The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Lietuva -- December 10, 1892
    How Lithuanians of Today Ought to Look Toward Poles and Their Language

    On this question I will give a short answer.

    Lithuanians of today should not fancy about Polish language, because that language will not help us in Lithuania, nor in America. In America, it is understood by all, that the English language is a necessity to everyone, that without the English language a man cannot exist. In Lithuania under the Russian government, was a Russian language, under Germany, was German language. Lithuanians must turn to that side which is most beneficial to them. Although we cannot hold Poles as our enemies, we are obliged to give them as much rights, just as much as to Germans, French and other nations. Today all the enlightened in the world, except the rich and the rulers, are anxious to have freedom for humanity in material and spiritual needs and for this reason we cannot be intolerant towards other nations. Of course, we cannot forget our own language, which must be first to Lithuanians.

    Patriotism is necessary, but it must not be extreme fanaticism. It would be beneficial if every nation would once in a while raise the question of cosmopolitanism.

    Memersys

    The skylark.

    On this question I will give a short answer. Lithuanians of today should not fancy about Polish language, because that language will not help us in Lithuania, nor in America. ...

    Lithuanian
    I C, III H
  • Lietuva -- December 10, 1892
    The First Celebration -- National Holiday -- Chicago

    Chicago, November 24, 1892, eight o'clock in the evening the local L. M. D. celebrated the anniversary of the death of S. Daukantas, the philologist and magister of the University of Vilno. The meeting was held at Mr. Szimkiewicia's Hall, 811 South Halsted St. J. Szimkiewiczia was elected chairman of the meeting. The speakers of the evening were Mr. Bradczulis and Masionis.

    P. Masionis spoke about the life of S. Daukantas, and why we must respect our great men. P. Kazlauskas spoke about Polanized Lithuanians and the beauty of our own language. P. Szimkiewicze and Pacewicze spoke about the great men of Lithuania. The most important speaker was Mr. Bradczulis.

    He spoke that our ancestors, more than 1,000 years B. C. came to Europe from Asia. He said, according to philologists, archeologists and historians, that in Central Asia, in the province of Hindustan, they discover a Sanscrit nation which is recognized as the oldest nation, that the Lithuanian language has the closest resemblance to the Sanscrit language. That our ancestors moved north, to improve their economical conditions.

    We find relics of Lithuanians in Greece. There are many names of people and places showing a close resemblance to Lithuanian names. We also find many Lithuanian names in Bulgaria. There are many cuts on stones of the Lithuanian emblem of the knight. There are many places and rivers with Lithuanian names. At that time Lithuanians used the Ruthenian alphabet.

    2

    The history of Lithuanians was written for us by the great historian and writer S. Daukantas.

    That many Lithuanian writers wrote in other languages, especially in Polish. Lithuanian writers made Polish literature world famous.

    In this assembly tonight we are proud to remember our great benefactor in history and literature, Simonas Daukantas.

    Chicago, November 24, 1892, eight o'clock in the evening the local L. M. D. celebrated the anniversary of the death of S. Daukantas, the philologist and magister of the University ...

    Lithuanian
    III B 3 a, II B 1 d, III H, I C, IV
  • Lietuva -- February 16, 1893
    "Nationalism and Catholicism."

    Today we hear very often among Lithuanians especially the long skirted priests that Lithuania without Catholic faith would be without any organization and even would forget its own language. Not only faith but fanaticism is very essential to Lithuanians, it is a protection against our enemies who want to destroy Catholicism, while Catholicism is the strongest foundation of Lithuania. If at present Catholicism would be destroyed, Lithuanianism would collapse at once. The people would become cosmopolitan, they would be very easily converted into other nationality.

    Let us examine closely such talk. Is not this beneficial to only one class under the cover of good intention for nationalism?

    The question arises what were the benefits of strong faith and fanaticism when we look back to history we find the horrors of Catholicism in the Spanish inquisition that killed more than 100,000 people in a few years, and this was for the sake of merciful God. And let us add the men of science who were prosecuted, denounced and burned on the pyre. Let us remember the life of the first Christians and of the Christians of today-- or of a few centuries ago.

    Do they or did they practice what they advocate -- love thy neighbor as thyself?

    Where Catholicism had its power, like in Germany, France and Poland, people of those countries did not know what nationalism meant. Is this not a fact that Catholicism destroyed the independence of Poland and Ireland? Is this not 2 a fact that wherever Catholicism lost its power, like in France, Germany and England, than and only then, those countries made progress? What big industrial progress made England and United States, and why? Because those countries were not under the control of Catholicism. While Italy, is still in the depths of darkness, just because the is under the yoke of Catholic fanaticism.

