The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Greek Star -- October 07, 1904
    The Greek Star of Chicago Corrects Some Inaccuracies Athens in the Era of Pericles--The Most Socialistic City in the History of the World (Editorial)

    Because one of its fundamental purposes is to instruct and enlighten uninformed Greeks and others, to correct the misinformed or half-educated, and to preserve the accuracy of Greek history, this Chicago Greek newspaper, the Star, which has a circulation all over the United States wherever Greeks have settled, takes exception to an article, "Socialism Is the Product of the Present Era," by Mr. Barley, published in a Minnesota paper, and corrects the learned American.

    Were he interested in the truth about historical events, Mr. Barley would have found in the archives of history what race before Christ created, promoted, and realized in practice the solidary, just, and glorious form of 2society which is known as socialism. For his information and to correct an inaccuracy, the Chicago Star exhibits the unquestionable record of a past era which produced the most excellent and the wisest social minds that have ever existed, those of the present day included.

    It is asserted that socialism is identical with solidarity, and the object of this article is to reveal the magnificence and the glory of Athens, which produced and nourished a society of which the solidarity was more complete and more distinguished than could be obtained by combining the socialistic elements of many cities, chosen both from the contemporaries of Athens and from the present era. And therefore Athens was rightly called the only socialistic city in the world, and to speak impartially, no city in the world of to-day could equal the Athens of Pericles's time.

    In saying this we do not wish to infer that Athens possessed full and complete socialism, for in that particular period slavery was at its highest peak; but we wish to present facts as proof that the Athens of the "golden century" stands higher in socialism than any capital in the world to-day.

    3

    Coming down to facts, we find Mr. Francis Galton, distinguished professor of anthropology, saying in one of his lectures: "Athens with its population of ninety thousand produced Socrates and Phidias, whose like all Europe did not and could not produce, and fourteen other intellectual giants whom the Anglo-Saxon race, for centuries, could not equal."

    The same authority, as well as Mr. Simond, another noteworthy anthropologist says: "In comparing the ancient Athenian with the present-day Englishman, the present-day Englishman is to the Athenian what the lately civilized African is to the Englishman."

    In order to show how true the above statements are, let us investigate the era of Pericles, and we shall find a thickly clustered galaxy of intellects whose splendor divinely beautified and illumined the horizon of Athens and of the world.

    In philosophy and ethics Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle shine as luminaries of unparallelled brilliancy. Beyond a doubt, in the entire history of the world we find none to equal these three. In the drama we have Aeschylus, 4Sophocles, and Euripides, the pre-eminent models of tragedy, while the unrivalled Aristophanes is the puissant father of classical comedy. In history we have Thucydides, who has no peer, and Xenophon, who up to this day has been equalled by few. In sculpture Phidias and Praxiteles are still unrivalled, and Myron stands very high. In architecture Ictinus and Callicrates produced in the immortal Parthenon the loveliest building in the world. In painting we find Polygnotus, whose works were akin to the refined architecture which they adorned. In oratory we have Demosthenes, whose speeches are the mother's milk on which students of eloquence are nourished, and Aeschines, besides Isocrates and Lycias, who stand as disciples of the other two. In military command and strategy we find Miltiades, the hero of Marathon and savior of Europe, and Nicias, the generalissimo of the Spartan wars; these two will be saved immortal in the annals of time. In politics we have Pericles, Cimon, and Themistocles, whose profound statesmanship astounds the human mind.

    These names which I have enumerated are twenty-four in all. Where in the history of the world outside this period can we find the same number of immortal intellectual giants? And all these men were produced by Athens 5within the short period of one hundred fifty-two years, that is, between the battle of Marathon (490 B. C.) and the battle of Chaeronea.

    Now let us investigate the cause of so unusual and so incomparable an outburst of genius.

    Modern philosophers often attribute it to the Grecian race. But if this is true, and the race alone was the cause, why then did this superhuman philosophical mind flourish for only one hundred fifty-two years?

