The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- January 25, 1892
    Greeks in Chicago in 1890

    (According to Secretary Stones' statistics of the different nationalities in Chicago, which he published in 1891, and which he based on the census of 1890, there were 698 Greeks living in Chicago at that time.)

    (According to Secretary Stones' statistics of the different nationalities in Chicago, which he published in 1891, and which he based on the census of 1890, there were 698 Greeks living ...

    III G
  • Greek Star -- August 05, 1904
    Educating the Greek Immigrant to Be Good and Useful Citizen-Americanization and the Lynch Law International Melting Pot (Editorial)

    Good is made and not born. When we explore the universe to discover and define good and evil, we are confronted with this immutable and infallible natural truth, that good and evil are the result of wisdom or of the want of it. Both good and evil serve the interests of mankind. Individuals, tribes, and nations have their own particular standards of good and evil. No universal standard exists. Many things which in one place are considered to be good are in another place not so considered. The morals, the laws, and many other things in one country may be the extreme opposites of the same things in another country. And the good citizen of one country might not be a good citizen in another country.


    Now when to this land of the free and the prosperous, this land of the best civilized of peoples, the Greek immigrant comes to make his living, he may be and is a good citizen in his own environment, and his character to a great degree has already been molded. In the small village where he was reared he was taught not to steal, not to get drunk, to honor and revere family life, to obey the laws of his country, and to work hard at any kind of job in order to make his living. He was taught that work is not a disgrace, but that idleness is. His religion is part of his being. In the very little schooling which he received he was fanatically taught to defend his country and everything Greek. His etiquette and every other constituent element of his life have been made and molded to fit his narrow, limited circle. Living and functioning in his own country and in his own particular environment, he unquestionably is a good citizen.

    And when he arrives in America he naturally attempts to function, with certain reservations, in his own accustomed way. Is he to blame for this? By no means! He came here to earn some American dollars at any kind of job because he has had no training and has no vocation.


    He resides with other Greeks of his kind because like attracts like, and he begins to learn a few words of English in order to apply for a job. Many unpleasant incidents take place when the poor, ignorant immigrant Greek attempts to use his first acquirements in the language of the land. The rascality of his mischievous compatriots in teaching him ("just for fun," as they say) the wrong words leads the blind bundle of humanity astray. Many improper and indecent words are unconsciously spoken by the ABC pupil in American life and environment.

    Where are our societies to educate and look after the newcomer who by his ignorance may cause unpleasant occurrences which reflect upon Greek businessmen, upon the Greek name, and upon the Greek nation? We have to educate the newcomer and adjust him to American life and enlightenment. Why, not very long ago three hundred Greeks, like a flock of sheep, were huddled by their crooked leaders into the packing-houses to break a strike!


    Are the ignorant un-Americanized Greeks to blame? They do not know what a strike is, and above all they were not told that this was a strike undertaken by fellow-workers to improve conditions. The crooked agents took advantage of the Greeks' necessity, ignorance, and eagerness to earn money to take care of their poor families in Greece and caused them to be stigmatized as strike-breakers and consequently to become hated by the populace, which does not stop to weigh evidence impartially. The Greek was offered a job, a chance to earn money to feed his needy family. He trusted his compatriots, the agents, who in their greed exploited him, forgetting the high principles of the race. Can any sane and impartial observer blame these three hundred Greeks, who were thrown out of a job when the strike ended? No! But nevertheless all these Greeks were stigmatized, and many unjust and inexcusable expressions of hatred, mockery, and ridicule were printed in the dailies.

    The necessity for such a society to Americanize the newcomer is imperative. It is not only beneficial to the individual to be educated in Americanism, but it is beneficial to us all, to our race, to our Mother-Greece, and above all to the American commonwealth. Have we such a society? Unfortunately, no.


    It is about time, if the Greeks in America wish to become distinguished, prosperous, and really good citizens and to live in harmony with their American environment, to begin to educate and look after the uninitiated - the Greek newcomers.

    The newcomer's first and second year in America under the guiding hand of the proposed society would have a great influence upon his future life.

    It is the duty of businessmen, of professional men, and of the Church to form such societies, at first in big cities and in great industrial centers and later everywhere.

    The American type, in my opinion, is the best type in political and social life the world over. But in spite of my love for this country and my devotion to it I am not satisfied with the ways and means employed to Americanize immigrants.


