The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Greek Star -- March 01, 1907
    The Greek Theater in America by Dr. K. P. Kallionges

    How can we maintain the Greek spirit and also become true Americans? Is Americanism a foe of Hellenism and vice versa? These are questions of paramount importance.

    Is it possible and feasible for a Greek to be a one-hundred-per-cent American while he has Hellenic tendencies and inclinations? To those who possess intelligence and are free from fanaticism the answer is clear as crystal, and the answer is affirmative. Yes! It is possible and feasible. Since brevity is the soul of wit, I shall be brief in my statement, which is addressed to intelligent people, and with Laconic boldness of utterance I affirm that Americanism includes all that is good and just. And if Hellenism is what the philosophers, the poets, and all the civilized world declare it to be, then Hellenism is included and embodied in the 2lofty spirit of Americanism.

    The founders of this nation, which has no equal in greatness, were men of many nationalities, but their spirit and their hearts were the best in the world. They were the far-advanced minds of humankind, who shed their blood to establish a new nation--something which the world had never seen, a nation founded in liberty, justice, and equality. Is there anything greater in the world than these three divine principles? Athens, in its day the greatest community in all the world, planted the seeds of liberty, justice, and equality which to-day have matured as fruitful trees, deeply rooted in this grand domain of the United States of America.

    Americanism and its divine destiny are misunderstood by many who still wear the colored glasses of narrow nationalism and pseudo-civilization. Among these are included not only people of the new stock but unfortunately many of the older stock who have not digested the real essence of these 3three divine principles--liberty, justice, and equality.

    Many people confuse Americanism with the domain of the American state. The latter is bounded and finite, but Americanism is infinite and embraces all the goodness and the justice in the world. And precisely in this inclusiveness Americanism is supreme, for it takes in even the so-called barbarians who were excluded by the ancient Greek axiom, "He who is not a Greek is a barbarian."

    Greeks and barbarians, Christians and infidels, all that exists in all the world, good or evil, when it is permeated by true Americanism, is absorbed as liquid is absorbed by a sponge; strange elements are drawn into one indivisible body; there are many orifices which represent their numerous nationalities and traditions, but they are all nevertheless nourished by the same substance and invested in it.

    A Greek can become American and still maintain his Hellenism. By becoming 4American I do not mean merely acquiring the right to vote in American elections. To become American is to absorb as the substance of one's being the lofty spirit of true Americanism. If and when this is done, the Greek's adherence to Hellenism will not conflict with his Americanism.

    Freedom of religion and of speech, political and intellectual liberty, individual initiative, and mutual tolerance, which are the spiritual products of whole epochs of man's upward struggle, are found embodied in Americanism.

    History, the guiding mirror of the future, tells us that the Greek heart and soul are thoroughly imbued with patriotism, which is the foundation and the strength of a nation. Possessing patriotism, the Greek is better equipped to become truly American than some of his fellows. Undoubtedly, as we have stated, the Greek, fortified with patriotism excelled by none, will become one of the best elements of American citizenry, if not the 5very best. Yet the object of this article is not to prove this but to show how we may maintain our Hellenism and our individual Greek spirit which age after age has continued its upward climb toward perfection.

    The Greek religion, the Greek language and Greek traditions have in the past saved our race from extinction. These three bulwarks are what may save the Greek of America from losing his identity in this fast-absorbing environment. But Greek traditions in this country are gradually diminishing in force, and a new factor must be found to collaborate with the Greek church and the Greek school in order to keep the national fire burning for our new generation. This new factor is the Greek theater in America. That is, the Greek church, the Greek school, and the Greek theater must exist in every Greek colony in America.

    The Greek theater in America must at once come to life and have flesh and blood and bones as the church and the school have. The scenes enacted on 6the Greek stage will stimulate the pride of our young Greeks and make them hold their heads high as sons of that Greece whose heroes are glorified by the whole world.

    The dramatic representation of heroic deeds has a psychological effect. Human beings love and admire greatness. The more you see and possess of greatness, the more you desire to have of it. And our American-born youths in their plastic age will absorb more greatness when they see their progenitors glorified on the Greek stage. Genealogy and ethnology are potent factors in man's evolution; therefore the Greek theater will have a plastic influence and impress the mold of greatness upon our youths. Human nature is not like one of the perfect and unequalled statues of the Greek masters, which require no oil or fire to maintain their power of beauty; on the contrary, the fire of the human spirit must be continually replenished with fuel if it is to be maintained against the force of adverse currents.

