The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Reform Advocate -- May 01, 1891
    [Dr. Emil G. Hirsch and Foreign - Language Teaching]

    In a discussion which took place in the Union League Club of Chicago, Dr. Hirsch talked about foreign languages being taught in our public schools. He said: In the lower grades of the public schools, I, as an educator, cannot but say there is no study for a foreign language. In our high schools, in our colleges, they are in place and proper. There be those who held the high schools as an unnecessary luxury. I am not of their opinion. The city should endow these high schools most liberally, though but few can attend them, these few the community cannot spare. We need thinkers in our public life; we need educated teachers. The high schools are intended to provide them. We look to them for our teachers. No one can today lay claim to be fully a man or woman of culture, unless he or she has at least a reading knowledge of more than one language. In the high schools, the object of the instruction of foreign dialects cannot be to teach how to speak them. The high school should aim to initiate into the literature of foreign tongue. And for this end, as a promising instrument of education, I know next to the English Classics, none richer, none sweeter than the language in which Goethe and Schiller and Lessing thought and wrote. To the scholar, German and French are indispensible.

    2

    The lower grades of the schools cannot attempt literary culture even in the only tongue which, according to my judgment, should there be taught. That belongs to the domain of the high schools. There the study of foreign languages, in another way than the poll-parrot fashion, is undoubtedly among the appointments of a thorough curriculum.

    I have arrived at my conclusions, not without long consideration; other speakers, may I hope, advance arguments convincing me of error. But as far as I have been able to grasp the subject, I have seen but this outcome.

    This is America; we all are first, Americans. Out children are Americans. The home language, as the home religion is a matter a private perogative. The state is concerned about the training of the American citizen. The public school in its lower departments, should provide first and last the bread, that which everybody needs, which is required in daily life, which the citizen must know in order to be able to serve his nation in every capacity - and that is a full and comprehensive use certainly - of English.

    In a discussion which took place in the Union League Club of Chicago, Dr. Hirsch talked about foreign languages being taught in our public schools. He said: In the lower ...

    Jewish
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  • Daily Jewish Courier -- February 02, 1914
    Our Synagogues By Anna Goldberg

    Permit me to take up with our elderly Jews, the question of our synagogues. In Chicago we have many beautiful and large synagogues. More beautiful synagogues are being erected each year. But, unfortunately, for whom? Upon entering a synagogue on the Sabbath, a holiday, or any day throughout the year, how many people do we find there? A few elderly Jews, but very few young people. I will admit that the elderly Jews cling devoutly to Judaism. I believe that when an elderly Jew dies a branch of Judaism simultaneously dies, but the question remains: What will become of the young generation? What sort of Jewish future can we expect from them? The future of the present generation lies in the hands of our parents.

    We construct colossal synagogues for a handful of Jews, but why aren't the 2synagogues designed with some attractive features for the youth? Every synagogue should have a modern Talmud Torah (School of Religious lore), as well as a Sabbath school. Every synagogue should open its doors to the young children.. Let them even be a bit boisterous. Something should be done about the children who are not getting a Jewish education at home!

    Around Douglas Park where the Jewish population is so dense, there is not one Jewish school for girls. The education of our children in this country, rests mostly upon the women, the mothers. If you neglect the Jewish education of your daughters, you will have no Jewish future. Could we ask for a better place to open a school for girls than in the large, beautiful, and new synagogue, the Anshe Kneses Israel, Douglas Blvd., and Homan Ave.

    But the synagogues were established only for praying and studying the 3Talmud. You, older Jews, already know enough. Start teaching the youth. Your synagogues are externally beautiful. The internal beauty should be mantled with the work of small children. There are Sabbath schools in a couple of synagogues where small children can secure a good Jewish education. But how are they treated by the majority of elderly Jews? They are reproached and kicked out of the synagogue for being a bit too boisterous. You, parents, were spoiled when you were small children! If you were driven from the synagogues when you were young, you would now be ignorant of Judaism. If something interesting is introduced in a synagogue for the benefit of small children, a revolt immediately takes place. The adults are ready to take up arms against the children. The only synagogue, where approximately 250 children assemble every Saturday and Sunday to study Jewish history and Judaism, is the Beth Medrash Hagodol, on Maxwell St., There the children are treated splendidly; the members do not interfere. On the contrary, they are highly pleased with the progress the children are making in their studies. If 4we only had a few more schools and synagogues like that, we could certainly do much for the good of Judaism. Let the synagogues be open for the young children, just as they are for the older people; let us establish schools and arrange lectures to attract the youth; let every synagogue provide the children with ample space to enable them to study Judaism!