    The Athenian race maintained the purity of its blood about fifteen hundred years, a period which includes Pericles's golden century.

    Therefore the credit for making Athens famous the world over cannot be assigned to the race. The same Ionian race settled all eastern Greece and Asia Minor, colonizing the Aegean Sea from Sinopis to the upper Euxine and westward as far as Hesperia or Spain. Nowhere else do we find minds so puissant and imposing as we find in Athens.

    6

    Other philosophers have attributed this phenomenon to the climate. But the climate has remained unchanged to this day, and only for the duration of these one hundred fifty-two years was all this grandeur of mind and of action displayed. Lord Byron says:

    "The isles of Greece! The isles of Greece!

    Where burning Sappho loved and sung,

    Where grew the arts of war and peace--

    Where Delos rose, and Phoebus sprung!

    Eternal summer gilds them yet,

    But all, except their sun, is set."

    And again:

    "The mountains look on Marathon,

    And Marathon looks on the sea."

    But Marathon has no Miltiades to-day, and the modern Greeks have not the Academy of Plato nor the Parthenon of Phidias nor the politics of Pericles.

    7

    The cause of this manifestation of grandeur of mind and of soul in so many men was the socialistic spirit which ruled Athens from the time of the battle of Marathon to the time of the battle of Chaeronea, and which neither before nor after that period ever appeared so clearly and so powerfully.

    Now let us consider the aims of socialism, which were simply to administer wisely and justly the affairs of this capital and this state of solidary society. This term is applicable to the free citizens of Athens, for as we have already stated, Athens had slaves, and brilliant minds were not found among slaves but among the free citizens of Athens.

    What socialistic Athens was during the era of Pericles we may see from what follows.

    The Athenian system was very simple and practical. Each free citizen was supported by the State for services rendered to the State. The money for support was handed out daily by the so-called Dicasts. Each Athenian who served on the immense juries of Athens received originally one drachma and later three drachmas. This was a sum quite sufficient to support a poor 8free citizen in comfort. For twenty-five drachmas he might rent a small house for a year, and for two hundred fifty drachmas he might buy a good-sized house. The furnishings of the house were very simple but artistic. The chiton, the man's garment, could be bought for ten drachmas. The food was simple, cheap, very clean, and wholesome. One third of a drachma was more than sufficient for daily expenditures. This distribution of money continued throughout the year so that every free citizen could enjoy life.

    Besides the above-mentioned compensation for services rendered each and every Athenian was also paid for participating in the assemblies, that is, the public gatherings. How democratic and socialistic these gatherings were is revealed by Plato, who says: "When a topic of public interest was to be debated, the citizens came together, one and all, and one and all, from the highest to the lowest, expressed their opinions--the carpenter, the blacksmith, the cobbler, and the other artisans." Each and every assemblyman received three drachmas for his attendance. Thus each citizen of this socialistic city was free of worry about his maintenance, and consequently the grand solidary society of socialism flourished.

    9

    On holidays, which were magnificently celebrated in Athens, poor citizens received half a drachma so that they and their families might attend the performances of the immortal tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides or of the comedies of Aristophanes. And besides all this the citizens received other small gratuities. And so by all these allowances the state took care of its citizens individually and collectively. Here we see that care for the individual gave rise to that solidarity which contained the true socialistic idea.

    Since the state made such arrangements for the welfare of the citizen, we find that life did not depend upon wealth, and that gold had no excessive value. The poorest Athenian could enter Plato's Academy or Aristotle's Lyceum. The same citizen could also devote his life to the study of philosophy, and art without worrying about support or security, for the state assisted and encouraged him. The wealthy Athenians under compulsion of law and also of their own free will gave public prizes to those who competed in music, in rhetoric, in the drama, in other arts, and in athletics. Athens thus fostered among her citizens competition in the fine arts but no competition in commerce or in business. No Athenian had the 10desire to purchase anything at a low price and to sell it at a higher price. Trade of this sort was not characteristic of Greeks; it was the custom and the preoccupation of Jews. The State not only encouraged but even compelled the Athenian to compete in the arts. Commerce and the business of the market, with very few exceptions, were left in the hands of the slaves.

