The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Lietuva -- May 12, 1905
    Driver's Strike

    A driver's strike is now in progress. As a matter of fact strikes in Chicago are not unusual; they occur more often here than in any other city in the United States. It is a well known fact, that workers do not benefit much by striking. During the strikes they suffer great hardships, while fighting for their meager existence, and often they lose the battle against capitalists. If sometimes they do succeed in getting their salary raised at least five cents per hour; they have to pay twice as much for the necessities of life. These are the results of the strike; in other words, they won but lost in another sense of the word. One might say, in fact, that they gained nothing.

    The capitalists exploit these poor workers and make them slaves of present day society. The poor worker is powerless, everybody is against him- government, 2police, capitalists and industrialists. There is no justice for a poor working man, who makes his living honestly and pays his taxes to the government as a good citizen. If a worker uses diplomatic means to get his salary raised he gets nothing, and if he goes on strike to get his salary raised, he gets a club over his head from brass button cops. And that is justice!

    The best thing for a working man is to take life as it comes. Suffer hardships, poverty, keep silent and love God. That is what capitalists want every working man to do. But if a poor worker tries to improve his living conditions, he will meet strong opposition and he will be disliked by the capitalists. If attempts are made to throw off the capitalistic yoke under which they are bound, hand and foot,police clubs are put into action, soldiers' bullets fly, and workers are thre into jails as if they were criminals and murderers. It is most disgusting to see the workers treated so cruely by the capitalists. Animals are treated better the human beings.

    I wonder if the poor workers, who are being looked upon as insignificant beings by the city government, remember that these very same city officials were 3candidates in the last election for offices in the city government.

    Maybe workers who are mistreated now by the city government voted democratic for Mayor Dunne in the last election. What good did he do for the workers who put him in the office?

    Now, he is sending a police force against the very people who put him in the Mayor's office. This is the Chicago Mayor's gratitude to the workers who elected him. This is how he repays them.

    If all workers had voted the socialist ticket during the last election, we probably would not have any strikes today; or if we had, at least the government would not serve the capitalists blindly, it would uphold justice.

    It is to be regretted that unity does not exist among our workers today. They cannot accomplish anything worth while for the future if they do not unite and again vote the socialist ticket, at the next election.

    4

    The workers realized their mistake after it was too late.

    When they have a chance to accomplish something they seem to sell their votes for a glass of beer to dishonest politicians,and capitalists who are their greatest enemy and who want to keep them in ignorance and in slavery. These dishonest politicians are not interested in the welfare of the workers who helped to elect them, and put them on the city payroll, with big salaries. They are well contented, why should they worry about the workingman's welfare.

    During the period they are in office, they become rich and prosperous while the condition of the poor workers become worse and worse. The labor situation in Chicago as it is today, is deplorable. Nobody seems to be interested enough to take the initiative in combatting these evils in our great city of Chicago. I wonder if workers are able to understand the unjust state of affairs under which they live. Will they understand later what to do, and how to eradicate the social evils which exist? Will they cease selling their votes to their exploiters for a glass of beer? Will they vote the socialist ticket for the man who is interested in the welfare of the workers, The future will tell whether labor has awakened to the fact that it is being exploited by unscrupulous politicians 5and capitalists. It would seem that the workers are not working for their own benefit, but for those who exploit them. The workers are too gullible because they are ignorant. Ignorance is due to a lack of proper education. Ignorant people can be exploited much easier than those who have an education and a proper training. It is obvious that workers will never have any understanding of the situation, if they remain uneducated.

    An education is the key to heaven not only after death, but also while on this earth. If we wish to find happiness here, both men and women alike, must strive for education, for after all every one of us should be interested in attaining a greater happiness.