    If you will not rear Jews for the future you will have no synagogues, a few decades from now.

    Permit me to take up with our elderly Jews, the question of our synagogues. In Chicago we have many beautiful and large synagogues. More beautiful synagogues are being erected each ...

    Jewish
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  • Daily Jewish Courier -- April 30, 1916
    [Club for Jewish Children]

    Dear Editor:

    I hope you will grant me some space in your newspaper. Since many children are unable to come to our old club because it is too far from their homes, we have organized a branch called the Tzirie Adas Bnai Israel, Branch B" in the Congregation Yauneh, at the corner of Winchester and Roosevelt Streets where the meetings will be held every Sunday at 2 P.M. All children who are interested in belonging to our club, where the language, religion and history of the Jewish people are taught, are requested to come to our meeting, Sunday at 2 P.M.

    Those who wish to open a branch in their respective synagogues should apply to the Tzirie Adas Bnai Israel, 1133 W. 12th Street.

    It is hoped that our Jewish children will respond enthusiastically to such meetings where they will learn a great deal about the religion, language and history of their own people.

    2

    With fraternal regards to all children,

    Nathan Cohen,

    President, Tzirie Adas Bnai Israel.

    Dear Editor: I hope you will grant me some space in your newspaper. Since many children are unable to come to our old club because it is too far from ...

    Jewish
    I A 2 a, II B 2 f, I A 2 b
  • Daily Jewish Courier -- August 09, 1916
    Among Newspapers and Journals

    A great deal has already been written about the question of Jewish education. The problem is so intricate and complicated that it becomes void of sense. But let us listen to Rabbi Meyer Berlin's opinion about the matter.

    In an article entitled "Ydshon Vchodosh" ("Old and New") in the last issue of the Hebrew, Rabbi Berlin points out that in former years there also existed diverse opinions about this question; that there were two different types of studies--religious and secular. And about Jewish education in America he says:

    "Jews of America are not aware of the controversy that has taken place among us concerning the religious and secular studies. All Jews in America have accepted, at first through compulsion and afterwards through their 2own volition, that which had already been accepted long ago by the Jews of western Europe, and more recently by the Jews of Poland and Lithuania, viz, the principal factor in education is secular study. In these countries there is neither a father nor a pedagogue who would think of changing this course of study or of attempting to minimize the secular studies.

    "Yet there are differences of opinion about the educational courses in these countries. The differences of opinion are, however, centered around the religious studies alone. The old-fashioned people are of the opinion that because there remains little time for the religious studies, we should teach our children the same system as was taught our parents. Therefore, they want to introduce into their children's study courses or into the Talmud Torahs which are under their supervision, Hebrew reading, interpretation of a chapter in Pentateuch or in Prophets, and perhaps a little of the Talmud. These studies are taught in Yiddish and in English and the parents are quite satisfied. Modern people admit that the objective of 3Hebrew studies is to acquire a concept of Judaism and are not against the study of the Torah, Pentateuch, Prophets, etc., but they also claim that the young generation will not be sufficiently inclined toward Judaism if it does not possess adequate knowledge of the Hebrew language. According to the opinion of modern people we should see that our children acquire a profound knowledge of the Hebrew language. In their opinion this is the only key to our national treasures".

    However, if the Jews in this country were as devoted to their opinions as our parents of former times, this controversy about secular and religious education would be just as difficult as it was then. But just as the Jews on this side of the Atlantic have "cooled off" in regard to many things, so has the "war of education" become a peaceful war. The result is that both the old and the new systems of education have collapsed here in America. What should we do about this?

    Rabbi Berlin continues: "It is hoped that eventually our civic leaders 4will become interested in the problem of Jewish education. We witness many movements, which seemed to have expired, reviving here in America, and when the better elements among us begin to think of the future generation, it will be impossible to overlook the problem of Jewish education.

    "The question of Jewish education will have to be the first among the questions concerning the existence of the Jewish people in America, and our civic leaders will have to cope with it."