    The Greek church, the Greek school, and the Greek theater in America must 7unite to form a triarchy which shall mold and govern, within the American system, the new Greece of America.

    In order to accomplish the union of this triad and to achieve the object desired, the administrators and the ministers of these institutions must be chosen not from the old world but from the Greeks of America, and if they cannot be found here now we must patiently and tenderly cultivate them among us. These three institutions must be served by American Greeks who know instinctively the needs of their fellows and the proper procedure to follow in order to satisfy those needs. They know what American ideals are, and what America really stands for; thus they are better qualified to serve us than our fellow Greeks from the old country, who may be good, honest and sincere in the performance of their duties, but who still are strangers to American psychology.

    The Greek theater in America will play an important role in instilling the Greek spirit in the souls and the minds of our youths who are born in 8America, and it is the duty of the church to provide for the establishment of a theater as quickly as possible.

    In our analysis we have conclusively proved that Hellenism does not conflict with Americanism; therefore a Greek in becoming a true American can still retain the priceless treasure of the Greek spirit, which has lighted the world in centuries past. Liberal-minded people--scientists, psychologists, and true Christians--know that whatever we have today of goodness and justice is the crystallized essence of the Greek spirit, which here in America, where the human mind is more highly developed and has a broader horizon than elsewhere, has found a fertile field in which to propagate its glorious fruit. This great and fertile field of the United States is not homogeneous but heterogeneous as the cosmos is.

    So, in conclusion, Americanism today is the blazing sun of the firmament, irradiating and nourishing mankind in its struggle upward. In years to come, in another era, Americanism will take on a crystallized form, as 9Hellenism has done, and upon that crystallized Americanism the hmanity of that period will build something higher to serve it in its upward climb.

    People who love and esteem the good and the just will do a service to mankind and to themselves if they permit Americanism to be their guide. Greeks and others who become true Americans render a great service to an ignorant world.

    How can we maintain the Greek spirit and also become true Americans? Is Americanism a foe of Hellenism and vice versa? These are questions of paramount importance. Is it possible ...

    Greek
    II A 3 d 1, I A 2 a, III A, III C, I J
  • Greek Star -- December 10, 1909
    Mr. D. Lekatsas as Richelieu

    No doubt those who attended the performance of "Richelieu" given at the Auditorium Theater by the Young Men's Christian Association, 153 La Salle Street, last Saturday, must have gotten a real treat. The Greek Community of Chicago had the rare opportunity of seeing and hearing one of the most famous contemporary European stage actors in one of his most dynamic performances. In the role of "Richelieu," France's famous Cardinal and statesman of the sixteenth century, Mr. Lekatsas revived a great historical figure with a showing of unequaled dramatic power. He was ably assisted by the talented Greek actresses, the Misses Palamaris, and several young men of our Community.

    The Chicago debut of Mr. Lekatsas was a real treat for Greek lovers of the theater and of the arts. All of us are indeed proud of this son of Hellas who has been acclaimed both in the capitals of Europe and in the major cities of the United States as a first-rate actor.

    2

    We hope that his appearance in Chicago has stimulated our youth to organize drama classes and participate in dramas, plays, operettas, etc., for their own benefit and for that of the appreciative Greek Community of Chicago.

    No doubt those who attended the performance of "Richelieu" given at the Auditorium Theater by the Young Men's Christian Association, 153 La Salle Street, last Saturday, must have gotten a ...

    Greek
    II A 3 d 1, III E
  • Loxias -- January 14, 1911
    "Golfo" in English Verse

    On next Monday and Tuesday, the 16th and 17th of January, the Greek-American Dramatic Troupe headed by Patroklos Georgakopoulos is giving "Golfo" in English verse at the North Side Turner Hall, corner of North Clark St., and Chicago Avenue.

    There are twenty-four members in this troupe and each knows his part perfectly. Miss Mabel Barring, a German-American actress, who will play the part of Golfo has appeared in this role over 70 times so none can possibly be disappointed in her ability. Every Greek is expected to attend this performance since the opportunity is a rare one. Admission is 50¢, 75¢, $1.00, and $1.50.

