The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Greek Star -- April 01, 1904
    Nicholas Mourjukos Commits Suicide.

    Taking every precaution to succeed in his efforts to end his life, Nicholas Mourjakos, from Geraki, Lacedemon, Greece, committed suicide last night in his room by turning on the gas.

    Apparently, after he had finished a four-page letter which the authorities found upon a table, he opened the gas jets and lay down on his bed to die. That the deceased was not insane or temporarily unbalanced is revealed by his associates and by the tear-stained letter. He curses certain people whom he accuses of being the cause of his brother's death and the misery brought upon him. Parts of his letter follow, which the police handed to us for translation:

    "I have put an end to my life, alone, because I cannot bear to live any longer, although I have a large family of little children. Everyone comes to America to earn money. I came to lose money and life. God will punish those who are the cause of my beloved brother's death and of my own catastrophe.

    Good-bye, vain world!

    Nicholas Mourjukos.

    2

    Editor's Note:

    Some of the best minds the world over attribute suicide to mental derangement or to cowardice. Fear of the future also and many other causes are assigned to suicide. The deceased's letter reveals very clearly that he did not care to live any longer. His free, sane, and determined will put an end to his natural life. However, further enlightenment gained by scientific study will, in the future, will tell us more about suicide than we think we know to-day.

    Do we not say, "Death is the liberation of the soul from the shackles of material tyranny?"

    Whether death come one way or another, does it not liberate the soul? Because of our present narrow conception of life many things are assigned to the wrong category.

    Taking every precaution to succeed in his efforts to end his life, Nicholas Mourjakos, from Geraki, Lacedemon, Greece, committed suicide last night in his room by turning on the gas. ...

    Greek
    II E 2
  • Greek Star -- April 29, 1904
    Greeks Found Not Guilty

    Two Greeks, F. Dakis and Geo. Strategakis, were discharged by Judge Prindiville when evidence showed that they, in spite of carrying concealed weapons, did not participate in the scuffle in which Greek and other foreign laborers fought a free-for-all battle.

    The court, however, confiscated their pistols, which the two Greeks carried (as they said) for protection and admonished them against such a practice.

    Two Greeks, F. Dakis and Geo. Strategakis, were discharged by Judge Prindiville when evidence showed that they, in spite of carrying concealed weapons, did not participate in the scuffle in ...

    Greek
    II E 2, I C
  • Greek Star -- July 01, 1904
    Greek Shoots a Greek.

    Last Saturday two Greeks in the presence of many patrons of a West Side saloon shot it out for supremacy- in love.

    The two Greeks, Nicholas Chrysikos and John Malaganis, after paying tribute to Olympian God Dionysus, known to non-Greeks as Bacchus, began to quarrel about a girl whom they both love. And since love is for the living and not for the dead, both drew their pistols for supremacy self-persuration, and eventually for the girl's hand. John Malaganis beat the other Greek to a draw, and after wounding Nicholas, he succeeded in getting away before the authorities arrived. Nice business-discussing love affairs in a saloon and resorting to pistols for the love of a girl! Of course wine and women do somewhat preoccupy the imagination of Greeks; Bacchus and Venus, as blood-relations, tolerate and encourage things of that kind, but resorting to pistols is not a comedy, and if the wounded Greek dies, then the foolishness becomes tragedy. It is bad business to mix love with wine and serve it with pistols.

    Last Saturday two Greeks in the presence of many patrons of a West Side saloon shot it out for supremacy- in love. The two Greeks, Nicholas Chrysikos and John Malaganis, ...

    Greek
    II E 2
  • Greek Star -- July 22, 1904
    Lynch Law Among the West Side Greeks.

    Undoubtedly some of the Greeks of Chicago follow American habits and customs letter for letter. Unfortunately they follow the bad customs instead of the good ones, which are numerous and far superior to those of any other nationality.

    We know as a matter of fact that the majority of the foreigners in this country, when they begin to learn English, first pick up the foul words of the language, and so the Greeks of the West Side, or at least a group of them (fruit-dealers) before beginning to open their eyes in the rebirth of Americanization, have adopted lynch law, the barbarous custom of the South. Of course the law of initiation has a great effect upon intelligent and non-intelligent alike.