    This is, however, no more than a hope for the future. In the meantime, Jewish education is so neglected in America that it is impossible to look forward to such a time.

    A great deal has already been written about the question of Jewish education. The problem is so intricate and complicated that it becomes void of sense. But let us listen ...

    Jewish
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  • Daily Jewish Courier -- May 06, 1919
    A Jewish Atmosphere

    Elsewhere on this page we print the speech given by Mr. Jacob M. Loeb, president of the Chicago Hebrew Institute, on Sunday, at the annual meeting of the Institute's members.

    If the worthy president of the Institute happened to be just an ordinary Jew we would not consider it necessary to comment on his speech, but, Mr. Loeb is a strong Jewish personality. He takes a strong personal interest in all Jewish activities, and desires to interest others also in Jewish civic work. Besides, he is a Zionist. All in all, it is expected of such a man that he speak a Jewish word at a Jewish gathering, which is interested in this large Jewish Institution.

    What Mr. Loeb says in his speech, every American Jew will indorse. Without a doubt, an Institution like the Chicago Hebrew Institute must expound questions on Americanism, must strive to build Jewish muscles, strong 2and healthy Jews for the good of the community, with a clear understanding pertaining to their duties of the country that gives them freedom and the possibilities to develop their abilities. We would be the first to protest against a sole, cultural program for the Institute because we know its activities must cover physical education and general Americanization. The fact that the Institute renders extensive services on these subjects is very satisfying. The leaders of the Institute and its many friends may be proud of its accomplishments, and point proudly to its curriculum of physical education and Americanization.

    Thus, in Mr. Loeb's speech we have nothing to eliminate, neither can any discreet Jews say anything against it, but, we have much to say concerning what Mr. Loeb omitted.

    After all, the Institution does not sponsor only physical and American education. It is a Jewish institution, as indicated by its name - Chicago Hebrew Institute. We believe that in such an institution, the physical education should be parallel to the Jewish, and that its leaders have the 3same distinct program for Jewish education and cultural work as they have for the physical and Americanizational work.

    We can see from Mr. Loeb's speech that he has a clear idea of what the Institute must offer as an American and physical educational institute, but it seems that he pays little attention to the special Jewish tasks. It is possible that he knows all this, but, simply failed to mention it in his speech. That is a pity because we know that Mr. Loeb wishes to educate the young generation to be good and faithful Jews, as well as good and faithful Americans.

    Ignoring the purely Jewish aspects is still bearable, when one knows that the leaders of the Institute are not really such fools as one may appear to think at a first glance, for in the Institute, Jewish educational work is in progress. Hebrew is taught to 250 pupils. Reading of Jewish history and culture also exists, besides the classes held in Jewish music and other subjects. Among the directors of the institute are prominent Zionists who 4certainly ascertain the special Jewish studies.

    How much further the Institute could delve into Jewish studies, we will not discuss here. The fact is that it accomplishes good and fruitful Jewish work, and that it is, so to say, the intellectual gathering center of the Jewish streets. The leaders of the Institute who carry on this Jewish work have no reason to be silent or belittle it.

    It surprises us, therefore, that Mr. Loeb had entirely omitted the Jewish aspects of the Institute. On the contrary, from a man like Mr. Loeb, we expect to see formulated and stressed the Jewish program, since, he is not just another Jew, but, a Jewish leader.

    We agree with Mr. Loeb that the Institute stands for the highest general attainments, but we wish also to emphasize that it stands for great Jewish accomplishments.

    5

    If immigration from eastern lands were to stop completely, then America in this case must furnish its own Jewish forces. Every Jewish organization would then be compelled to exert its efforts to produce this Jewish energy. The Chicago Hebrew Institute, a powerful and rich organization, is especially dedicated to this task, therefore, this work must not be kept in silence or belittled, but, on the contrary, must be strongly stressed to make it popularly known among all parts of the Jewish population.

    It is possible, of course, that it may simply have been an oversight on the part of Mr. Loeb when he failed to mention Jewish activities of the Institute, or he may have taken for granted the fact that everyone knew of it. If this is so, we must inform Mr. Loeb that he is too optimistic, and too far advanced for the present Jewish times in Chicago. Many members of the Institute know very little of the program given in Jewish studies, and of what they consist.

