The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Greek Star -- January 29, 1904
    The Greek Star (Editorial)

    The Greeks of Chicago and the surrounding states will be happy to greet this first issue of The Greek Star. The purpose of this paper is to protect the fundamental human and civic rights of every individual in our Greek Community of Chicago as well as throughout the United States.

    The Greek Community of Chicago was one of the first Greek communities in America. It has been the first to champion every patriotic cause. But, it should not make any boasts because of this. On the contrary, it should endeavor, together with the Greek communities in every state, to become the proud and worthy apostle of our fatherland, Greece, among the Greeks of the United States. The Greek Community of Chicago must endeavor to develop and mold the mind and character of the younger Greek generation in America in accordance with our Greek ideals and standards. It must revive our national 2hope and quicken the hearts of all the Greek people, for, as time passes, they are inclined to forget their fatherland and all that it stands for.

    In order to accomplish all these high objectives, there is need, not only for clubs and organizations with their attendant resolutions and programs, but also a proper news organ is desirable, which will become the teacher and guardian of our Community's interests. In other words, there is a pressing need in Chicago for a newspaper which must be independent, dignified, national in scope, and imbued with highest ideals and sound policies. It must be able to assist the Community in its work and with its problems. In return, our Greek people must appreciate and respect this organ for its work and significance.

    By aligning itself with the Community, our newspaper will pursue and seek the best and highest objectives and ideals. It will endeavor to do everything that the great heritage and culture of our fathers and ancestors impose upon us. It will not spare any time or effort to exert all its powers to work 3willingly and impartially to prevent and correct every evil and every harmful thought or action. This newspaper will be merciless in its criticism and condemnation of anyone who would try or think of disturbing the peace and harmony within our community.

    We, the editors and publishers of The Greek Star, are independent in our policy and convictions. We will not be influenced by any group or vested interest. We shall endeavor to show the public that in its entire course and career The Greek Star will not be shadowed and obscured by anyone or anything.

    For these very reasons it solicits the moral and financial support of our fellow countrymen in this great American metropolis.

    Henceforth, this newspaper will guard and defend the vital interests of all of our people who are living and earning a livelihood within the framework of a great, rich, hospitable, and friendly country; such is the United States of America.


    We owe it to ourselves; we owe it to Greece; we owe it to our adopted country, these United States of America, to do our very best in obeying and upholding the principles of democracy, justice, truth, law, and order.

    As a supplement to this, our first editorial, we wish to inform our readers that Messrs. Peter S. Lambros, James Manousopoulos, and James S. Eutaxias are the directors, owners, and editors of The Greek Star.

    The Greeks of Chicago and the surrounding states will be happy to greet this first issue of The Greek Star. The purpose of this paper is to protect the fundamental ...

    II B 2 d 1, III A, IV
  • Greek Star -- April 15, 1904
    The Strike in Chicago Ended. the Greek Strike-Breakers Ousted. Union President Sympathetic


    The two-month strike at the Diesel shops ended to-day, and the Greeks who took the jobs of the union men were ousted. The president of the union paid us a visit at our offices and discussed the action of the Greek workers who created an unpleasant situation because of their ignorance, stupidity, and lack of organization. His argument revealed the extent of his reasonableness, his knowledge, his lerance, and his sympathy for the ousted Greek strike-breakers.

    The gentlemen recognized and admitted the fact that the newly-arrived Greek immigrants, who took the jobs of the strikers, did not know what it was all about. Jobs, a chance to make a living, were offered to them by their exploiting leaders, who were the tools of the factory-owners, and the ignorant immigrants accepted. Very naturally the poor Greeks were misled and took the bread and butter away from the families of the union people who were striking for higher wages.


    This serves to show that the Greeks in this country ought to be organized and educated in American methods of making a living in order that they may avoid causing harm to their fellow-workers. The factory-owners, through their agents gave jobs to the inexperienced Greeks, who because of their ignorance of conditions were handled like sheep being herded to pasture.

