The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Lietuva -- March 31, 1899
    Dr. John Szliupas in Chicago

    Last Sunday Dr. Szliupas came to Chicago from Scranton, Pa. At a few meetings he delivered short lectures on Lithuanian history, explained the hardships and causes of it. He urged us to have unity, brotherly love, and the importance of getting enlightened by reading good books and newspapers.

    Almost all the Lithuanians in America are working people, so Dr. Szliupas urged them, in order to improve their living conditions, to join labor organizations. In unity there is strength. Organized labor can overthrow capitalism and take control of the government. The doctor said that not only the capitalists are against the improvement of labor's living conditions, but the clergy, who controlling the peoples' mind are forbidding the people to get enlightenment. Dr. Szliupas is advertised as an infidel, and that he wants to destroy the present form of government.


    Nevertheless, many people came to hear his lectures, and the doctor never advocated the overthrow of the government. All the Lithuanians at the meetings were in good order, there were no disturbances. Honor to Lithuanians for such good conduct.

    Last Sunday Dr. Szliupas came to Chicago from Scranton, Pa. At a few meetings he delivered short lectures on Lithuanian history, explained the hardships and causes of it. He urged ...

    II B 2 g, I D 2 a 2, I D 1 a, III C, I E
  • Lietuva -- February 09, 1900
    Let Us Improve Our Living

    We, the American Lithuanians are making our living by hard labor, because we cannot get better jobs with higher wages due to our lack of education. We cannot improve our living conditions, as we have no unity among ourselves for the lack of education.

    For that reason we must suffer. We are making a bare living as long as we have a job, but as soon as the dull season comes, we are on the edge of starvation. A few of us save some money, deposit it in the bank, and then the others are doing business and profiting with our money. If the Lithuanians were an enlightened and educated people, they could open businesses with their own money. Look at the people of other nations, as soon as they make some money, they go into business. If the Lithuanians were enlightened, they could organize among themselves to open here and there small businesses, small factories, and later on we could develop into a large business 2By having a big business we could not only make a better living for ourselves, but we could establish schools, where we could educate our unfortunate brothers, and the most important thing is to educate our children, make then good Lithuanians. Then let our young generation look back on our accomplishments, then the young Lithuanian generation by seeing our established business and factories, would get more inspiration, and would go further with new ideas, by enlarging the business and the Lithuanian industry. Now then brothers, let us have unity, let us put our money in business, let our money work for us, this is the only and proper way to improve our living conditions.


    We, the American Lithuanians are making our living by hard labor, because we cannot get better jobs with higher wages due to our lack of education. We cannot improve our ...

    I C, I D 1 b, I D 1 a, I A 1 a
  • Lietuva -- May 12, 1905
    Driver's Strike

    A driver's strike is now in progress. As a matter of fact strikes in Chicago are not unusual; they occur more often here than in any other city in the United States. It is a well known fact, that workers do not benefit much by striking. During the strikes they suffer great hardships, while fighting for their meager existence, and often they lose the battle against capitalists. If sometimes they do succeed in getting their salary raised at least five cents per hour; they have to pay twice as much for the necessities of life. These are the results of the strike; in other words, they won but lost in another sense of the word. One might say, in fact, that they gained nothing.

    The capitalists exploit these poor workers and make them slaves of present day society. The poor worker is powerless, everybody is against him- government, 2police, capitalists and industrialists. There is no justice for a poor working man, who makes his living honestly and pays his taxes to the government as a good citizen. If a worker uses diplomatic means to get his salary raised he gets nothing, and if he goes on strike to get his salary raised, he gets a club over his head from brass button cops. And that is justice!

    The best thing for a working man is to take life as it comes. Suffer hardships, poverty, keep silent and love God. That is what capitalists want every working man to do. But if a poor worker tries to improve his living conditions, he will meet strong opposition and he will be disliked by the capitalists. If attempts are made to throw off the capitalistic yoke under which they are bound, hand and foot,police clubs are put into action, soldiers' bullets fly, and workers are thre into jails as if they were criminals and murderers. It is most disgusting to see the workers treated so cruely by the capitalists. Animals are treated better the human beings.