    What conclusions may we draw from such solidarity and from such contempt of wealth? Here we find the lofty idea of socialism in operation, although it contained within itself slavery, as to which the best minds among the Athenians said that the slaves would eventually be admitted as equals among them. Philemon, discussing the socialization of the slave, said: "In the future the slave will be of our own flesh and blood. No one is a slave by nature or by birth; it is fate which has enslaved him."

    The polity of Athens was paternal. All the allowances mentioned above were granted to the citizens not as favors nor as charity, as allowances were afterwards granted to Romans, but for service rendered to the State, that solidary State which was composed of those who, receiving grants, repaid the State by participating in its function. How democratic Athens was is revealed in one of Pericles's immortal speeches: "We consider ourselves 11happy that we have such an administration, the first in Athens, designed to govern not for the benefit of the few but for the good of all, and that it is called 'democracy'."

    The Athenian citizen of that period was undoubtedly the freest citizen in the world--freer, in fact, than any citizen of a civilized state ever was before that time or after.

    The famous city of Athens supported this socialistic system with all its power and all its resources. The public treasury, of which the funds were augmented by the mines of Laurium and by tribute paid by allies, served no other purpose than to develop a higher type of citizen for this famous city.

    In conclusion let us say that we have brought out the historical fact that socialism is not the product of the present era but a product of Athens, the enlightener of the world. At the same time we have pointed out and corrected the misconception or the inaccuracy of the distinguished American, Mr. Barley, who wrote that article, and we have upheld the true account of the historical events of Greece. Doubtless our readers all over the country, 12because of the instructiveness of the article, will be benefited.

    If there is a country in the world that eventually will perfect socialism in its highest manifestation, and lead the rest of the world to it, that country is the United States of America. The reason for this is that America is the only democratic country of the world to-day in which democratic doctrines are deeply rooted in the minds and souls of its people. And socialism in its true form is the perfection of democracy.

    Because one of its fundamental purposes is to instruct and enlighten uninformed Greeks and others, to correct the misinformed or half-educated, and to preserve the accuracy of Greek history, this ...

    Greek
    I E, III H
  • Greek Star -- October 19, 1906
    Cosmopolitans (Editorial)

    Two Greeks attracted attention in Lincoln Park a few days ago because they were carrying on a debate on cosmopolitanism. Both these compatriots of ours are highly educated, and their English was not only fluent but correct. Why they selected Lincoln Park for their debate is not clear, nor why they held the debate in English. They are both widely known in the Greek community, and both are respected and esteemed. For this reason we refrain from publishing their names, but nevertheless the Star, as guardian of the Greeks and of the reputation of Greeks in this country, will give to these two wise and enlightened Greeks a piece of its mind.

    Our sauntering reporter, who has an eye for all Greek activities, was passing through Lincoln Park when he noticed a group of more than a hundred people surrounding the two intellectuals. Curiosity and an eye to 2business - you know what reporters are - drew him closer. Before he recognized the two well-known Greeks, he thought that they might be a couple of radicals or a pair of inmates escaped from Kankakee, for common sense told him that people with brains do not hold serious intellectual debates in places of amusement and recreation. But when he had elbowed his way through the crowd and had reached the inner-circle, he became aware that a profound discussion was in progress, and he recognized the debaters. The reporter therefore put away all irreverent thought and with pencil and paper jotted down the arguments of the two cosmopolitans.

    Undoubtedly their philosophy, in the light of man's evolution, is true and correct, and the Star really admires the sound and clever reasoning of the two exponents of man's future development, but we regret to say that the two Greeks lack practicality, discrimination, and the ability to appreciate the slowness of the evolution of mankind under the cosmic law.

    3

    We are not against ideas and theories which are adopted as tentative hypotheses in inquiries regarding man's liberation from ignorance, fanaticism, dogmatism, and misconception of his infinite destiny, but we are strongly against the procedure of some idealists who try to realize the utmost possible in the evolution of the human race at the present stage of mankind's gradual metamorphosis.