    2

    A couple of weeks ago an ignorant Greek fruit-peddler beat an urchin for stealing his fruit. The youthful hoodlum cried and accused the Greek of beating him without cause. An infuriated mob surrounded the Greek with cries of "Lynch him! Lynch him!" and gave him a terrible beating. If the law of the land had not intervened, the ignorant Greek would have been a spirit by this time. So it was that the friends of the abused Greek learned about lynching the custom of the South. Last Saturday, they were treating a certain Miller, the leader of the previous attempt at lynching, a la South, they were scattered by the riot squad fifteen strong, which had responded to the frenzied calls of Miller's friends that the Greeks were on the war-path.

    3

    Editor's Note:

    It is an utter shame that we should resort to things of this kind. Those Greeks who participated in that unpleasnat affair should bear in mind that they will get justice when they apply to any American Court. Intelligent, civilized people never take the law in their hands, in opposition and contempt of the law of the land. Only fanatics and their blood-relations, semi-barbarians resort to lynch law.

    In our next issue we shall write more extensively of this Southern tradition.

    Undoubtedly some of the Greeks of Chicago follow American habits and customs letter for letter. Unfortunately they follow the bad customs instead of the good ones, which are numerous and ...

    Greek
    II E 2, II A 2, I C
  • Greek Star -- August 26, 1904
    Sundries

    p. 3- Undoubtedly the Greek community of Chicago is very much honored by its president, Dr. G. Papaeliou, and his profession. But it is too bad that the Grecian Aesculapius, in spite of his five years in this country, cannot hold a conversation in English to tell the American people how well he administers the affairs of the community. Besides this he is a very poor mathematician, for when it comes to giving an account of the community's funds, he always experiences great difficulty with figures and numbers. After all, the community cannot expect the learned doctor to be as efficient in figuring as he is in writing prescriptions.

    Of course in regard to the $1,500 shortage in the community's funds he is not to be blamed, for doctoring and figuring are not the same art and profession, but when it comes to his inability to learn English, I think that our good doctor is not to be excused. Since he has lived here for five years and is still unable to use the English language as proficiently as he pushes the pencil, something must be wrong. Maybe I am unfair not to take the doctor's head into consideration. That is, he either has an Albanian head, incapable of learning anything, or his head is dizzy with those bothersome figures. Anyway, our eminent doctor-president is preoccupied with things that a mere publisher does not understand.

    p. 3- Undoubtedly the Greek community of Chicago is very much honored by its president, Dr. G. Papaeliou, and his profession. But it is too bad that the Grecian Aesculapius, ...

    Greek
    III C, II A 1, II E 2, IV
  • Greek Star -- September 23, 1904
    Three Greeks Tie an Intruder

    P. 2 - C. McCloud made a mistake in choosing a Greek apartment to rob. Three Greeks, Papadopoulos, Papagiannopoulos, and Bouleukos, were aroused from slumber yesterday by a would-be robber who was breaking into their apartment at 175 W. Van Buren Street.

    The three wily Greeks, who did not want to be robbed by C. McCloud, as they afterwards learned that he was named, waited in the darkness until the unwelcome guest succeeded in breaking the window. They then fell upon him, took his gun away, and tied him to their bed. When the authorities arrived, Mr. McCloud was glad to accompany them to the station, and he took an oath that he would never again practice his profession among Greeks. He said, "Those blasted Greeks are sneaky. They were waiting like cats in the dark and fell upon me unawares."

    P. 2 - C. McCloud made a mistake in choosing a Greek apartment to rob. Three Greeks, Papadopoulos, Papagiannopoulos, and Bouleukos, were aroused from slumber yesterday by a would-be robber ...

    Greek
    II E 2, I C
  • Greek Star -- October 07, 1904
    The Greeks Are at it Again the American as Usual Is Misinformed

    p. 3- The American, a Chicago daily, in its issue of last Monday printed a statement that on last Sunday evening at nine o'clock two Greeks named Milano and Fero entered the house of Santo Napolitano, an Italian, and murdered him. The assassins were captured and locked up. The story goes, according to the paper, that Milano was in love with Napolitano's wife while she was in Genoa, before she was married. When he discovered that the girl of his dreams loved Napolitano and had married him and come to Chicago, he took his friend, Fero, along and decided to get rid of his rival.