    I wonder if the poor workers, who are being looked upon as insignificant beings by the city government, remember that these very same city officials were 3candidates in the last election for offices in the city government.

    Maybe workers who are mistreated now by the city government voted democratic for Mayor Dunne in the last election. What good did he do for the workers who put him in the office?

    Now, he is sending a police force against the very people who put him in the Mayor's office. This is the Chicago Mayor's gratitude to the workers who elected him. This is how he repays them.

    If all workers had voted the socialist ticket during the last election, we probably would not have any strikes today; or if we had, at least the government would not serve the capitalists blindly, it would uphold justice.

    It is to be regretted that unity does not exist among our workers today. They cannot accomplish anything worth while for the future if they do not unite and again vote the socialist ticket, at the next election.


    The workers realized their mistake after it was too late.

    When they have a chance to accomplish something they seem to sell their votes for a glass of beer to dishonest politicians,and capitalists who are their greatest enemy and who want to keep them in ignorance and in slavery. These dishonest politicians are not interested in the welfare of the workers who helped to elect them, and put them on the city payroll, with big salaries. They are well contented, why should they worry about the workingman's welfare.

    During the period they are in office, they become rich and prosperous while the condition of the poor workers become worse and worse. The labor situation in Chicago as it is today, is deplorable. Nobody seems to be interested enough to take the initiative in combatting these evils in our great city of Chicago. I wonder if workers are able to understand the unjust state of affairs under which they live. Will they understand later what to do, and how to eradicate the social evils which exist? Will they cease selling their votes to their exploiters for a glass of beer? Will they vote the socialist ticket for the man who is interested in the welfare of the workers, The future will tell whether labor has awakened to the fact that it is being exploited by unscrupulous politicians 5and capitalists. It would seem that the workers are not working for their own benefit, but for those who exploit them. The workers are too gullible because they are ignorant. Ignorance is due to a lack of proper education. Ignorant people can be exploited much easier than those who have an education and a proper training. It is obvious that workers will never have any understanding of the situation, if they remain uneducated.

    An education is the key to heaven not only after death, but also while on this earth. If we wish to find happiness here, both men and women alike, must strive for education, for after all every one of us should be interested in attaining a greater happiness.

    It is obvious that under present conditions, the poor workers do not have enough available time for and education, They have to work very long hours in shops. Hence our social system will not allow them to improve themselves and raise their standard of living. They are made slaves of industry and politicians. They have very few 6chances of obtaining any schooling themselves and almost equally meager are the possibilities that the children may ever attain a higher education than the parents have. Only a rich man's son can afford to go to college under present conditions, no poor man's son. A poor man can hardly support his own family with his earnings, so it becomes next to impossible for his children to go to college. So, what chance has a laborer to educate his children under our present social organization. His chances for sending his children to college are very poor indeed."

    The government should help workers and their children as much as possible. The government should build colleges and universities and make them accessible to workingmen's children, who can not afford to go to private colleges.

    A driver's strike is now in progress. As a matter of fact strikes in Chicago are not unusual; they occur more often here than in any other city in the ...

    I D 2 a 4, I D 2 a 2, I D 1 a, I A 1 a, I F 6, I H
  • Lietuva -- February 23, 1906
    The Disputes in the Parishes and the Causes of Them

    All the altercations in the Catholic parishes, as in Chicago, in the Providence of God parish; in Philadelphia, in the Rev. Kaminskas' parish, and others, were caused by the misunderstanding and the ignorance of the people. The people buy lots, build churches and donate money to the bishop to use for his own benefit. Then, when the bishop sends his agent, the priest, to the parish, and when the priest reaps the profit, the parishioners become irate and say, "This is our church! We have built it and we are supporting it. You have no right to use the collected money for your own benefit!" When the priest gives no heed to such a cry from the parishioners, but does as the bishop tells him to do, the altercation starts. The parishioners beat the priest in order to convince him that the church is owned by the parish. How can we characterize this understanding of the matter by the people? Is it reasonable?

