The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Skandinaven -- August 31, 1889
    The Grand Army of the Republic

    The Scandinavian Regiment showed up sixty-four strong. That was a somewhat larger number than expected. A reunion was held after the parade. General Sherman greeted the Scandinavian veterans with a few well-chosen words. Mr. O. H. Lucken, the president of the regiment's organization, greeted the veterans and their friends.

    The Battle of Murfreesboro was especially commemorated. The Battle of Chicamauga, where many comrades fell, was also mentioned. The veterans had tears in their eyes, and many of them were unable to speak.

    The Chicagoan, Colonel Hans C. Heg who fell at Chicamauga, was remembered [and honored]by standing at attention for two minutes.

    A diary kept by Halvor Britton was read, and many an interesting episode from the sojourn in Libby Prison, was discussed.

    As the years go by, these reunions will become more and more interesting and sorrowful, because every year the "sixty-four" will dwindle.

    The Scandinavian Regiment showed up sixty-four strong. That was a somewhat larger number than expected. A reunion was held after the parade. General Sherman greeted the Scandinavian veterans with a ...

    Norwegian
    III D, I G, I C
  • Skandinaven -- November 12, 1889
    White Slave Flees

    A white slave is being held at the Harrison Street station. This sounds unbelievable in the nineteenth century, in the modern city of Chicago, and in the free republic of the United States, where about twenty years ago a bloody Civil War was fought to free Negro slaves. But today, a white woman is bought, sold, and mortgaged so that when she escapes she is arrested and accused of robbery.

    The white slave in question belongs to Marta Mayer, a brothel owner on Fourth Avenue. The slave's name is Marie Dubhene, and hardly fourteen years old. She is small and good looking, with an expression of fear in her eyes and face.

    According to her story, she has had three owners, being sold from one to the other. About five months ago, while working in Montreal, her home town, she was approached by a woman named Fawn Kittie, who persuaded Marie and a girl friend to come to Chicago. The girls had no money, so Fawn bought 2tickets to Chicago for them. They were taken to 78 4th Avenue, where Kittie received money from a woman by the name of Miss Julia. The next day Julia brought some clothing for the girls, for which they signed, and they were told it was a mortgage. One of the other inmates warned the girls if they tried to escape they would be arrested.

    About two weeks later, they were sent to 15 South Union Street. There the girls stayed a short while. When Marta Mayer returned, she paid money to the owner and took Marie to 130 4th Avenue.

    Last Saturday, Marie packed her clothes and escaped. An officer arrested her and brought her to the Police Station on the charge of robbery.

    We have several organizations here in Chicago which are supposed to take care of cases of this type. We sometimes wonder where these organizations are.

    A white slave is being held at the Harrison Street station. This sounds unbelievable in the nineteenth century, in the modern city of Chicago, and in the free republic of ...

    Norwegian
    II E 1, II E 3, I G
  • Skandinaven -- February 20, 1898
    Let War Come (Editorial)

    Every heart in the land is veiled in gloom and draped in sorrow for the brave boys who went down with the "Maine." Among our adopted citizens, grief is no less heartfelt and sincere than among those to the manor born. Our nation is made up of many nationalities that all blend into one under the magic power of the starry banner. Nearly all of them were represented on the "Maine." The officers were native-born Americans, while about one-half of the men were adopted citizens, born in the various countries of northern Europe. First among the foreign-born in numerical strength came the Scandinavians. The published roster shows forty-two Scandinavians, twenty-six Irishmen, fifteen Germans, etc. Less than twenty-five per cent of the Scandinavians were saved.

    Our adopted citizens mourn for the precious lives thus wantonly lost. But they do not shrink from the call of duty; on the contrary, they are ready 2for any sacrifice demanded by the honor of the flag and the welfare of our common country. This, it is believed, is true of our adopted citizens in general. The Skandinaven knows that it is true of all citizens of Scandinavian birth. They are a peaceful, law-abiding people; but if war must be waged for the sake of justice, liberty, and the honor of the flag, they know their duty and are eager to march at the first call of the bugle. They are not comforted by the assurance that "the people of the United States may possess their souls in peace--there will be no war with Spain." They regard such sentiments expressed at the present juncture as cowardly, not to say seditious. The majority of the Scandinavians of the United States think that a war with Spain ought to have been fought and finished long ago. In their judgment, it is the duty of this great republic to put a stop to Spanish injustice, cruelty, and barbarism in Cuba, to set the island free and to punish Spain's insults and treachery and crimes against our land and people. Any further delay of this act of justice adds to their impatience and weakens their faith in the Administration. While they recognize the grave responsibilities of President McKinley and respect his prudence, they feel that the patience and forbearance of this country have been exhausted 3and that the hour for final and decisive action is at hand. They are not anxious to "possess their souls" in a dishonorable peace. They are eager to assume their full share of the sacrifices of a just and honorable war.

