The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Greek Star -- February 05, 1904
    [Appeal for the Macedonian Relief Committee]

    May we call to the attention of the Greek people of Chicago the new appeal of the Macedonian Relief Committee? The purpose of this committee is to collect funds and supplies for the victims and sufferers in Macedonia, Greece.

    The presidents and responsible leaders of our organizations, clubs, and church parishes in Chicago and in all other communities in the United States are urged to do their part, and to undertake the patriotic action of organizing local committees for the collection of relief funds. It is the duty of all true Greeks, whose hearts are inspired by altruistic sentiments and sympathy for our suffering brothers in Greece, to show that we have not forgotten our fatherland and that we are thinking of it in its difficulties and trials.

    The Star, an active supporter of this drive for relief funds, recommends that all the church committees, especially those whose task it is to care for the poor, undertake to collect maoney by passing an extra collection basket on 2Sundays and on every important feast day or holiday. This money will be used to provide food, clothing, shelter, and medical treatment for the unfortunate Greeks of Macedonia.

    May we call to the attention of the Greek people of Chicago the new appeal of the Macedonian Relief Committee? The purpose of this committee is to collect funds and ...

    II D 10, III H
  • Greek Star -- February 05, 1904
    Greek News of Chicago

    We are calling the attention of the Greek community to the recently organized Committee for Macedonian Aid whose purpose is to help the suffering and destitute Greeks of Krousobos. We beg the presidents of all the Greek societies and clubs to do their national duty as they see fit and as their Greek training and patriotic ideals have taught them. The Star will gladly accept any donations or contributions and suggests that a special collection be taken up in all the Greek Orthodox churches of the United States during the Sunday services and during all special masses for this noble and humanitarian cause.

    We are calling the attention of the Greek community to the recently organized Committee for Macedonian Aid whose purpose is to help the suffering and destitute Greeks of Krousobos. We ...

    II D 10, III C, III H
  • Greek Star -- March 04, 1904
    Collections for Museum

    p. 3- Upon the initiative of the newly-elected president of the Chicago Greek Community, Dr. Gregory Papaeliou, a committee has been formed, composed of Messrs. Geo. Kotsopoulos, Athanasius Nassakos, and Vasileios Dukas, to raise funds by collections to build an archaeological museum in the Old Episcopate of Tegea, which will be the only museum in the State of Arcadia. Many of the historic treasures of Arcadia are now on display in the Museum of Athens, and after the completion of this projected institution these will all be brought back to their native land.

    All Arcadians all over the United States are urgently requested to contribute generously for the projected museum, which will add honor and credit to their historic Arcadia.

    Dr. Papaeliou, who heads the committee, is enthusiastically confident that before long the needed money will be contributed, for Arcadians never shirk their duty.


    It is characteristic of the Greek race not to forget Mother-Greece. Time or space never diminishes the love of the Greek for the mother of civilization. He may be a hundred-per-cent citizen of any country, but his love for Greece never dies.

    The Greeks of Chicago are proud of the many and varied contributions which they have made for improvements in their respective native towns.

    p. 3- Upon the initiative of the newly-elected president of the Chicago Greek Community, Dr. Gregory Papaeliou, a committee has been formed, composed of Messrs. Geo. Kotsopoulos, Athanasius Nassakos, and ...

    III H, V A 1, IV
  • Greek Star -- March 11, 1904
    Sparta Thanks Her Native Sons in Chicago

    p. 2- Sparta, whose fame extends over the civilized world, sends a message of thanks to her sons in Chicago for the huge church clock which they have presented to her.

    Mr. Nicholas Karelas, who received the letter of appreciation from the church and the civil authorities, reports that $2,714.90 was spent in the purchase of the clock and for installing it and $395.50 for transportation, and that the balance of $355, the surplus of the Spartan contribution, will be donated to the Spartan Athletic Club of Sparta.

    Congratulations to the Spartans of Chicago.

    p. 2- Sparta, whose fame extends over the civilized world, sends a message of thanks to her sons in Chicago for the huge church clock which they have presented to ...