    Giving correct answers to the naturalization examiner's questions and raising the hand to take an oath are not all that constitutes Americanization. The four-year period is not enough to mold the individuals of the heterogeneous mass of immigrants into a new type of man.

    "America the Great" is not a homogeneous mass but a conglomeration, an international melting-pot. The habits, the traditions, the creeds, the national fanaticism, and the standards of life of all this heterogeneous mass cannot be changed and altered into Americanism by the simple acquisition of the first and second papers of naturalization any more than a pagan could become a Christian by simply being baptized and hearing a few words mumbled by the officiating priest. The first and the second, the newly-made American and the newly-made Christian, are so in name only.

    In my opinion a man should be honored with the name "American" who truly loves America and American idealism,and who is therefore ready to defend this country with the sacrifice of his life. Anything short of that, in my opinion, is balderdash, mockery, exploitation, forgery, and deception.


    He who is "American" and does not salute the Stars and Stripes because of religious scruples is not truly an American. He who is not willing to fight for America because of religious scruples or for any other reason is not a true American. He has become naturalized not for love of America and of the great American idealism but with some other motive.

    Why should America shed her blood to protect him if he does not stand ready to defend America when there is need? If America were invaded and enslaved by an oppressor, would he continue to be an "American?" No! By the name of Zeus, no! He will change color, nationality, and religion as quickly as he changes his shirt.

    This type of person, in my opinion, is not included in the glorious register of Americans. He is "American" (qualified by his naturalization papers) in name only, not in body and soul. Americanism is composed of noble and lofty ideals and principles. It is not an empty appellation without life, vitality, and force but on the contrary the living substance of the best and the loftiest thoughts of mankind.


    We have thousands upon thousands of citizens - naturalized citizens - who are opposed, and very much opposed, to patriotism, advocating in colleges and universities "cosmopolitanism." This philosophic doctrine may be right, and it is right in the last analysis, but the world in general is not yet ripe for cosmopolitanism. And since this delicious fruit of Utopia is not yet developed and ripe, it is not wise nor safe nor beneficial to the world to pluck it for consumption. Therefore patriotism at all costs must be maintained as the fundamental base, pillar, and structure of a nation. In the present stage of our evolution, while my next-door neighbor has the manners of a Turk, it would be folly and treason to disarm the patriotic citizen. And those in America to-day who do not advocate and encourage patriotism are, in my opinion, Americans in name only.

    Those uninformed three hundred Greeks who recently accepted jobs as strikebreakers may be and are greenhorns, very, very far from measuring up to the standard of American life, political and social, but they are imbued body and soul with patriotism; and time will show, when America calls them 9to protect her, that in spite of all their shortcomings they will be in the country's first line of defense. The integrity, prestige, honor, and safety of the country depend absolutely on citizens who are patriots.

    Fortunately for America, the mother of a new race under the sun, and fortunately for the world in general, we have many true American patriots who will guide this country in attaining the heights of its destiny.

    One blemish still remains to mar the perfection of American progress, civilization, and justice, and that is the lynch law.

    In my opinion this is an outworn and out-of-date tradition. Lynching, in the past, was absolutely necessary. Established authority and courts, in the times when lynching originated, were far apart, and naturally it was necessary to administer justice where the culprit committed his crime. The spirited and law-loving citizens of those districts where lynching prevailed, since there were many impediments to legal procedure, took 10the trouble to administer justice by applying the lynch law; and indeed it was the quickest and the most effective way to punish the perpetrator of a crime against society. In those times they did not hang an innocent person; they hanged those who defied society and its established laws. All very well; the South was rid of law-breakers. But the necessity which existed at that time exists no longer. The country is developed; in all parts of it there are courts and authority legally established, and such law enforcement is not necessary to-day. The legalized justice of the courts must be supreme in the United States. Any other justice is contrary to the dignity and integrity of the courts and the people of the Republic.

    Every nation on earth has had a lynch law and still has one, but only in time of war; and the law is executed not by the populace but by the military authorities. These facts are familiar to us all.