    Every heart in the land is veiled in gloom and draped in sorrow for the brave boys who went down with the "Maine." Among our adopted citizens, grief is no ...

    Norwegian
    I G, I C
  • Skandinaven -- February 27, 1898
    Treason from the Pulpit (Editorial in English)

    The first note of treason in the present crisis has been sounded by a Catholic priest, Reverend F. Weber of St. Peter's Church. A few days ago, the pious father officiated at the funeral of a member of St. Peter's Commandery, Knights of St. John. After preaching his funeral sermon, he changed the subject and preached a sermon of politics. Referring to the probability of a war with Spain, he said that should such a war break out, it would be the duty of the members of the Commandery to take up arms against the United States. He added that it would be an excellent thing if President McKinley and his entire cabinet were blown up. This was probably intended as a helpful suggestion to the audience.

    This sounds well-nigh incredible; but the priest meant what he said and spoke from conviction. When asked why he had preached such a sermon he replied:

    2

    "I preached a Catholic sermon to Catholics. It is no one's business what I said. I simply told Catholics what their duty was in case the United States fought with Spain."

    It is reported that these treasonable teachings aroused the anger of the audience, and that the members of the Commandery have declared to a man that in the event of a war with Spain they will be found fighting under the starry banner. This may well be believed; the loyalty of an overwhelming majority of American Catholics is not to be doubted. But the seditious sermon of Reverend F. Weber will cast suspicion upon the church in the eyes of many people and, moreover, create distrust and uneasiness in many quarters, besides adding to the popular excitement at a time when calm counsels should prevail. For this reason, it would be well if the sermon were shorn of its power for evil by a clear declaration of Catholic loyalty made by some church dignitary whose authority to speak for the church must and would be recognized by the nation. It is needless to state that but for the foul mouthings of this Catholic priest, it neither would nor could have 3occurred to anybody to regard such action as either necessary or expedient. But since he has spoken as he did, and since he, upon reflection, has emphasized that what he preached was "a Catholic sermon to Catholics", it would seem that the nation had a right to insist upon an unequivocal and emphatic disavowal of this bold incitement to treason, made in the name of the church, either by a suspension of the offender from the ministry or by a clear declaration of loyalty enunciated by some one among his superiors in the government of the church.

    The first note of treason in the present crisis has been sounded by a Catholic priest, Reverend F. Weber of St. Peter's Church. A few days ago, the pious father ...

    Norwegian
    I G
  • Skandinaven -- March 06, 1898
    Prelates Have Spoken (Editorial in English)

    According to a press report, Reverend F. Weber, who preached the now notorious "Catholic sermon to Catholics", has been requested to leave the diocese. It is said that this priest hails from somewhere in the West; his particular place of residence is not given. Nothing has been heard from or about him since he sounded his note of open treason. He may have concluded that Spain has a more agreeable climate than the West.

    While no direct disavowal of the traitorous sermon has been made public, such men as Cardinal Gibbons and Archbishop Ireland have expressed their views upon the impending conflict and the attitude of the Catholic Church in the present crisis. Archbishop Ireland, who is generally regarded as the most 2gifted and aggressive spokesman of the more progressive wing of the Church in this country, says in an interview:

    "The Catholic Church assumes no attitude of any kind. It has not been called upon the scene. The fact that Spain is a Catholic nation matters nothing. The question is not one of religion. If there is a question at all, it is one of national and international right and nothing else."

    This is conservative and correct: "the question is not one of religion." Yet Ireland's utterances will be a disappointment to a large number of people who have read with admiration his many aggressively American speeches at patriotic gatherings. He says that in his opinion, "nothing has yet come to light that would call for a rupture between the United States and Spain." The larger question between the two countries is not the "Maine" disaster; the question that imperatively calls for a rupture of some kind is Cuba. But Archbishop Ireland does not even allude to this question, and hence it may be inferred that he is not in favor of American intervention in Cuba.

    3

    At a requiem Mass celebrated at the cathedral in Baltimore a few days ago, Cardinal Gibbons made an address and read the services of the dead. The Cardinal said in part:

    "I hope and believe, for the honor of humanity, that the destruction of the "Maine" was caused by an accident, and in that case Spain cannot be responsible. But suppose some fiendish Cuban had occasioned this fearful loss of life in order to embroil our nation in a war with his mother country? In that case Spain should not be held responsible. And even had some fanatical Spaniard perpetrated this atrocious crime, there would be no necessity for a recourse to arbitrament of the sword. The only circumstance that should warrant active hostilities would be the evidence that the Spanish government connived at the placing of torpedoes or explosives in the harbor of Havana to destroy our vessel. But I do not believe, and no sane man can believe, that a chivalric 4nation would be guilty of such inhumanity.

