial depression and hard times, the hospital has been able not only to live, but to relieve much suffering and want among the poor, unfortunate, and sick Scandinavians of our community. During these two years, our hospital has rendered 3,442 days of service to charity patients and 926 to those that are classed as half charity patients. That we have been able to do this much for the cause of charity is largely due to the self-sacrifice of the women of our society, who with so much kindness and sympathy, have devoted themselves to the cause represented by the hospital.

    "I congratulate the society upon having so many noble women enlisted in its cause, and I congratulate them upon the success which has crowned their efforts. Our hospital is fortunate, and is to be congratulated, too, upon the great interest that has been taken in it by its able medical and surgical staff members who have devoted so much of their valuable 3time to the advancement of the hospital, to the medical attendance and surgical aid offered not only to hospital patients who have been able to pay for themselves, but also to the charity patients who have been so unfortunate as to need medical or surgical aid without having means of their own to secure it.

    "I should like to pause here to pay a tribute of respect and thanks, on behalf of the Society and its board of directors, to that distinguished surgeon who stands at the head of our surgical staff--our surgeon-in-chief--I refer to Dr. C. Fenger (a Dane), whose high ideals in regard to his noble profession and whose greatness of heart have led him to give so much of his valuable time and skill to our hospital for the cause of humanity and charity. We thank him for it; we congratulate ourselves upon having it.

    "The nurses in our training school are to be congratulated upon the opportunity afforded then of getting their knowledge and instruction from 4men of such high standing in their profession. Our society has reason to congratulate itself upon the further fact, that in the selection of applicants for admission to the training school, we have found a corps of nurses whose ambition to succeed in their calling, whose devotion to their duty, whose conduct and behavior during their connection with our institution have been a constant source of gratification to our board of directors. Of our first graduating class, the class that graduates this evening; Mrs. Amelia Wandell and Miss Balborg Brekke, I am glad to be able to say, conscientiously, that they have the confidence and respect of the entire board of directors, and that we feel and believe that in the career which they are now about to carve out for themselves, they will not only reflect credit upon the institution from which they graduate for proficiency in their chosen profession, but, that wherever duty calls them, they will go with the devotion of the true woman and the true nurse upon their mission of charity among the sick.


    "Others will speak to you of the importance of trained nurses to the community. Others will talk to you of our training school, of charity and of other matters. I wish only to speak by way of introduction, to bid you welcome and to say to you that we have a hospital: bright, cheerful and homelike; well-equipped for giving medical and surgical aid; an operating room, much praised by the attending surgeons; a larger staff of Scandinavian physicians, surgeons and specialists than any other hospital in the country and containing many men eminent in their professions and in their specialties.

    "Yet the real work of the hospital has only just begun. It remains with a generous public, and for the future to bring it to that full measure of usefulness which the nobleness of the cause deserves, and which we hope and believe it will attain."

    Mr. Torreson was followed by Dr. Hetoen, who delivered his address.


    After referring to the methods of caring for the sick in olden times and during the Middle Ages, he showed that the modern training school for nurses was essentially an American institution, the first effort in this direction having been made in the Philadelphia Lying-in Charity Hospital, in 1828.

    "The American training schools have reached the highest degree of excellence, and the evolution of the training school and the trained nurse was traced to the higher value now being placed upon human life and health, as shown by the universal efforts made to improve the sanitary conditions and to give the sick and injured the most intelligent care.

    "Nursing is no longer a low, menial occupation, but trained nursing is an art and a science. In America it is looked upon as a dignified profession, the followers of which are women of refinement and some culture.


    "Sickness is universal and trained nurses are, in reality, just as much a necessity, perhaps more so, in the country than in the city. The field for the activity of the trained nurse, especially among the Norwegian settlers, is practically unlimited. As long as birth, sickness and death do not pass away, trained nurses will remain a necessity; this being so, the quality of the nurse is not a matter of indifference, but of profound interest to the sick as well as to the healthy.

    "The trained nurse is the right hand of the physician and surgeon. Many a case of sickness recovers more because of good nursing than as a result of the doctor's skill. Trained nurses relieve a vast amount of needless suffering of the curable as well as incurable sick. 'When I come to die,' says Gross, America's greatest surgeon, 'give me plenty of light and fresh air in my room; and at my bedside, a trained and kind nurse.'