    Let us take for example the Providence of God parish in Chicago. When 2the people organized the parish and bought the lots, they started looking for a priest. They wrote letters to all the Lithuanian priests in America and to several priests in Lithuania, offering them a rector's position in their parish, but, because of the church property not being assigned to the bishop, every priest politely refused to accept the rectorship. Then the parishioners, willingly or unwillingly, were forced to give the church property to the bishop in order to get a priest. When the bishop obtained the property he sent the priest to do business for him. And the priest did what the bishop told him to do. Six months had not passed before the parishioners forgot that they had donated their church property to the bishop. Now they cry: "This is our church! We maintain it! The priest is running it as though it were his own home. The priest is doing what he pleases with our money, without our permission! Let us chase him out!"

    Last Sunday they tried to chase him out. Is this a wise action? They have forgotten that they donated the church to the bishop and the church 3does not belong to them, but to the bishop. They forgot that not they, but the bishop gave the rector's office to the priest. The priest must obey his superior, the bishop. Even though they broke the windows of the rectory, the priest did not get scared. He replaced the windows and is doing business again. The suspected offenders were arrested. If there is proof that they took part in the riot, they will be punished for obstructing the bishop's business. Only then they may understand that the money collected in the church belongs to the bishop, not to the parishioners.

    The bishopric is a corporation like any railroad. The bishop has a charter in the state of Illinois to do business. His charter has the name of the Catholic Bishop of Chicago, a sole corporation. That means that such corporation, much like the Illinois Central or Grand Trunk, expects to do business.

    To hear confessions, to baptize, to perform marriages, and officiate 4at funeral services, needs no charter. A charter is necessary in order to do business. When the bishop has a charter in the state of Illinois to do business, then no other person or party can have or get a charter allowing to do the same business. The charter is the bishop's monopoly. No other Catholic church in his diocese can be organized without his permission. He has a monopoly on his diocese churches, like Rockefeller on the oil resources. He has the right to forbid any church to use the name of "Roman-Catholic," if the church property is not assigned to him. He has the right to denounce and to excommunicate every Catholic who is opposed to his rights. For this reason the charter is necessary to him.

    Even though the people have built the church at their own expense, by donating the church property to the bishop they have no right to keep and to hold the money collected in the church.

    Suppose the people build a station and donate it to the railroad company, could they sell tickets and keep the money for themselves? The company would eject them at once. The same situation exists in connection 5with the bishop's business. The difference between the railroad company's business and the bishop's is this: When the railroad company sells a ticket to a passenger he reaches his destination, but when the bishop's agent sells a ticket to heaven the people do not demand a proof of the fact that they will reach their destination, and no bishop's agent (priest) has proved that the people ever reached heaven.

    Now then, if the people could understand that when they donate a church to the bishop the church does not belong to them any longer, they would not start fights in the church. No one wants to fight for somebody else's business - the bishop's business. The people ought to know that when they donate anything to some one, the thing donated does not belong to them any longer.

    All the altercations in the Catholic parishes, as in Chicago, in the Providence of God parish; in Philadelphia, in the Rev. Kaminskas' parish, and others, were caused by the misunderstanding ...

    III C, III B 2, I D 1 a
  • Lietuva -- May 25, 1906
    Do Not Telegraph to the Lithuanian Alliance Convention

    The compatriots in the last two conventions accepted the suggestion that instead of helping the telegraph monopolists, they should help their own patriots with $29.77 at the 19th convention of the Lithuanian Alliance of America. At the 21st convention no one should send a telegram; they should write letters instead. For every word enclose a two-cent stamp in the letter. In this manner money will be raised for national affairs instead of serving to enrich the telegraph monopolists. It would be very good if with letters of congratulation money would be sent for the help of the revolutionary movement in Lithuania. Many of the revolutionists are in jail, fed with food that even pigs would not eat. The despotic Russian government wants to starve political prisoners so that after their term of imprisonment they become good for nothing. Helping our imprisoned revolutionists is our most essential duty.