    Mr. Loeb, will do the Institute a favor if he will do at his next opportunity, 6what he failed to do this time - explain the Jewish courses of the Chicago Hebrew Institute, and lend weight to the Jewish atmosphere which he creates and should continue to create. Jews of Chicago, will be very thankful to him for it.

    Elsewhere on this page we print the speech given by Mr. Jacob M. Loeb, president of the Chicago Hebrew Institute, on Sunday, at the annual meeting of the Institute's members. ...

    Jewish
    III B 2, II B 2 g, II B 1 a, I A 2 a, I A 2 b, II B 3, III G, I A 3, IV
  • Daily Jewish Courier -- May 13, 1919
    The Book Scarcity by Leon Zolotkof

    Before the War, the printing of Hebrew books, both religious and secular, was concentrated mainly in the old press Haalmona Vehaocheem Rome, in Wilna. Most of their books were stereotyped copies of old publications that were very little concerned with modern Hebrew methods. One could find very little delight in the modern literature either, such as their textbooks, spelling books, year-books, etc.

    When Zionism began to seep into the homes of our brothers, together with the desire of rebuilding our Hebrew spirit and language, then many of our educators began to avail themselves of Hebrew books. Hebrew schools opened everywhere, and numerous Jewish families began to think of a Hebrew education for their children. Both teachers and parents soon recognized hindrances, the fault of which could be seen in these modern Hebrew textbooks. All these books and 2literary exercises failed to interest the Jewish child. The boy who had known the value of the European publications, which possessed so much beauty in their style and material, looked disdainfully on these books so unattractive to him.

    Lovers of the Hebrew language and literature believed it was their duty to establish a modern publication that would embody the Hebrew book in a modern form and attract the attention of the modern readers.

    But living conditions in diaspora lands and the coming of the war, put an end to this plan.

    If circumstances for printing a Hebrew book were bad before the war, they are now tragic. Five years of war has placed everything in a critical position. The blight of war that covered with such devastating force the Jewish centers of Lithuania, Poland, Galicia and Ukraine stopped the production of new books entirely, and destroyed the old. The mass wandering from one place to another made it impossible for possessors to safeguard 3their treasured private libraries. Whatever was left, was destroyed. Such was the fate of all Jewish books that Jews in war zones owned.

    In Russia, the former center for production of Hebrew books, one cannot find even a Gomara, a Mishna, a Tonach, or a prayer book. And who could even mention Hebrew grammars, of them not a trace can be found. From everywhere one hears the cry: "Give us books, a Sidur, a Tonach." But there are none we can give them.

    The division of Russia into various political groups, the political chaos, the high cost of materials, and the hardships of transferring goods, all taken together makes it impossible to print Hebrew books in Russia. Schools are closed because of this. The deficiency is felt not only in Russia, Poland, Galicia, Rumania, Turkey, Greece, and Egypt, but also throughout the entire Jewish world, and especially in Palestine.

    In the Hebrew newspaper of Cairo, The Renewal of the Land, Mr. Zaltzman, the 4editor of the Razsvelt, in Moscow, quotes that he personally investigated conditions in the above mentioned countries in reference to Hebrew books, and he found them to be such as have been here described.

    In his articles, printed in The Renewal of the Land, Mr. Zaltzman shows how necessary it is to build a modern model printing shop, not simply anywhere, but in Jerusalem proper.

    "Before and during the war," he says, "plans were formed for such a model to be established in Wilna, Warsaw, Moscow, Switzerland, America, and other places. But now, after the dismemberment of Russian Judaism and the destruction of its spiritual center, there is no doubt that such plans are no longer practicable except in one place, Palestine.

    "According to activities of the latest political occurrences, Palestine will be the spiritual center of the Jewish world. Here we have the Hebrew spirit and language nurtured by many Hebrew synagogues. Here also is built the Hebrew 5university. And here is Palestine, whose influence will increase many fold on Jews in all other countries, should the Hebrew book be printed there. This country is the midpoint between East and West. Its central position facilitates transportation. A Hebrew book, printed in Jerusalem, the spiritual center and capital of Palestine, will strongly appeal to Jews of every land and its production will bring a continuous stream of money into Palestine, will create a livelihood for thousands of workers, and will help rebuild Palestine economically."

    The founders of The Jerusalem Printing Association in America may be pleased to find so much sanction of their plan from this authority, who knows the circumstances of the Hebrew book as Mr. S. Zaltzman does.