    "The qualities that make the trained nurse so indispensable were stated 8to be: good health, neat habits; kindness, patience, and a sweet temper; a discreet tongue; good judgment; and alertness of mind--a rare combination, but, when present in some degree, and improved by training, the requirements of the sick room would be fulfilled. Poor, indifferent nurses are often dangerous persons, liable to degenerate into gossips, vendors of wonderful cures, illicit practitioners of medicine, and frauds. The lack of proper knowledge on the part of the honest, untrained nurse, stands in the way of her usefulness, even though she may have the 'knack' of nursing in the highest degree. The trained nurse not only knows but feels that the secrets of the sick room are sacred. Her pride in, and consciousness of, the dignity of her calling prevent her from ever becoming quack. She knows that to be honest and punctual in following the directions of the doctor is her first duty. She knows the hygiene of the sick room, of the patient, of her own person. She aims to have only pleasant impressions reach the patient, and sheds light and courage about her which rob disease of half its fears and pangs.


    "The trained nurse must be trained in heart, in hand, and in mind. This requires hospitals. American hospitals, in general, have training schools for nurses. In Chicago, all the hospitals have training schools, except Catholic hospitals and a few others. This fact alone shows that the training school is considered to bring the best and the largest results. It does, indeed, give the best nurses to the hospital, because there is a general belief that whenever we do a practical thing and teach others how to do it, then we do it best and most carefully. The graduate nurses continue the good work of the hospital outside of its walls; maybe in places where it is even more necessary.

    "The Norwegian Hospital is to be congratulated upon having established, so early in its career, a training school with comprehensive, modern, and the best views. The public, which naturally contributes to this hospital, should have just as much interest in its training school, as in its work of caring for the sick in its wards and rooms. As each year sees a small flock of trained nurses pass out to earn their living 10and do good, the work and influence of the hospital are extended. The friends and well-wishers of the hospital should never forget that the training school for nurses is the best way to enlarge the scope of the work of the hospital and at the same time secure the best kind of nursing for the patients in the hospital.

    "It should be the duty of the individual father of a family, as well as his privilege, to secure the best attention in case of sickness or ailment of any kind, by either having the patient enter the hospital or by transforming the private dwelling into a temporary hospital. In sickness, so far as economy in money is concerned, relief from pain and suffering, saving time, the best hope for a speedy recovery are secured by availing oneself early of the best means now in existence for the care of the sick, namely: the careful physician, the modern hospital, and the trained nurse.

    ...."The first nurses to leave the hospital were loath to go. They said they 11would feel the loss of continued training. It seemed that probationary nurses taking their places were happy.

    "The hospital stands as a monument to Scandinavian thrift and culture. May it, thus, stand forever!"

    The first two nurses trained at the Norwegian Hospital (Tabitha) have received their diplomas. It was two years ago that the nurses' school at the hospital was opened. The superintendent, ...

    II D 3, II D 10, III B 2, II A 1, I C, I K, I M, IV
  • Skandinaven -- November 28, 1897
    Nansen (Article in English)

    Norwegians from city, town, village, and countryside, yes, from all over the North and Central West, celebrated today at a banquet given by the Norse colony here in Chicago in honor of Dr. [Fridtjof] Nansen. Many a Viking drinking horn was drained in good old Norse style in Nansen's honor.

    As early as six o'clock the Auditorium was filled by an expectant throng waiting for a sight of the great explorer. More than two hundred representative men and women attended the banquet in his honor. The banquet hall on the ninth floor of the Auditorium was filled by an expectant crowd.

    Amid thundering applause, Nansen arrived about 7 P.M. Banker H.A. Haugen, 2 being the toastmaster for the evening, bade the old seafarer welcome and escorted him to his seat of honor at the table.

    Mr. John Anderson bade Nansen welcome with the following words:

    "Fellow Countrymen:

    "We are assembled here tonight to do honor to a countryman whose name is now well-known to all enlightened nations, and whose fame has spread over the civilized world. Abler tongues than mine will express to him our warmest greetings.

    "On behalf of the committee of arrangements it gives me great pleasure to extend a hearty welcome to our distinguished friends from beyond our borders and to hope they will enjoy their visit among us. I also take the privilege of thanking our American friends for honoring us with their presence tonight. I will now call upon one who is too well-known 3to most of you to need any introduction from me--Mr. H.A. Haugen, who will act as toastmaster of the evening."