    It is obvious that under present conditions, the poor workers do not have enough available time for and education, They have to work very long hours in shops. Hence our social system will not allow them to improve themselves and raise their standard of living. They are made slaves of industry and politicians. They have very few 6chances of obtaining any schooling themselves and almost equally meager are the possibilities that the children may ever attain a higher education than the parents have. Only a rich man's son can afford to go to college under present conditions, no poor man's son. A poor man can hardly support his own family with his earnings, so it becomes next to impossible for his children to go to college. So, what chance has a laborer to educate his children under our present social organization. His chances for sending his children to college are very poor indeed."

    The government should help workers and their children as much as possible. The government should build colleges and universities and make them accessible to workingmen's children, who can not afford to go to private colleges.

    A driver's strike is now in progress. As a matter of fact strikes in Chicago are not unusual; they occur more often here than in any other city in the ...

    Lithuanian
    I D 2 a 4, I D 2 a 2, I D 1 a, I A 1 a, I F 6, I H
  • Lietuva -- August 31, 1906
    The Horrors of the Sweat Shops

    The unspeakable conditions of the sweat shops in Chicago and the unspeakable exploitation of the workers is overlooked by the federal government and the city authorities. Men and women must bring clothes to their homes to be worked upon. Sanitary supervisor Hedrick wants to force the city officials to stop this inhuman and unsanitary exploitation of the poor.

    One day's investigation brought the following results:

    He came to the homes of the people who were taking clothes from the factory to finish in their living rooms. He found men and women working hard in their own homes in order to make more money for their miserable living. He found in one house a husband, wife, her brother, four small daughters and a child eight months old. This house is dirty; water leaks from the sink. He found a pile of clothes brought from the factory. The payment is ten cents for a dozen pairs of pants. If they worked hard enough they could make four dozen pairs of pants a week, that is, forty cents.

    2

    At another place he saw a woman carrying on her head a bundle of clothes. He followed her into her house. She was Italian and could not speak English, so they conversed by using their fingers. The woman told him that she gets four cents for making a dozen pairs of pants.

    Mr. Hedrick went to many such places and found the most unsanitary conditions in such houses. Then he went to the clothing factory and found there unsanitary conditions also.

    Mr. Hedrick says that he will look into the horrors of sweat shop exploitation in order to get rid of it. We doubt very much whether he will succeed because to the federal and the city officials graft is more important than the lives of the people.

    The unspeakable conditions of the sweat shops in Chicago and the unspeakable exploitation of the workers is overlooked by the federal government and the city authorities. Men and women must ...

    Lithuanian
    I H
  • Lietuva -- November 09, 1906
    The Philippine Island Problem

    President Theodore Roosevelt is promising the Philippine people their own parliament. When the Philippine constitution will be made by the American Senate and Congress, it will bring nothing good to the Philippine people. It will be like the Russian Duma. According to the project only those Filipinos can vote who are 23 years of age and who can write in the Spanish and English languages. What about those Philippine people who cannot speak Spanish nor English? They are speaking an entirely different language. The Spanish and the English language is not the Philippine language.

    President Theodore Roosevelt is promising the Philippine people their own parliament. When the Philippine constitution will be made by the American Senate and Congress, it will bring nothing good to ...

    Lithuanian
    I C, I H, I J
  • Lietuva -- November 09, 1906
    The Philippine Island Problem

    President Theodore Roosevelt is promising the Philippine people their own parliament. When the Philippine constitution will be made by the American Senate and Congress, it will bring nothing good to the Philippine people. It will be like the Russian Duma. According to the project only those Filipinos can vote who are 23 years of age and who can write in the Spanish and English languages. What about those Philippine people who cannot speak Spanish nor English? They are speaking an entirely different language. The Spanish and the English language is not the Philippine language.

    President Theodore Roosevelt is promising the Philippine people their own parliament. When the Philippine constitution will be made by the American Senate and Congress, it will bring nothing good to ...

    Lithuanian
    I G, I H, I J
  • Lietuva -- April 26, 1907
    From the Women's Society "Enlightenment"

    Women, where is our salvation? Much has been written and spoken about the women of other nations, their societies, and organizations, clubs and circles, charitable organizations, enlightenment and culture. But about the Lithuanian women? We are lacking news about their activity. No doubt, some one will say that we few women can accomplish nothing. Every movement among the women has been started by one or a few women.