    III H, V A 1
  • Greek Star -- April 15, 1904
    Shorthand Symbols Traced to Ancient Greeks by Brooklyn Paper

    p. 1. - There is hardly anything in vogue which did not have its origin in Greek history. Some weeks ago one of our readers sent us a letter inquiring about the origin of shorthand. Our answer to him was more explicit than the Brooklyn Eagle's, which says:

    "The ancient Greeks and later the Romans knew shorthand and used it freely. Each Greek word in stenography was represented by a single symbol. In the second century A. D. the Greek orator Flavius Philostratus used the symbolic figures which are the symbols of our modern shorthand. Origen, the religious orator of Alexandria, wrote his manuscripts in shorthand. Chrysostom also used shorthand."

    p. 1. - There is hardly anything in vogue which did not have its origin in Greek history. Some weeks ago one of our readers sent us a letter inquiring ...

    III H
  • Greek Star -- June 03, 1904
    The Fall of the Greek Race and the Byzantine Empire. the Church Is the Cause. Greeks of Chicago Beware. the Errors of the Past Must Not Be Repeated. (Editorial)

    The meeting of the Chicago Greek community last week in regard to a new and better Church was not dignified, not orderly, not becoming to a religious cause, and above all it was injurious to the Greek community and very dangerous for the Greek race. The Church again comes to the front to divide, destroy, and retard the progress of this flourishing Greek community in Chicago as it did in the past when it let barbarian hordes enslave the metropolis of Christendom and brought on the fall of the Greek race and the dissolution of the Byzantine Empire.


    Religion and Church are divine things, but they should not be mixed with affairs of state and affairs of the community as they were in this case. State and Church do not bind. A close combination of the two is dangerous to both. Politics and Church are not built upon the same principles; therefore each should rule in its own domain and according to its own principles and fundamental laws.

    Affairs of state should be governed with an iron hand, resembling the immutable laws of nature; whereas the affairs of the Church should be handled in precisely the opposite way, that is with forgiveness, tolerance, kindness, compassion, prayers, hymns, and the like. Two ideas totally opposite are the foundations of these two-politics and Church.

    Greeks of Chicago and elsewhere, be on your guard! Remeber the fall of the Empire, and donot let this distructive blunder be repeated to the detriment of our race.


    Delving into the depths of history, we find irrefutable evidence to verify our assertion in regard to the cause of the downfall of the race and of the Empire, and here is what we read.

    In the first period of the Byzantine Empire Justinian raised it to a strikingly lofty place by organizing a strong and powerful army and developing better economic conditions. In his reign Christendom began to establish itself.

    After his death the Church became all-powerful, and began to dispute prerogatives and extra-ordinary powers with the State. This period of conflict covered about two centuries, from 600 to 800 A. D., to the detriment of the Empire. During that period all the so-called prominent public figures and emperors proved to be the most wretched of rulers devoting their time and energy to theological debates, and permitting the Saracens to seize important parts of the empire. In order to realize the depth of the downfall of politics, one has only to look at the history of that period; to his chagrin 'he will discover that everyone of the emperors bore some such cognomen as Iconoclast, Iconomachus, Proskynitis (worshipper), Theologos, and the other titles which decorate the names of Eastern prelatism, neglecting the organization of the army and navy, which were and are the vital substance and pillars of the State.


    During the reign of the real pure-blooded Greek emperors, that is from 867 to 1117 A. D., the Empire, thanks to the wisdom of its rulers in keeping state and church in their proper places, not only regained its lost territory but conquered all the lands which were dominated by Bulgarians and other barbarian hordes and made the brave warriors of Arabia, who thrice attempted to storm the Queen of cities, pay the tribute of subjugation.

    Until now, owing to the wise and iron rule of the emperors, the Church had been quiet. But this good policy, the result of wise thinking, could not reign forever, for the administrators of the affairs of state could not and would not continue to think wisely. The Church again came to the fore, this time on the war-path not against the State but against itself, dividing itself into factions, rocking the boat of the State by dragging the learned into a theological disputation to wit "Whether the Holy Spirit is delivered also by the Son."


    For over two hundred years the battle of the divided Churches, the Eastern and the Western, to settle this point of "Spirit-delivery" continued in full blast, undermining the forces and the power of the Empire and demoralizing it in its dealings with foreign countries. This state of dispute continued to the year 1038, when every connection and relation between the two (Mother and Daughter) Churches was entirely cut off.