    Letters of congratulation to the convention should be mailed to: Lithuanian Convention, South Side Turner Hall, 3143 S. State St., Chicago, Ill.

    The compatriots in the last two conventions accepted the suggestion that instead of helping the telegraph monopolists, they should help their own patriots with $29.77 at the 19th convention of ...

    III B 2, II D 10, III H, I D 1 a
  • Lietuva -- September 13, 1907
    The New Charter of Chicago (Synopsis)

    Previously. "Lietuva" reported on the new charter for the city of Chicago. This time we will discuss more broadly what this new charter will give the citizens of Chicago.

    The new charter will make the mayor the dictator of Chicago; the mayor will have such power, that he can do as he pleases with the citizens of this city. The mayor can remove all the officials under him and in their place can appoint whom be wishes.

    The new charter gives power to the mayor to raise taxes on the people for the sum of $6,000,000,00. The taxes, as we know, always are paid by the workers, the rich capitalists are always freed from taxes. The new taxes will be a burden on the common people. This is not all: The new charter permits the city administration to make a new loan on the city for the sum of $40,000,000.00. This loan also will be a burden on the workers.

    This new chart will give power to be mayor to assist with special taxes 2every tradesman and businessman.

    If the city administration dislikes any tradesman and businessman, it can revoke his license. Then such a worker cannot get a job anymore in Chicago. It will be the same with the businessman; he could not open a business in Chicago if the city administration or the mayor will not like him.

    According to the new charter, the mayor will have absolute power to control the schools. That the mayor dictates, the pupils must be taught. The mayor will stop the enlightenment of students; we know that the American politicians do not want to have an enlightened public.

    Up to the present time, if the street car company wanted to place street cars on the street, it had to get the signatures of the people of the street. Under the new charter, the street company will ask the mayor for permission, but not of the people. Therefore, as citizens, if you don't want to be under the absolute control of the financial masters of this city, vote against the new charter on the 17th day of September. Under the new charter, the citizens will be forced to take passports. The new charter will close all the theaters, 3dancing halls, banquets and other amusements on Sunday. The workers have only one day, Sunday, to have their pleasure day, now all this will be closed.

    Citizens of Chicago! On the 17th day of September be sure to vote against the new charter! Mark a cross in the rubric where it says, "Against an Act entitled", and everybody go to vote against this new scheme that the politicians want to put on the people's shoulders. Vote against the new charter!

    J. Ilgaudas.

    Previously. "Lietuva" reported on the new charter for the city of Chicago. This time we will discuss more broadly what this new charter will give the citizens of Chicago. The ...

    I F 3, I A 1 a, I D 1 a, I D 1 b, I B 2, I F 6, IV
  • Lietuva -- May 01, 1908
    Activities of the Women's Enlightenment Society Society

    As time passes on humanity progresses and the women, too, do not want to fall behind. They are also asserting their rights and seeking justice in all essential matters concerning themselves.

    I shall not dwell on women of the so-called higher class, for they are too much pampered and accustomed to luxury. I shall speak about the women of the working class, who are almost slaves in this country. Husband, son and wife are unmercifully oppressed by the capitalists. The worker's wife is more oppressed than the worker, her husband. The women are so degraded that when one of them asks for a better remuneration, the answer she gets is, "Your place is in the kitchen at the stove". She works from early in the morning until late at night. She has no time to take proper care of herself, or of her children. The women are prevented from taking part in political activity. The capitalists know that they can not bribe women voters with cigars and glasses of beer, as they bribe the men. For this reason, the capitalistic politicians keep the women down and away from politics.

    Many progressive women are fighting for equal rights with men; so we, Lithuanian 2women, must not fall behind. We must belong to organizations where we can get benefits for ourselves.

    Therefore, we, Lithuanian women, have organized a society under the name of "Enlightenment". At every meeting we have lectures on women's problems. At the last meeting, Miss S. A. Rutkauskas, a student of medicine, delivered a very good lecture. At the coming meeting, Miss M. Horodeckas will lecture on "The Culture of Women in Ancient Times". This lecture will be held May 3rd at 1 P.M., at 869 - 33rd Place.