    We, the Lithuanian women, have less education, enlightenment and culture, must look very closely on what basis our organization should have. We must have our society without cockleweed, but on a sound cultural and scientific basis.

    The American women have many and various societies. Do such societies bring benefits to humanity? This is another problem. Let us take for instance the American Old Maid Association, which has introduced a bill in the Senate that all men who are not married and are over 45 years of age ought to be chloroformed! Secondly, the women societies have held their conventions after many foolish 2 questions had been brought forth and discussed: one question was raised about votes for women, that only those women can have rights to go to the ballot box whose husbands have a considerable amount of money. While others at their meetings discuss the new order of economics, that one should buy the cheapest food, etc., and if you have no money, don't try to buy anything, that in order to save money, but the cheapest food, clothing, and live in the cheapest house. Of course, when you have no money to buy shoes, go bare-footed; if you have no money to buy food, go hungry! That is the foundation of the new economics!

    One of the American milksop ladies' societies in Chicago once in a while arranges a meeting in the best hotel, and invites the city's big shots to to speak. The milksop ladies are interested in how to keep the city streets clean, and thanks to the American ladies' society's energy and effort, the streets of Chicago are clean, the people are living in mansions. The politicians also tell how the worker's wife ought to separate the coal from the ashes, how from used newspapers, to make paper baskets in order to keep the streets clean of paper, etc. This is not all. The politician tells how the streets are kept clean where the milksop ladies are living...

    3

    I must not forget to mention, when at one such milksop ladies meeting, after the politician has finished his speech, one teacher stated: "Mr. Speaker and ladies of the meeting: you have talked about the education of the people, the upkeep of clean streets: I will suggest that if the milksop ladies and the politicians move out of the city, the city streets will be clean, and the immorality of the youth will disappear!"

    Instead of preaching economy to the poor, change the system, so that there would be no necessity to work 12 to 14 hours a day at starvation wages, and when the husband comes from work he should not see his children hungry, bare-footed...

    Instead of talking about the dirty streets and doing nothing, take the milksop ladies and the politicians to the stock yards, let them see how the workers are enslaved; take them to the streets where the workers live, let them see the dirty streets, and the streets are dirty because the politicians steal the public money. Instead of boys and girls of 12 and 14 years of age becoming slaves in the factories, send these children to school, educate them, instead of poisoning 4their young bodies with the factory dirt, and poisoning their young brains with the daily yellow press' lies and the speeches of the city grafters. Give them proper education, see that they should live in proper houses, then economic injustice will adjust by itself.

    Therefore, the women must have such an organization, that they could discuss the problems of the system of today, find the causes why thousands are always in want while the few have too much.

    The Chicago Lithuanian women have organized a society under the name "Enlightenment". The purpose of this organization is to arrange lectures, spread the light, show to the people why they are exploited and oppressed. This society has arranged lectures on the 28th day of April, at Freiheit Turner Hall, 3417 So. Halsted Street. All the Lithuanians are invited, come and learn the truth.

    The "Enlightenment Society's Committee."

    Women, where is our salvation? Much has been written and spoken about the women of other nations, their societies, and organizations, clubs and circles, charitable organizations, enlightenment and culture. But ...

    Lithuanian
    I K, I F 6, I A 3, II E 3, I H
  • Lietuva -- August 14, 1908
    For Emancipation of Women

    It is very gratifying to note that at last Lithuanian women in America have started to unite their forces, and plan to work collectively for their uplift, advancement, and emancipation. The first national convention of Lithuanian-American women, which took place in June at Brooklyn, N. Y., was a forward step in the right direction. It is hoped that this movement to form a nation-wide organization of Lithuanian-American women will succeed.

