The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Katalikas -- January 12, 1899

    If we look upon the lives of the Lithuanians living in Lithuania and also American Lithuanians, we will see a great difference between these Lithuanians. In Lithuania, the Russian government forbade the people to teach the Lithuanian language, publish books, newspapers and reading. Russian government used every means possible to spread Russian faith and abolish Catholic faith, and Lithuanian language. However, the people of Lithuania decided to suffer Russian cruel persecution than to denounce their native language and Catholic faith. Lithuanian people determined to bring up their children under Catholic faith and teach them at least the catechism in their native language; notwithstanding the consequences of Russian cruel persecution. Parents had to teach their children prayers and reading secretly and under the most difficult conditions. It was a most pathetic situation for the people, who wanted to teach their children and they were not permitted even elementary education in their native language.

    In American every one has a equal opportunity to educate themselves and read all the good books they want to.


    However it is heart breaking to see Lithuanian parents neglecting their children's education, especially here in America, where there is a golden opportunity for every child to attain the highest education. It is very pathetic to see Lithuanian children on the streets; doing absolutely nothing, wasting their valuable time, not accomplishing anything worth while, when their time could be used for educational purposes, for example, in learning the Lithuanian language. Lithuanian parents come to this country to earn a few cents and improve their life and conditions in general. However they should remember also to bring their children up according to the Catholic faith; teach them catechism, prayers and other things, so that the children may lead clean lives. Teach your children according to the laws of the Catholic Church if you want to receive grace of our Lord, then you can expect something worthwhile from your children. Do it same as this picture shows; teach your children to read the Lithuanian language and teach them the Holy Catholic faith; for this will show them in whom to believe and how to live clean lives. Teach your children not only theory but also behavior and parents conduct has an influence upon 3their children. Very often children remember things in later years, they recall good deeds as well as bad deeds of their parents and some things they remember the rest of their lives. But, if you teach your children to bring beer from the saloon and let them spend their time on the streets in bad company, you can't expect much from your children, only sorrow and tears in your old age. Your child will not love you and he will not help when you become old and helpless if he does not fear God and revered the Catholic church. Therefore, we must teach our children not only general education but also teach them how to conduct themselves as good citizens. Teaching your children general education is not enough; we must also consider their environment.

    Parents must caution their children not to associate with bad company. They must use every means to create a good environment for their children; because the environment has a great influence upon the child's mind. Only through a good environment parents can mold the character of their 4child. Discourage your children to associate with those who don't believe in the doctrines of our holy church. If you know a neighbor who is sick with some contagious disease, would you allow your children to visit them? Wouldn't you caution your children not to visit the sick neighbors? Yes, you caution your children.

    Disease destroys the child's body, but bad friends kill your child spiritually. This is warning to parents not to allow their children to read books and newspapers which are against the faith of Catholic church. For example, if you had a bottle filled with poison, you would warn your child not to touch it. It is a well known fact that if you had a healthy mind, you will never give a drink from this bottle to your child. Bed books and newspapers have about the same effect as poison, kills the faith of the Catholic church and morality.

    To guard yourselves and your children against all evils and immorality, you must not read those books and newspapers which are against the faith 5of the Catholic Church. You, Lithuanian mothers, don't wish to make your children ungodly, immoral and criminals, do you? I do not believe you wish that. Therefore, make every effort, even though you have a lot of work to do, you must find time to teach your children; because, at the end you will have a satisfaction, happiness and reward for your efforts. You should not be afraid to sacrifice a little of your effort and a few cents for the enlightening of your children and your efforts will not be in vain.


    If we look upon the lives of the Lithuanians living in Lithuania and also American Lithuanians, we will see a great difference between these Lithuanians. In Lithuania, the Russian government ...

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  • Lietuva -- June 01, 1906
    The Lithuanian Alliance of America. Twenty-First Convention

    Preparation for the convention lasted several weeks. Saturday, May 26th, all the Lithuanian houses were decorated with American and Lithuanian flags, and on Sunday more houses were decorated. This showed that Lithuanians felt more for the Lithuanian Alliance of America than for the Rev. Krawczunas, who denounced the convention and warned Lithuanians not to participate in the parade and convention. All the Lithuanian colony looked very nice. It looked like a national holiday. The decoration of the houses made a large impression and brought back feelings of the old fatherland. One thing is unforgettable. The Lithuanian workers decorated their houses with flags, but the Rev. Krawczunas did not decorate the parish property, the rectory and the church stood without decoration like a nettle among flowers. The priest is a good lover of the fatherland!