    Mr. Haugen then introduced the editor of the Skandinaven, Mr. Nicolay Grevstad, whose speech was as follows:

    "Hail and welcome, brave son of Norway! Welcome to Chicago, the heart of America, the second Norwegian city in the world! Welcome to this great northwest, where hundreds of thousands of people of your own blood have found new and happy homes!

    "We Norwegians of Leif's Vineland, are proud of our status and dignity as citizens of the great American republic, and we yield to none, native or foreign born, in love for the Stars and Stripes. Yet we take as much pride in the Norwegian name as do our kinsmen across the sea, and we vie with them in honoring you because the glamour of your heroism 4and wondrous voyage has gladdened the heart and lit up the furrowed features of dear old mother Norway.

    "She sent her sturdy sons upon their dangerous mission. They were piloted by her hopes and inspired by their love for her. Their strange craft was a symbol of Norway herself as it disappeared on the horizon. Norway was always uppermost in their thoughts. What they did, they did for Norway. Their imagination was charmed by a symbolic spell; the fate of the fatherland was in their hands--wrapped up in their success; thus the 'Fram' [Nansen's ship] was Norway, surrounded by perils but indestructible in her strength. And when their good ship had reached a Norwegian harbor, unharmed and even unscathed, and all were safe home again, a wave of exulting enthusiasm burst upon the land. For the 'Fram' was Norway's ship of state that after a perilous voyage was now anchored in the safe harbor of its future destiny.

    "Norway may well be proud of such sons. Well may her bosom swell with 5joy because their great task has been so nobly fulfilled and because the glory of it is her own. The whole civilized world pays homage to her as the mother of the greatest of Arctic heroes. He disappeared from civilization amid misgivings. He reappeared with the veil of Ultima Thule, with the secrets of an icebound world as his trophy. From the empire of eternal ice and darkness he wrested a larger territory than has been won by the combined efforts of all Arctic explorers of the last two hundred years, and he planted Norway's red, white and blue at 86.14 to mark the new boundary line of the known world.

    "If she is poor in marts and money, Norway sits in the council of the great nations because she is rich in great men. Behold! While nations are brooding over problems put to them by one of her sons, that silent old man with the lion head, that profound philosopher and preacher of the drama, a youthful hero sprung from her loins, suddenly leaps out of the Arctic seas flashing his solution of the frozen riddles upon a startled world. And rising from her seat, Norway takes one of these sons-- 6the greatest among living writers--by one hand, while leading by the other the greatest among the men of action of today; and stepping in front of all nations, she says with the pride of a Roman mother: 'These are my boys.'

    "The story of the Nansen expedition reads like a fairy tale from the crystal palaces of the ice king, glowing in the ever-changing hues of the midnight sun or the northern lights, but hidden far beyond a forbidding fog-land where the dreaded frost giants rule. It has been an inspiration to our compromising, machine-made, dollar-branded civilization. We have all felt the touch of its magnetic thrill. It has ennobled our purposes, quickened our best impulses, and raised the standard of our aims.

    "In the glorious success of this most wonderful of all Arctic voyages we recognize the triumph of the highest type of manhood enlisted in the service of mankind. Was there ever a finer display of moral and 7physical courage? Nansen finds his plans rejected by nearly all Arctic authorities. His theory of the polar current is frowned upon; his idea of building an ice-proof ship and of drifting across the polar sea is ridiculed; the whole project is condemned as unworthy of serious consideration, as boyish folly, as sheer madness.

    "But he does not swerve in his faith. He is more firmly resolved than ever to stake his life upon his theory. And there are hundreds of men who dare to believe in this one youth against all the veteran explorers of the world, and who plead for the privilege of committing their lives in his hands.

    "Such an unerring self-confidence and such power to inspire faith in others are endowments of true greatness. It is a born leader of men that is revealed to us at the very threshold of the daring undertaking, surrounded by followers as brave as himself.


    "Nor do they falter when they are face to face with the perils of the frozen North. The black pall of the Arctic night cannot repress the buoyancy of their spirits, nor does the roaring and thundering of the pack ice strike them with terror. As their marvelous 'Fram' deftly eludes the embraces and easily resists the tremendous pressure of the ice, they grow almost reckless in their complete abandon of fear. Life on board the 'Fram', as pictured by Nansen, reads like a great saga of some ancient viking. It is the old viking spirit that would jest at danger and laugh at death; it is that spirit that fills these men and nerves them to their task. Come what may, they know there is but one way and that is fram--[that is] forward.