    Like all new movements, the effort to organize the Lithuanian women in America is receiving some opposition and harsh criticism. For some mysterious reasons, opponents of the movement are saying that it is merely a disguised attempt to form a Lithuanian Women's Socialist League. Some say the movement is not loyal to Lithuanianism, because a majority of the delegates at the convention voted against the establishment of relations with the Lithuanian Women's League in Lithuania. However, 2in spite of this unfair opposition and unwarranted criticism, the movement must, and shall go forward. There are enough Lithuanian-American women who are interested in the movement to make it a success.

    Miss S. Aldona Rutkauskas, in the issue of July 24 of the Lietuva, censured the delegates of the convention for voting against an alliance with the Lithuanian Women's League in Lithuania. The latter move is interpreted as an effort to Americanize the Lithuanian women in America. However, the above decision was made only on the ground that the interests of Lithuanian women in America differ from the Lithuanian women in Lithuania. In my opinion, that difference is very plain, not in educational aims, but in the social and economic order. Our women in both lands are badly in need of the same kind of education, an education which promotes a higher standard of morality, ethics, lofty ideals, and more intelligent mothers and wives.

    From the standpoint of political economy, there is a vast difference between 3Lithuania and America. In Lithuania, practically all people lead independent lives on farms. In America, our people are mostly factory workers and city dwellers. Therefore, the interests and needs of the people in Lithuania are necessarily far different from those of our people in this country.

    Miss S. Aldona Rutkauskas also censured the delegates of the convention for making a decision to establish relations with the progressive women's organizations in America. This move is being interpreted as an effort to Americanize the Lithuanian women. I would like to ask Miss Rutkauskas how can it be a bad thing for working Lithuanian women to accept the program of working American women? In my opinion, if a Lithuanian woman works side by side in the same factory with an American woman at equal wages (in most cases at lower wages), then it is to her advantage to seek to better her position together with the American woman. Surely every woman would enjoy a higher standard of living.

    Miss Rutkauskas laments the fact that an economical and political education is being offered to mothers with children, to housekeepers, and to moral women.

    4

    Apparently, she believes that politics can demoralize a moral woman. However, would a close examination of the subject substantiate such a theory? So far, women did not participate in politics, and what kind of morality do we see in society? We note a large number of murders, robberies, and an increasing number of girls being forced into prostitution in order to live. These conditions are existing in a period in which women do not participate in politics. In my opinion, when a moral woman will participate in politics, then she will use her influence to improve the moral standard of politics; she will, likewise, attempt to improve the present low, moral standard of society.

    It is amazing to see how some of our women are afraid of an economical and political education, especially in view of the self-evident fact that these matters are a part of our daily lives; even the fate of our future generations is dependent upon political economy. Why should we be afraid to become acquainted with the social order which governs our daily lives? In my opinion, without a good knowledge concerning the existing social order, it is even impossible to make intelligent plans for the future. A better future depends to a large 5extent upon those women who are mothers, and raise children. It is a very sad state of affairs when we are unwilling to learn anything about the bad side of life, about the social order under which we live.

    Lithuanian women! Let us make, at least, one effort to become acquainted with the plight of our friends and industrial slaves. It is not enough to look through the glasses of race consciousness. When our women, who have been drinking factory smoke all day long, come home cold and hungry, do not ask them to sing the Lithuanian national anthem, nor songs about the hills and beautiful rivers which we left behind across the sea. Instead, let us tear off the mask of pretense and strive to learn the causes of our tears and misery. Let us show our women the light which can lead them out from the mountain of tears. Our reward will be happiness, liberty, and full rights. However, we cannot achieve victory without a knowledge of economics and without participating in politics.

    Mare Alyta

    It is very gratifying to note that at last Lithuanian women in America have started to unite their forces, and plan to work collectively for their uplift, advancement, and emancipation. ...