    Knowing that Greeks do not commit these cowardly crimes, and that the names are not Greek names, the Star immediately investigated the whole affair and brought to light the already known fact that Greeks are to be blamed for every thing under the sun. The men who committed this heinous crime were not Greeks but Italians. None of the Chicago papers which published an account of the crime made any effort to correct the error when they discovered the truth of the assasins' identity.

    p. 3- The American, a Chicago daily, in its issue of last Monday printed a statement that on last Sunday evening at nine o'clock two Greeks named Milano and Fero ...

    Greek
    II E 2, I C
  • Greek Star -- February 10, 1905
    Judgment against the Chicago Greek Community $8,000 in the Bank the President and His Chain of Lawyers

    p. 3- In spite of $8,000 in the bank a judgment of $285.65 has been entered against the Greek community in Chicago. Why? Because the president of the community, Dr. Papaeliou, wants litigation in order to keep his string of lawyers busy. And what is the object or the necessity of keeping so many attorneys on the payroll of the community? To have enough legal talent on hand to perpetuate his grip upon the community's treasury.

    It is really a shame and an indignity to permit the name of the community to be dragged into litigation. Time will teach our eminent doctor that the president of a community must not stoop to actions motivated by personal animosity nor display the community's dirty linen in public litigation. Doctor, your oath to your profession is strong enough to bring you to your senses. Memorize it, doctor, for your interest and the interest of the community.

    p. 3- In spite of $8,000 in the bank a judgment of $285.65 has been entered against the Greek community in Chicago. Why? Because the president of the community, Dr. ...

    Greek
    III C, II A 1, II E 2, IV
  • Greek Star -- February 17, 1905
    The Affairs of the Greek Community-Topsy-Turvy. (Editorial)

    It is two months now since the court ruled that the former by-laws of the community's constitution are null and void, and the new constitution, which was accepted by the court as the right one, should be adopted. But while the community's treasury is in good condition, Dr. G. Papaeliou, president of the community, does not intend to give up without a further fight. So one appeal after the other is made in order to prolong the topsy-turvy condition of the Greek community in Chicago.

    Does that bring you credit and respect, doctor? I should say not! It is not progress, doctor, to prolong the illness of the patient, and you know it. The community needs a Greek school, a gymnasium, a hospital, and many other social and philanthropic institutions, which everywhere in the world are founded in communities much smaller than the Greek community of Chicago.

    2

    Your appeals to defeat justice and retard the growth and progress of the community are about to be exhausted, and the court will soon order new elections, which should have taken place on December 12, 1906.

    Your presidency of the community, doctor, proved to be incompetent, inefficient, unconscientious, and very disastrous to the treasury. Your refusal to have the books of the community audited reveals either a despotic disposition or a deficit. Doctor, your days in office as president are now numbered, and you shudder at the new constitution, which hangs over you like the sword of Damocles. The new document, doctor, abolishes the office of president and authorizes the appointment, by the court, of an ecclesiastical committee of twelve, under the aegis of the Chicago Greek Consul General, to conduct the affairs of the community.

    It is two months now since the court ruled that the former by-laws of the community's constitution are null and void, and the new constitution, which was accepted by the ...

    Greek
    III C, II E 2, IV
  • Greek Star -- July 07, 1905
    The Elections of the Greek Community in Chicago (Editorial)

    With the approach of the elections ordered by the Court for the Greek community in Chicago it is not the business of this paper to make suggestions or to tell the people how to vote, but as conscientious journalists we deem it advisable to bring to light the doings and the misdoings of the former president of the community, Dr. G. Papaeliou, who again has the audacity to be a candidate for re-election.

    As soon as the treasury of the church became empty, after a three-year litigation through various courts, and as soon as the Appellate court confirmed the decision of the lower courts and ordered that Dr. Papaeliou should relinquish his throttling grip upon the treasury of the Church, and that new elections should be held, supervised by the court-appointed 2election commissioner or judge, and when the indignant members of the community, because of Dr. Papaeliou's mismanagement of its affairs, have begun to lose interest in the struggle for supremacy between opposing forces, our eminent doctor comes out before the public with profuse expressions of meekness and pretended obedience to the will of the people and tells them that a reorganization of the community is necessary.