    "An able commission has been appointed by the government to investigate the cause of the disaster. Let us calmly and dispassionately await the result of their verdict and not anticipate their judgment. One thing is certain: this country knows how, in any emergency, to defend her honor and protect her interests."

    It will occur to some of our readers that His Eminence does not observe his own injunction to suspend judgment until the commission's verdict shall have been made known. He tries and decides the case in advance, both as to fact and law. He advances a theory that is absolutely unsupported by any scintilla of evidence thus far made public, namely, that the destruction was caused by some "fiendish Cuban." And he adds that "active hostilities are not warranted," unless it can be proven that"the Spanish government connived at the placing of torpedoes or explosives in the harbor of Havanna to destroy our vessel."

    5

    Everybody knows that such proof can never be furnished except by a direct confession of guilt by the Spanish government, and "no sane man can believe" that such a confession will ever be made by the government of His Catholic Majesty. In other words: While exhorting others to "await the result of the verdict and not anticipate the judgment of the commission," Cardinal Gibbons has argued Spain into a position where she is safe from "active hostilities" unless we should decide to wage an "unrighteous war" against her.

    It may be that His Eminence did not intend to take such an extreme position, but it is fair to assume that the bearing and force of every word uttered on this solemn occasion were weighed and well considered. Neither can it be denied that the conclusion reached is based upon the logic of his own words. Cardinal Gibbons is the honored head of the Catholic Church in the United States. His address was pre-eminently "a Catholic sermon to Catholics." Hence it will be regretted that he should have seen fit to render an advance decision in the "Maine" case which may put our country in the light of waging an "unrighteous war" in the eyes of those who look to the Cardinal for guidance; 6for nothing is more certain than that Cardinal Gibbons' doctrine of Spanish responsibility never will be accepted at Washington, except by a handful of Spanish "cuckoos" in the capital.

    If citizens may raise the question of the"unrighteousness" of a war waged by the government of the nation, they may also consider it a duty to follow the advice of Reverend F. Weber and take up arms against the United States. The loyalty and patriotism of Cardinal Gibbons himself are not doubted by any fair-minded citizen. But we have some ignorant people in this country who are as yet untouched by the spirit of American patriotism, and for the benefit of such people, every citizen whose words are a law unto many men should speak so clearly and definitely that not even the dullest can mistake his meaning.

    The majority of the American people do not share the views of His Eminence on "Spanish Chivalry". Spanish history reveals nothing chivalric to them. Spain, the motherland of the Inquisition, has always been an implacable enemy to 7liberty. Her history is a forbidding drama of oppression, cruelty, and treachery, continued from one century to another. In the western world, the most inhuman, wholesale shedding of innocent blood has marked the trail of Spanish rule from the days of Columbus up to the present time. Even such an atrocious crime as blowing up the "Maine" pales before the fiendish inhumanity practiced by Weyler in Cuba with the sanction of the Spanish government. Not even Turkish history presents anything so utterly abhorrent and forbidding. The Turks have slaughtered their enemies by putting them to the sword. But the policy of exterminating a people of 1,500,000 souls by starvation and thus end a war that Spain has shown herself unable to win in honorable warfare --such a hellish policy is their conception of "chivalric Spain", and of no other nation upon the face of the earth.

    A nation that can adopt and execute such an unspeakable crime against humanity is in the opinion of the majority of the American people, capable of any act of inhumanity.

    According to a press report, Reverend F. Weber, who preached the now notorious "Catholic sermon to Catholics", has been requested to leave the diocese. It is said that this priest ...

    Norwegian
    I G
  • Skandinaven -- March 25, 1898
    He Must Not Land (Editorial in English)

    It is reported that Marshal Blanco has resigned and that Weyler is to succeed him.

    The butcher must not be permitted to land. Much as our tars and boys in blue would like to get a chance at the monster, they must forego this pleasure. If Weyler is allowed to land in Cuba, he will quickly complete his work of destroying the whole population of the island by starvation and wholesale slaughter of the "reconcentrados" who are penned up in walled towns and camps. This would be done so throughly that Cuban liberty--if it shall dawn at last-- would look upon a land of complete desolation and death, relieved only by the mocking laughter of the Spanish murderers, and with none left to enjoy the blessings of freedom.