    "The stage of history has presented no scene more lofty or heroic than those enacted in the ice desert by Nansen and his men. Look at them as they are assembled beside the 'Fram' on that memorable day of parting! Two of them are to make a dash for the Pole, while the others will remain with the ship. The last farewells have been exchanged. There 9are a few drops in the eyes of these sturdy men; shadows of sadness flit across their weather-beaten features: and in the parting grasps of their strong hands there is a tremor of restrained emotion. Chief and men alike are moved and touched at the sundering of so many close ties of trials and triumphs. But there is no doubt in their hearts. Those who leave are as confident as ever that the 'Fram' will make her way out of the ice and reach Norway in safety, and those remaining on board never doubt that their chief and his companion will find their way back to civilization. Inspiring courage, sublime faith of friend in friend!

    "And as our eyes follow these two wanderers trudging and toiling across the broken ice fields, words to express our admiration of their matchless courage, their perseverance, and their power of endurance fail us.


    "Heroes of other times and climes crowd upon our memories and pass in review before us as we look, and a most imposing sight it is. But these lone pathfinders of the polar regions, climbing ice hills in blinding snowstorms and with the grip of the polar cold upon their limbs, in a grim determination to do or die, to test the power of man's endurance to the very limit. Ah! A nobler and grander scene was never witnessed, a more thrilling, heroic, and inspiring picture was never flashed upon the screen of history--never!

    "Such deeds are immortal. They cannot die. In the heavens of history the heroism of our modern Fridtjof Nansen will shine for all time to come as a radiant polar star of sacrifice and unselfish devotion to a noble cause.

    "Youthful victor of the icy battlefields, your rich conquest for science belongs to mankind, the inspiring example of your grand courage to the youth of all lands, your fame to Norway. We, your brothers of this land 11of the brave, love and admire you as the ideal type of Norse manhood, and thank you for the luster you have shed upon the Norwegian name. May long life and happiness be your portion! And may our common mother, Norway, rear many sons who, like you, will crown her with wreaths of imperishable glory!"

    Nansen then spoke for about thirty minutes, thanking the Norwegian people for their grand reception in his honor.

    The toastmaster then introduced the well-known banker, Paul O. Stensland, who spoke as follows:

    "Mr. Toastmaster and Gentlemen:

    "You have been listening to such eloquence that it is not without fear and distrust of my own ability that I tackle the subject laid before me, to wit: 'The "Fram" and Her Crew.'


    "The 'Fram' first. Many a North Pole-bound craft went forward and onward as bravely and daringly as did the 'Fram'. She, however, got farther upward toward the Pole, I mean, than any of the rest and, curiously enough, she came back as safe and sound as if she had never left at all. Now confining ourselves to her success so far as it was secured by human efforts alone, how do we account for it? It is true that the boat was built and fitted out according to the plans and instructions of the master spirit, Dr. Nansen himself. It is also true that these plans were made with such a foresight and insight into every detail as to arouse the admiration of the world. This is the factor accounting for the way the 'Fram' stood her test when and while in the deathly clasp and grasp of the ice demons. Yet when we speak of her safe return and successful voyage upon the whole, there is one more factor, and a prominent one too, to be considered. That is the captain of the ship and her crew. The captain--well to go a little back in time--I think it safe to say that pious Aeneas of old had not a more trustworthy friend in his 'fidus Achates' than Fridtjof Nansen in Captain Sverdrup. And were Mr. Sverdrup 13here himself, I am sure he would not wish to be extolled to a dizzier altitude or parallel than that of the three thousand celebrities of Troy. The crew comes next. The waves of the ocean have closed upon and roared their funeral hymns over thousands of sailors as brave and daring as the men of Captain Sverdrup; yet on the other hand, or from another point of view, I think I dare say that seldom, if ever, has the world seen such a company as the one on board the 'Fram'. What a unit of hearts and souls! What a loyalty and faithfulness to duty! What discipline! Obedience, formal and external, may be enforced; true discipline cannot, for true discipline is the voluntary, cheerful command of self; and of those on board the 'Fram' everybody was fit to be a commander, because everyone knew how to obey. Lieutenant Johansen shared the ghastly perils of the chief, Dr. Nansen himself, during their superhuman sufferings and wanderings across the endless icebound fields of the polar sea, and History has entered his name among her never-to-be-forgotten heroes. History! Yes, there, there on the roll of undying fame ought the world to read the name of every one of those modest, silent 14vikings who manned the 'Fram'. But History has little room; if she had more, she, like man, would forget. Yes, friend, how many among us here can recall and mention the several names of that noble crew? We would if we could, and therewith let us comfort ourselves, while raising our glasses in honor of 'Fram' and her Crew!"