    May 27th was not such a good day; it was cold and rainy. At noon-time the rain stopped. At 3 o'clock in the afternoon, when the parade started it began to rain again. Many people got wet. Even though the Rev. Krawczunas warned and scolded the people that they should not take part in the convention, they participated in the parade. Thirteen Lithuanian societies participated in the parade which was ten blocks long. There were seventy coaches. Two coaches were pulled by four 2horses. The parade started from 33rd and Morgan Street; 33rd to Halsted, Halsted to 31st Street, then to La Salle Street, then back to 33rd Street, and 33rd to State Street, to the convention hall.

    When the public came to the hall at 4:30 in the afternoon, the program started. The program consisted of forty numbers! It was known at the beginning that to complete every number of the program was impossible. The public could not sit for 8 or 10 hours at one time. Ten numbers of the program were left out because the program lasted to 11:00 P.M.

    The celebration meeting was called to order by M.J. Damijonaitis. The first speaker on the program was Mr. A. Olszevskis. He in his anti-clerical speech attacked the clergy, especially in Chicago, who warned the societies not to participate in this celebration. He said that unity among Lithuanians is the most essential affair. The second speaker was an American, attorney Morse Ives as representative of the Mayor of Chicago. He spoke about the benefit of citizenship in this country. He stated that if the Lithuanians do not become citizens, they will be lost and disappear as a nation; they will become denationalized. It is 3a peculiar statement from a lawyer that citizenship will protect nationality. Then the Dr. Kudirka choir sang "Fatherland", and "From a Far Country". The singing was very good. The fourth number on the program was a declamation delivered by a small girl, L. Laukiute, and a boy, E. Domijonaitukas. (5) A speech by A.J. Taraila, president of the Lithuanian Alliance of America. His speech was devoted to the affairs of the Alliance. (6) Duet by Miss L. Sabauskiute and Mrs. M. Damijonaitiene. (7) Orchestra, "Concert Ouverture", Lavalle. (8) Long, "Lithuania Our Fatherland", by children's chorus. (9) Solos, "The Farewell to Alps" and the "Gypsy Dream", by Mrs. M. Kabasanskiene. (10) Speech by A. Ramanauskas. He spoke about the benefit of science and urged Lithuanians to join the Alliance. (11) Quartet, Lithuanian students from Valparaiso University. They sang very well. The public called them back to sing another song. (12) The Dr. Kudirka chorus sang, "The Sun is Rising". (13) Declamation, "Liberty", by a young girl, Antigona Kabasinskaite. The public was moved by this declamation. Then she played on the piano, "The Waves of Nemunas". (14) Orchestra, "The Lithuanian Song", under the direction of Mr. P.F. Beidel, gave a few popular Lithuanian melodies. We are grateful to Mr. Beidel, even though he is not Lithuanian, he has devoted much of his time and energy to preparing the Lithuanian choir. (15) Dr. J. Zelviene spoke on 4how to bring up children, about the conditions of the workers, and the unions. The workers must rule and reap the benefit from their own production. (16) Speech by a Valparaiso University student, Mr. S. Struckus, on the value of science. (17) Song, "Hello Brothers Singers" by children's chorus. (18) Orchestra, Ouvertura, "Liberty", under the direction of F. Beidel. (19) Song, "Vilija", by Lithuanian Alliance of America branch No. 109, male choir. (20) Mr. Jancevski spoke about the Lithuanian Alliance and the revolution. (21) Song, "In the Woods", was sung by Dr. Kudirka Choir. (22) Orchestra, "Bettel Student", by Millocker. (23) Declamation, "To the Youth", by Mrs. M. Damijonaitiene. (24) Speech by a Valparaiso University student, B. Balevicius. He spoke about man and science. Man, though physically not strong, is strong mentally, and must accomplish great deeds for progress. (Tran. note: B. Balevicius changed his name to Balutis, cut off the Polish suffix, "vicz". At present he is Ambassador to London from the Lithuanian government.) (25) Duet on piano by Mary and John Bijanskas. (26) Orchestra, the "Waves of Nemunas" , by Dr. V. Kudirka musicians, arranged by T. Beidel. (27) Song, "The Happy Days of Spring are come", by children's choir. (28) Dr. A.L. Graiciunas spoke about the "Aurora" Society and its aims and benefits. (29) Orchestra, "Poet and Peasant", Suppe. (30) Song, "The Hunter and the Marseillaise" by Dr. Kudirka choir. (31) Speech by A. Bijanskas. M. Damijonaitis called the meeting 5to adjourn.