    As the president of the union admitted, the higher-ups are to blame, and not the newly-arrived Greek immigrants who had come to the land of plenty to make a living;nevertheless Greeks in general were stigmatized. The Greek community in Chicago, the various societies and organizations, and the Church must take steps to guide properly such new arrivals and protect the Greek name from further attack. Our unskilled laborers ought to be educated by lectures and by other appropriate means.


    What a hue and cry we should raise if our families were starved by others! Let us educate ourselves recognize the fact that the prosperity and welfare of our family depend upon the prosperity and well-being of our neighbors. Our neighbors, who are workingmen as we are, belong to unions, and they are fighting for higher wages to improve the standard of living of the working class. By taking their jobs when they strike, we commit an offense against them and against ourselves.

    Let us not in the future repeat this blunder and create so unpleasant a situation for all concerned. Americanization is the star that will guide us to prosperity, success, and progress Let us all adopt this great country as our own. Let us be part of this land of plenty and not remain predatory aliens. America opens her arms to us. Let us embrace her with love and desire to understand her and her laws, political and social alike.

    (Editorial) The two-month strike at the Diesel shops ended to-day, and the Greeks who took the jobs of the union men were ousted. The president of the union paid us ...

    I D 2 a 4, I A 3, III A, I C
  • Greek Star -- April 22, 1904
    Fruit-Dealers' Association Greeks Organized to Defend Themselves

    p. 2- Not long ago Greek fruit-peddlers in Chicago were made the target of a war to the finish, directed by the Grocers' Association. The street fruit-peddlers were accused of taking trade away from the legitimate grocers. The Greeks, reinforced by the housewives' cooperation, won the war, and in order to avoid further attacks, they have organized themselves and have become members of the Fruit-Dealers' Association, which includes all the Greeks who deal in fruit.

    Star's notice:

    If, according to the Grocers' Association, might is right, the fruit-peddlers, in the future, will not be molested, since their association is the stronger, and on the other hand, if right is might, the fruit-peddlers again will not be annoyed, since their action is lawful and just. So in either case the housewives will continue to buy their fruit and vegetables of the Greek peddlers if quality and price are better than what the grocers have to offer.

    p. 2- Not long ago Greek fruit-peddlers in Chicago were made the target of a war to the finish, directed by the Grocers' Association. The street fruit-peddlers were accused of ...

    II A 2, III A
  • Greek Star -- August 05, 1904
    Educating the Greek Immigrant to Be Good and Useful Citizen-Americanization and the Lynch Law International Melting Pot (Editorial)

    Good is made and not born. When we explore the universe to discover and define good and evil, we are confronted with this immutable and infallible natural truth, that good and evil are the result of wisdom or of the want of it. Both good and evil serve the interests of mankind. Individuals, tribes, and nations have their own particular standards of good and evil. No universal standard exists. Many things which in one place are considered to be good are in another place not so considered. The morals, the laws, and many other things in one country may be the extreme opposites of the same things in another country. And the good citizen of one country might not be a good citizen in another country.


    Now when to this land of the free and the prosperous, this land of the best civilized of peoples, the Greek immigrant comes to make his living, he may be and is a good citizen in his own environment, and his character to a great degree has already been molded. In the small village where he was reared he was taught not to steal, not to get drunk, to honor and revere family life, to obey the laws of his country, and to work hard at any kind of job in order to make his living. He was taught that work is not a disgrace, but that idleness is. His religion is part of his being. In the very little schooling which he received he was fanatically taught to defend his country and everything Greek. His etiquette and every other constituent element of his life have been made and molded to fit his narrow, limited circle. Living and functioning in his own country and in his own particular environment, he unquestionably is a good citizen.

    And when he arrives in America he naturally attempts to function, with certain reservations, in his own accustomed way. Is he to blame for this? By no means! He came here to earn some American dollars at any kind of job because he has had no training and has no vocation.