    There is not the slightest doubt in the minds of enlightened people that man will eventually become cosmopolitan, that is to say, a citizen of the world; but before he reaches that stage in his evolution, he must go through all the preliminary stages.

    The world of yesterday and of today is not a homogeneous world; it is composed of many small worlds, and until it becomes one, it is necessary for these many worlds to continue to exist. These many worlds which form our cosmos on this planet are the many nations and their respective peoples. All are included under the name mankind. Greeks, barbarians, semi-civilized, civilized, and anthropomorphic savages are all embraced under this appellation. Theists and atheists, Christians and infidels, 4learned and illiterate, wise men and fools, saints and assassins, progressives and reactionaries, builders and destroyers, just and unjust, compose our cosmos.

    Where and with what class of people would our two wise Greeks and those of their kind like to live?

    Naturally persons so far advanced intellectually would not choose to associate with murderers, destroyers, reactionaries, or unjust people, but because of their wisdom they would prefer to live in some part of the world where liberty, justice, and enlightenment prevail, and where they could use to advantage their superior mental equipment.

    Living in that particular section of the cosmos and under the protection of its powerful flag, could they rightfully claim that they were cosmopolitans? By no means! If they did, they would show that they lacked practicality, discrimination, and comprehension of what cosmopolitan really means.

    5

    The child, who is the potential man, cannot claim manhood in its present stage of development. It is absurd and illogical. We cannot wish an apple into ripeness without letting it go through its prescribed stages of development. And the advocates of cosmopolitanism (many of them sincere but deficient in sound common sense), whether they know it or not, are dangerous factors in the evolution of the human intellect.

    The time is not yet ripe, so uneven has been the development of the various branches of the human race, to give up our borders and our boundaries, which are the protecting barriers of our paticular world, or to leave them unguarded. Human actions are governed by the movements of the mind. If the minds of our neighbors are not sufficiently well developed to appreciate what has been accomplished and built up by slow degrees in the history of human progress, it is the duty of all wise people to protect the treasures of civilization at the risk of their lives. That protective resistance has formed nations and races and of necessity has divided the world into various types of humanity, into peoples in various stages of intellectual development.

    6

    Where would our intellectually advanced cosmopolitans like to live? In the wilderness of South Africa or in a state where insurrection, anarchy, and vandalism prevail?

    Come, Messrs. Cosmopolitan, come to your senses and see the destructive folly of what you advocate! You cannot tell a savage what is right or wrong, what is just or unjust, or make him understand and appreciate the achievements of civilization! No indeed! For he belongs to a lower stage of evolution.

    Would cosmopolitans living here in our great America take up arms to fight invasion by a barbarian state or by a nation of which the people and the government are not up to our standard of civilization? Being cosmopolitans and devoid of patriotism, they would not do so, according to their own admission.

    Patriotism, the fundamental strength of a nation, does not blend with cosmopolitanism. And in our present stage of intellectual development patriotism is sacred and divine and the corner-stone of the slowly-rising edifice of our evolution.

    7

    Patriotism is like the shell of the egg which for a time protects and nourishes a potential entity. When that entity is fully developed, it no longer needs the protective wall and rejects it. It is true, spiritually and physiologically, that man possesses unlimited and undreamed-of potentialities, but in his present stage he needs that protective wall of patriotism, and he will continue to require it until his cosmic conception and understanding shall elevate him far beyond his actual state.

    Cosmopolitans, pacifists, and other paranoiacs, who are known by various names but are birds of the same feather, have not yet learned that there is no short cut in the operation of cosmic laws, even as the wise Greek justly remarked that there is no royal road to geometry.

    Such opinions are very dangerous. They tend to poison the minds of our youth, who are the bulwark of our nation, and they threaten our existence as civilized and enlightened people. They lead to the disintegration of the nation and invite retrogression.