    In Lithuania the Catholic clergy did not care to educate the people, kept them in darkness. But when reformation arose, Lithuania began to teach Lithuanians to read prayers, not because the clergy cared to educate the people, but in order to stop Lithuanians from adopting the Lutheran faith.

    Lithuania for the last five hundred years was ruled by Catholic clergymen. They brought slavery, exploitation and demoralization. That Catholicism is the most industrious is in manufacturing saints.

    We must understand that only through science we will obtain freedom. We were long enough under the black skirt of fanaticism.

    Today we hear very often among Lithuanians especially the long skirted priests that Lithuania without Catholic faith would be without any organization and even would forget its own language. Not ...

    Lithuanian
    III C, I B 4, III H
  • Lietuva -- February 25, 1893
    The Real Truth

    This article is scornfully written about the Lithuanian priest Kolesinski, against whom the committee of thirteen made protest in the same issue of Lietuva.

    It states that during the rebellion of Poles in 1863 the priest lived in Lithuania, and that the priest raped many young Lithuanian girls; that the Russian government for his immorality exiled the priest to Siberia. The priest escaped from Siberia and came to the United States.

    Then the same priest had a church in Pittston, Pennsylvania. The priest began to act immorally -- attacked a saloon-keeper's wife. But as she was a moral woman she called up her husband, then both of them beat the priest. About the dissolute manners of this priest, those people notified bishop O'Hara of Scranton, Pennsylvania. The bishop unfrocked the priest. Then this unfrocked priest wrote a letter to the bishop in Lithuania, telling that bishop that he had lost his consecration papers. So the bishop from Lithuania sent to this priest other papers.

    Now, the Lithuanians of Chicago ought to know with whom they are dealing and what a dissolute man the priest is.

    By Pittstonian friend of the priest.

    This article is scornfully written about the Lithuanian priest Kolesinski, against whom the committee of thirteen made protest in the same issue of Lietuva. It states that during the rebellion ...

    Lithuanian
    III C, III H
  • Lietuva -- May 20, 1893
    A Report of the Meeting of the Lithuanian Independent Political Club

    A meeting was held by the Lithuanian Independent Political Club on May 14, 1893, 1 P. M., at the Lithuanian church hall, Bridgeport.

    At first the committee reported the speech of President Grover Cleveland delivered at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago. President Cleveland said that he, as President, can do nothing further, because the Senate has passed and signed the agreement between the United States and Russia. The Senate passed a law that when the Russian government wished to get any of her citizens from the United States, the case must go through the courts. If the court decides to deport the fugitive Russian, then he will be transferred to Russia.

    The agreement between the United States and Russia was to deport Russia's criminals to Russia. Lithuanian, Polish and Russian political fugitives 2know that Russia has a net of spies in the United States. When Russian spies find any political leader who is active among his people in this country, then the Russian spies will make a false report to the United States government that such a political leader is a fugitive from Russia as a criminal. Russia will produce false witnesses against such a political fugitive. Therefore, according to this agreement, the United States government must deport such a political fugitive as a criminal, even though he was incriminated falsely by Russia.

    At this meeting speakers declared that all people from Russia are political fugitives and that we Lithuanians must unite and fight against the monster dragon of Russia. That the Russian dragon is not satisfied with sucking the blood of the oppressed people in Russia, but is sneaking into this free country seeking for victims to satisfy this dragon's lust for blood.

    3

    Furthermore, the Russian dragon had its hypocritical war with Turkey to free Roumania and Bulgaria from the Turkish yoke. Who were the best soldiers and officers in the Russian army during the Russo-Turkish war? Why, the Lithuanians! The Lithuanian sons won the war, and the Russian dragon, the oppressor of humanity, gets the credit!

    If Russia in reality fought the Turk in order to free the Christians in Roumania and Bulgaria of the Turkish yoke, why then, brother Lithuanians, does not Russia free Lithuania? If the Russian dragon fought the war against the Turk, for the sake of Christianity, why then is the same Russian dragon keeping our mother country under its yoke? The Russian dragon suppressed our language, even the prayer books in the Lithuanian language being prohibited. And for reading prayer books in the Lithuanian language our sons are exiled to Siberia.

    4

    Now this Russian dragon is not satisfied with the blood of his victims, but this terrible dragon is seeking for more victims in this free country of America.

    We Lithuanians must devote ourselves, all our energy and effort, to help the oppressed people to overthrow the great dragon of Russia.

    S. Dargewicz, Secretary.

    A meeting was held by the Lithuanian Independent Political Club on May 14, 1893, 1 P. M., at the Lithuanian church hall, Bridgeport. At first the committee reported the speech ...

    Lithuanian
    III B 1, III H, I C
  • Lietuva -- May 20, 1893
    A Voice to Brother Lithuanians, May 18, 1893, Chicago, Illinois (Synopsis of long article)

    Dearest of all things to us Lithuanians is our own language, because our language is the most beautiful. Our ancestors fought, shed their blood, lay down their lives in order to save their language and the independence of their country.