    Our government will not stoop to protest against Weyler's return. But it 2will see to it that he does not get an opportunity to tread Cuban soil again. It will dispatch some swift vessels to look out for him and pick him up or send him and his gang of murderers to the bottom of the sea. Let the government take notice.

    It is reported that Marshal Blanco has resigned and that Weyler is to succeed him. The butcher must not be permitted to land. Much as our tars and boys in ...

    Norwegian
    I G
  • Skandinaven -- March 27, 1898
    Now They Are "Concerned"

    "The influence of the Pope is being exerted in both the United States and Spain to avert hostilities. Two great motives are said to sway the conduct of Leo (XIII). He would avoid the dangers that would threaten the throne of Spain should a war occur. A great European power would be pleased if he could dispel the war cloud.' It is the Austrian Emperor, who would also spare his kinswoman, the Spanish Queen Regent, the threatened dangers.

    "The Roman Church holds authority in Cuba through a concordat. It was executed by the Vatican and the Spanish Government. Certain powers are hereby given the Church. She holds a position in Cuba established by law. The independence of the island would necessarily shatter this work of Papal diplomacy.

    "It is said the Queen Regent has personally appealed to Leo XIII. That he has responded favorably there is no doubt."

    2

    If the Pope is anxious to avert war, let him tell the Spaniards to get out of Cuba as fast as ships will take them. Nothing short of unconditional surrender and evacuation of the island can now stay the hand of the United States. If they get out quickly enough, the contempt of the American people for the nation of cruelty, torture, and assassination may save it from deserved punishment for the crime of blowing up the "Maine".

    Pope Leo XIII ranks high as a statesman and diplomat, and his representatives in this country are men of eminent ability. He ought to know that any effort on his part to exert influence in Washington in behalf of Spain is, at this stage, a profitless waste of time. The Pope, as well as the Emperor of Austria, has had ample time to intercede with Spain in behalf of the Cubans. They have not done it. For three long years, the Catholics of Cuba have been butchered and starved and tortured to death by the minions of "His Holy Catholic Majesty". But the pitiful appeals of the Cubans found no response either in the Vatican or in Vienna.

    3

    Now that the United States is determined to stop this unspeakable crime against humanity and civilization, we are informed that the Pope is very much concerned about the fate of the Spanish dynasty, and the privileges of the Catholic Church in Cuba, while the Emperor of Austria would protect his kinswoman from danger. Why did they not listen to the agonizing cries of hundred of thousands of Christian women in Cuba, praying not for privileges but for protection against their Christian torturers and assassins?

    By their silence, by their tacit approval of the Spanish barbarities in Cuba, they have forfeited whatever rights they may have had to speak upon the Cuban question. The American people are now going to settle this business. They need no advice from Emperor or Pope; they have asked for none and want none. They will liberate Cuba, let the Spanish dynasty and concordat stand or fall! They will set the oppressed and suffering people free--free to rule themselves under self-made laws and free to worship according to their light.

    "The influence of the Pope is being exerted in both the United States and Spain to avert hostilities. Two great motives are said to sway the conduct of Leo (XIII). ...

    Norwegian
    I G, I J
  • Skandinaven -- April 01, 1898
    The Same Old Play (Editorial in English)

    Grover Cleveland and his sturdy Secretary of State were as putty in the hands of De Lome, who made them believe that there was no war in Cuba and that the butcher Weyler himself was an angel from heaven.

    There has been a change of casts and a shifting of the stage setting both in Madrid and Washington, but the same performance is still going on upon the boards. The wily Sagasta is playing with McKinley and his cabinet precisely as De Lome hoodwinked Grover Cleveland and his advisers. There are good and strong men in the present cabinet, but it looks very much as if a majority of its members are old grannies compared with a man with the cunning of Sagasta. Neither the President nor his advisers are a 2match for Sagasta at diplomatic fencing. The longer they keep it up the more assured will be their ultimate defeat.

    It is generally believed the President has submitted certain milk-and-water propositions to Spain. His "policy" is a mistake from the start. We owe no courtesy whatever to a nation of murderers. By every law of civilization and humanity, Spain has forfeited her rights to Cuba. For the government at Washington to appear at her door as a supplicant for concessions is compatible neither with the dignity of this land nor with the sense of justice and honor of our people.

    The only dignified proposition that President McKinley can, or could have, submitted to Spain is that she get out of Cuba instantly, unless she prefer to be driven out. If such action is not in line with his much advertised "policy", the best he can do is to get out of the way of Congress.