    He resides with other Greeks of his kind because like attracts like, and he begins to learn a few words of English in order to apply for a job. Many unpleasant incidents take place when the poor, ignorant immigrant Greek attempts to use his first acquirements in the language of the land. The rascality of his mischievous compatriots in teaching him ("just for fun," as they say) the wrong words leads the blind bundle of humanity astray. Many improper and indecent words are unconsciously spoken by the ABC pupil in American life and environment.

    Where are our societies to educate and look after the newcomer who by his ignorance may cause unpleasant occurrences which reflect upon Greek businessmen, upon the Greek name, and upon the Greek nation? We have to educate the newcomer and adjust him to American life and enlightenment. Why, not very long ago three hundred Greeks, like a flock of sheep, were huddled by their crooked leaders into the packing-houses to break a strike!


    Are the ignorant un-Americanized Greeks to blame? They do not know what a strike is, and above all they were not told that this was a strike undertaken by fellow-workers to improve conditions. The crooked agents took advantage of the Greeks' necessity, ignorance, and eagerness to earn money to take care of their poor families in Greece and caused them to be stigmatized as strike-breakers and consequently to become hated by the populace, which does not stop to weigh evidence impartially. The Greek was offered a job, a chance to earn money to feed his needy family. He trusted his compatriots, the agents, who in their greed exploited him, forgetting the high principles of the race. Can any sane and impartial observer blame these three hundred Greeks, who were thrown out of a job when the strike ended? No! But nevertheless all these Greeks were stigmatized, and many unjust and inexcusable expressions of hatred, mockery, and ridicule were printed in the dailies.

    The necessity for such a society to Americanize the newcomer is imperative. It is not only beneficial to the individual to be educated in Americanism, but it is beneficial to us all, to our race, to our Mother-Greece, and above all to the American commonwealth. Have we such a society? Unfortunately, no.


    It is about time, if the Greeks in America wish to become distinguished, prosperous, and really good citizens and to live in harmony with their American environment, to begin to educate and look after the uninitiated - the Greek newcomers.

    The newcomer's first and second year in America under the guiding hand of the proposed society would have a great influence upon his future life.

    It is the duty of businessmen, of professional men, and of the Church to form such societies, at first in big cities and in great industrial centers and later everywhere.

    The American type, in my opinion, is the best type in political and social life the world over. But in spite of my love for this country and my devotion to it I am not satisfied with the ways and means employed to Americanize immigrants.


    Giving correct answers to the naturalization examiner's questions and raising the hand to take an oath are not all that constitutes Americanization. The four-year period is not enough to mold the individuals of the heterogeneous mass of immigrants into a new type of man.

    "America the Great" is not a homogeneous mass but a conglomeration, an international melting-pot. The habits, the traditions, the creeds, the national fanaticism, and the standards of life of all this heterogeneous mass cannot be changed and altered into Americanism by the simple acquisition of the first and second papers of naturalization any more than a pagan could become a Christian by simply being baptized and hearing a few words mumbled by the officiating priest. The first and the second, the newly-made American and the newly-made Christian, are so in name only.

    In my opinion a man should be honored with the name "American" who truly loves America and American idealism,and who is therefore ready to defend this country with the sacrifice of his life. Anything short of that, in my opinion, is balderdash, mockery, exploitation, forgery, and deception.


    He who is "American" and does not salute the Stars and Stripes because of religious scruples is not truly an American. He who is not willing to fight for America because of religious scruples or for any other reason is not a true American. He has become naturalized not for love of America and of the great American idealism but with some other motive.

    Why should America shed her blood to protect him if he does not stand ready to defend America when there is need? If America were invaded and enslaved by an oppressor, would he continue to be an "American?" No! By the name of Zeus, no! He will change color, nationality, and religion as quickly as he changes his shirt.

    This type of person, in my opinion, is not included in the glorious register of Americans. He is "American" (qualified by his naturalization papers) in name only, not in body and soul. Americanism is composed of noble and lofty ideals and principles. It is not an empty appellation without life, vitality, and force but on the contrary the living substance of the best and the loftiest thoughts of mankind.