    On next Monday and Tuesday, the 16th and 17th of January, the Greek-American Dramatic Troupe headed by Patroklos Georgakopoulos is giving "Golfo" in English verse at the North Side Turner ...

    Greek
    II A 3 d 1
  • Loxias -- March 14, 1918
    "The Gambler" and "The Illuminators" Greek Drama and Comedy by N. Lambropoulos

    The well-known journalist of our community, Mr. Nicholas Lambropoulos, who is also a budding dramatist, will present on March 24 at the Chicago Theatre, 741 South Wabash Avenue, "The Gambler," a sentimental, social, and educational drama, and "The Illuminators," a comedy of a thousand laughs, written in a Peloponnesian dialect.

    Both these plays will be acted by the Sophocles troupe. Tickets are sold in all Greek centers.

    The well-known journalist of our community, Mr. Nicholas Lambropoulos, who is also a budding dramatist, will present on March 24 at the Chicago Theatre, 741 South Wabash Avenue, "The Gambler," ...

    Greek
    II A 3 d 1
  • Saloniki-Greek Press -- October 01, 1921
    Greek Artists of Chicago

    On October 3, 4, and 5, at the Academy Theater, two Greek artists, Panagiotis Tzouannos and Efstathios Metropoulos, are to present to the American public in the American Theaters the one-act drama "Street Singer."

    The work of these two Greeks should be worthy of much admiration, because they have applied themselves so hard to make it a success.

    Support these Greek artists by attending the theater.

    On October 3, 4, and 5, at the Academy Theater, two Greek artists, Panagiotis Tzouannos and Efstathios Metropoulos, are to present to the American public in the American Theaters the ...

    Greek
    II A 3 d 1
  • Saloniki-Greek Press -- February 23, 1923
    The Great Artistic Success of the Greek Dancer, B. Kanellos.

    p. 3-The American newspapers of Chicago have described the artistic success of the Greek artist Vassos Kanellos and of his wife, Mr. Tanagra Kanellos, crowning them with the laurels which are their due.

    Last Thursday under the auspices of the Evanston Dramatic Club Sophocles's Tragedy, the Oedipus Tyrranus, was given in ancient Greek by Mr. and Mrs. Kanellos.

    Parts of the drama and of the dance were performed by students of Northwestern University.

    Philological and artistic Evanston attended the performance and sincerely approved of it.

    Before the beginning of the first act the orchestra played the Delphic Hymn to Apollo, which has been transcribed from the ancient notation by the illustrious and ever memorable Greek composer, George Patichtos.

    2

    After the drama Mr. Kanellos executed a dance with cymbals. Mrs. A. Starr Best, the president of the Dramatic Club, said, "This is the first time that a classical Greek tragedy has been successfully presented in Evanston."

    p. 3-The American newspapers of Chicago have described the artistic success of the Greek artist Vassos Kanellos and of his wife, Mr. Tanagra Kanellos, crowning them with the laurels which ...

    Greek
    II A 3 d 1, II A 3 d 2, II A 3 b, I C
  • Saloniki-Greek Press -- March 10, 1923
    A Great National Event.

    p. 3.. Last Monday about thirty women of wealthiest families in Chicago were invited by the Drama League of America, one of the aristocratic societies, to meet at 10:30 a. m. at the residence of Mrs. Frederick Countess, 1524 Lake Shore Drive, to discuss the introduction of the Greek and Byzantine art, drama, and dances in America. This movement was encouraged by Mr. and Mrs. Vassos Kanellos. Mr. Kanellos is well known among the Greeks in America and also among Americans; he is an instructor in ancient Greek dances.

    Mrs. Hoff presided at the meeting and in a few words introduced Mr. Kanellos, who made a very elegant speech describing the Grecian and Byzantine eras, exalting the grandeur of those epochs; he attired himself in beautiful Byzantine royal costumes which made a deep impression upon the audience.

    After this Mrs. Fifield spoke. She expressed her admiration and her astonishment at learning that in Chicago there are more than forty thousand successful and progressive Greek citizens.

    The ladies present then adopted a resolution to recommend the introduction of 2Greek and Byzantine master pieces and also to solicit the support and the active participation of the local Greek population.

    After this Father Constantine was invited to speak, and he guaranteed that the Church as well as the Greeks of Chicago will gladly support this movement. Thereafter the organizer of the Drama League of America, Mrs. A. Starr Best of Evanston, spoke and explained her economic program.