    Mrs. M. Damijonaitiene.

    As time passes on humanity progresses and the women, too, do not want to fall behind. They are also asserting their rights and seeking justice in all essential matters concerning ...

    I K, II B 2 g, I D 1 a, I A 3, I B 1, I C
  • Lietuva -- June 12, 1908
    Workman Versus Farmer

    Nearly all Lithuanians were either born or reared on a farm. After emigrating to America, they became factory workers, coal miners, mill hands, store employees, stock-yards workers, etc. Therefore, a comparison between the lives of a workman and a farmer in America should be of immense interest to our people. In order to become thoroughly acquainted with the lives of a workman and a farmer, and learn which is more desirable, it is necessary to make a detailed review of the various social and economic aspects of these two classes of people, and then compare them with each other. The results of this comparison will speak for themselves.

    A Lithuanian workman in the United States, if he is not the master of a trade, or is unable to speak the English language, can find only that kind of employment which requires a great deal of bodily health and physical endurance at very low wages. The average laborer receives from one to two dollars per day. His job is very insecure. He is subject to frequent and sudden lay-offs. During the years of national prosperity, many labor strikes spring up and the 2worker is compelled to go out on strike with his fellow workers. He receives no income during these periods. When a business and industrial depression occurs, the worker is laid off and again he has neither job nor income.

    Even during those periods of national prosperity, when no labor strikes take place, the industrial worker often loses his job because of illness. After he recovers from an illness, he is again forced to go out and look for another job, which usually takes a very long time. If he is fortunate enough to locate a good job, and works for a comparatively long time, then he is able to save some of his earnings. However, when a period of forced unemployment occurs, then his savings become exhausted. When he is re-employed, he must start saving all over again.

    We must bear in mind that the above is only the example of an industrial worker who is sincerely interested in his future welfare, and who does not squander his earnings in saloons or for other foolishness. This type represents a very small minority. The earnings of a greater majority of workers do not stretch from one pay day to another. When these workers lose their 3jobs, they find themselves without even a bite to eat.

    The living expenses of a workman are very high all over the United States. His earnings are so meager that he is unable to meet the expenses of all the necessary requirements of life, especially if he is married. He cannot afford to live in suitable living quarters, wear decent clothing, attend theatres, send his children through the higher institutions of learning, enjoy a vacation in the country during the summer months in order to get a breath of fresh air and build up his failing health, and he cannot afford to eat any of the more expensive foods, because his meager earnings cannot stand it. He is forced to lead a miserable life of poverty. Even his children have little hope of ever reaching a better, brighter, and happier life.

    The only commodity which a worker has to sell is his health. As long as he enjoys good health, he is able to earn enough for a bare subsistence. However, when his health fails, he comes to the sad realization that with 4the labor of his entire lifetime he was unable to earn enough even for bread in his old age, nor for shelter, clothing, or other vital necessities of life.

    Therefore, the life of a workman is full of grief and misery, and without hope for a better and brighter future. He is at all times dependent upon those who are more fortunate than himself. He must fear his superiors and be careful not to be late for work. Regardless of whether he is sick or healthy, he must perform a full day's work; otherwise he will be discharged and left without bread or shelter, and his friends will shy away from him. It is, therefore, not at all surprising that workmen complain so frightfully about their plight and engage in bitter struggles in order to ease the great burden of their lives.

    However, the various struggles between the workers and their employers do not produce any satisfactory results. Whenever the employers shut down their factories, or other forms of enterprise, the workers either starve to death 5or move to other sections of the globe.

    Therefore, the life of a workman appears to be highly undesirable. It seems that we should seek other lines of endeavor for our livelihood.

    Now let us review the life of an American farmer.

    A farmer owns a strip of fertile land; he owns a home, a herd of cattle, and enjoys healthy air, water, and food. He does not find it necessary to go out into the garden of nature on week-ends, because he lives in a garden of nature all his life.