    Grover Cleveland and his sturdy Secretary of State were as putty in the hands of De Lome, who made them believe that there was no war in Cuba and that ...

    Norwegian
    I G
  • Skandinaven -- April 09, 1898
    The "Concert" of the Powers (Editorial in English)

    The presentation of the joint memorandum of the powers to President McKinley on Thursday was in many respects an historic event, though the scene probably was more picturesque than momentous. Never before in the history of this land have the representatives of the great powers of Europe appeared in a body before the President of the American Republic as bearers of a joint message from the powers urging a definite line of action upon our government in its dealings with a foreign country. The scene was showy and pompous, but in reality it was merely a pretty piece of diplomatic theatricals. This particular "concert" of the great powers had even less significance than the many similar performances that have been given by them in recent years in various parts of the world. Their memorandum addressed to Spain meant something; addressed to this country it meant nothing.

    2

    If it had contained anything beyond a set of pretty general phrases, Great Britain, Russia, and perhaps other powers also would have withheld their cooperation. But there was no reason why they should not join in a message that must be regarded as an empty formality so far as this country is concerned, inasmuch as they might hope that their simultaneous joint demonstration in Madrid would give the Spanish government a much needed excuse for surrender.

    But if this "diplomatic action" is to be regarded merely as "diplomatic play" from the point of view of the powers, there was nothing perfunctory about the address of President McKinley. In reply to their "pressing appeal" to the feelings of humanity and moderation of the President and the American people, the President directed their attention to the condition in Cuba, which is "shocking the sentiment of the American nation". While appreciating "the humanitarian and disinterested character" of their communication, he expressed confidence that "equal appreciation will be shown for the earnest and unselfish endeavors of our government to fulfill a duty to humanity".

    3

    Their delicate suggestion and "earnest hope that further negotiations will lead to an agreement" is met by the President with the statement that the situation in Cuba "has become insufferable".

    The President's answer was firm and dignified and as emphatic as diplomatic etiquette would permit. He told the powers in plain language that considerations of humanity demand not inaction but action in Cuba, that this country proposes to fulfill its duty to humanity, and that Europe must keep her hands off the Cuban question.

    This demonstration of the powers was probably welcomed by our government, as it emphasized the fact that the "resources of diplomacy are exhausted", so far as this country is concerned, and also afforded our government an opportunity to place our policy with its motives and unalterable purpose before the world and beyond the power of further Spanish misrepresentations.

    4

    President McKinley's firm stand on this occasion will go far towards restoring his prestige with those who have been impatient under his policy of apparently endless delay.

    The presentation of the joint memorandum of the powers to President McKinley on Thursday was in many respects an historic event, though the scene probably was more picturesque than momentous. ...

    Norwegian
    I G
  • Skandinaven -- April 10, 1898
    The News Again (Editorial in English)

    The Chicago Daily News of yesterday gives an account of the rush of volunteers at Quartermaster Lee's office and says in part:

    "The Swedish sailors were a detachment of hardy Norsemen, all veterans of king Oscar's fleet or of the Swedish merchant service. They had decided that dry land and the lakes offered few attractions as compared with the "bounding main", and that war for their adopted "country" was a peculiarly proper method of getting back to the element they love so well. So, the Swedes--a superb-looking crowd of mariners--crowded into the hydrographic office, put down their names, and, when the hour of battle comes, will be on the big ironclads or in the turrets of the monitors."

    2

    The "Swedish sailors" who enlist will give a splendid account of themselves. But the majority of the so-called "Swedish sailors" in Chicago are Norwegians. By consulting The Daily News Almanac, our contemporary may ascertain that the merchant marine of Sweden is small compared with that of Norway. Norway's army of sturdy seamen is more than twice as large as that of Sweden.

    The majority of sailors on our Great Lakes are Scandinavians, and among them the Norwegians are in a decided majority. In Chicago there are at least three Norwegian sailors to one Swedish; hence it is fair to assume that three out of every four Scandinavian sailors enlisting in this city are Norwegian tars, or "sturdy Norsemen" in the proper sense of this term.

    Many people cannot understand why the Daily News is unable to treat Norway or Norwegians in common fairness.

    3

    It would seem that it is a settled policy in the News office to ignore Norway and her people, or, if that cannot be done, to insult them by slurs and misrepresentations. Norwegians are loath to think that the hostility shown by the Daily News to everything Norwegian can be accounted for by the fact that the Proprietor of the News was born of Norwegian parents.

    The Chicago Daily News of yesterday gives an account of the rush of volunteers at Quartermaster Lee's office and says in part: "The Swedish sailors were a detachment of hardy ...

    Norwegian
    I C, II A 2, III D, I G