    The program was a great success. The Chicago Lithuanians never had such a celebration before. This festival will remain in their minds for a long time. It must be mentioned that the hall was very nicely decorated, especially with Chinese candles. A large sign was hanging in the front with the description, "Freedom to Lithuania and Success to the Twenty-first convention". There were pictures of the Duke Keistutis of Lithuania, Lincoln and Washington; and on the sides were the pictures of Vytautas, Algirdas and Gedeminas, the grand dukes of Lithuania. On the front of the stage, was the flowing wreath of the Lithuanian Alliance Branch 36, and the Lyre made of flowers by the Dr. V. Kudirka choir as a present to the Twenty-first convention.

    Preparation for the convention lasted several weeks. Saturday, May 26th, all the Lithuanian houses were decorated with American and Lithuanian flags, and on Sunday more houses were decorated. This showed ...

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  • Lietuva -- October 04, 1907
    From the Women's Enlightenment Society

    During last winter there was organized a women's society, Enlightenment, by a few energetic and active women. The society has held several meetings with lectures. This coming winter we must lay for our society a stronger foundation. Up to the present time we have no by-laws for our organization. We must have liberal by-laws, that every member of this society can be free to express her views without fear.

    Women! We are the foundation of the present society, we bring up the children; therefore, it is our duty to look that our children be brought up in culture, not in slavery and obedience. As it is today, the human race is enslaved by superstition. Our meeting will be held on October 6th, at 4 P. M., 325 S. Halsted St. All Lithuanian women are welcome.

    The Enlightenment Society Committee.

    During last winter there was organized a women's society, Enlightenment, by a few energetic and active women. The society has held several meetings with lectures. This coming winter we must ...

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  • Lietuva -- January 31, 1908
    The Aurora Society's Second Lecture

    On January 26th a lecture on the subject, "The Woman of the Future," was delivered by Mrs. Seskiene. In her lecture she stated in what inequality the human race lives. The most brutal man, who crushed the brains out, shed blood, was worshiped as a hero and great benefactor. This brutal man has enslaved the women and the women became hero-worshipers. The young maidens throw flowers on the road when such a hero comes back from war after slaughtering innocent and defenseless people. Such war heroes have been made gods and worshiped as such. They become our priests and other oppressors and exploiters of humanity.

    But science crushed superstition and hero worship. People began to realize, to think why should the brainless crowned head keep them in oppression. Why should the long-coated priests always keep the people in deadly fear of hell. The new ideas came up in social problems; the leaders of human rights have proved to the people that they should not worship the past with its bended back, that 2the people must look to the future, how to improve their living condition. The people revolted despite the priests' warning of hell and the devil. The people won freedom, and women are made free; only the free woman can rear children, educate them not with threats, but by kindness and education. Only a free brain and healthy body bring forth inventions and progress. The people began to publish literature, read and educate themselves. Man and woman began to understand each other, that in order to make better future they must work together.

    Such was the lecture given by the first Lithuanian woman of Chicago.

    A. K. Rutkauskas, M. C.

    On January 26th a lecture on the subject, "The Woman of the Future," was delivered by Mrs. Seskiene. In her lecture she stated in what inequality the human race lives. ...

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  • Lietuva -- September 18, 1908
    From the Lithuanian Women's Educational Society of Chicago

    There were times in this world when living organisms did not know how to govern themselves, and did not seek to govern others. However, during the lapse of many ages, certain evolutionary changes took place. One of the results of this evolutionary process was the development of men and women, who later became philosophers, scientists, poets, and great inventors.