    Lithuanian
    III B 2, III B 4, I F 4, I F 3, I F 2, I A 3, I K, I H, I E
  • Lietuva -- November 06, 1908
    W. H. Taft Is Elected President of the United States (Editorial)

    The presidental election in America took place last Tuesday, Nov. 3, 1908. William Howard Taft was elected as the new president of the United States; he will succeed president Theodore Roosevelt on March 4, 1909. This election, as all other American elections, appeared to be very important from a superficial view-point. However, the election could not have been so important, because there is no radical difference between the two leading political parties of the United States; the principles of both the Republican and Democratic parties are very much alike. It is true that all candidates took a spectacular part in the campaign; they denounced each other's character and political platform. However, these tactics are employed only because they all know that the easiest and best way to promote oneself is to denounce all opponents; when you denounce your opponents you create the impression that you are better than they.

    Although all American politicians denounce each other before elections, 2nevertheless, they are all alike; one is not any better than the other.

    Before the election the Republicans denounced the Democratic candidates and their platform. They praised themselves, saying that they brought about prosperity in the country. However, they were completely silent about the fact that during the present Republican administration a grave economic and industrial crisis appeared from which the people are still suffering. During the early part of the administration, a temporary wave of prosperity was produced by shamefully increasing the tariff rates on foreign goods. Such methods can create only a short period of prosperity, because foreign countries soon retaliate by increasing the tariff rates on American goods. The people soon learned the truth of this statement by bitter experience during the administration of the Republicans, the authors of the shameful high tariff policy.

    France, who of all nations is the least economically dependent upon the United States, was the first country to retaliate against our shamefully high tariff rates; France immediately raised the tariff rates on all American imports.

    3

    This French action greatly frightened the Republican politicians in America. In an effort to avoid a crisis, our Republican politicians immediately dispatched a special commission to France with powers to offer her all kinds of concessions. Other economically independent countries, such as Russia and Austria, will probably follow the example of France.

    Therefore, it has been proved that prosperity cannot be maintained by means of high tariff rates. The Republican politicians in America are beginning to see their mistakes, because they have started to talk about revising the tariff rates. However, they do not intend to make any appreciable reductions; they wish to maintain the higher tariff rates as long as possible.

    Nations are no longer able to exist independently of each other; practically all countries have important ties with one another. We all know that individuals do not give anything to each other for nothing, and they do not reward a bad act with a good deed. What is true of individuals is also true of nations.

    4

    Regardless of the results of the election, there will not be any important changes in this country. Even if Eugene V. Debs, the candidate of the working class for president, would have been elected no really important changes would take place, because this country is not ruled by the president. Although an American president has greater influence in the government than the president of France, nevertheless, he is not the ruler of the country, because he does not make the laws of the land. All national laws in the United States are made by the Senate and House of Representatives. Therefore, the Senate and House of Representatives. are more important than the president. However, so far the American working class has not been able to elect even one representative, either to the Senate or to the House of Representatives. Even the most ardent supporters of Debs did not expect him to be elected, because American workers are less politically minded and not as strongly organized as European workers.

    The presidental election in America took place last Tuesday, Nov. 3, 1908. William Howard Taft was elected as the new president of the United States; he will succeed president Theodore ...

    Lithuanian
    I F 5, I F 2, I E, I H
  • Lietuva -- June 11, 1909
    Our Most Important Needs By Dr. A. L. Graicunas

    We Lithuanians have three important problems to solve which must be cleared up as soon as possible. The delay in solving these problems is weakening and depressing not only the individual, but also the whole group, both materially and spiritually.

    Our first problem is the urgent need to better the economic standing of our people. This can be accomplished if all of us will only make an effort to deal with our own business and professional people. We already have a sufficient number of all kinds of tradesmen, merchants, and not a small number of physicians, attorneys, dentists, engineers, etc. For example, many of our people who are 2in need of furniture; instead of buying from a Lithuanian they buy from a Jew or some other non-Lithuanian with the excuse that the Lithuanian did not have such beautiful furniture or that his price was higher. It is probabl that the Lithuanian merchant did not have the desirable kind of furniture, and if he did, his price was probably higher. However if he did not have the desirable kind of furniture in stock that day, he could easily yet them the next day by ordering from the factory. His prices might be higher, but if he would have known that a Lithuanian will do his buying from a Jew for that reason, he undoubtedly would have reduced his prices in order to make the sale. Moreover, I have learned that our people refuse to trade with our own merchants largely because of envy and not on account of higher prices.