    We have thousands upon thousands of citizens - naturalized citizens - who are opposed, and very much opposed, to patriotism, advocating in colleges and universities "cosmopolitanism." This philosophic doctrine may be right, and it is right in the last analysis, but the world in general is not yet ripe for cosmopolitanism. And since this delicious fruit of Utopia is not yet developed and ripe, it is not wise nor safe nor beneficial to the world to pluck it for consumption. Therefore patriotism at all costs must be maintained as the fundamental base, pillar, and structure of a nation. In the present stage of our evolution, while my next-door neighbor has the manners of a Turk, it would be folly and treason to disarm the patriotic citizen. And those in America to-day who do not advocate and encourage patriotism are, in my opinion, Americans in name only.

    Those uninformed three hundred Greeks who recently accepted jobs as strikebreakers may be and are greenhorns, very, very far from measuring up to the standard of American life, political and social, but they are imbued body and soul with patriotism; and time will show, when America calls them 9to protect her, that in spite of all their shortcomings they will be in the country's first line of defense. The integrity, prestige, honor, and safety of the country depend absolutely on citizens who are patriots.

    Fortunately for America, the mother of a new race under the sun, and fortunately for the world in general, we have many true American patriots who will guide this country in attaining the heights of its destiny.

    One blemish still remains to mar the perfection of American progress, civilization, and justice, and that is the lynch law.

    In my opinion this is an outworn and out-of-date tradition. Lynching, in the past, was absolutely necessary. Established authority and courts, in the times when lynching originated, were far apart, and naturally it was necessary to administer justice where the culprit committed his crime. The spirited and law-loving citizens of those districts where lynching prevailed, since there were many impediments to legal procedure, took 10the trouble to administer justice by applying the lynch law; and indeed it was the quickest and the most effective way to punish the perpetrator of a crime against society. In those times they did not hang an innocent person; they hanged those who defied society and its established laws. All very well; the South was rid of law-breakers. But the necessity which existed at that time exists no longer. The country is developed; in all parts of it there are courts and authority legally established, and such law enforcement is not necessary to-day. The legalized justice of the courts must be supreme in the United States. Any other justice is contrary to the dignity and integrity of the courts and the people of the Republic.

    Every nation on earth has had a lynch law and still has one, but only in time of war; and the law is executed not by the populace but by the military authorities. These facts are familiar to us all.

    I doubt very much that real and true Americans to-day take part in lynchings. In the South I must admit that lynchings are performed by genuine Americans, for tradition is still very strong among those law-abiding, 11law-respecting, honest-to-goodness Southerners; but in the North it seems to me that it is a different story. Some would-be Americans abuse the Southern tradition and incite riots which are very detrimental to the nation's good name. For instance, not very long ago a Greek immigrant on the West Side was almost lynched by an infuriated mob of what appeared to be American people. Our correspondent, who was present at the scene of the outrage, emphatically stated that the majority of the would-be lynchers were unable to speak English. For the sake of decency I refrain from mentioning of what races they were who took part in the attack on the Greek. Are these Americans? If they have their naturalization papers, to be sure, they are Americans, but, in my opinion, Americans in name only.

    Let us hope that this stain upon the brightness of American civilization will be wiped away, and that due respect and honor will be accorded to American jurisprudence and to the American people in general. Very many distinguished Americans all over the country share the same opinion, and I am certain that the time is near at hand when the whole country will agree with these great and far-sighted American patriots.


    The melting-pot of America the Great, which receives, holds, transforms, and molds the heterogeneous masses of mankind, will continue to do its God-given duty for the benefit of humanity, and in the years to come the Greek, the Jew, and many other peoples with deep-rooted traditions, racial and religious, will face one another with souls reborn. And out of this ever-active America God has predestined that a new type of mankind shall be produced, a type that will enlighten all the world.

    Greece, in the past, civilized the barbarians. America, the daughter of ancient Greece, to-day is civilizing the civilized people, and the America of to-morrow will lead all the world to unimagined heights of civilization and enlightenment.