    The following representative people were present at the banquet: H.G. Haugan, Milwaukee; Halle Steensland, Madison; H.L. Anderson, Chicago; C.N. Haugan, Iowa; Dr. Axel J. Boyesen, Chicago; Emil Bjorn, Chicago; Carl Nielsen [Dane], Chicago; Niels Juul [Dane], Chicago; Franz A. Lundstrand [Swede], Chicago; Mayor Carter Harrison, Chicago; Colonel K.C. Pardee, New York; A. Boyesen [Dane], Chicago; Ezra C. Fahrney, Chicago; Dr. Peters Kuriko [German], Chicago; C. Hamstrom [Swede], Chicago; Henry L. Hertz [Dane], Chicago; John L. Lindgren [Swede], Chicago; Paul O. Stensland, Chicago; R. E. Edwards [Dane], Chicago; H.A. Haugan, O.N. Haugan, Chicago; Professor Rasmus B. Anderson [Dane], Chicago; Robert Lindblom [Swede], Chicago; Senator Knute Nelson, F.H. Gade [Dane], Chicago; Dr. Christian Fenger [Dane], Chicago; Nicolay Grevstad, Chicago; Ole Stensland, Chicago.

    Norwegians from city, town, village, and countryside, yes, from all over the North and Central West, celebrated today at a banquet given by the Norse colony here in Chicago in ...

    III H, III B 2, IV
  • Skandinaven -- June 28, 1899
    The Norwegian Central Association

    At the convention called by the [Norwegian Central] Association, twenty-four organizations were represented. The meeting was better than several other meetings that were held in the past year. The following people represented the different groups:

    The Tabitha Hospital Society, Dr. Carl Sandberg; Scandia Lodge No. 271, K. L. H., Mrs. Mary Monson; Ladies' Society Thora, Mrs. Bonsnes; Ladies' Society Mindet, Mrs. Lindberg; North Star Lodge No. 137, I. O. M. A., F. Nielsen; Nordmandenes [Norsemen's] Singing Society, Chas. Bergersen; Bjorgvin Singing Society, Julius Jaeger; the Norwegian Turner Society, Fred Keane; the Norwegian Sick Benefit Society Nordlyset, O. Holmont; the Norwegian Club, L. Hawkins; Leif Ericsson Monument Association, C. C. Christensen; Leif Ericsson Lodge No. 9, R. H. K., Edward M. Iverson; Society Nordlaendingen [North Landers], L. C. Olsen; Temperance Society Harmony, Hans Johnson; Society Sleipner, John W. Wold; the Scandinavian-American Prohibition Club, Carl Drolsum; Bethania Church, Anund A. Malum; 2Court Normania Lodge No. 174, I. O. F.; the Norwegian Quartet Club, B. Osland; the Norwegian Sharpshooters, Lars Johansen; Jordenskjold Lodge No. 15, R. H. K. Reverend Alfred Johnson and E. A. O. Haarvig came as representatives of the Savior's Lutheran Church.

    Dr. Sandberg, who was chairman of the Seventeenth of May committee, called the meeting to order. Elections were held and Dr. Carl Sandberg was elected chairman, and B. Osland was chosen as secretary. The chairman asked the delegates to give a report on whether or not their respective organizations would cooperate with the Central Association. The majority reported that their organizations were in accord with this important step. A resolutions committee was set up and began its functions at once. Another committee was appointed to work on drawing up a constitution and bylaws.

    One of the delegates made a motion that any Norwegian organization that had a few Danes or Swedes in their membership could become part of the Association.


    This motion was carried. Just before the meeting was adjourned, a motion was made and passed, that a separate law committee be set up, to be appointed by the chairman. Dr. Sandberg appointed the following: C. C. Christensen, chairman, Carl Drolsum, Louis Hawlins, Lars Johansen, John T. Johnson, Julius Jaeger, F. Kean, Mrs. Lindberg, Anton Mehlum, and Fred Nielsen. It now looks as though a strong Association has been formed.

    At the convention called by the [Norwegian Central] Association, twenty-four organizations were represented. The meeting was better than several other meetings that were held in the past year. The following ...

    III B 4, II B 1 a, II B 3, II D 10, III B 2, II D 3, II D 1, I B 1, III C, IV