    I doubt very much that real and true Americans to-day take part in lynchings. In the South I must admit that lynchings are performed by genuine Americans, for tradition is still very strong among those law-abiding, 11law-respecting, honest-to-goodness Southerners; but in the North it seems to me that it is a different story. Some would-be Americans abuse the Southern tradition and incite riots which are very detrimental to the nation's good name. For instance, not very long ago a Greek immigrant on the West Side was almost lynched by an infuriated mob of what appeared to be American people. Our correspondent, who was present at the scene of the outrage, emphatically stated that the majority of the would-be lynchers were unable to speak English. For the sake of decency I refrain from mentioning of what races they were who took part in the attack on the Greek. Are these Americans? If they have their naturalization papers, to be sure, they are Americans, but, in my opinion, Americans in name only.

    Let us hope that this stain upon the brightness of American civilization will be wiped away, and that due respect and honor will be accorded to American jurisprudence and to the American people in general. Very many distinguished Americans all over the country share the same opinion, and I am certain that the time is near at hand when the whole country will agree with these great and far-sighted American patriots.


    The melting-pot of America the Great, which receives, holds, transforms, and molds the heterogeneous masses of mankind, will continue to do its God-given duty for the benefit of humanity, and in the years to come the Greek, the Jew, and many other peoples with deep-rooted traditions, racial and religious, will face one another with souls reborn. And out of this ever-active America God has predestined that a new type of mankind shall be produced, a type that will enlighten all the world.

    Greece, in the past, civilized the barbarians. America, the daughter of ancient Greece, to-day is civilizing the civilized people, and the America of to-morrow will lead all the world to unimagined heights of civilization and enlightenment.

    Good is made and not born. When we explore the universe to discover and define good and evil, we are confronted with this immutable and infallible natural truth, that good ...

    III A, I D 2 a 4, I A 1 a, III G, III H, I C, I G, I H, I J
  • Greek Star -- August 26, 1904
    General Gathering of Greek Businessmen of Chicago to Protect Their Business and the Greek Name - Consul General Interested

    P. 1 - The meeting of Greek businessmen last Sunday packed the Greek Orthodox church. The object of the meeting was to find ways and means to protect their business and their racial prestige against attacks by the Chicago press arising from the conduct of 320 Greeks who accepted jobs as strike-breakers.

    Chicago newspapers have raised a hue and cry against Greeks in general, not taking into consideration the facts that by so doing they injure the business of Greeks who are not engaged in strike-breaking, and that they are also throwing mud at a nation friendly to this Republic.

    Immediately after the ceremony of the mass, in which over 2,000 took part, the Reverend C. Georgiadis spoke. In a fatherly but businesslike address he brought out what the duties of the Greek businessmen of Chicago are toward those unwise Greek laborers who because of extreme necessity consented to be stigmatized as strike-breakers, taking the bread and butter away from families of their fellow-workers who had struck for higher wages. He further suggested that 2immediate steps should be taken to approach these misinformed Greek laborers and induce them for the sake of the Greek name and likewise for the sake of the strikers' families to abandon their temporary jobs.

    The Hon. Dr. N. Salopoulos, Greek Consul General in Chicago, next took the floor and reminded the businessmen that besides the injury to their business the national prestige of Greece has suffered. He consented to head a committee to carry out Father Georgiadis' suggestions; during the day he visited the strike-breakers, and 120 of them gave up their jobs at once.

    Other speakers at the meeting were Messrs. N. Stathakos, D. Kalogeropoulos, A. Papachristofilou, and N. Kontaxis, who very explicitly analyzed the situation and suggested means by which such unpleasant occurrences might be avoided hereafter.

    Star's note:

    This newspaper has time and time again trumpeted in the ears of all concerned the paramount necessity of establishing a society to initiate immigrants into 3American life and look after them until they know what is all about. I do not approve of the press's indiscriminate attack on Greeks; nevertheless, in view of the present disagreeable situation created by the sensation-mongering press, it will be to our advantage to correct our negligence and do the right thing by our greenhorn immigrants.

    P. 1 - The meeting of Greek businessmen last Sunday packed the Greek Orthodox church. The object of the meeting was to find ways and means to protect their business ...

    I D 2 a 4, III A, III C, III G, III H, I C, IV
  • Greek Star -- February 10, 1905
    S. N. Loumos Goes to Greece

    p. 3- After living in the United States a quarter of a century, for the last twenty-three years in Chicago, S. N. Loumos, an old-timer and a very active member of our Greek community, left last week for Chrysafa, Sparta, Greece, his native town.