    A farmer does not need to pay rent or water tax; he does not need to buy coal if he has kindling wood; it is not necessary for him to buy milk, cheese, or butter; it is unnecessary for him to buy potatoes or other vegetables; it is unnecessary for him to purchase eggs or even meat, because he can always slaughter some of his cattle and have plenty of fresh and healthy meat. A farmer does not need to pay street car fare to get to work; he can ride to 6work with his own horses. In other words, a farmer who owns a good farm, does not need to buy anything as far as food is concerned, and for that reason he is independent; he does not know the meaning of a financial crisis. He works on his own farm for himself; he does not fear anyone and is not obliged to obey anybody; he has nofear of losing his job or coming late to work. He is a king on his own land and does not have to fear any bosses.

    A farmer does not need to buy any necessities of life. On the contrary, he has many products to sell. He raises wheat and, after providing for his own needs, he can sell the surplus and receive money for it. When a farmer raises some cattle or poultry, he sells them and receives money. He keeps cows and receives money for their milk. The longer he lives on his farm, the more profits he derives from it. His wealth increases from day to day. It is very plain, therefore, that the life of a farmer is incomparably much more fortunate and happier than that of a workman. All this leads to the inevitable conclusion that there is but one salvation for us Lithuanian-Americans, and that is to take to the land in order to free ourselves from foreign bondage.


    A farmer can send his children first to a country school and later through the higher institutions of learning, because it is not necessary for him to depend upon his children for support. He derives enough bread from his farm for a decent livelihood without the aid of his children. An intelligent and industrious farmer not only provides for the education of his children, from whom he derives great joy and assistance in his old age, but in doing so he also fulfills his obligation to raise the intellectual level of society. Therefore, it would be a very good thing for all Lithuanian-Americans, who are now suffering hopelessly in the service of foreign masters, to give very serious consideration to the idea of settling down on mother earth; we should leave the cities and towns, and shy away from them as from a plague.

    Although the best farm lands are already occupied, nevertheless, there is plenty of good land for colonization purposes still available in the United States. Much of the land, however, is unsuitable for profitable farming, even if it can be procured at comparatively low prices. Therefore, such factors as fertility of the soil, transportation facilities, water supply, etc., must be thoroughly 8investigated. Climatic conditions, in order to suit the Lithuanian racial characteristics, also must be taken into consideration. Furthermore, we will be able to preserve our national traditions better and lead a more happier life if we group together, and not scatter ourselves in various sections of the country among farmers of other nationalities.

    The question, then, is how can we realize all these wonderful ideals? The solution of this problem, has been assumed by the Lithuanian colonization society Zinycia (Fountain of Knowledge). During the past three years this society has been actively engaged in a thorough investigation of the various farming sections in the United States. When this society was first organized, and the colonization question was seriously discussed, the members advanced a great variety of suggestions. Some wished to colonize in a warm climate in the southern states; others preferred the western states; and a third group pulled for the eastern states. The latter was soon eliminated from consideration after we learned of the high land prices and dense population of the territory.


    In order to select the best location for the colonization of Lithuanian-Americans, the society decided to launch a very extensive and thorough investigation of all the available farm lands in the United States. The United States Public Land Office was contacted for information about available homesteads. A number of railroads representatives and other land agents were invited to attend meetings of the society to present information on the land situation in America. Contacts were made with individual farmers, both personally and through the mails. Justin F. Jakavicius toured the states of Kansas, Oklahoma, Indiana, and the Indian Territory; his brothers, George and Julius Jakavicius, made a tour of the southern states; Alex Bendris investigated the states of Tennessee and Missouri; Anton Mazeika went to Alabama and the neighboring states; Stanley Mikolaitis and Frank Domeika were sent into the states of Washington, Oregon, and Colorado; other members of the society conducted an investigation in the states of Wisconsin and Michigan. Information was also sought and received concerning prospective farm lands in the states of California, Utah, Idaho, Iowa, Nebraska, Wyoming, Ohio, South and North Dakota, Minnesota, and in Alaska and Canada.