    Good is made and not born. When we explore the universe to discover and define good and evil, we are confronted with this immutable and infallible natural truth, that good ...

    III A, I D 2 a 4, I A 1 a, III G, III H, I C, I G, I H, I J
  • Greek Star -- August 26, 1904
    General Gathering of Greek Businessmen of Chicago to Protect Their Business and the Greek Name - Consul General Interested

    P. 1 - The meeting of Greek businessmen last Sunday packed the Greek Orthodox church. The object of the meeting was to find ways and means to protect their business and their racial prestige against attacks by the Chicago press arising from the conduct of 320 Greeks who accepted jobs as strike-breakers.

    Chicago newspapers have raised a hue and cry against Greeks in general, not taking into consideration the facts that by so doing they injure the business of Greeks who are not engaged in strike-breaking, and that they are also throwing mud at a nation friendly to this Republic.

    Immediately after the ceremony of the mass, in which over 2,000 took part, the Reverend C. Georgiadis spoke. In a fatherly but businesslike address he brought out what the duties of the Greek businessmen of Chicago are toward those unwise Greek laborers who because of extreme necessity consented to be stigmatized as strike-breakers, taking the bread and butter away from families of their fellow-workers who had struck for higher wages. He further suggested that 2immediate steps should be taken to approach these misinformed Greek laborers and induce them for the sake of the Greek name and likewise for the sake of the strikers' families to abandon their temporary jobs.

    The Hon. Dr. N. Salopoulos, Greek Consul General in Chicago, next took the floor and reminded the businessmen that besides the injury to their business the national prestige of Greece has suffered. He consented to head a committee to carry out Father Georgiadis' suggestions; during the day he visited the strike-breakers, and 120 of them gave up their jobs at once.

    Other speakers at the meeting were Messrs. N. Stathakos, D. Kalogeropoulos, A. Papachristofilou, and N. Kontaxis, who very explicitly analyzed the situation and suggested means by which such unpleasant occurrences might be avoided hereafter.

    Star's note:

    This newspaper has time and time again trumpeted in the ears of all concerned the paramount necessity of establishing a society to initiate immigrants into 3American life and look after them until they know what is all about. I do not approve of the press's indiscriminate attack on Greeks; nevertheless, in view of the present disagreeable situation created by the sensation-mongering press, it will be to our advantage to correct our negligence and do the right thing by our greenhorn immigrants.

    P. 1 - The meeting of Greek businessmen last Sunday packed the Greek Orthodox church. The object of the meeting was to find ways and means to protect their business ...

    I D 2 a 4, III A, III C, III G, III H, I C, IV
  • Greek Star -- September 02, 1904
    Unbecoming Conduct of a Group of Greeks Shameless and Unfeeling

    p. 3- Last Sunday an unprecedented thing took place, proving once more that some of us are stupid, unfeeling, and inconsiderate.

    A group of Greeks organized a party and went to the outskirts of the city to amuse themselves. After they had indulged in various gymnastic contests, they turned to food, wine, and song. All had gone well up to this time. But the doings of this group thereafter show that they are devoid of the Greek instinct for what is decorous and becoming, for they manifested the traits of Turco-Gypsies. The most uncultivated among Greek mountaineers would not think of acting so shamelessly as did this group of Turco-Gypsies.

    They piled on a huge carnival truck and drove through the loop singing, shouting, and shooting, like a bunch of wild beasts from South Africa, advertising their unspeakably bad manners and staining the Greek name with undesirable color.


    Star's note:

    If these Greeks had realized that they were Greeks, I do not think that they would have behaved themselves as they did; for if they had been conscious of being Greeks, they would have known that they, as Greeks, are heirs to the noblest, the most glorious, the most highly civilized, the most honored, the most enlightened, and the most admired tradition in the world, and consequently they would not have dragged it in the mire. Can I find any extenuating circumstance in endeavoring to palliate and partially to justify their unbecoming behavior? Before a court of mental examination some excuse might be preferred; one might blame the heat of the day and the heat of the wine. But speaking fairly and impartially, I find not an iota of justification for their disgraceful conduct.

    p. 3- Last Sunday an unprecedented thing took place, proving once more that some of us are stupid, unfeeling, and inconsiderate. A group of Greeks organized a party and went ...