    Mr. Loumos was one of those first social workers who put their shoulders to the wheel and established the first Greek church in Chicago. He was also one of the foremost figures in organizing the Lycurgus Society, the first Greek society established here. He has a golden heart and a really Spartan character. He is an uncle of P. S. Lambros, the publisher of the Star. More than fifty friends and relatives waited at the station to bid him bon voyage.

    Mr. Loumos goes back to Greece with knowledge and ideas acquired in America, and he will undoubtedly utilize them to the advantage of his native Chrysafa.

    p. 3- After living in the United States a quarter of a century, for the last twenty-three years in Chicago, S. N. Loumos, an old-timer and a very active member ...

    III H, II D 4, III C, III G, V A 1, IV
  • Greek Star -- February 24, 1905
    Sensible and Honest Action Announcement.

    p. 3.-Since I shall soon leave for Greece, I request those who have any business transactions to conduct with me to communicate with me at the following address: John Condis, 190 East Madison street, Chicago, Illinois.

    That is a sensible and clean way to do business. Undoubtedly Mr. Condis, being in business, has more to pay than to receive; nevertheless he wishes to settle all his accounts before he departs for his native Kastri. Congratulations to such a fellow Greek, and we wish that we all would publish such announcements in both the Greek and the American newspapers for the benefit of all concerned.

    p. 3.-Since I shall soon leave for Greece, I request those who have any business transactions to conduct with me to communicate with me at the following address: John Condis, ...

    III H, III G
  • Greek Star -- May 19, 1905
    The Criminality of America's Future Will Shock World the Causes and the Remedies (Editorial)

    True to its principles, this Chicago Greek newspaper, the Star, again comes forward as the teacher and the protector of the Greeks in America. Since it is our duty to keep a vigilant eye on the welfare and the activities of the Greek element in this country, and since the life of the Greeks in America is and always will be involved with the substance of American life, we deem it to be in accordance with our ever-wakeful purpose to cast a glance into America's future and to discern what the effect will be of the past and the present trends of the people's thought.

    Our penetrating eye sees on the brilliant horizon of this great Republic the black cloud of crime, which as it expands will darken the glory of our country's history. This is not a prophesy; it is the sober visualization of what will be, in accordance with the law of cause and effect; that is, it is the result of careful analytical observation.


    In writing this article we do not assume the role of critic or of counselor to the Government of the United States but simply that of an analyst who deals with this law of cause and effect and graphically displays its operation.

    No country, in spite of present greatness and glorious history, can continue to be great while the masses of the people do not think great thoughts. The thought of the people is the soul of a nation. High thoughts produce great nations. A great and glorious ruler cannot maintain greatness and glory in his domain if his people are not trained to think of greatness and glory.

    The trend of thought in America is now directed, as it has been directed for some years past, toward what history calls a "social disease," the same disease that was present in the days of Rome's decline. This social disease consists of the following elements: an unnatural desire for wealth, 3the desire for publicity, the desire for social emancipation, waste of time, lack of fixed purpose in the use of periods of leisure and diversion, facile indignation, alcoholism, and disrespect of people for law and authority. All these taken together result in degeneration, and this, enhanced by hereditary criminal tendencies, will provoke an outburst of crime that will make the most atrocious offenses of European criminals look like mild misdemeanors. America in years to come will experience a period of criminality of indescribable and unparalleled ferocity. And here is a hint to the law-makers and to the Government, and we hope that we shall not be misunderstood.

    Undoubtedly the great founders of this land of promise and of freedom meant well in enacting laws permitting all to come here, including criminals. That is in itself wonderful and Godlike. But the time is not yet ripe for these divine principles. The criminal who comes here 4cannot and will not think as the natives do. He will take advantage of the generosity of the people, of the kindness and the tolerance of the Government, and of everything good to gratify his criminal instincts. The offspring of people of this class will terrorize America in years to come. Their criminal inheritance, assisted and nourished by the intelligence of their environment and enhanced by the facilities of the country, will find vent in an outburst of crime of unprecedented violence, by which the country will be rocked as by an earthquake.

    Immigration laws should be altered so that the criminal will not find a rich and fertile field of operation and propagation of his kind in this country. It is a natural law, and common sense makes us see it, that we must remove the weeds from the soil if we want a good healthy crop of wheat.