    8

    You, O foolish pseudo-cosmopolitans, are descendants of a glorious past of which the splendor has never yet been equalled, and you now live in the greatest Republic of the world, where tolerance, justice, liberty, progressiveness, and equality are more highly developed them anywhere else on this planet. Why do you darken the glory of your native land and pollute the pure air of this glorious Republic with your unwise and impracticable theories and ideas of cosmopolitanism?

    You were taught by your native country, the mother of all that is good and beautiful in the world today, that the law of the land must be respected and obeyed. If the law needs amendment, we must work in accordance with the law to accomplish that end. We must under no consideration work against the law, for working against the law will result in anarchy and chaos, and everything good will be destroyed by mob-violence.

    Why should you, O fellow-Greeks, imbued with the changeless and widespread teachings of your native Greece, endeavor to contaminate the purity and the holiness of our adopted country with your destructive fallacies?

    9

    The fact that you held your private debate in English demonstrates that your object was to spread your preposterous, absurd, and unlawful propaganda. Fie upon you! And how pitifully inadequate are your education and your culture!

    Now let us not, fellow-Greeks, sons of the divinely-gifted race, abuse the hospitality, the tolerance, the freedom, and the justice accorded to us by this great, glorious, and humanitarian country!

    Be your real selves. Do not try to be your future and potential selves, and cease to disseminate your unwise propaganda.

    As members of the Chicago Greek community and as citizens of this free and progressive country, you are requested to refrain from holding debates of this kind, especially in public places. And bear in mind that if your propensities are not checked, and you persist in battering your foolish heads against a stone wall, it may be advisable to take measures to deprive you of the opportunity to make a prosperous living under the protection of this country and you may be requested as enemies of our social and civic laws to go forth and find aland which will satisfy your fanciful desires.

    10

    Then and there, wherever in the world it may be, you will be free to diffuse your foolish and injurious cosmopolitanism in its raw state.

    Greece will certainly not receive with open arms people deported from America for working either directly or indirectly against this country's fundamental laws. We have said enough. You are sufficiently well educated to apprehend so broad a hint.

    Two Greeks attracted attention in Lincoln Park a few days ago because they were carrying on a debate on cosmopolitanism. Both these compatriots of ours are highly educated, and their ...

    Greek
    I E, I C, I J, I G
  • Greek Star -- September 11, 1908
    Labor Day (Editorial)

    Last Monday all labor unions and organizations throughout America celebrated Labor Day in pomp and magnificence. The most spectacular features of the day were the huge parades along the main streets of almost all the American cities. Every year on the first Monday of September the rank and file of labor celebrates this day which is dedicated to the rights of labor; for it is this class of our people which contributes so much to the progress and welfare of the country.

    "To labor and the common ordinary workingman is due the advancement and the economic, commercial, and industrial progress of any country," says President Theodore Roosevelt," for all Americans, all of us, are workers. We must remember, however, that on becoming prosperous, after accumulating a few thousand dollars, we must not forget the laboring class, nor should we fail to pay our respects to it. It is well known by now that the laboring class constitutes the very 2muscles and sinews of the economic body of this great and powerful nation."

    In Chicago, also, labor's greatest and most significant holiday was celebrated with magnificence and in a spirit of jubilation. In the parade which wound its way through the center of the city, about twenty-five thousand workers, both men and women, participated. It is estimated that about three thousand Greek laborers represented the thinking and populous Greek Community of Chicago in this imposing demonstration of the city's laboring class.

    The parade was most picturesque as thousands of well-organized and well-disciplined groups of laborers filed by with their own banners indicating the particular labor union to which they belonged.

    We all realize that the laborer is a most important factor in American society. A great deal depends upon labor's energy and resourcefulness; without it economic life comes to a standstill. The lowly, common worker is the axle of the complicated machinery of the nation through which it is fed, sheltered, 3nourished, and offered the benefits of a highly industrialized community. That is the reason our statesmen and great political leaders have such great respect for labor which has equal rights even when the highest positions in the nation are taken into consideration.