    Many Lithuanians here in Chicago don't care to speak Lithuanian language, they willingly are speaking the Russian, or the Polish language. No matter where you go, you will hear Lithuanians speaking broken Polish. This is a disgrace to all such Lithuanians. They disregard their own mother language and mother country.

    We were oppressed by the Russian government in Lithuania, we were forced to use the Russian language. But in this free country of America nobody prosecutes us for speaking our own language, and to read newspapers and books in the Lithuanian language.

    We must remember our brave ancestors and other great men, they struggled and worked for the benefit of our language and country.

    F. Wenskewiczia.

    Dearest of all things to us Lithuanians is our own language, because our language is the most beautiful. Our ancestors fought, shed their blood, lay down their lives in order ...

    Lithuanian
    III A, III H
  • Lietuva -- February 24, 1894
    [Guard of Grand Duke Vytantas Organized]

    The Chicago Lithuanians organized [gap]

    The society will be Catholic, and on every church holiday this society will come to celebrate in military uniforms. Every member of this society must go to a confession at least once a year.

    We organized this society in order to take up military drill, in case of war in our country with Russia in orderV to be ready to help our brothers.

    We Lithuanians must show to other nations how brave we were in the time of Vytantas the Great, when he with the great Lithuanian army crushed the German crusaders at Grunwald.

    We are asking all Lithuanians [gap] join our new military society.

    The Chicago Lithuanians organized <span class="gap">[gap]</span> The society will be Catholic, and on every church holiday this society will come to celebrate in military uniforms. Every member of this society ...

    Lithuanian
    III C, III H, I G
  • Lietuva -- April 28, 1894
    About the Lithuanian Theater in Chicago

    Last Sunday, April 22, the Lithuanian Theatrical Group presented the well-known and famous play "Genevieve."

    The sponsors of this play knew that the Lithuanians do not care much to go to see such a play, because they do not know the value of such a spectacle. The sponsors of this play asked the Reverend Krauczunas to announce in the church about this performance. Reverend Krauczunas very gladly announced it and urged the people to come and see this wonderful spectacle.

    The actors did their parts wonderfully. The people saw one of the greatest religious plays, and the devotion of a wife to her husband. There was not one dry eye among the spectators.

    The play was a great success not only spiritually but financially as well. The profit was donated to the people of Kraziai, Lithuania, where the terrible massacre of Lithuanians was committed by the Russian Cossacks under the order of the Russian government.

    Lithuanians will remember this spectacle for a long time.

    Last Sunday, April 22, the Lithuanian Theatrical Group presented the well-known and famous play "Genevieve." The sponsors of this play knew that the Lithuanians do not care much to go ...

    Lithuanian
    II B 1 c 1, II D 10, III H, IV
  • Lietuva -- December 23, 1898
    My Vindication against the Charges by Rev. Krawczunas

    Whereas the Rev. Krawczunas attacked me personally without any foundation, I am forced to repel the attack and answer the charges. In No. 49 of Lietuva, the readers have seen the complaints brought by Rev. Krawczunas against me before two societies: Simonas Daukantas and St. Casimir. Rev. Krawczunas charges against me (1) that I broke the laws of the church and the by-laws, and that I have separated from the Roman-Catholic church; (2) that I wanted to appropriate the church land, that I am raising disturbances for wrongful assignment of the church property; (3) that I have mocked the nuns as the Russians have done in Kraziai. (Kraziai is a small town in Lithuania. In previous writings I have related the massacre of the Lithuanian Catholics by the Russian Cossacks in that small town. This massacre of the Lithuanian Catholicas was prearranged by the parish priest of Karaziai in such a manner as to deceive the Lithuanian Catholics.

    2

    When one says something against the priest, they always say that you are doing like the Russians at Kraziai); (4) that without foundation I attack the secrecy of the confession, etc.

    (1) I pray the Rev. Krawczunas to show when I separated from the Roman-Catholic church. The same this year as every year I went to confession in your church and gave $10 for it. Previously I gave more: in 1896, $25; 1895, $13. I took the nuptial vows in your church. Does this mean separation from the church?

    (2) What land of the church was I trying to appropriate? Is it the land where in the past year I laid a sidewalk? The land at that time belonged to the city. When the city gave it to the church I removed my sidewalk, wrote a letter to you and asked you to occupy the land. Is this the breaking of the church laws and the constitution?

    3

    (3) Raising the turmoil for assignment of the church property to the Catholic bishop of Chicago as a corporation sale. Of course, such assignment is not right. If this were all the Catholic nations would have their church property assigned to the bishop. In Chicago the Germans, French, Czechs, etc., have their church property deeded in the name of the parish, while the bishop is only a trustee. Why then is the Polish and the Lithuanian church property deeded in the bishop's name only? Do the Lithuanians and the Poles belong to some other God?