    This social disease is not a respecter of color or of race, and because of its insatiable appetite for money it will contaminate even the best society; and if its horny tentacles are not cut off in time, the youth of our best families will be ensnared by it. Its ramifications will reach and undermine the whole structure of politics and of religion as well.

    The wise law-makers of this country, I am sure, bearing in mind the social tragedies of Babylon and of Rome, will put a stop to this free admission of criminal and undesirable Europeans.

    True to its principles, this Chicago Greek newspaper, the Star, again comes forward as the teacher and the protector of the Greeks in America. Since it is our duty to ...

    I H, II E 3, II B 2 d 1, III G, I J
  • Greek Star -- January 19, 1906
    The Immigrant of Yesterday Important Factor Today Greek-American Meeting and its Object (Editorial)

    The object of the first formal public meeting between Americans and the Greek community was twofold. On the one hand it was to have the character and the status of the Greeks in Chicago advantageously set forth before the public and so to confute prejudice against them as "immigrants." On the other hand the object was to challenge the Greeks themselves to put forth their best efforts to win and deserve the esteem of Americans.

    The Greeks have special problems to meet in adjusting themselves to a new western country, entirely and altogether different from their own. These problems were not specifically dealt with at the first meeting. Its purpose was to bring the two races together in a spirit of cordiality, fellow- 2ship, and understanding. Of course this is the beginning of a new era for the Greek colony of Chicago, and the success of the meeting should give the Greeks energy and confidence to meet these problems.

    Perhaps the most important general consideration impressed on the meeting was the thought that the Greek community of Chicago represents traditions and capabilities which should properly become a valuable constituent element in the cultural life of the city. Greeks the world over have that they are a progressive race possessing many valuable qualities foreign to other races. And the Greeks of America, imbued with Americanism, will eventually shine like stars. This may sound illogical to the uninformed, but to real, honest-to-toodness Americans it is a hard fact. Their minds and their hearts, being truly American, are open and receptive to the knowledge and understanding required to appreciate the latent potentialities of the Greek race.

    A dozen or so years ago there was but a handful of Greeks here in Chicago, and for the sake of distinction they were "immigrants," but today they number about ten thousand, and the unpleasant word, "immigrant" is becoming less properly applicable. The thought of the masses is beginning to change in favor of the Greeks.


    Those so-called immigrants of yesterday, illumined with just a spark of American greatness, began to rise, and the more the light of Americanism is thrown upon them, the quicker they reach the top. The uninitiated Greeks of yesterday are rapidly absorbing the fruit trade, the flower business, the restaurants, and the confectioneries not only here in Chicago but also in other big cities of the country. Their enterprise and their thrift are astonishing. The Greek community of Chicago, with its churches and its societies, has kept a vigilant eye on needy members of the colony and so efficiently have these agencies functioned that no Greek has become a public charge. The obedience of Greek to the law of the land is a great credit to them. And all these qualities are characteristic of what we call a good citizen.

    The immigrant of yesterday has now mingled and rubbed elbows with those Americans who stand highest in Chicago society and business. One lady among those born to the purpose who attended the meeting said: "Oh my, the Greeks are a proud race, and I can see that the Greeks of Chicago are not lacking in pride." Indeed not. They are not lacking in pride, and sometimes they appear to be oversupplied with it. Of course pride is not entirely a detrimental quality, and the pride of Greeks is founded not along on the ancient glories of their race but also on its inherent greatness.


    The Greek-American meeting, which was the first of its kind in the history of Chicago, may be accepted as a pledge of new efforts by the Greek community to become a distinctively valuable element in the life of the city.

    The object of the first formal public meeting between Americans and the Greek community was twofold. On the one hand it was to have the character and the status of ...

    I C, II D 10, II A 2, II D 1, III A, III C, III G
  • Greek Star -- March 02, 1906
    The Inaccuracies of the European Press the Unskilled Laborer in America Is Not a Slave (Editorial)

    Some newspapers in the Greek capital and in other European countries have printed articles picturing the condition of the unskilled worker in America as "intolerable slavery." They have further represented the American capitalist in conspicuous colors as a leech of enormous size sucking the blood of ignorant immigrants who have been lured to the land of the free by fantastic stories of wealth and of fancy standards of living.