    Those primitive ages did not elapse as fast as some people believed they should. They dragged along very slowly. Now they are so far in the distant past that we can view them only with imaginative eyes, and can see only a very obscure picture. Those past ages changed the nature, as well as the environment, of all living organisms.

    There was an age when a women lead an independent life. She governed herself and her children. However, as the ages rolled by, the time came when a woman was no longer able to raise her children without help, she transferred the support of her children to their father, and later she, herself, accepted 2him as her provider. Later, women greatly regretted the latter step, because they were enslaved by their mates, devoid of liberty, burdened with all kinds of hardship, and even experienced occasional beatings by their mates. Therefore, it is evident that women made a grave mistake.

    However, in the present age, men have raised themselves to a fairly high cultural level (of course, not all men). Today, men do not desire to enslave their wives. On the contrary, they want their wives to be, at least, equal to them in character and intelligence. The modern man strives to find a mate with developed intellect and lofty ideals, who will cooperate with him bravely, and energetically to lead a prosperous and happy life. This high requirement of men in regard to the character of their life mates has forced women to realize that it is a grave mistake to remain merely as obedient servants, housekeepers, and toys of their husbands.

    Progressive women of other nationalities have realized a long time ago that not only men as individuals, but also the civilization of mankind, demands a greater perfection in the character and intelligence of women. These women have developed their talents to a fairly high intelligent level, and now have 3become bold enough to demand equal political rights with men. The government does not even dare to oppose their demands. They have been permitted to pursue studies in all the various branches of learning, including all the professions, and today they are competing with the most learned men. Many women are now holding very important positions, which were formerly held only by men of high learning.

    However, many men still look upon the lofty accomplishments of women with great skepticism, they scratch their heads in astonishment when they read books on philosophy and poetry, written by women. There are still plenty of men left who, upon seeing a woman on a rostrum bravely speaking to a large crowd of people, cry out in a disheartened manner: "The end of the world is approaching; Judgement Day cannot be far away," when such radical changes take place on earth.

    It is true that a comparison of the modern age with the past reveals the fact that many radical changes have taken place on earth. An outstanding change has taken place in the position of women. After dragging for many centuries the yoke of slavery, and after many centuries of oppression by ignorance, women have finally started to develop their intellectual powers, 4and are now marching forward into the light of liberty and honor, together with heroic men.

    Of course, we can be proud of the above fact only so far as women of other nationalities are concerned. We are forced to admit that Lithuanian women have accomplished very few lofty deeds. However, Lithuanian women are waking up. Although still in a drowsy stupor, they have started to say to their husbands: "I am no longer your slave, you must respect me!"

    Lithuanian women of Chicago! If you wish to be respected by your husbands, then first of all cast out from your homes those pails filled with foaming beer, and then make profitable use of your spare moments by reading educational books, and by attending educational meetings and lectures. Then, and only then, will you be in a position to understand whether or not you possess the right to ask your husbands to respect you.

    The Lithuanian Women's Educational Society of Chicago has been organized with the purpose to persuade Lithuanian women to follow, at least, in the foot-steps of the progressive women of other nationalities. The society holds mass meetings 5with intelligent speakers, lectures and, from time to time, educational, theatrical presentations. The society also conducts evening classes of instruction for Lithuanian women and girls. Various subjects are taught, such as reading, writing, home economics, etc. These classes are now in the process of organization. All those who are interested in these classes are invited to call at the Fellowship House, on West 33rd Place, near Halsted Street.

    The next public affair of the society will be a lecture and dance, on September 27, at Freiheit Turner hall, 3417 South Halsted Street. The lecture will commence at 5 P.M. After the lecture, young Lithuanians will be able to enjoy themselves by dancing. Admission is only 25 cents. Everybody is invited to come.

    By Mrs. M. Seskas.

    There were times in this world when living organisms did not know how to govern themselves, and did not seek to govern others. However, during the lapse of many ages, ...