    After three years of extensive investigation and study, the members of the society finally came to the conclusion that the states of Wisconsin and Michigan offer the best opportunities and advantages for the establishment of a Lithuanian-American farm colony. The southern states were eliminated because it had been learned that Lithuanians would experience some difficulty in adopting themselves to the hot and dry climate. About fourteen years ago Anthony Olis, an active member of the society, had formed a Lithuanian colony in the state of Arkansas. Although the soil was very fertile, nevertheless, the climate proved to be very unhealthy and the colony was forced to disband.

    Minnesota and Dakota were eliminated because of the high cost of land. In the western states too much irrigation is required for successful farming. Heavy and prolonged rainfalls interfere with the prosperity of the farmers in the states of Washington and Oregon. The prevalence of tornadoes, earthquakes, and violent storms in the southern states was also taken into consideration.

    Therefore, after carefully considering the colonization problem from all 11angles for three years, the Lithuanian colonization society Zinycia has decided to establish a Lithuanian agricultural colony in the state of Wisconsin. There the land is very fertile, the climate is very suitable and healthy for Lithuanians, and there is an abundant supply of healthy water. It has excellent railroad transportation, good roads, and many large cities and towns. Thousands of farmers in Wisconsin are already enjoying wonderful prosperity. It is, therefore, an established fact that any industrious farmer can make a very good living in Wisconsin.

    The society has selected the northern part of Clark county in the state of Wisconsin an the most ideal location for the establishment of a Lithuanian-American agricultural colony. The society already has purchased a large tract of land in that section of Wisconsin and has named it "Zinycia," after the name of the society. An extensive campaign is now under way to colonize the territory with Lithuanians. Most members of the Zinycia society are already established there and are making splendid progress.

    All land in the northern part of Clark county is very fertile, without stones, 12mountains, sand, or large swamps. Transportation facilities are excellent. A beautiful river flows through the territory. There are many old towns near-by, offering a very good market for farm products.

    After the colonization work of the territory is well under way, it is planned to set up a Lithuanian town in the vicinity, with factories, a Lithuanian church, school, etc.

    Therefore, here is an excellent opportunity for all those Lithuanians who desire to free themselves from the misery of city life. It is advisable to purchase a piece of land as soon as possible, while the prices are still low. All Lithuanians are invited to visit the territory and make a personal investigation. The cost of a round trip railroad fare from Chicago is $13.00. For further information write or apply to Mr. A. Olis, General Manager, 3252 South Halsted Street, Chicago, Ill.

    J. J. Hertmanavicius,

    President of Zinycia

    Nearly all Lithuanians were either born or reared on a farm. After emigrating to America, they became factory workers, coal miners, mill hands, store employees, stock-yards workers, etc. Therefore, a ...

    I B 3 c, I D 1 a, V A 2, I L
  • Lietuva -- June 26, 1908
    Appearances Are Sometimes Deceiving

    As we glance through our newspapers, we notice many news items about a large variety of Lithuanian social activities such as musical concerts, theatrical presentations, etc. On the surface, therefore, it appears that the Lithuanians of Chicago are in a happy state of contentment and have everything their hearts desire. However, a close examination of the conditions of their daily lives reveals a far different picture. They are beset with unemployment, misery, and even starvation. From day to day they are anxiously waiting for a favorable turn in events; they are asking each other, when will we go back to work and when will conditions improve? So far no one has been able to give a definite answer to these questions.

    The people are already starting to talk about the approaching election of the head, the "king," of our country. Some are upbraiding the Democrats; others are sending the Socialists directly into hell; and a third group is praising the Republicans. Many members of the latter group appear to forget that during the past few months they have been existing only on bread and coffee, and that sometimes they are unable to enjoy even that "luxury." In spite of that, they 2say with great pride that under the present Republican administration very good times existed. Yes, it is true, good times did exist for a while. We must admit that we were employed and had an opportunity to exercise our limbs almost every day. However, look at our predicament now! Although the Republican administration is still in power, nevertheless, we are idle and walking the streets; the very same streets in which our masters ride in automobiles. We still have plenty of water to drink, but we have nothing to eat! The Republican boosters appear to believe that the matter of food is insignificant. They say, "We were employed during the past period of prosperity and received good wages."