    Mr. Paleologos was invited to make the closing speech, and he thanked the League and the ladies present for the interest which they have shown in the introduction of a knowledge of Greek and Byzantine civilization in America. "It is true," he said, "that ancient Greece was the mother of the world's civilization and that the Byzantine Empire was the seat of European civilization in the middle ages.

    "Your work, mesdames," said Mr. Paleologus, "is of great significance and honors our race. Here in Chicago we have an organized Church, many professional men, men engaged in industry, and three Greek newspapers. I can assure you 3that all these persons and these institutions will offer their assistance in support of your project, which will introduce our adopted country and our generation to the classical life of ancient Greece.

    "Greeks have always displayed a generous spirit, and you may depend on the work which they will accomplish in the course of time. Then you will all be persuaded that the things which Mrs. Fifield has said about my countrymen are true."

    After Mr. Paleologos' speech the meeting ended, and the majority left full of enthusiasm. The executive committee remained to confer about the time when the first performance will take place in the Auditorium.

    It remains for us Greeks here to plan how to help a great nationalistic movement which will lay for us a new foundation for action, honor, and interest. In the near future a special invitation will be issued to all Greek associations, newspaper reporters, and professional men to attend a general conference and through a representative committee to co-operate with one another 4to promote this project.

    May the Lord, who never abandons our race, guide us and teach us how to show ourselves worthy of so truly great a nationalistic enterprise!

    p. 3.. Last Monday about thirty women of wealthiest families in Chicago were invited by the Drama League of America, one of the aristocratic societies, to meet at 10:30 a. ...

    Greek
    II A 3 d 2, II A 3 d 1, II B 2 d 1, II A 3 a, II A 3 c, III B 2, II A 1, II A 2, III C, I C, IV
  • Invitation, Dated Chicago, Ill. -- April 24, 1923
    in possession of M. C. Mammon 208 S. La Salle Street.

    The Drama League of America in the interest of

    The Festival of the Greek Arts to be held at the Auditorium Theatre, May Seventh requests your presence Tuesday morning, April 24th, at eleven o'clock at the residence of

    Mrs. Frederick D. Countiss, 1524 Lake Shore Drive. Mr. Vassos Kanellos will speak on the Greek Dance and exhibit authentic Greek costumes. Other speakers will include M. Constantine Mammon (Prince Paleologos). M. Trigetas, the Greek Vice-Consul, and Mr. Lorado Taft, Chairman of the Festival.

    2

    Greek Festival Committee

    Lorado Taft, Chairman, Mrs. Edward R. Fifield, Vice-Chairman Constantine Mammon, Treasurer, Mrs. William Cleff, Tickets

    Patrons

    Mr. Arthur C. Aldis

    Mr. Graham Aldis

    Mrs. Richard Barnitz

    Mrs. Jacob Baur

    Mr. John Borden

    Mrs. Walter F. Braun

    Mrs. Julius C. Benedict, Mrs. Walter Brewester, Mrs. William Bush, Mrs. Harry E. Byram, Mrs. John Alden Carpenter, Mrs. Joseph Coleman, Mrs. Frederick Countiss, General Charles S. Dawes, Mrs. George Dixon, Mrs. Edward Warren Everett, Mrs. Kellogg Fairbanks, Mrs. Henri Farre, Mrs. Henri Fish, Dean Roy C. Flickinger, Miss Mary Glenn, Mrs. Claude Hopkins, Mrs. Clarence Hough, Mrs. Milan Hulbert, Samuel Insull, Mrs. Henry Pratt Judson, Mrs. Charles Kohl Sr., Mrs. Edward Leight, Mrs. L. Hamilton McCormick, Mrs. Rockefeller McCormick, Mrs. Russell Matthias, 3Mrs. John R. Mauff, Mrs. Arthur Meeker, Miss Olga Menn, Mrs. Edward Morris, Mrs. Francis Neilson, Mr. Francis Weilson, Mrs. Potter Palmer, Mrs. Augustus Peabody, Mrs. Charles S. Peterson, Mr. Charles Peterson, Mrs. M. B. Pitman, Mrs. Harrison B. Riley, Mr. Carroll Shaffer, Mrs. Paul Shorey, Mr. Paul Shorey, Mrs. Gustavus F. Swift, Mrs. Frank M. Taber, Mrs. Lorado Taft, Mrs. Russell Tyson, Mrs. Margeret Williamson.