    III A, I C
  • Greek Star -- December 09, 1904
    English Night School for Greeks

    p. 2- Upon the request of more than a hundred Greeks the Board of Education has established a night school to teach them the English language. All Greeks in the city who wish to learn English are invited to attend. This night school has been especially established for Greeks only.

    It is an opportunity for young and old to attend classes and learn the English language without cost.

    p. 2- Upon the request of more than a hundred Greeks the Board of Education has established a night school to teach them the English language. All Greeks in the ...

    I A 3, III A
  • Greek Star -- September 15, 1905
    Greek Dancing School in Chicago

    p.2--From all indications it seems that the Greeks in Chicago are very much for dancing. Young and old, even very old bachelors, flock to the dancing places to keep their bodies in trim. Besides the dozens of privately operated dancing schools supported by Greeks in Chicago a public dancing school was established last week. This new place is owned by the Misses G. Economou and B. Zepos and is located at 27 North Clark Street. Fees for dancing lessons are fifty cents for men and twenty-five cents for women, and the establishment is for Greeks only. Terpsichoreans are welcomed.

    p.2--From all indications it seems that the Greeks in Chicago are very much for dancing. Young and old, even very old bachelors, flock to the dancing places to keep their ...

    II B 2 f, III A
  • Greek Star -- November 17, 1905
    Religion--Country--Duty--Greeks for Greeks by Ambrosius Mandelaris, Archimandrite of Chicago

    P.1--As I have said in other articles, it is my religious and patriotic duty as a representative of the Church to convey to you my thoughts and convictions in regard to religion and country and our duty to them. And since I am convinced that the press is the best medium for my purpose, I herewith write this article, hoping that it will reach not only the Greeks of Chicago but also those who live elsewhere.

    One of the fundamental and sacred duties of man is his duty to his country. Faith and education, enlightenment and progress, although powerful themselves, depend upon the country for their existence, their nurture, and their fruition. And our patriotism should not be manifested only when we take our guns in hand to defend our country against her enemies; it should be displayed also in time of peace when and where the welfare and 2progress of the nation is concerned. That is, every citizen, of whatever station in life and of whatever vocation has a duty to perform on behalf of the progress and the financial prosperity of the country. When a country as a whole is prosperous, prosperity also manifests itself among its citizens.

    The surest way for a country to be prosperous, in fact, the only way to become prosperous, in our present stage of evolution, is to acquire money, a fact which compelled that great patriot, the greatest orator of Athens, to exclaim, "Dei, dei chremation," which means that money is a necessity, without which nothing can be done. With money we build magnificent churches in which the spirit and the soul of the Christian are exalted to God. With money we build schools, academies, and gymnasiums in which the citizen develops his mind and his body for tasks of all kinds, mental and physical. With money we build navies and armies which are the safest guarantees that the country will be formidable to her enemies and respected by her neighbors.


    And how shall the country get the money needed to accomplish the things above mentioned? Not from aliens, indeed, nor from enemies, but from her sons, within and without her domain; that means that it is the duty of every Greek to work, according to his physical and mental ability, and to acquire money; but the means employed to gain wealth should always be those which are sanctioned by ethics and by the Christian faith. Money is the sinews of enterprise; money boils the pot and makes the mare go; yet money should be not the master but the servant. It should not dominate our desires but should supply all our lawful and just needs.

    It is further the duty of the Greek, after he acquires money, to confine its circulation among Greeks as much as possible. "Greeks for Greeks!" This motto is supported not only by a natural law but by a social law as well.