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  • Lietuva -- October 01, 1909
    Celebrate Twelfth Anniversary of Truth Lovers Society (Summary)

    Members of the Truth Lovers Society celebrated the twelfth anniversary of their organization on Sunday afternoon, September 26, at Freiheit Turner hall, 3417 South Halsted Street. The program consisted of orations, music, and dancing.

    The main speakers were: Attorney F. P. Bradchulis, K. B. Balutis, J. Chmielauskas, and Attorney L. S. Haigler.

    Mr. Balutis explained in detail about the great value and importance of truth. Mr. Chmielauskas related the complete history of the organization. Attorney Bradchulis described the demoralizing effect upon the Lithuanian people which results from holding our organization meetings in saloon halls. He urged our people to hold their organization meetings in the hall of the Lithuanian 2Community Center, which will be opened to the Lithuanian public on October 2, at 3149 South Halsted Street. Attorney Haigler, who is not a Lithuanian, spoke in English. Among other things, he advised Lithuanian parents to converse with their children in Lithuanian, and to preserve Lithuanian traditions in America.

    An interesting musical program entertained the audience during intermission. The Vytautas Orchestra played several numbers. The two church choirs of St. George's parish, led by B. Janusauskas, sang beautiful Lithuanian songs, including the Lithuanian national anthem. The most popular song numbers were: "Pasakyk, Lietuva" (Speak, Lithuania); "Sudiev Kvietkeli" (Farewell Little Flower); "Sveiki Broliai Dainininkai" (Hail Brother Singers); and "Tu Esi Kaip Kvietkele" (You are like a Flower).

    A mixed chorus, composed of the two above mentioned choirs, ended the program of the day with the following songs: "Lietuva, Tu Brangi Zeme" (The Dear Land of Lithuania); "Saulele Raudona, Vakaras Netoli" (The Sun is Crimson, Evening 3is Approaching); and "Noriu Miego" (I Want to Sleep). The program ended at 7 P. M.

    Members of the Truth Lovers Society celebrated the twelfth anniversary of their organization on Sunday afternoon, September 26, at Freiheit Turner hall, 3417 South Halsted Street. The program consisted of ...

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  • Lietuva -- October 15, 1909
    Mark 40Th Anniversary of Lithuanian Mass Immigration to America

    The Lithuanian organizations in the Bridgeport Chicago Lithuanian colony commemorated the 40th anniversary of the Lithuanian mass immigration to America, on October 10, at St. George's Hall, 52nd Place and Auburn (now Lituanica) Avenue. The program was unusually long; it started at 5:00 P. M., and continued until 9:00 P. M. The admission price was fifteen cents. The hall was filled to capacity.

    The main speakers were: Reverend Kraucunas, Mr. Marcinkevicius, Mr. Balutis, Attorney Bradchulis, Mr. Dambrauskas, and Mr. Mazeika.

    The audience was entertained with music and recitations during the intermission periods, between speakers. Recitations were delivered by Miss Horodecka, Miss Sinus, Miss Nevardauskas, and Miss Miknis. A piano solo was played by John Bijanskas, Junior; a duet was sung by Mr. Janusauskas and Miss Jaksevicius. The St. George's Parish church choir sang five songs.


    Mr. Balutis read a letter from Reverend Zilinskas, famous statistician, who was the first to suggest the celebration of the 40th anniversary of Lithuanian mass immigration to America. The following interesting information was gathered from that letter:

    The first Lithuanians who came to the United States during the mass immigration period settled in the state of Pennsylvania, in the coal mining regions. People from the whole world were emigrating to America for more than a hundred years before the year of 1869. Lithuanian emigration was delayed by the feudal system in Lithuania, when all the common people were the personal property of the feudal lords; many Lithuanians made repeated attempts to emigrate, but were nearly always captured, returned to their masters, and severely punished. However, at that time, slavery existed in America also. When Lincoln abolished slavery there was a shortage of workers in the United States; for that reason efforts were made through agents to 3 import workers from other countries. Therefore, after the abolition of serfdom in Lithuania and slavery in America, Lithuanian mass emigration to America started in 1868 and 1869.