    The cultured smoothness and the versatile evasiveness of the learned doctor have in the past exercised great influence upon the community, but insincere professions at last must reach an end - and when the end came, not only were Dr. Papaeliou's so-called achievements revealed as empty words, but the church's treasury was also revealed as empty. And above all, the name of the Greek community and the Church itself were dragged in the mire. These are some of Dr. Papaeliou's achievements while occupying the office of president of the Greek community. Doctor, undoubtedly you know the proverb, "Arche Andra Deixei - authority reveals the man," and by this time the community not only knows your inefficiency and incompetency in administering its affairs; it also knows the fibre of your character. A man may be excused for his ignorance and inexperience 3in piloting the ship of the community, and many times credit and honor are given to such a man when he is sincere in his efforts, but when a man of your education and social standing deliberately steers the ship on the rocks, such a man not only cannot be forgiven but rightfully draws upon himself popular condemnation.

    Dr. Papaeliou's subterfuges in the past and his utter disregard for the by-laws of the community and the wishes of the people, who by parliamentary procedure in three meetings voted against him and his associates, very clearly reveal the character of the person who was entrusted with the administration of the affairs of the community. It further reveals his unethical attitude in diminishing the Church's dignity and prestige by frequent litigation and causing several judgments to be rendered against the community. The first decision of the Court, which now is confirmed by the higher court, was to hold new elections and give an account of the community's funds. Did he abide by the Court's order? Oh no! While the treasury of the community was packed with thousands of dollars, he and his clique, having no respect for themselves, no respect for the interests and the wishes of the people, and above all 4not an iota of respect for the Greek Church, whose ministers were humiliated, preferred to appeal the case as if he had been wronged by the judgment of the lower court.

    Now when the end of his rope is around his neck, and the treasury has become as poor as a church mouse, and the judgment of the higher court has thundered over his bovine head, he sheepishly submits his case to the people of the community and hypocritically requests them to disregard all the allegations of his milignant accusers and vote for him and his group in the forth-coming elections. He promises to build a Greek hospital, a Greek school, and a magnificent church. Why, doctor, do you not derive wisdom from your past mistakes? This is absolutely absurd. With what are you going to build the proposed institutions? Thousands upon thousands of dollars have been squandered by your selfishness for your individual gain. Why did you not utilize that money for your mythical enterprises, doctor? Were you so foolish as to think that you would be able to milk the cow forever? The people are not eating hay, and by this time they know you very well.

    5

    The proposed institutions, doctor, will be built not by you but by others who are real, conscientious, patriotic Greeks. Your sun is set, doctor, not only as president of the community but as a public figure.

    Don't we know each other, doctor? Have we not had our soiled linen washed in the courts in your libel suit against the Star? Have we not had fun, doctor? When the court-room was packed by Americans, did we not make them titter? Did we not substantiate the articles which we published about your mismanagement and misappropriation of the community's funds? Were we not exonerated by the court when we presented the articles of the other Greek newspaper in Chicago, Hellas, as the source of our information? Yes, dear doctor! But as we said above at the outset of this article, because of our duty to the public as journalists we shall not cease to expose you and others of your kind when and where public interest is concerned. We shall continue, true to our principles, to inform the public whenever a public official goes astray.

    Now these are the facts concerning the administration of Dr. Papaeliou and the squandering of the community's funds, and in the forthcoming elections each and every member is requested to do his utmost to reestablish 6the legal, normal, peaceful, and beneficial administration of the community's affairs.

    Since we live in the second metropolis of the country and have a wonderful record of social and commercial progress, it would be to our advantage and to the advantage of those Americans and others whom we come in contact with to have a house-cleaning of the present administration, which on the slightest provocation and many times without any cause whatever has dragged people into court under pretence of injured dignity or to settle insignificant differences. Let us observe the outcome.

    With the approach of the elections ordered by the Court for the Greek community in Chicago it is not the business of this paper to make suggestions or to tell ...

    Greek
    III C, II B 2 d 1, I A 2 a, II D 3, II E 2, IV