    The idea in "Greeks for Greeks" might be realized by the following method. When a Greek needs clothing, let him deal with a Greek merchant; when he needs food, let him deal with a Greek who sells it, even if he has to go out of his way to procure the merchandise, and so on down the line for everything that we need. By doing this, he will let his money pass through 4Greek hands, thus augmenting Greek business and making its influence felt everywhere. The Greek is racially bound to deal with Greeks even though he pays slightly more. On the other hand it is the sacred duty of Greek merchants to be sound, honest, and reasonable in their transactions.

    Money is not, as we say, the root of all evil; the lack of it is the root of all evil. Money is our own creation, to facilitate barter and exchange. Money, like everything else under the sun, is a blessing if we use it wisely. And when money circulates in Greek hands, it creates power for Greeks in our native land. Greek capitalists and Greek captains of industry living abroad have financed the arming of Greece to defend Greek populations and territories against the unspeakable Turk and against the rapacity of the Bulgarian beast. Greeks the world over, with the exception of American Greeks, have put this motto into practice, "Greeks for Greeks," for this is their duty to their native land and to their faith. The welfare of a Greek community in any part of the world demands "Greeks for Greeks."

    I wish to make it clear to you and to all concerned that my urgent advocacy 5of "Greeks for Greeks" does not conflict with the fundamental national principles of America or of any other country but on the contrary sustains the universal equilibrium of money, which if it is allowed to fall into the hands of a few will automatically become a tyrant instead of a servant, a curse instead of a blessing. This idea of "Greeks for Greeks" should be applied where money is involved by other races also, by Americans, French, English, Germans, and so forth, since following this course they will not permit money and its power to fall into the hands of a few, Greeks, Jews, Americans, or others, but will keep in the hands of all races and all nations which put into practice the theory of "Greeks for Greeks."

    Right here in our adopted country, which will be the native country of our next generation, this motto, "Greeks for Greeks," is perfectly sound, and it could not be objected to by any reasonable and honest person. You are upheld by natural law and by social law when you deal with your own kind. By nature and by the laws of this country you are free to choose whom you will patronize. That you are American in body and soul, though derived of Greek ancestry, does not prevent your dealing with American Greeks who also are 6part of this great country. You have the right and the privilege to deal with any one whom you choose to deal with. But Missourians prefer, and they are right and just to do so, to deal with Missourians. And if Chicagoans prefer to deal with Californians rather than with Chicagoans, they will soon discover that Chicago's industry and commerce is going on the rocks, and that will affect the prosperity and the welfare of the whole city. "Greeks for Greeks" stands up against all the arguments of logic because it is based upon truth and justice. No money-barons and no string-pulling could endure if "Greeks for Greeks" were applied everywhere in the world. And so money rightly and justly acquired and wisely used is a blessing, not a curse as some of us have unwisely been taught to believe.

    Greeks! In the name of faith, of country, and of duty I urge you to observe this motto, "Greeks for Greeks," and to refrain from extravagance and intemperance and from casting pearls before swine.

    Greek-American generations of the future will remember you and bless you for putting into practice now this "Greeks for Greeks" method, which will lay a foundation for them to stand upon and make them proud of their progenitors.


    Racially, socially, and physiologically future Greek-American generations will be what we are now preparing them to be. It is our imperative duty to society and to our God to plant now religious, educational, and commercial seeds and to nurture their growth. Let us plant the right seeds now.

    P.1--As I have said in other articles, it is my religious and patriotic duty as a representative of the Church to convey to you my thoughts and convictions in regard ...

    III A
  • Greek Star -- December 22, 1905
    The Garb of the Greek Priest The Star Is Criticized

    P. 4 - Understanding brings individuals and nations together, reveals the workings of nature, and assists us to come nearer to God and to attain universal peace and harmony. As long as there is understanding, there can be no quarrels, no antagonism, no war in community, city, nation, or universe. Understanding comes from the sincere desire for knowledge, and knowledge, which a noted person said is the "breath of gods," is the result of man's ability to think. It is the germ of man's conscious evolution.