    (4) When and which nuns have I ever mocked? We did not criticize the nuns for being nuns, but we did say that if they are Polish they do not know the Lithuanian language; they cannot teach the Lithuanian children. You and your nuns are destroying Lithuanianism. If all the parish schools would do as you are doing, in a few years no Lithuanian names would remain. Is this mocking of the nuns? All 4the Lithuanian priests, not only in America, but in Europe, too, are condemning your Polish nuns. Some of the priests are begging us to criticize you as long as you keep the Polish nuns. Therefore, according to the Rev. Krawczunas, all the other priests are also infidels, and all the Lithuanian societies must be under the control of Rev. Krawczunas.

    (5) Did I speak without grounds about your detestable acts perpetrated at the confession? You have seized my private letter written to A. Kalasauskas. You wrongfully stated its contents (saying) that I was trying to persuade the wife of Mr. Kalasauskas to quit him because I wanted to marry Kalasauskas to another woman. They who have read my letter found that I never wrote such a letter. That at the confession 5you have tried to separate a young wife from her husband is known not by me alone, but also by more than one hundred people. This woman even today condemns you for such an evil confession. When that woman asked you what she should do, how could she live, who would support her after she left her husband, you told her to come to the rectory to live with you, that you would support her. Such was the purpose of your confession, to persuade women to quit their husbands! Is it right for the priest to do that? Even the lowest hoodlum would be ashamed of such an act. Am I guilty on that account? And for this exposure of your conduct you want to expel me from society.

    I did not start to pick a quarrel with you, although I had watched your detestable behavior, but I pretended that I did not understand your activities. The trouble between us came over the school, which is the greatest public object of our national affairs. To improve the schools is the duty of every Lithuanian who loves his nation, 6in order that the Polish leprosy may not torture our nation any more. This Polish disease has killed many Lithuanians since Vagiello. We, as good Lithuanians, are wishing the best for our school. We were not against the nuns because they are nuns, but because we are against the Polanization of our children in the Lithuanian schools. And for this the honorable priest is attacking and insulting me.

    Anton Olszewski.

    Whereas the Rev. Krawczunas attacked me personally without any foundation, I am forced to repel the attack and answer the charges. In No. 49 of Lietuva, the readers have seen ...

    Lithuanian
    III C, IV, I B 4, II B 2 d 1, I A 2 a, III H
  • Lietuva -- January 13, 1899
    The New Newspaper

    A new newspaper has appeared in Chicago under the name Katalikas, (The Catholic), published by the Rev. Krawczunas. The newspaper in its first issue states that its efforts will be to enlighten and to educate the Lithuanians in the Catholic spirit. Further, it gives an explanation of the holiday of the Three Kings, then the news from Lithuania, the news of the world and the news from America. Then the article, "The Maidens Mountain," (Panu Kalnas) and the story of the debtor. Instruction to the priests on how to preach sermons and about Lithuanian orthography.

    In the last instructive article it seems that they have taken the old material about the Lithuanian philology. Whereas the majority of the philologists of today state that the Lithuanian language is distinct, not related to the Slavonic languages, and they are 2holding that the Lithuanian language is older than the German and the Roman languages; that the Lithuanians in Europe lived on the Baltic Sea before the coming of the Germans and Slavs. This is recognized by many scientists. The Slavic philologists say that the Lithuanian language is not related to the Slavonic languages; also the German philologists admit that the Lithuanian language is not related to the German language.

    Even though this new newspaper is issued to fight against us, yet we are cordially greeting it without any envy. If the editor of this newspaper succeeds in bringing the people who are not reading any newspaper nor books to read his newspaper, this will be a great accomplishment. We are heartily wishing the paper success. Besides this we believe that Rev. Krawczunas, by having his own newspaper, will at last give an account of the condition of the parish budget, and will do away with all the scandal. In like manner he may explain why he is 3supporting with Lithuanian money the Polish school, where for instruction of the Lithuanian language, as we have heard, he gives only one hour per day to the teaching of Lithuanian by those who do not understand it.

    For whose benefit is he supporting the school? It is known very well that even in the province of Suvalki in Lithuania, the Russian government gave a better place for the Lithuanian language.

    (R. Tr.: At that time in Lithuania, the Russian government prohibited the publishing of newspapers and books in the Lithuanian language).

    A new newspaper has appeared in Chicago under the name Katalikas, (The Catholic), published by the Rev. Krawczunas. The newspaper in its first issue states that its efforts will be ...

    Lithuanian
    II B 2 d 1, III C, I A 2 a, I C, III H, IV