    The Byzantine Empire again began to lose ground. The capital, as the economic center of the Empire, began to feel the attacks of the heterodox West and onslaughts of the Turks. The latter seized many countries which were left unprotected by the Empire, enslaved their inhabitants, and forced them to accept Mohammedanism. And by this time the whole of Thrace, Macedonia, Sterea, Peloponnesus, and the islands had become the prey of the Latins, the Venetians, and the Franks.


    The Empire at this time resembled a pilotless boat in turbulent waters, driven hither and thither by the furious waves. In this predicament the emperors known as Paleologh, sprang up and took hold of the Church-sick.

    Empire from 1204 to 1453 these last emperors kept the Empire alive but not in flourishing condition. Many of the old wounds were healed, and Turkish invasions were frustrated, but the soul and the body of the Empire were sick with too much Church and too little organization. The ferocious Turk had gained ground, for throughout this period experience had taught him to be well organized, and he was impelled to fall upon his enemies by his zeal for spreading his religious doctrine. That the Byzantines were not match for the Turk is revealed by this comparison:

    "The Turk was distinguished for his devotion to his country and his readiness to die in its defense, whereas the Byzantine was devoted to his Icons and left the defense of his country in the hands of the archangels.


    O foolish emperors of Byzantium! Why did you not utilize your Greek education and enlightenment? Your wise progenitors used to say, Syn Athena Kai Cheira Kinei-'When Athena helps, withhold not your hand. God helps those who help themselves."

    Thus the defense of the city was left in the hands of divine entities and on May 29, 1453, Constantinople fell, as later fell the all Greece, into the hands of those who did not play with church, archangels, Holy Trinity, and speculations on "how the Holy Spirit is delivered."Nations are really nations when enthusiasm and devotion are felt by all the people equally, and the capital does not monopolize things which all the whole nation ought to share. Constantinople was stormed by barbarian hordes, and neither Sterea nor Peloponnesus knew anything about it.

    "O foolish and over-churched emperors ! The world knows of your religious blindness. The world is shocked by your neglect to defent the safety of that huge Empire. Were those 10,000 soldiers of yours enough to fight Mahomet's horde 200,000? Why were not the other Greek nation's notified to come to the rescue of the capital?


    Your Icons and your archangels brought about the fall of the city, but the Byzantine Empire, which was everywhere, could not have been subdued by the Turks if the organization of the army had been extended into every part of this huge domain. The political organization was neglected for the benefit of the ecclesiastical organization, and thus the great Greek race went into oblivion. "O foolish Emperor Paleologos! No one disputes your bravery in dying sword in hand fighting the infidel, but emperors serve their empires best not by fighting side by side with the army but by ruling wisely. Emperors are supposed to use their brains, not their swords. The emperor is neither a soldier nor a warrior; he is the governing head.

    Now, brother Greeks, clergymen and laymen alike, let us not drag the dignity of the church in the mire and cause the downfall of the Greek community in Chicago. Our community here is prospering, progressing, and expanding. Let us not reverse its upward progress. The Church is our own creation to serve the spiritual needs of the community. The Church is not the community; it is an institution of it.


    If we want a new and a larger Church, let us all decide upon it, not a few of us who are preoccupied with religion. If we are enthusiastic and interested, the thing will be done quicker and better. The Church is not the property of the few.

    And above all , brother Greeks, clergymen and laymen, remember that Chicago is not the exclussive territory of the Greeks and their Church; it is the territory of a commonwealth composed of many nationalities and many crude. So be it, then let us follow the wise axiom, "When you are in Rome, do as the Romans do," try doing in America as the Americans do. Let us have peace and attend to our business like Americans may rightly and justly classify us as barbarious.

    Greeks the world over, beware! The blunders of the past must not be repeated. The Church is an institution of spiritual ministration and is not for the administration of the affairs of state.

    If we heed the historical facts above mentioned, the life and progress of this Greek empire, the Chicago Greek community, will become great.

    The meeting of the Chicago Greek community last week in regard to a new and better Church was not dignified, not orderly, not becoming to a religious cause, and above ...

    III C, III H
  • Greek Star -- July 01, 1904
    The Hue and Cry of the American Press against Foreigners Who Send the Country's Wealth Aboard Greeks Taken as an Example (Editorial)

    With unanimous voice the American press of the city and of the nation has for the last month been printing article after article about the impending danger that the wealth of the country, in a period of ten years, will all have been sent to various foreign countries. And as is usually the case, the Greeks of the land are taken as an example.