    The Star, a Greek newspaper in Chicago, is always striving, as a guardian of Greeks and of the reputation of Greeks, to promote understanding, which will render the relationship between Greece and America mutually beneficial to these countries. Greeks and Americans and others in order to get along together must have an appreciative understanding of one another. Habits, 2traditions, and superstitious beliefs must be taken into consideration in order to acquire mutual understanding. A universal standard does not exist; therefore the psychology of the old proverb, "When in Rome, do as the Romans do," is always applicable, useful, and safe.

    Greek ecclesiastical traditions require Greek Orthodox priests to attire themselves in long, wide black robes and a head-gear which is really very odd and of no especial significance. Such religious frocks and apparel may be proper and useful in countries where they originated, and where people are used to them, but here in America they are out of place. And not only urchins and hoodlums are curious and ready to ridicule such apparel but others also who are not familiar with these ecclesiastical robes.

    Many unpleasant incidents have taken place when our priests have been seen on the streets. Boys will be boys the world over, and curious things attract the attention not only of boys but of many grown-ups as well, in 3America and everywhere. Our clergy have been ridiculed, insulted, stoned, and outrageously humiliated by groups of boys who, lacking understanding, have thought that it was fun to treat the curious-looking foreign priests as objects of merriment, curiosity, and mockery.

    Our priests, because of their broad-mindedness, the result of their ecclesiastical training, have graciously smiled and taken it on the chin, saying,

    "The boys are not to blame. Let them get it out of their systems."

    But narrow-minded and hot-headed Greeks have resented it very much, calling it "uncivilized, irreligious, and unjust." and adding that it is very unbecoming to the authorities to tolerate things of that kind.

    The Star has again and again suggested that the remedy lies with our Church; that the Church alone can stop these unpleasant occurrences and remove these 4misunderstandings with the people of our adopted country. Undoubtedly the hot-headed Greeks who have raised an appalling storm of criticism against the Star for suggesting a change in our priests' apparel can submit valid arguments against the plan suggested, but Mother Church knows better, and their appeals and petitions to the Holy Synod not to change the priests' vesture will be of no avail. The Church has already taken the matter under serious consideration, and the time is not far off when our priests, being in Rome, will attire themselves as the Romans do. Right and wrong, good and evil, are just degrees of understanding. When we all possess an appreciable degree of understanding, then we shall be able to realize that Greek priests and priests of other faiths may wear the same frock so far as Christianity is concerned.

    As to our critics, they have every right to adhere to our traditions as long as our traditions do not jeopardize our compatriots nor affect the welfare and the progress of our communities in Chicago and elsewhere. Let us be sensible and endeavor to understand our neighbors as we expect our 5neighbors to understand us.

    And in order to appease those hot-headed, old-fashioned Greeks who are supposedly true to all traditions, I am compelled to quote the statement of a mayor of Chicago, made when a Greek bishop, as representative of the Church and State of Greece, visited the Columbian Exposition and became the center of attraction and an object of curiosity and ridicule. In fact, a bodyguard was required for his personal safety. The Greek hierarch, tall, hand-some, dignified, with his long beard, attired in complete ecclesiastical accoutrements, of the significance of which the majority of the people have no understanding, was surrounded and followed by jeering crowds whenever he dared to walk the streets of our city. The learned and well-trained servant of the Greek Church, who had anticipated such treatment, since he was aware of the ignorance and the curiosity of the masses, refused to sanction a petition of complaint to the municipal authorities, advocated by hot-headed Greeks.


    "The people are right," said the prelate. "My apparel is wrong, and no complaint shall be made."

    But some narrow-minded persons among his fellow-Greeks, who resented the ridicule and the humiliation, went to the mayor with their complaints. The mayor said,

    "Our American people are peaceable and never would have annoyed your bishop if he had complied with the habits and the customs of our country and had attired himself accordingly."

    And that is tantamount to saying, "When in Rome, do as the Romans do."

    P. 4 - Understanding brings individuals and nations together, reveals the workings of nature, and assists us to come nearer to God and to attain universal peace and harmony. As ...

    I B 4, III A, III C, III H, I C