    The law in this country makes no discrimination between the rich and poor, between the governors and the governed. Both have the same rights and the same duties before the laws of the country. This is the reason why the working classes became conscious of their power and finally began to organize into powerful labor unions for the protection of their interests. No wonder that labor plays such a vital role in the affairs and structure of the nation. In no other country is labor so excellently and so strongly welded together. This is the reason why it progresses and contributes to the general prosperity of America.

    We, the Greeks, not only of Chicago but America in general, have much to learn from the unification and organization of American labor.

    4

    Unfortunately, we Greeks are laboring under the illusion that the American worker suspects and is hostile toward the foreign laborer. This is a false notion. The American worker likes and sympathizes with the foreigner and the hard-working immigrant; he does not hate or persecute him. The foreign laborer, however, must strive to become a part of the American labor unions. When this is done, then in the American laborer we will find a faithful comrade and a protector. We will discover, to our surprise, that American labor supports the floundering and confused immigrant in his efforts to obtain jobs and win security. Both foreign and Greek labor have much to benefit by joining the ranks of American labor or by emulating its methods and chief objectives. We will then observe that this country's watchword and password is "In Unity there is Strength."

    P. S. Lambros.

    Last Monday all labor unions and organizations throughout America celebrated Labor Day in pomp and magnificence. The most spectacular features of the day were the huge parades along the main ...

    Greek
    I D 2 a 3, I C, I E
  • Loxias -- November 17, 1911
    Respect Is Human. Editorial.

    In the last publication of the Greek Star, the eminent doctor of our city Dr. K. Kalliontzis wrote an article titled, "The Enemies of Our Country, Greece."

    We respect and appreciate the profound thoughts of our honorable doctor, regarding the political struggle which is going on in Greece. His writings to that effect are wonderful and very beneficial. But we do not agree nor approve of his theme against Free Mansory and Socialism.

    The distinguished member of our community is either misinformed, prejudiced, or lacking historical knowledge some medical men and other professionals, might be a power and authority in their profession but when it comes to world affairs, their knowledge and opinions are not worth much.

    2

    Our doctor would do good to his profession and to our race, if he would write something on how mothers should take care of their babies, or on general hygiene. Dr. Kalliontzis is not a Free Mason, consequently he knows little or nothing of Masonic principles. However he may be excused for his disrespectful article against Masonry, and it will do him honor if he retracts his statement.

    Below is what Dr. Kalliontzis said in his article on "Free Masonry."

    "Another plague to our Country is Masonry. The Masons of Free Tectons are elevated in degrees of Masonry, the more they become irreligious and anti-nationalists, adopting Xenolatry and Cosmopolitanism. Masonry was first founded by Cosmopolitan Jews, who were against Christianity. Anti-christianity and Cosmopolitanism are two opposits of Greek Nationalism."

    The above paragraph should be corrected by our doctor in the next publication we hope.

    In the last publication of the Greek Star, the eminent doctor of our city Dr. K. Kalliontzis wrote an article titled, "The Enemies of Our Country, Greece." We respect and ...

    Greek
    I E, III H
  • Loxias -- November 17, 1911
    Respect Is Human. Editorial.

    In the last publication of the Greek Star, the eminent doctor of our city Dr. K. Kalliontzis wrote an article titled, "The Enemies of Our Country, Greece."

    We respect and appreciate the profound thoughts of our honorable doctor, regarding the political struggle which is going on in Greece. His writings to that effect are wonderful and very beneficial. But we do not agree nor approve of his theme against Free Mansory and Socialism.

    The distinguished member of our community is either misinformed, prejudiced, or lacking historical knowledge some medical men and other professionals, might be a power and authority in their profession but when it comes to world affairs, their knowledge and opinions are not worth much.

    In the last publication of the Greek Star, the eminent doctor of our city Dr. K. Kalliontzis wrote an article titled, "The Enemies of Our Country, Greece." We respect and ...

    Greek
    I E, III H
  • Loxias -- November 25, 1911
    Greek Star Stands the Wrong Way in Accusing Free Masons. Editorial.