    The Greek Star of Chicago, which has gained a large circulation in Greece, takes exception to these untrue stories and as it usually does, hastens to correct the inaccuracies for the benefit and enlightenment of Greeks abroad.


    Since the majority of the Greeks who enter this country are employed as unskilled laborers, and since these Greeks are part of the whole mass of unskilled immigrants, we will draw a line of limitation and deal specifically with the Greek unskilled laborers to confute the inaccurate statements published abroad.

    First of all, the United States of America is known all over the world as the most advanced democratic country in the whole civilized world. This statement is not hearsay nor idle words but an indubitable fact. That is why the eyes and the hopes of those in need are focused upon this land of liberty, justice, and equality.

    There is no other country on earth which can guarantee and provide for all these three divine privileges--liberty, equality, and justice. Every sovereign, every government, and every diplomat of the world knows that beyond any reasonable doubt America is the great champion of these principles.


    And all the pseudo-rulers and would-be democratic governments of the world tremble at the sound of the mighty voice of the American Republic proclaiming liberty, equality, and justice.

    Jealousy, hatred, and prejudice are common to those who are not blest with the light of truth; ignorance with its disastrous results is common to those who refuse to be illumined by the shining beam of knowledge; and people afflicted with these faults are bound to condemn any and all good things and true under the sun. It is not therefore surprising to read in some of these European papers that black is white and vice versa.


    If the defamatory articles were not written with deliberate purpose to deceive but through ignorance, there still is no excuse for them.

    The immigrant Greek arriving in this country is compelled by his obligations to his family, by his imperative duty to society, by his self-respect, and by his instinct of self-preservation to seek employment. Is he a stone-mason, a mechanic, a plumber, or anything that falls in the category of skilled labor? No! He is not. Does he speak English? No! But he must find a job and earn money if he is not to become a criminal. Naturally he will get a job that does not require skill nor the knowledge of English.


    It is true that he performs the worst sort of manual labor, but he is not prepared, or fit for anything else.

    He is thankful to God that he finds something by which he may earn money honestly. He is also thankful--or if he is not, he ought to be--to the greatness of this democratic country. By reason of his earning capacity and his station in life his standard of living is not equal to that of the skilled laborer, and the skilled laborer's standard of living is not equal to that of the man of still higher earning capacity, and so on.


    The intelligent Greek unskilled laborer (and this applies to all intelligent unskilled laborers) keeps his eyes and ears open and soon learns a trade. His English is improved, his earning capacity is increased, his station of life changes, and he advances to a higher standard of living.

    The opportunity is given to him without discrimination, and because of his intelligence the insignificant unskilled worker of yesterday has become a "somebody" today. Where in the world except in America is the same opportunity granted to millions of immigrants coming into a country to make their living! Nowhere else, of course!


    Why the hue and cry about the "intolerable slavery" of the unskilled worker in America? Let us impartially examine the conditions and the standard of living of the unskilled worker in other countries, and what do we find! The Star does not wish to print the account of the condition in other countries not only of unskilled workers but even of skilled workers. Everybody who wants to know knows their condition and that if there is "intolerable slavery" anywhere, it is not in America.

    Plutocrats all over the world have as a rule the same code and apply the same methods; they amass fortunes by the sweat of the underdog's brow. Without exaggerating the facts we may say that with very few exceptions the American plutocrat is at least half human, while the plutocrats of the rest of the world are pictured as behaving like blood-thirsty beasts in the accumulation of wealth.


    We, as impartial observers and expounders of truth, do not agree with the universal conception of the plutocrat. The man who knows how to make and save money is a useful citizen and especially useful in our present stage of civilization. The moneyed man in any country, in spite of his wickedness, is useful to society, for factories, shops, railroads, are founded by his accumulated wealth, and the moguls of America have been a hundred years ahead of other moneyed men, for they have created useful, beneficial, and uplifting things in America that cannot be found anywhere else. And he, the American plutocrat, living in America and breathing American air, has made the standard of living in America the highest in all the civilized world.


    The American unskilled laborer of today is therefore not in a state of "intolerable slavery," as the press of some European countries has pictured him, but he is a king compared with the unskilled laborer of any other country.