    Not so long ago, in the Jewish press, it was stated that Mr. Zaltzman came to Palestine as representative of a Jewish-Russian group, bringing with him a million dollars to establish a publication. This, unfortunately, is not true. Mr. Zaltzman, in the article mentioned from the Renewal of the Land, speaks only of a plan to raise a million dollars. The present American plan 6for the Jerusalem Printing Press is using the best methods for this purpose. As a matter of fact, they have already made a beginning.

    Through the medium of Mr. Levin-Epstein, who is now in Palestine, The Hebrew Printing Group of America were placed in connection with Mr. Zaltzman to secure his services for this tremendous task.

    Before the War, the printing of Hebrew books, both religious and secular, was concentrated mainly in the old press Haalmona Vehaocheem Rome, in Wilna. Most of their books were stereotyped ...

    Jewish
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  • Forward -- May 06, 1921
    (No headline)

    The business agent of the Baker Bosses plans a contrivance to harm the Baker's Union.

    A plan to undermine the Baker's Union by Mr. Jacob Cohen, was unveiled at the strike now in process, at Jacob Gonkowsky's bakery, 2219 W. Potomac Ave. Mr. Gonkowsky is located near the bakery shop of Mr. Moskovitz, 2219 W. Potomac, where a strike is also being carried on. Moskovitz is selling his bread at 7ยข and attempts to persuade several women that the Union is against a reduction in bread, showing that the Union conducts pickets at his shop, telling the women not to buy his bread. The Union stopped the picketing in order to deny the boss any false pretexts. Upon observing this, Mr. Gonkowsky wanted also to reduce the price in bread. Then the business agents of the Baker Bosses Association stepped in and promised Mr. Gonkowsky that the Association would pay him for any trade loss, if he continues with the high prices.

    It is readily understood that they persuaded Mr. Gonkowsky to break the agreement with the Union, and he did so by discharging the Union workers 2and declaring a fight, against the Union.

    The Baker's Union calls a meeting today, at 3420 W. 12th St. to discuss the situation.

    The business agent of the Baker Bosses plans a contrivance to harm the Baker's Union. A plan to undermine the Baker's Union by Mr. Jacob Cohen, was unveiled at the ...

    Jewish
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  • Daily Jewish Courier -- April 19, 1923
    A Definition of Zionism (Editorial in English)

    A reader asks us to define Zionism. We do it gladly and say that Zionism is not an abstruse philosophy, but a national movement. It expresses the resolve of the Jewish people not to be wholly merged among the nations of the earth, but to revive its own national existence in its ancestral land. It is a protest against drift and decadence, a call to collective action for the common good.

    There are many who believe that merely to preserve the customs and institutions of Jewish life in the lands of dispersion is the be all and end all of Judaism. Laudable as such an effort undoubtedly is, and growing in difficulty with every generation, it represents but a shortsighted view of Jewish destiny. It is not enough to battle against the inroads of assimilation, which works its way through a myriad cunning channels. However much energy is spent on this task of self-preservation, 2much is also lost, for the forces of assimilation are as irresistible as their operation is universal. There is only one way in which those forces can be forever defeated: by restoring Israel to the land of his national birth, the scene of his national glories, where he may resume once more a normal course of national development, free from the trammels and corrosion of an alien environment.

    Three factors are needed for the fulfillment of Zionism: nation, land, and language. They are the triple foundation upon which alone, on fabric of Israel's future, can be built with safety.

    Those who declare that they are Jews simply on the ground that they are followers of the Jewish religion often follow it at a great distance behind--further behind than their fathers, and further still than their grandfathers, whilst their children will follow at an even greater interval, and their grandchildren may lose their way altogether.

    3

    The true children of Israel realize that they are members of the Jewish nation as well as adherents of the Jewish faith. For them Judaism is not merely a cycle of observance or a series of rites, however highly they esteem their value and significance; it is an all dominating spirit that animates their souls, colors their lives, and gives poise and direction to their mental outlook. They feel that beyond the celebration of festivals of tradition, commemorating landmarks in the national development of Israel two, three, or even four thousand years ago, they have to continue the chain of tradition by renewed activity in the land of the past. They are not content merely to mark time; they wish to record progress.