    The press points out that the Greeks send $2,000,000 annually to their native land, and it argues that the other 20,000,000 foreigners from Europe and Asia must therefore send $200,000,000 to their several countries.


    This sum of money exported every year for ten years will amount to $2,000,000,000 in gold. Consequently the press wants America to enact laws prohibiting the exportation of money because in years to come the country's wealth will be exhausted by foreigners who send it away.

    The editors who have prepared and published these articles about the impending danger are not correct in their reasoning. Their calculations are all wrong, and our agrument follows to refute their contentions.

    Among immigrants we find Irish, Germans, Poles, and Scandinavians who have come to America by hundreds of thousands with the specific intention of staying here and settling, and the majority of them have brought their families with them. This foreign element came here to stay, and the money which they may have sent back at first is absolutely insignificant, because for them this country is their home, their wealth, their all, and they have broken every relationship and tie with their native lands. Consequently no money in any great amount will be exported by them. The total of $2,000,000,000, by reason of this logical and indisputable fact, diminishes to insignificance.


    As an exception to this rule we have the Greeks, part of the Italians, and other immigrants from the East. The Greeks above all other nationalities, as the papers say, send back home enormous sums of money. That is true. The Greek never forgets his parents, his brothers, his sisters, or his other relatives. He sends money, which he earns with great effort, to ameliorate conditions for his family; he sends money and plenty of it to marry his sisters and to educate his brothers (if they do not come here); and in addition to all this he sends money to his beloved Greece to build streets, roads, churches, schools, waterworks, and many other new things which he sees in America. He contributes money for the defense of his beloved native land and for many other things for which the nationalities above mentioned send not one dollar. And so with justice and with truth the Greek is singled out as the immigrant who sends plenty of money back home. That the mythical sum of two billion dollars could never be reached if this argument is valid stands to reason. The hue and cry of the press is unsupported by logic.

    And now we will take the Greek (as others do) as an example. Before he left his beloved country, which is likewise dear to every other right-thinking person the world over, he was informed that America the great 4is a free country and the most democratic country in the world; that freedom and justice and philanthropy are the pillars which support this huge democracy, known as the daughter of ancient Greece because its government is thence derived. Without casting any insinuations at the other nationalities above mentioned, we may say that the Greek has traditions which are to him very sacred. His obligation and his responsibility to his family and his love for it are part of his religion. His supreme patriotic devotion to his country is recorded in the annals of time, as are many other traditions which for thousands of years he has distinguished himself by maintaining. Indeed, he cannot abandon them and throw them off so easily as we change socks. He cannot be so easily assimilated and absorbed by his environment. He stands upon solid rock. If he could change his country as quickly as he changes his shirt, he could never be a good citizen of any country. America the great does not expect him to forget his family and his mother-country. His native Greece, his religion, and his family are never forgotten by the Greek. And when he came here, he did not hesitate to tell the truth; that is, that he did not come here to stay and settle. But he came here to this free and just country to work hard and earn some money.


    If the greatness of the country is such as to absorb him in the future, it is not his fault. He will do his damnedest to return to his native Greece, but from what we already observe we venture to say that the unconquerable Greek will eventually become an integral part of this great country. He is beginning to build churches and schools, and that is a sign of permanent establishment.

    Time will show, if the Greek becomes established here, that he will be one of the best citizens of this democratic country, which has the power and the greatness to mold all these heterogeneous masses into one new specimen of humanity, the American citizen.

    And now, to talk cold turkey, if the Greek sends $2,000,000 annually to his Mother-Greece, he must have put in motion and circulation hundreds of millions of dollars. If 75,000 Greeks in America send $2,000,000 annually to Greece, it is about $26 to each Greek, and in order to earn this sum of $26, the Greek undoubtedly has produced $300 in wealth for this country. Countries expand and become great in finance by production and comsumption.


    Anyway, the Greek will continue to be taken as an example, either for good or for evil. Time will show that the Greek is not detrimental to the wealth of the land, but that on the contrary he is a producing factor. The hue and cry of the press about the impending danger will eventually die out for lack of foundation, logic, and justice.

    With unanimous voice the American press of the city and of the nation has for the last month been printing article after article about the impending danger that the wealth ...