    Dr. Kalliontzis' article, published in the Greek Star, against Free Masonry and Socialism, is wholly disapproved by the Greeks in Chicago. Many fellow-Greeks, by writing and phoning to us registered their utter disapproval of the article in the Greek Star which expressed disrespect to fellow-Americans and fellow-Greeks who are Masons or Socialists.

    In our last edition of Loxias we expressed we forgave our eminent physician Dr. Kalliontzis, the author of the article, taking into consideration Christ's example when he said, "Father forgive them, for they know not what they do."

    2

    But the publisher of the Greek Star, though ignorant and illiterate, cannot be forgiven. Because he, as an editor and publisher, must know the duty and obligation of the press towards people. He should know that such inaccurate and unfounded articles should not be printed for publication. A little knowledge of history, common sense, and respect for justice, right and good, would have been sufficient to guide the publisher of the Greek Star to refuse to publish the article of Dr. K. Kalliontzis, against Free Masons and Socialism.

    My friend Dr. Kalliontzis and the uneducated publisher of the Greek Star should know, if they must, that true Christianity stands upon Socialism and Cosmopolitanism.

    Indeed, from the nationalistic point of view, i. e. from the point of view of Hellenic Nationalism, Socialism, Cosmopolitanism as well as Ecumenical Christianity, are bitter enemies to any nation.

    Below this you find an article written by G. Matalas titled, "The Obstruction of Civilization. It is a very interesting article to read, providing you are far above the line of the average partisan, narrowminded patriot.

    Dr. Kalliontzis' article, published in the Greek Star, against Free Masonry and Socialism, is wholly disapproved by the Greeks in Chicago. Many fellow-Greeks, by writing and phoning to us registered ...

    Greek
    III C, II B 2 d 1, I E
  • Chicago Daily Journal -- June 28, 1918
    Thousands of Chicago Greeks Celebrate War Entry at Mass Meeting

    The Greeks of Chicago today are wearing the blue and white of the Hellenic kingdom, along with the red, white and blue of their adopted land, following a patriotic demonstration Thursday of Greece's entry in the War on the side of the allies.

    It was the anniversary of the day on which King Constantine was hurled from his throne after trying to deliver his people to the Kaiser and Premier Venizelos led the nation in declaring against the Hohenzollerns.

    A celebration was held in the Blackstone theater to mark the anniversary, and while 3,000 inside the theater cheered the speakers, a great crowd in the street clamored for admission to the already crowded meeting.

    2

    Young men dressed in the national costume of Greece and priests of the Greek church in their ceremonial robes occupied seats on the platform and a choir of school children sang the Greek national anthem. Felix J. Streychmans, Clarence Darrow, Bernard W. Snow, S. Pezas, the Greek consul, and Paul Demos, chairman of the Greek section of the Liberty Loan committee, were among the speakers.

    The Greeks of Chicago today are wearing the blue and white of the Hellenic kingdom, along with the red, white and blue of their adopted land, following a patriotic demonstration ...

    Greek
    I G, IV, III D, I E, I C
  • Saloniki-Greek Press -- August 09, 1919
    Capital, Labor, and the Middle Class (Editorial)

    One thing gives rise to another, and due to the increase in cost of the basic necessities of life, the laboring class is demanding a raise in wages. In order to obtain their demands, the workers have formed unions which will protect and fight for their rights. Therefore, organized capital, which had the worker more or less at its mercy, is now finding an opponent in organized labor. Fighting between the workers and capital has resulted in many deaths. Finally it has ceased and the workers are receiving more pay and are working fewer hours.

    Between the labor class and the capitalist class is the middle class, which is slowly being smothered to death.

    This group includes members of the professions, professors, artists, teachers 2small businessmen, and all the white-collar workers. A Harvard professor has said "that while a streetcar conductor earns sixty cents an hour, a professor, who directs the thought of the future, gets eighteen cents per hour". How, then, can this unorganized group combat capitalism? Can they secure justice in the same way as did the laborers? Surely not!