    In no other region but the Land of Israel can the Jewish people realize its rightful destiny, for there it was that it first acquired nationhood and rose to renown. There it was that it evolved its faith, culture, and polity, fashioned its language and produced its holy writ. There its prophets taught, its psalmists sang, its kings ruled. From every hill and dale, from every city, plain and river, the land speaks of the doings of the people of Israel. From 4the days when Israel went into exile Palestine has had no history but a barren record of incursion and devastation, and only from the days of Israel's return has its history begun anew. No other land can call the Jewish people back to national rejuvenation.

    Coming from the four corners of the earth to their ancestral domain, the children of Israel can understand one another only through their ancestral language. Only by elevating Hebrew to the speech of the home and the mart, as well as of the school, can they avoid a babel of tongues. Only by employing the speech of David and Solomon, of Isaiah and Jeremiah, can they hope to reanimate the soul of their forefathers and rekindle a spark of the ancient flame.

    A reader asks us to define Zionism. We do it gladly and say that Zionism is not an abstruse philosophy, but a national movement. It expresses the resolve of the ...

    Jewish
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  • The Sentinel -- August 03, 1923
    (No headline)

    The Moody Bible Institute claims the distinction of being the only Gentile educational institution in the United States to include a course in Yiddish. The students will be taught to talk in the modern Yiddish dialect. The course also contains instruction in the Hebrew Bible and in Rabbinics in which select portions of the Talmud and Rabbinical commentaries are discussed.

    Jewish feasts and customs and Jewish history from the time of the Maccabees to the modern period are presented. The instructor is the Rev. Solomon Bernbaum.

    The Moody Bible Institute claims the distinction of being the only Gentile educational institution in the United States to include a course in Yiddish. The students will be taught to ...

    Jewish
    I C, I A 2 b
  • Chicago Jewish Chronicle -- September 01, 1933
    Kehillah Activities.

    The fifth annual meeting of the Vaad Ha'Yeshivoth of Chicago was held last Thursday evening. Rabbi Ephraim Epstein was chairman, and many rabbis and communal leaders were present.

    Samuel A. Broida, who audited the books of the Vaad Ha'Yeshivoth for the year ending August 24, 1933, reported total income of $11,068.91, of which $4,624.16 was in individual contributions and the balance from congregations, with $116.66 being the balance at the beginning of the year. Ten thousand, nine hundred ninety-eight dollars and eighteen cents ($10,998.18) was the total income, $9,925 being sent to 30 Yeshivoth, and the balance on hand being $70.73, the remainder going to incidental expenses. Mr. Broida pointed out that while income had dropped $600 for the year, the amount sent to the 2Yeshivoth, which numbered 30 as against 24 the year previous, was only $178 less.

    Rabbi Ephraim Epstein, chairman of the Vaad Ha'Yeshivoth for the past two years, refused the chairmanship for the coming year and was given a vote of thanks for his splendid past work.

    The new officers of the Vaad Ha'Yeshivoth for the coming year are Rabbi Ezriel Epstein, chairman; Rabbi Moses Kahn, A. M. Goldberg, Wolf P. Cohen, William Forber and B. M. Miller, vice chairman; Rabbi H. Olschwang, recording secretary; Samuel A. Broida, financial secretary, and Samuel Levin, treasurer Rabbi Menhaem B. Sacks was re-elected executive director by a unanimous vote, and was accorded a vote of thanks for his devoted efforts.

    3

    Resolutions were adopted by the Vaad Ha 'Yeshivoth pledging itself to strenuous efforts for the fifth annual campaign of the Vaad Ha' Yeshivoth; to see that every Chicago synagogue makes an appeal for the Vaad during the high holidays; to appoint committees to visit prospective donors; to acquaint the general public with the work of the Vaad Ha' Yeshivoth, which aids in the support of 30 Yeshivoths in Europe and Palestine in a systematic way, instead of the tremendously expensive solicitors ordinarily sent there; and to urge the public that since the survival of the Yeshivoth is absolutely necessary to Jewish culture, and since a single donation fulfills one's obligation to 30 rabbinical academies, to give as much as possible.

    The fifth annual meeting of the Vaad Ha'Yeshivoth of Chicago was held last Thursday evening. Rabbi Ephraim Epstein was chairman, and many rabbis and communal leaders were present. Samuel A. ...

    Jewish
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