    3

    Our people also fail to properly support our tradesmen, such as carpenters, plumbers, electricians, etc. This lack of proper support is especially true in regards to our professional people--physicians, attorneys, etc. Take for example a Lithuanian who becomes sick and is forced to turn to a physician. If his case does not require a specialist, a Lithuanian physician will always be more sympathetic, more conscientious, and probably more qualified to help such a patient to get well. Furthermore, it is more pleasant for a patient to deal with a physician of his or her own nationality, because both speak the same language and can understand each other better; it is also more advantageous from a financial standpoint, because a patient will not be exploited by a Lithuanian physician. On the other hand, if the patient's condition is such that requires the attention of a specialist, it is only a matter of logic in the science of correct reasoning, that a physician 4is in the best position to know and recommend the best specialist. In this regard our sick people should unfalteringly heed the advice of a physician, and not that of an old woman or a saloon keeper. Old women only know how to cook beans, and saloon keepers only know how to pour beer into a glass, but about the competency of a specialist, they only know as much as a pig knows about the clouds. A sick person who accepts advice from an old women or saloon keeper, from an advertisement in a Lithuanian newspaper, or any other questionable source, very often becomes a victim of exploitation. Such a patient usually does not receive proper attention, because he either was led astray from a good specialist or did not even hear of one. Real specialists do not advertise in newspapers, and only reputable physicians are in close contact with them.

    5

    What has been said about a Lithuanian physician can also be said in regard to a Lithuanian attorney. If a Lithuanian who is in trouble needing the services of an attorney would turn immediately to a Lithuanian attorney, he would undoubtedly save much time and money. When a specialist is needed in a certain case, an attorney is in a better position than anyone else to employ or recommend the right specialist. So much in regard to the problem about the economic uplift of our people.

    2. The second important problem of our people is the need to understand the basic principles of personal and general hygiene. An old adage says: "A healthy brain in a healthy body." But do we live a hygienic life? God forgive us--not only the families living on 6farms and in cities, but also our intelligentsia--priests, physicians, attorneys, authors, etc.--are living in a primitive fashion, guided not by brains, but by instinct. I will not write much about doctors. They are familiar with the rules of hygiene, but they carelessly neglect to adhere to them; they teach others to follow these rules, but neglect to follow them themselves. In this manner many doctors commit an unpardonable sin; as a result many did between the ages of thirty-five and forty from tuberculosis or some other disease. Apparently they are punished by nature for giving the world an evil example. It is not necessary for a doctor to live expensively, but he should lead a hygienic life. He does not require one or two pounds of meat for a meal; he should be satisfied with only a quarter of a pound for one meal and remain healthy in both mind and body. People have a right to demand that 7doctors practice what they teach.

    We read in our newspapers of the deaths of many of our young people, especially brilliant students, who, if they had lived longer, promised to accomplish great deeds for our nationality. Who is to blame for their untimely deaths? They them-selves are to blame! None have died from starvation; they were victims of contagious diseases. They died mostly from tuberculosis, which they could have escaped if they had made an effort to do so; but, through carelessness, they elected to become national or scientific martyrs. In other words, they died because they were seeking knowledge, but failed to find it. They failed to find it, because they were led into the wrong tracks in their very early days; had they been acquainted in their early days with the principles of hygiene, they would not have met untimely deaths.