    III H, II D 10, I C
  • Greek Star -- July 08, 1904
    Chicago Greeks Form Patriotic Society, the First in the United States.

    With delight and pride the Greeks of America will hear that the Greeks of Chicago have founded a patriotic society under the name of Military Association.

    The object of this newly-organized society is to assist financially the National Defense Society of Athens, Greece. The membership fee is fifty cents per month. The accumulated money from fees and from benefit dances and similar activities of the society will be sent semi-annually to Athens without deducting any expenses for the operation of the society. The expenses of the society will be taken care of by contributions of the executive board. So every dollar collected will be sent for the national defense of Mother-Greece.


    The Military Association will conduct each year a Pan-Hellenic dance, an excursion, a Lottery, and a bazaar to increase its funds. Lectures, mainly patriotic but also on social, commercial, and professional subjects will be delivered in the society's hall by prominent Greeks of Chicago and elsewhere, who will be invited for that purpose.

    At the meeting which took place yesterday all the foremost Greeks of Chicago were present, and chose by ballot the following officers and officials of the Military Association:

    Crown Prince Constantine of Greece, president; J. Georgiadis and N. Giannakopoulos (reserve officers of the Greek Army) first and second vice-presidents respectively; St. Lambardakis, general treasurer; Messrs. A. Apostolakos, N. Karellas, and K. Loumos, treasurers; Messrs. Kyriakopoulos and Koliopoulos, secretaries. Members of the board were elected as follows:


    Messrs. Geo. Koutsoubos, D. Kalogeropoulos, K. Koutsogiannis, Andrew Vlachos, Christ Vretos, G. Kokinovrachos, A. Papchristofilou, B. Varelas, G. Surlis, A. Bolas, J. Demetriadis,and J. Adinamis.

    Star's Note:

    The management of this paper sincerely congratulates the initiation of this splendid idea. It is about time for the Greeks of the world to come to the assistance of Mother Greece in a Pan-Hellenic way and strengthen the treasury of that famous and glorious country.

    With delight and pride the Greeks of America will hear that the Greeks of Chicago have founded a patriotic society under the name of Military Association. The object of this ...

    III H, II D 10, III B 2, IV
  • Greek Star -- August 05, 1904
    Educating the Greek Immigrant to Be Good and Useful Citizen-Americanization and the Lynch Law International Melting Pot (Editorial)

    Good is made and not born. When we explore the universe to discover and define good and evil, we are confronted with this immutable and infallible natural truth, that good and evil are the result of wisdom or of the want of it. Both good and evil serve the interests of mankind. Individuals, tribes, and nations have their own particular standards of good and evil. No universal standard exists. Many things which in one place are considered to be good are in another place not so considered. The morals, the laws, and many other things in one country may be the extreme opposites of the same things in another country. And the good citizen of one country might not be a good citizen in another country.


    Now when to this land of the free and the prosperous, this land of the best civilized of peoples, the Greek immigrant comes to make his living, he may be and is a good citizen in his own environment, and his character to a great degree has already been molded. In the small village where he was reared he was taught not to steal, not to get drunk, to honor and revere family life, to obey the laws of his country, and to work hard at any kind of job in order to make his living. He was taught that work is not a disgrace, but that idleness is. His religion is part of his being. In the very little schooling which he received he was fanatically taught to defend his country and everything Greek. His etiquette and every other constituent element of his life have been made and molded to fit his narrow, limited circle. Living and functioning in his own country and in his own particular environment, he unquestionably is a good citizen.

    And when he arrives in America he naturally attempts to function, with certain reservations, in his own accustomed way. Is he to blame for this? By no means! He came here to earn some American dollars at any kind of job because he has had no training and has no vocation.


    He resides with other Greeks of his kind because like attracts like, and he begins to learn a few words of English in order to apply for a job. Many unpleasant incidents take place when the poor, ignorant immigrant Greek attempts to use his first acquirements in the language of the land. The rascality of his mischievous compatriots in teaching him ("just for fun," as they say) the wrong words leads the blind bundle of humanity astray. Many improper and indecent words are unconsciously spoken by the ABC pupil in American life and environment.