    The capitalist prospers, and the laborer daily obtains more humane conditions; the middle class, however, pays the expenses for both of them, and does so meekly and without complaint. The increasing price of foodstuffs, which is due to exploitation, is the greatest danger to the middle class. As long as the government does not pass laws forbidding excessive prices and exploitation of the consumer, the middle class will continue to suffer.....

    We hope that the lawmaking bodies of this country will recognize this sad situation and pass laws to remedy it.

    One thing gives rise to another, and due to the increase in cost of the basic necessities of life, the laboring class is demanding a raise in wages. In order ...

    Greek
    I E, I D 2 a 2, I D 2 a 3, I D 1 a, I D 1 b
  • Saloniki-Greek Press -- August 16, 1919
    The Middle Classes by Nick Lambropoulos

    The middle class reminds me of an old proverb which says, "The stone rolled toward the egg--God help the egg. The egg rolled over toward the stone--again pity the poor egg."

    The middle class is put in the position of the egg. If labor rises up in protest, the middle class suffers; if capitalism becomes angry, again the middle class suffers.....All the socialists, all the communists, social workers, all lovers of social progress--all of them fight and plead for the rights of the worker....But the middle class, which struggles to improve thought with which to aid progress and give rise to art and learning, is forgotten.

    The laborer organizes and forces the moneyed interests to give him what he 2asks, namely, higher wages and shorter hours. The moneyed interests, unhappy about giving up some of their profits, raise the prices of their commodities, and so get back some of the money they gave to their workers, The brunt of this added expense falls chiefly upon the shoulders of the middle class.

    Is it possible that the President will overlook the needs of this large group to which he himself belonged before becoming President? He will, we are sure, give consideration to this group which includes three-fourths of the population of this country. Can it be possible that the kindly and progressive Wilson will allow the middle class to be crushed by capitalists? Is it not curious that the group that gives ideas to the others should not have enough sense to organize and defend its just rights?

    The middle class reminds me of an old proverb which says, "The stone rolled toward the egg--God help the egg. The egg rolled over toward the stone--again pity the poor ...

    Greek
    I D 1 a, I D 2 a 2, I D 2 a 3, I E
  • Chicago Tribune -- January 11, 1920
    What America Has Done for Me By Peter S. Lambros (Editor of the Greek Star, native of Greece)

    Though I met with so many hardships at the beginning of my career in this country twenty-five years ago, and notwithstanding the fact that I have been penniless and friendless among strangers in a strange land, I have had faith in the land of promise and opportunities, and my dream has come true. I have nothing but praise for Columbia. I feel grateful to Uncle Sam, and in fact I cannot do enough to serve this great country of ours as a loyal American citizen.

    The foreign-born American can demonstrate his loyalty not only by becoming a citizen but also by performing the duties of a real American citizen who respects the Constitution, obeys the laws, stands by our government, is devoted to his adopted country, and adores the glorious American flag, the symbol of the principles of Washington and Lincoln, those principles which have been carried as far as the new battlefield of honor in France and Belgium in order to preserve the principles of American democracy.

    2

    An American born in this country has a duty to perform as a matter of duty, but an American of foreign birth and extraction has a duty to perform as a matter of gratitude to his adopted country for his welcome here and for the privileges, the opportunities, and the equality accorded to him in the land where millions of men, women, and children have found home, work and protection.

    It is true that the war is over, and the American army is demobilized, but Americanism and patriotism will never be demobilized. Now in the midst of unrest we are called upon to display our inflexible determination to carry on and to stand by Old Glory against anarchy, that we may continue to dwell in peace and happiness, bearing in mind that no infamy whatsoever will be permitted to undermine the foundation of the Republic, and that no "Reds" will be permitted to interfere with the principles of American democracy.

    Though I met with so many hardships at the beginning of my career in this country twenty-five years ago, and notwithstanding the fact that I have been penniless and friendless ...

    Greek
    I J, I G, I E, IV