    8

    In this connection we ourselves are partly to blame. At present, doctors advise mothers of the great importance of cleanliness in rearing children from the time of birth to five years of age; during the past ten years this advice alone has reduced infant mortality fifty per cent. However, the doctors forget about the importance of hygiene to mothers and other grown-ups from the time they are five years of age until they reach old age and the end of their lives. I would be very delighted, and it would be very beneficial to our people, if all our doctors would assist in popularizing the principles of hygiene,

    3. Our third and probably most important need is the establishment of Lithuanian schools in America. This problem is very important, and is very easy to solve. This problem can be solved without 9committees, buildings, or special financial contributions. All that is needed is a revolution. Let each Lithuanian organization, club, and lodge, divide its members into three or more groups in the following manner: Into the first group place all those who can neither read nor write, and set aside for this group one or two hours per week in which to learn how to read and write in Lithuanian and English; into the second group place all those who are able to read and write and set aside a regular weekly period in which this group can meet and continue their education by studying history, geography, etc.; into the third group place those who desire to learn some kind of trade or profession. This latter group should be directed to the various public evening schools, which exist in all the larger cities. In these schools, students can study without a tuition charge and learn the following: Carpentry, 10the blacksmith trade, tailoring, cooking, sewing, book-keeping, stenography, commercial law, etc. All these branches of learning can be obtained without charge during evenings after working hours; it is not necessary to travel to Valparaiso or Muskegan; and it is not necessary for the Lithuanian public to aid such students financially.

    We Lithuanians have three important problems to solve which must be cleared up as soon as possible. The delay in solving these problems is weakening and depressing not only the ...

    Lithuanian
    I H, III A, I A 3, I M, IV, I C
  • Lietuva -- July 09, 1909
    Lietuva Reporter to Make Statistical Survey of Chicago Lithuanians

    Beginning with the next issue, the Lietuva will inaugurate a special column under the title Life of Chicago Lithuanians, which will contain a large variety of interesting and educational news matter pertaining to the Lithuanians of Chicago. Material for this column will be gathered by the Lietuva reporter.

    Hitherto, Chicago Lithuanians knew very little about what was going on among them, and it is not at all surprising that many of our people complained that our newspapers made no effort to satisfy the desire of the readers for more news about local Lithuanians. The publisher of 2Lietuva has decided to satisfy this demand of the readers. The Lietuva will gather and print all kinds of news about local Lithuanians in their current events; news about jobs, where and how many Lithuanians are employed, the nature of their work and how much they earn; where and how Chicago Lithuanians live; the number and classification of Chicago Lithuanian business establishments, their investment, expenses and profits; the number of Chicago Lithuanian home owners; the number and location of Lithuanian neighborhoods and groups in Chicago; the total number of Lithuanians living in Chicago and its suburbs. In other words, the column will cover all current events and statistical news about the Lithuanians of Chicago.

    It is not necessary to say much about the value of such news matter to our people, because everybody can readily understand that such information 3is essential for our unity, uplift, and education. When we learn how much and what kind of possibilities we possess, it will be much easier for us to take advantage of them in promoting our welfare.

    The gathering of such news matter is not easy. In order to secure accurate statistics of our people, the co-operation of all Lithuanians, or at least a large part of them, is absolutely necessary. However, the publisher of the Lietuva has bravely assumed this responsibility and believes that in due time our people will be supplied with a variety of complete and accurate statistics pertaining to the Lithuanians of the city of Chicago.

    As mentioned above, besides statistical information, the column will contain all kinds of carefully collected news about current events and other interesting information. A special effort will be made to obtain 4information about jobs; many of our people are now unemployed and are deeply interested in such information.

    Beginning with the next issue, the Lietuva will inaugurate a special column under the title Life of Chicago Lithuanians, which will contain a large variety of interesting and educational news ...

    Lithuanian
    III A, II B 2 d 1, I B 3 c, II A 1, II A 2, II D 8, I C, I H
  • Lietuva -- September 17, 1909
    Statistical Survey of the South Chicago Lithuanian Colony

    The Lithuanians in the South Chicago Lithuanian colony have four organizations; two of these are branches of national Lithuanian organizations, and the other two are mutual aid societies (one Catholic and the other mixed).

    There are fifteen Lithuanian business establishments here, including the agents. Eleven Lithuanians here are home owners.

    The boundaries of this Lithuanian colony are as follows: From 87th Street to 89th Street, between Houston and Commercial Avenues.