    The Drama League of America in the interest of The Festival of the Greek Arts to be held at the Auditorium Theatre, May Seventh requests your presence Tuesday morning, April ...

    Greek
    II A 3 d 1
  • [Association documents] -- May 07, 1923
    Program, Dated Chicago, Ill.: Owned by C. Mammon, 208 S. La Salle St. The Hellenic Festival Dionysia

    The Drama League of America believing that the beauty of ancient and modern Grecian art should receive more recognition, has arranged for a festival of the Grecian arts of music and dancing with cooperation of a distinguished committee. The performance will be in the hands of foremost professionals but will be supplemented by the talent of distinguished amateurs and groups of singers and dancers from the Greek societies and churches.

    The program will be in three sections each covering a different period of Grecian art:

    1. Ancient Greece, illustrated by a Procession of Dionysia, several group and solo dances, together with the rendering of the Ancient Hymn to Apollo, recently unearthed at Delphi.

    2

    2. Byzantine Greece, shown in the dance and"choro-dramas,"The Emperor's Bride and Kasiane eleborately costumed according to plates by Charlotte Markham and utilizing a large group of actors, dancers, singers, and concluding with a brilliant solo dance.

    3. Modern Greece, in peasant songs by a native Greek choir, Cretan dances, national Hellenic dances and a colorful Festival of May. The professionals appearing are pre-eminently the leaders in Greek art.

    Vassos Kanellos, the foremost dancer of Greece, who unites the true spirit of the ancient are with those of Byzantine and the vitality of modern Greece, introducing Hellenic and Byzantine music and peasant melodies for the first time in America.

    Charlotte Markham Kanellou (Tanagra), the Decorative Painter, designer of the costumes and stage settings of the Dionysia, is strongly allied with the modern movement in art.

    3

    Her dance pantomine, studied in Paris and America, is full of creative charm. Her love and understanding of Greek art makes her interpretations very inspiring.

    The Ballet Ensemble for the Ancient Greek dances has been selected with the cooperation and courtesy of Mr. Adolph Bolm, the Ballet Master of the Chicago Civic Opera and from his School of Dance.

    The dancers for the Byzantine Chorodrama are from the School of Mme. Young. The Choir of forty voices will sing rare Byzantine music entirely new to Chicago, as well as peasant songs and some of the little-known Greek Church music. A native chorus of thirty will dance peasant dances.

    The Drama League of America believing that the beauty of ancient and modern Grecian art should receive more recognition, has arranged for a festival of the Grecian arts of music ...

    Greek
    II A 3 d 1, II B 1 a, II B 1 c 2, II B 1 c 3, III C, II A 3 d 2
  • [Correspondence] -- May 16, 1923
    Correspondence of Mr. C. Mammon (Letter sent to C. Mammon by the "Drama League of America")

    I was greatly disappointed in not having the pleasure of seeing you the evening of the performance but I seemed to be much needed in back of the stage and unable to get out in front to enjoy the result of all our labor. I hope that you were as pleased with the beauty of the performance as the rest of the audience seemed to be and feel that it was worth all the time and effort put into it.

    I realize, of course, that the entire success of the Greek side of the movement is due to you and your personal efforts. Without you and the doctor we could have done nothing and I shall never forget the generous cooperation and unlagging enthusiasm which you have given throughout the entire undertaking.

    2

    It has been a tremendous pleasure to work with you, and even though we may not make very much money out of the undertaking, which is more or less a disappointment, yet the artistic success is so great that we hope that the lasting influence and better relation between the Greeks and the leading Chicago people may be of enough value to repay us all for the time and energy and enthusiasm which we have put into it.

    In any event it will always be a lasting pleasure to have had the opportunity of working with you and becoming acquainted with you and Dr. N. Salopoulos.

    I trust that we may be able to continue our project for promoting interest in Greek things and shall hope to meet you again before very long to discuss the matter further.

    3

    May I take this opportunity, therefore, of sending you my personal thanks for all the help and kindness which you extended us during the undertaking.

    Marjorie A. Best. (Mrs. A. Starr)

    I was greatly disappointed in not having the pleasure of seeing you the evening of the performance but I seemed to be much needed in back of the stage and ...

    Greek
    II A 3 d 1, IV, I C