    However, the important question is why have we nothing to eat today? Why are landlords throwing us and our little children into the streets? It is true, We were employed for a while; we traded our labor power and endangered, even sacrificed, our very lives for the crumbs of the capitalists; but why have we nothing to eat today? Is it because of the so-called masters' "love" for his loyal servants? When we beg our masters for some daily bread to alleviate the pangs of hunger, then, instead of giving us employment, they send bands of policemen to crush our heads with clubs. They are concerned only with their 3own welfare. They do not feel any obligation to aid those unfortunates who helped to amass their fabulous wealth. Starving workers are forced to lie in the streets and appeal to all the saints for assistance, but even the saints are unable to help them.

    This period of unemployment plainly reveals our position in society; we have very much to learn from it. The voice of conscience is saying: "During the coming election, do not sell your vote for a glass of beer, but investigate and vote according to the dictates of your conscience. Then better times are sure to come, although not immediately."

    As we glance through our newspapers, we notice many news items about a large variety of Lithuanian social activities such as musical concerts, theatrical presentations, etc. On the surface, therefore, ...

    I B 3 c, I D 2 c, I D 1 a, I F 3, I F 5
  • Lietuva -- June 26, 1908
    Results of a High Tariff

    This is a presidential election year and for that reason the citizens of the United States are taking an increased interest in the political affairs of the country. Lithuanian citizens are also vitally interested in the affairs of their adopted country. The election will take place, as usual, in the fall.

    At the national convention of the Republican party, which was held last week in Chicago, the Republican candidate for president of the United States was nominated. William Howard Taft, who is now the Secretary of War in President Roosevelt's Cabinet, was the one who was selected. The Democratic party did not nominate its candidate yet, but it is generally understood that William Jennings Bryan will be selected to run for the third time.

    Mr. Taft has already resigned from his post in the President's Cabinet and is now making preparations to launch his campaign.

    It is very difficult at this time to guess which candidate will be elected. Both parties, especially the Republican, have been engaged more or less in 2propaganda work. The Republicans have been boasting very loudly that they have returned prosperity to the United States with their shameless high tariff policy. However, the evidence does not substantiate the claims of the Republicans. We all know that under the present Republican administration of President Roosevelt, there has been a marked increase in unemployment. Many people believe that the present wave of unemployment was brought about purposely by the capitalists to furnish them with a pretext for lowering wages, and wages are really going down. That may be true, but it is also true that it is impossible to sustain any kind of national prosperity very long with high tariff rates. Whenever we increase our tariff rates, other countries always retaliate by increasing their rates. This tariff war inevitably decreases our export trade, and sometimes it chokes it entirely. Then our national prosperity vanishes, wages are lowered, and there is a marked curtailment in our economic and industrial activities all over the country. Therefore, it is evident that the Republican idea of high tariff rates is a short-sighted policy. The practice of increasing our tariff rates cannot serve any other purpose except to breed economic and industrial depressions in our country.

    Because of the above reasons it is impossible at this time to make an accurate 3prediction as to which candidate will receive a majority of the votes of the citizens of the United States. Lithuanians, undoubtedly, will study and analyze the various campaign issues and vote according to their convictions. Being members of the working class, naturally, we will favor that candidate who will make the most promises to benefit the working class.

    The Socialist party will also nominate a candidate for the presidency. However, there is no hope that he will be elected. Even if he would be elected, he would be unable to accomplish much good for the benefit of the working class, because the Senate and House of Representatives will be composed of Republicans and Democrats. Before attempting to elect a Socialist for president, it is necessary first to elect Socialists to the Senate and House of Representatives. At the present time there is not a single Socialist in our government at Washington, D. C.

    This is a presidential election year and for that reason the citizens of the United States are taking an increased interest in the political affairs of the country. Lithuanian citizens ...

    I E, I D 2 c, I D 1 a, I F 5, I F 3