    Nearly all Lithuanian workers who live here are employed in the local steel mill and car works. Their jobs are very hard and dangerous. The bosses treat the workers in a very cruel and barbaric manner. Many workers are injured here 2daily. The wages in the steel mill are very low: For a ten-hour day the workers receive from $1.60 to $2.20.

    The air in this locality is unhealthy; it is polluted with smoke and dust from the factories. The local steel mill occupies a long stretch of land, extending from the lake to the entire southeastern boundary of South Chicago. When the wind blows from the direction of the steel mill the people almost choke from the smoke.

    It takes more than a half hour to ride from Bridgeport to South Chicago; the fare is ten cents. The following street cars run to South Chicago from 64th Street and Jackson Park Avenue: So. Deering, Whiting, Windsor Park, and Hammond.

    Living conditions in South Chicago do not appear to differ in any way from 3that of other Chicago Lithuanian colonies. The wealthiest Lithuanian in South Chicago is Ad. Kegavicia, whose fortune totals $30,000. Other prominent Lithuanians who live here are: Dr. A. Rutkauskas, Mrs. M. Banis, mid-wife, and Mr. Pietelis, building contractor. One of the most active Lithuanian leaders of this colony, B. Jasiulis, who operates a barber shop at 8845 Commercial Avenue, plans to move out next month to Indiana Harbor, Ind.; his address there will be 3604 Deodor Street. He will be missed a great deal by the Lithuanians of South Chicago.

    There are a number of very active and industrious Lithuanian leaders in this colony; in some respects they surpass the Lithuanians of other colonies. This is demonstrated by the fact that the Lithuanian organizations of this colony have decided to select two or three paid workers to make a complete statistical survey of their South Chicago colony. More about this matter is written 4in another section of this issue of the Lietuva (Lithuania).

    This colony has a small Lithuanian Roman Catholic parish, and a small frame church, but with a large rectory, in which Rev. J. Petraitis, the pastor, lives. He has not distinguished himself as a good priest, nor as a good patriot. However, he is famous for the fact that he possesses the second largest astronomical telescope and observatory in the State of Illinois.

    According to the more progressive Lithuanians of the colony, Rev. Petraitis associates with the Poles and belittles the Lithuanians. It is said that he intended to give astronomical instructions to his parishioners, but so far he has not shown his telescope nor given astronomical instructions to a single Lithuanian. He opposes all progressive suggestions, does not get along well with his parishioners, and for that reason the membership of the parish has 5greatly decreased. The church is attended mostly by Poles, and to please them he delivers the sermons in Polish as well as in Lithuanian. In American and Polish newspapers he is famous as an astronomer, and a good astronomer at that, but apparently he is little interested in the priesthood.

    Rev. Petraitis purchased the telescope and built the observatory only this year. It is said that the telescope is worth $12,300.

    Rev. Petraitis came to this country from Erzvilkis parish, Lithuania. He attended the seminary at Siauliai, Lithuania.

    The Lithuanian church is located at 87th Street and Marquette Avenue.

    The Lithuanian business establishments in the So. Chicago colony are as follows: Five saloons; four food shops by Ad. Kegowicz, Ant. Kegowicz, Ant. Valciukas, and M. Cheswood & A. Maniokas; one barber shop, by B. Jasiulis; 6one photo studio, by Urbanowicz; one bakery shop, by Ant. Almonavicia; one real estate, steamship and insurance agency, by St. Simkus; two insurance agents, P. Simavicius, and J. Samanauskas.

    The total membership of the Lithuanian organizations of this colony is 290. The names of the organizations are as follows: St. Isidore the Plowman Society (non-sectarian), St. Joseph's Society (Catholic), the 74th lodge of the Lithuanian Alliance of America, and a branch of the Lovers of the Fatherland Society.

    The Lithuanians in the South Chicago Lithuanian colony have four organizations; two of these are branches of national Lithuanian organizations, and the other two are mutual aid societies (one Catholic ...

    Lithuanian
    III A, II D 1, II A 1, II D 2, III C, III H, I M, I H, I C, IV