    (According to Simanas Daukantas, famous Lithuanian historian, and the Lithuanian Encyclopedia, a large group of Lithuanians, led by the Latvian prince, Jokubas Ketleris, emigrated to New York by way of the Guadeloupe and Tobago Islands in the year of 1691 and formed a colony, which they named Ausra--Dawn, near the Hudson river.)

    The first Lithuanian immigrants in the United States were persecuted a great deal; it was much harder for them to settle here than it is for present-day immigrants. When the number of Lithuanian immigrants increased, a strong hatred developed against the Poles, who attempted to dominate the the Lithuanians; as a result, Lithuanian Americans completely severed all relations and contact with Polish Americans. At present, it is estimated that there are from 250,000 to 300,000 Lithuanians in the United States.


    The position of the Lithuanians in the United States is much lower than that of the English, Germans, and Jews, who control all the industrial and commercial institutions of the country. Nearly all Lithuanians are servants of people of the above mentioned nationalities; their position is nearly the same as that of the former negro slaves.

    The number of the Lithuanian-American intelligentsia is so small that they can be counted on one's fingers; and there are probably only two women members of the Lithuanian-American intelligentsia. It appears that our people are not anxious to assist their children to lead better lives; they are saying: "I work hard, let my children work also." However, our young people thirst for an education--that is proven by Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana, where, in a comparatively short time the number of Lithuanian students has risen to one hundred and fifty.

    Mr. Balutis spoke about the great value of time and about the progress of mankind. He made many interesting comparisons. People formerly worshipped 5 lightning as a god, to which even human sacrifices were made; but today we have harnessed and hitched that very same lightning to a wagon, and also employ it for lighting and heating purposes. Formerly, the Queen of Sheba traveled to Solomon on a camel, but today people are not very anxious to ride even in streetcars; we ride in automobiles and fly in airplanes. We have been endowed with all these improvements by time, which is more valuable than gold and diamonds; it is impossible to bring back wasted time even with all the gold and diamonds in the world. Therefore, when we waste time, we waste the most valuable thing in our lives.

    Let us reflect and ascertain what good we have accomplished during the past forty years of our life in America; by doing so we can learn how to make better use of our time in the future for the glory and welfare of our people. Instead of thinking about the social affairs that are scheduled to take place next week, let us think about what we did during the past week. Time offers the greatest opportunities in our lives; it pays big dividends to those who take full advantage of it. If we waste the time of our lives than let us not complain if we continue to remain 6 at a miserably low financial and intellectual level. If we spend our time in saloons, instead of studying and reading books, than we are certain to perish as a distinct national group; unless we strive to improve our position, our second generation will become "Anglo-Saxonized."

    What have we accomplished so far? Thanks to the efforts of our leaders of the past forty years, we are now conscious of the fact that we are Lithuanians, a distinct national group; prior to that time we were crows embellished with foreign feathers. We must continue to progress, because we have covered only half the distance of the road to equality with the progress of other nationalities. Our parents must strive to send their children through the higher institutions of learning. A father who sends his son to work in a factory, before he completes his education is a thief and a criminal, because he is robbing his children of their good fortune. It is of utmost importance for us to have not only good schools, but also good textbooks.

    After Mr. Balutis' talk, a collection was made to form a fund for the 7 publication of school textbooks in the Lithuanian language. Thanks to the efforts of Mr. Balutis the collection netted a total of $74.75. It is estimated that at least $150, the net proceeds of this affair, will go to the textbook publication fund.

    Mr. Balutis' address was very successful and fruitful; such a splendid oration is bound to remain in the memories of the people for a long time.

    Attorney F. P. Bradchulis, one of the oldest Lithuanian residents of Chicago, spoke about the Lithuanians of Chicago. The following interesting information has been gathered from his talk:

    In the year of 1884 there were altogether eighteen Lithuanians living in the Chicago area. The first Lithuanian organization in Chicago, the Varpas (Bell) Society, was formed in 1886. The most active Chicago Lithuanian leaders at that time were: Joseph Grinius (publisher and editor of the first Chicago Lithuanian newspaper, the Zelmuo-Sprout, which was printed in 1886), John Varanka, Mr. Spokas, and Mr. Novackas. All these men are now 8 deceased. Later, the St. Casimir Society was organized; still later, the Grand Duke Gediminas of Lithuania Society, non-Catholic, was formed.