    Where are our societies to educate and look after the newcomer who by his ignorance may cause unpleasant occurrences which reflect upon Greek businessmen, upon the Greek name, and upon the Greek nation? We have to educate the newcomer and adjust him to American life and enlightenment. Why, not very long ago three hundred Greeks, like a flock of sheep, were huddled by their crooked leaders into the packing-houses to break a strike!


    Are the ignorant un-Americanized Greeks to blame? They do not know what a strike is, and above all they were not told that this was a strike undertaken by fellow-workers to improve conditions. The crooked agents took advantage of the Greeks' necessity, ignorance, and eagerness to earn money to take care of their poor families in Greece and caused them to be stigmatized as strike-breakers and consequently to become hated by the populace, which does not stop to weigh evidence impartially. The Greek was offered a job, a chance to earn money to feed his needy family. He trusted his compatriots, the agents, who in their greed exploited him, forgetting the high principles of the race. Can any sane and impartial observer blame these three hundred Greeks, who were thrown out of a job when the strike ended? No! But nevertheless all these Greeks were stigmatized, and many unjust and inexcusable expressions of hatred, mockery, and ridicule were printed in the dailies.

    The necessity for such a society to Americanize the newcomer is imperative. It is not only beneficial to the individual to be educated in Americanism, but it is beneficial to us all, to our race, to our Mother-Greece, and above all to the American commonwealth. Have we such a society? Unfortunately, no.


    It is about time, if the Greeks in America wish to become distinguished, prosperous, and really good citizens and to live in harmony with their American environment, to begin to educate and look after the uninitiated - the Greek newcomers.

    The newcomer's first and second year in America under the guiding hand of the proposed society would have a great influence upon his future life.

    It is the duty of businessmen, of professional men, and of the Church to form such societies, at first in big cities and in great industrial centers and later everywhere.

    The American type, in my opinion, is the best type in political and social life the world over. But in spite of my love for this country and my devotion to it I am not satisfied with the ways and means employed to Americanize immigrants.


    Giving correct answers to the naturalization examiner's questions and raising the hand to take an oath are not all that constitutes Americanization. The four-year period is not enough to mold the individuals of the heterogeneous mass of immigrants into a new type of man.

    "America the Great" is not a homogeneous mass but a conglomeration, an international melting-pot. The habits, the traditions, the creeds, the national fanaticism, and the standards of life of all this heterogeneous mass cannot be changed and altered into Americanism by the simple acquisition of the first and second papers of naturalization any more than a pagan could become a Christian by simply being baptized and hearing a few words mumbled by the officiating priest. The first and the second, the newly-made American and the newly-made Christian, are so in name only.

    In my opinion a man should be honored with the name "American" who truly loves America and American idealism,and who is therefore ready to defend this country with the sacrifice of his life. Anything short of that, in my opinion, is balderdash, mockery, exploitation, forgery, and deception.


    He who is "American" and does not salute the Stars and Stripes because of religious scruples is not truly an American. He who is not willing to fight for America because of religious scruples or for any other reason is not a true American. He has become naturalized not for love of America and of the great American idealism but with some other motive.

    Why should America shed her blood to protect him if he does not stand ready to defend America when there is need? If America were invaded and enslaved by an oppressor, would he continue to be an "American?" No! By the name of Zeus, no! He will change color, nationality, and religion as quickly as he changes his shirt.

    This type of person, in my opinion, is not included in the glorious register of Americans. He is "American" (qualified by his naturalization papers) in name only, not in body and soul. Americanism is composed of noble and lofty ideals and principles. It is not an empty appellation without life, vitality, and force but on the contrary the living substance of the best and the loftiest thoughts of mankind.


    We have thousands upon thousands of citizens - naturalized citizens - who are opposed, and very much opposed, to patriotism, advocating in colleges and universities "cosmopolitanism." This philosophic doctrine may be right, and it is right in the last analysis, but the world in general is not yet ripe for cosmopolitanism. And since this delicious fruit of Utopia is not yet developed and ripe, it is not wise nor safe nor beneficial to the world to pluck it for consumption. Therefore patriotism at all costs must be maintained as the fundamental base, pillar, and structure of a nation. In the present stage of our evolution, while my next-door neighbor has the manners of a Turk, it would be folly and treason to disarm the patriotic citizen. And those in America to-day who do not advocate and encourage patriotism are, in my opinion, Americans in name only.