    Some newspapers in the Greek capital and in other European countries have printed articles picturing the condition of the unskilled worker in America as "intolerable slavery." They have further represented ...

    III G, II A 2, I A 3, V A 2, III A, III H, I C, I J
  • Greek Star -- March 09, 1906
    The Duty of the Greek Press in America Hellas Revokes its Announcement-Pleasing Occurence (Editorial)

    We are very happy to read that Hellas, our sister Greek paper in Chicago, in plain and unequivoral language revokes its announcement regarding the purported request of the Greek Minister of the Interior, who according to this Chicago Greek publication had delegated Hellas to compile statistics of our fellow-Greeks residing in Illinois and in the State of California. The Star in previous issues urged its sister paper for the sake of journalistic principle, to abandon such forms of deception. Our suggestions were accepted, our logic was heeded, and with real joy we read the withdrawal of the announcement in the column of our sister paper. This ends the discussion of the matter, and we call it felicitous ending.

    The Greek press in the United States, in our conception, has a sacred duty to perform. That duty is above material gain and above anything else. The duty is to guard and to guide our fellow-Greeks in America and to exalt the honor of the Greek name. By doing that we not only benefit enormously the Greek element of our population, but we also automatically become patent factors in benefiting our adopted country. The real prosperity of a country depends upon the enlightement of its citizens. And here in America, which is called because of its heterogeneous masses the international 2melting-pot, the future citizen of Greek extraction, who will ultimately be an integral part of the whole, needs much more guardianship and guidance than he would need in any other country.

    The duty of the Greek press is to illumine the minds of the greenhorns, the frantics, the uniformed, the deluded, and all others that need enlightenment, teaching them that Americanization is not in the same category with Bulgarization or Turcofication but is a real liberation of the individual. It means freedom and justice. Many of our fellow-Greeks, extremely conscientious also extremely but narrow-minded, live in perpetual dread because of their lack of understanding. The thought of forsaking his beloved Greece and his traditions and becoming a citizen of the United States tortures the mind of the uniformed Greek.

    It is the duty of the press to disabuse the minds of those so afflicted and to prove by systematic explanation what Americanization means.

    In order to command the respect of the public and to accomplish its journalistic purpose, the Greek press in America must be guiltless of any desire to deceive and true to its own principles, an example to guard and to guide our fellow-Greeks in 3America. If we desire to perpetuate the immortal Greek leaven in the American bodies and souls of our future generation, we must keep a vigilant eye on the welfare of the Greeks in America and on the sacredness of the Greek name.

    We are very happy to read that Hellas, our sister Greek paper in Chicago, in plain and unequivoral language revokes its announcement regarding the purported request of the Greek Minister ...

    II B 2 d 1, III A, III G, III H, I J
  • Greek Star -- April 27, 1906
    Disillusion of a Newly-Arrived Greek - America Is Not What it Is Supposed to Be - Appeals to His Consul.

    p. 3 - America has lost its good name in the eyes of George Drossos, who has been here only twenty days. The newly-arrived young Greek was held up by two men at the point of a gun and robbed of his watch and chain and $1.75 in money, all that he had.

    With his dreams of America the great thus dissipated, totally disappointed in the country of freedom and of justice, his face wearing an expression of disenchantment, he went to the Greek consul in Chicago and as a citizen of Greece demanded justice against those two barbarous Americans, who differed very little from cut-throat Bulgarian brigands.


    He further told the Greek consul, as if the Greek diplomat did not know it, that foreigners in Greece are respected and esteemed by the populace, while here in America they are robbed.

    The disappointed and inexperienced immigrant Greek left the consulate in a pleasant mood after the consul had convinced him that real Americans are not robbers, and that the two so-called barbarous Americans who had taken his money and watch and chain were not Americans of the older stock with which the Greek had been enchanted but were Americans in the making. These explanations pleased the young immigrant, and he thanked the Greek diplomat for his elucidation, resumed his proud Greek composure and walked out of the consulate wearing an expression of victory on his unshaven but otherwise clean face.

    Editor's note: What the Greek consul failed to convey to the victim of this heinous crime is that the robbers may have been foreigners of the type that never will become Americans.

    p. 3 - America has lost its good name in the eyes of George Drossos, who has been here only twenty days. The newly-arrived young Greek was held up by ...

    II E 2, III G, I C, IV