    On account of obstructionist tactics of the Poles the Lithuanian Roman Catholics of Chicago tried for eight years before they finally received a Lithuanian priest from the local bishop. The Poles tried with all their power, including the use of shameful tactics, to dominate and Polonize the Chicago Lithuanians. The Poles formed an organization of traitorous and Polonized Lithuanians, the Unia Lubelska (Union of Lublin) Society, which is still in existence.

    (According to documentary evidence, located in the files of the Chicago Evening American, the first Lithuanian family, the Baltramaitis family, came to Chicago in a covered wagon in 1823.)

    Mr. Bradchulis pointed out in his talk that Chicago is the largest "Lithuanian city" in the world. He also spoke about the dire consequences that result 9 from holding our meetings in saloon halls--he urged the use of the hall in the Lithuanian Community Center. He stated that there are good and bad features about emigration. He estimated that at least ten per cent of the children of the 300,000 Lithuanian-Americans will become denationalized. Therefore, we must strive as much as possible to uphold Lithuanianism in America; whether or not we shall continue to exist as a distinct national group largely depends upon how we rear our children.

    One of the participants in the musical program of the evening was John Bijanskas, Junior. Although only fourteen years of age, he has displayed great talent and ability in playing difficult piano compositions, such as "Suppes Ouvertura," "Poetas Ir Kaimietis" (The Poet and the Peasant).

    The Lithuanian organizations in the Bridgeport Chicago Lithuanian colony commemorated the 40th anniversary of the Lithuanian mass immigration to America, on October 10, at St. George's Hall, 52nd Place and ...

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  • Lietuva -- September 01, 1911
    Appeal to the Lithuanian Societies of Chicago (Summary)

    "At this moment there exists a very important problem in our national life. The question is, how to unite all the Lithuanian societies in Chicago--[how] to establish a central office that would take care of all our problems. That such a central bureau is necessary, every one knows.

    "In recent years, the United States Government has passed strict rules regarding immigration. The immigrants now receive horrible treatment in the immigration offices. All other national groups in this country have organized centers to protect their own immigrants. We Lithuanians must have such an organization for the protection of our own immigrants from abuse and bad treatment in the immigration offices.


    "This year is the presidential election year. The factories are closing. Many Lithuanians will be out of work. Many Lithuanian mothers and children are facing starvation. Will we permit them to starve? Such an organized center of the Lithuanian societies in Chicago, would be able to help such unfortunate mothers and children.

    "Another thing. Many Lithuanians need legal help in their daily problems. Many of them have been injured,..and yet, they do not know where and how to obtain legal aid. By having such a Lithuanian central office, we could give our brothers the legal assistance which would protect them from exploitation by various crooks and swindlers.

    "In taking part in the celebration of the 4th of July in Chicago, the Lithuanians have proved to themselves that they could accomplish a great deal 3through unity.

    "We also must have our own employment office in order to help our brothers find jobs.

    "On September 7, at the St. George's Hall, a meeting will be held of the Chicago Lithuanian societies who participated in the 4th of July celebration. We appeal to all the Chicago Lithuanian societies to send their delegates to this meeting to discuss and to make plans for the organization of a central bureau for all of the Lithuanian societies in Chicago."

    Signed by the temporary committee:

    Joseph J. Elias, President

    J. J. Hertmanovicia, Secretary

    Jonas F. Eudeikis, Treasurer.

    "At this moment there exists a very important problem in our national life. The question is, how to unite all the Lithuanian societies in Chicago--[how] to establish a central office ...

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  • Lietuva -- December 05, 1913
    Lithuanians in the Last Census (Summarized editorial)

    The Commerce Department in Washington has published the 1910 census volume, dealing with immigration and the nationality of immigrants.

    This census shows that in 1910 there were 211,255 Lithuanians. Of this number, 140,963 were born in Lithuania, and 70,725 were born in the United States.

    In general, the number of Lithuanians given above, is not true. Of course, it is not the fault of the Census Bureau; it is the fault of the Lithuanians themselves. If we are not mistaken, this is the first census in which the Lithuanians had the rubric "Latvian". . . . .