    Those uninformed three hundred Greeks who recently accepted jobs as strikebreakers may be and are greenhorns, very, very far from measuring up to the standard of American life, political and social, but they are imbued body and soul with patriotism; and time will show, when America calls them 9to protect her, that in spite of all their shortcomings they will be in the country's first line of defense. The integrity, prestige, honor, and safety of the country depend absolutely on citizens who are patriots.

    Fortunately for America, the mother of a new race under the sun, and fortunately for the world in general, we have many true American patriots who will guide this country in attaining the heights of its destiny.

    One blemish still remains to mar the perfection of American progress, civilization, and justice, and that is the lynch law.

    In my opinion this is an outworn and out-of-date tradition. Lynching, in the past, was absolutely necessary. Established authority and courts, in the times when lynching originated, were far apart, and naturally it was necessary to administer justice where the culprit committed his crime. The spirited and law-loving citizens of those districts where lynching prevailed, since there were many impediments to legal procedure, took 10the trouble to administer justice by applying the lynch law; and indeed it was the quickest and the most effective way to punish the perpetrator of a crime against society. In those times they did not hang an innocent person; they hanged those who defied society and its established laws. All very well; the South was rid of law-breakers. But the necessity which existed at that time exists no longer. The country is developed; in all parts of it there are courts and authority legally established, and such law enforcement is not necessary to-day. The legalized justice of the courts must be supreme in the United States. Any other justice is contrary to the dignity and integrity of the courts and the people of the Republic.

    Every nation on earth has had a lynch law and still has one, but only in time of war; and the law is executed not by the populace but by the military authorities. These facts are familiar to us all.

    I doubt very much that real and true Americans to-day take part in lynchings. In the South I must admit that lynchings are performed by genuine Americans, for tradition is still very strong among those law-abiding, 11law-respecting, honest-to-goodness Southerners; but in the North it seems to me that it is a different story. Some would-be Americans abuse the Southern tradition and incite riots which are very detrimental to the nation's good name. For instance, not very long ago a Greek immigrant on the West Side was almost lynched by an infuriated mob of what appeared to be American people. Our correspondent, who was present at the scene of the outrage, emphatically stated that the majority of the would-be lynchers were unable to speak English. For the sake of decency I refrain from mentioning of what races they were who took part in the attack on the Greek. Are these Americans? If they have their naturalization papers, to be sure, they are Americans, but, in my opinion, Americans in name only.

    Let us hope that this stain upon the brightness of American civilization will be wiped away, and that due respect and honor will be accorded to American jurisprudence and to the American people in general. Very many distinguished Americans all over the country share the same opinion, and I am certain that the time is near at hand when the whole country will agree with these great and far-sighted American patriots.


    The melting-pot of America the Great, which receives, holds, transforms, and molds the heterogeneous masses of mankind, will continue to do its God-given duty for the benefit of humanity, and in the years to come the Greek, the Jew, and many other peoples with deep-rooted traditions, racial and religious, will face one another with souls reborn. And out of this ever-active America God has predestined that a new type of mankind shall be produced, a type that will enlighten all the world.

    Greece, in the past, civilized the barbarians. America, the daughter of ancient Greece, to-day is civilizing the civilized people, and the America of to-morrow will lead all the world to unimagined heights of civilization and enlightenment.

    Good is made and not born. When we explore the universe to discover and define good and evil, we are confronted with this immutable and infallible natural truth, that good ...

    III A, I D 2 a 4, I A 1 a, III G, III H, I C, I G, I H, I J
  • Greek Star -- August 05, 1904
    The English Language in Greek Villages

    p. 3- The only people who understand foreign languages, especially English, are the country folk of Greece. The mail-carriers of Chicago can verify this statement and God knows what they think and say when they deliver some of the letters sent from Greece to Greeks in Chicago.

    Here is how they are addressed:

    Mr. So and So.

    Cafe and Restaurant, Open all Night,

    Fresh Meats and Pastry, Splendid Service,

    45 North Clark Street, Chicago, Illinois.

    Undoubtedly these unsophisticated country folk, who copy what they write from business cards sent to them by relatives here, think that those queer Americans have no appreciation of laconism, since they use so many words for a simple address.

    p. 3- The only people who understand foreign languages, especially English, are the country folk of Greece. The mail-carriers of Chicago can verify this statement and God knows what they ...

    V B, III H