    This census does not give the exact number of Lithuanians. We think there are 2 between four hundred and five hundred thousand Lithuanians in this country. Another point is that the Lithuanians did not have their rubric, they had the same rubric as the Latvians. The enumerators knew nothing about Lithuanians; they recorded persons as Lithuanians only when the Lithuanians demanded that this be done.

    There were many Lithuanians who stated that they were Russians, Germans, and Poles, because they did not know any better..."

    We believe, that in the next census (1920), there will be more Lithuanians, because the Lithuanians will understand the value of their nationalism, and will demand that they be placed in the Lithuanian rubric.

    If the American-born Lithuanians become Americanized so rapidly, then what can be said about the Russianized, Polonized and Germanized Lithuanians? 3 In reality, the Lithuanians are not Russianized, etc., but they themselves do not know what they are. Among such Lithuanians, many are found who call themselves "Americans". If parents do not know what they are, then what can you expect from their children?

    It is our duty to take into consideration the affairs of our younger generation, so that the younger generation shall not disappear without leaving any benefits to our nation. In order to keep them from denationalization, we must pay attention to our children, the schools, etc.

    We must take care of not only our children, but also of those thousands of Lithuanians who are coming to this country, so that they shall not fall into the waves of Americanism. We find that the greatest cause of Americanization is the public schools, and yet, we, the grown-up people, pay no attention to those who are rapidly becoming denationalized.

    The Commerce Department in Washington has published the 1910 census volume, dealing with immigration and the nationality of immigrants. This census shows that in 1910 there were 211,255 Lithuanians. Of ...

    III G, I A 1 a, I B 3 b, V A 1, III A, I C
  • Lietuva -- December 05, 1913
    Golden Wedding Jubilee Celebrated

    Mr. Bonifacas and Mrs. Elena Rutkauskas, who at present live at 3255 South Halsted Street, are, it seems, the first Lithuanians in Chicago to celebrate their golden wedding anniversary. The golden wedding was celebrated the other Sunday at St. George's Church, and the Right Reverend Deacon Matthew Krauciunas said that this golden wedding is the first in St. George's Church, which is the oldest one in Chicago.

    Even though they have reached their honorable age, Mr. and Mrs. Rutkauskas can be called newlyweds: old in years, they are young in spirit and health, which at such an age is a very rare occurrence. The "bridegroom" will this coming Monday be just seventy-one years old, while the "bride" reached the age of seventy-two in February of this year. Both come from the county of Kalwaria, in the province of Suwalki, Lithuania, and this summer marks twenty-five years since they came to America.


    For many reasons, these two people are worthy of mention. In the first place, this pair is an honorable family. Even though they had no opportunity to secure higher education, they did understand the value of education, and they have done their best to give their children an education. They have both been patriotic Lithuanians, and have brought up their children in the same spirit. Today, one of their sons, Dr. Antanas Rutkauskas is well-known for his activity among Lithuanians. The second son, Vincas Rutkauskas, is manager of a Lithuanian store, the Halsted Furniture House, in Bridgeport. The youngest child, their daughter, Aldona Rutkauskaite [Rutkauskas], was graduated last year as a physician and surgeon, and she now has an office at 3255 South Halsted Street. Her parents live with her.

    The lot of the celebrants has been varied, like that of any other immigrant. They have seen first-hand the coal mines of Pennsylvania and the factories of Connecticut. Always they have had a tendency toward farming, and later on they bought a farm in Wisconsin, where they lived for ten years. Still 3later, in order to send their children to school, they moved to Chicago.

    This is a typical pair of the older Lithuanians. They are courteous, friendly, and have sober habits, and as the saying goes, they are people "of healthy and independent mind". They are progressive, and are great lovers of the Lithuanian language and nation. We wish for the honored celebrants of this jubilee that they may live to celebrate their diamond jubilee.

    Mr. Bonifacas and Mrs. Elena Rutkauskas, who at present live at 3255 South Halsted Street, are, it seems, the first Lithuanians in Chicago to celebrate their golden wedding anniversary. The ...

    I B 3 a, I B 3 b, II A 1, II A 2, V A 1, IV