The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

Filter by Date

  • Greek Star -- July 06, 1906
    Greek Business

    p. 4...A shipment of 10,000 pounds of selected aromatic Greek and Turkish tobacco was received last week by the Chicago Greek firm of Karavelis and Boosoolas, brokers and manufactures of cigarettes, at their place of business located at 327-329 South Halsted Street.

    The house of Karavelis and Boosoolas, which is alos a general agency of all steamship and railroad companies, does business not only with Chicago Greeks but with others in many States of the Union. For service, honesty, accuracy, and quality Karavelis and Boosoolas cannot be beaten.

    p. 4...A shipment of 10,000 pounds of selected aromatic Greek and Turkish tobacco was received last week by the Chicago Greek firm of Karavelis and Boosoolas, brokers and manufactures of ...

    Greek
    I D 1 b, III H
  • Greek Star -- May 17, 1907
    To the Greek Business Men in Chicago

    What will become of the proposed pure food bill, which is before the State legislature, is a matter of conjecture. The bill was amended so many times that it is doubtful if it passes both houses. Nevertheless, a warning is sent out to the Greek business men in Chicago and in the whole State. Those who wish to be in the good grace of the public, and for their own interest, must not wait for the passing of the bill but of their own invitation sell nothing but the best foodstuff whether it is ice cream, candy, or any other edibles.

    Special attention is directed to the Greek confectioners who cover the entire city, with their thousands of stores.

    Analine and other substances, used in the dye of sweets, have met with the public's condemnation. Perhaps analine may not convey injury to the human 2organism, and government analysts in Washington may approve its use, however, public opinion is bitterly against analine and similar substances.

    A good, conscientious, and successful business man takes the welfare of the public to heart, and law or no law, he will not sell to the public something of injurious or dubious nature.

    The Star earnestly urges the Greek confectioners, for their own salvation and for the good of the Greek name, to personally supervise the making of ice cream, candies and things of that kind so that no analine is used by their employees, who may not be conscious of the public's disapproval of using injurious dyes.

    If a sudden death occurs to a young boy or girl and it is shown that the child ate ice cream, candies, or drank soda, the death will be attributed to the bad quality of the thing consumed, and the press of the city will 3start a crusade against the Greek confectioners in general, with a disastrous result not only for the guilty one but for all the Greeks.

    It would be a good business principle, and at the same time very profitable, if those who do not use analine, make it known to the public by having conspicuous posters in their establishments. Not only would it increase business but would be a protection against unforseen dangers.

    Do it now before it is too late. Let the public know that your store uses no analine, or other injurious substances.

    Gain the good will of the public and do not give a hoot whether the pure food bill is passed, amended, or killed.

    A good business man never deceives the public. Be a good business man by serving the public honestly.

    What will become of the proposed pure food bill, which is before the State legislature, is a matter of conjecture. The bill was amended so many times that it is ...

    Greek
    I M, I D 1 b, I C
  • Greek Star -- November 20, 1908
    [The Result of Strife] (Editorial)

    Every nation on earth--whether it be large or small--has its failings. As time goes on, however, it must endeavor constantly to get rid of any destructive failing. This is the only way a nation can advance itself and secure its economic, political, and social life. Let us leave aside the failings of other nations and deal with those of our own nation. There is no doubt, of course, that all failings, whether they be of a personal or collective nature, are bad, but there is no greater evil than civil strife and discord. All other evils and calamities have their origin in that deadly social disease. National disunity, social degeneration, economic disorganization, and political disorders all have their origin in civil strife, antagonism, and discord. Retrogression and backwardness are the direct result of failure to keep united and become accustomed to the great traits of tolerance, patience, mutual respect, and cooperation.

    2

    If we review the long history of Greece, our Fatherland, we shall see that in a great many instances it is marred by examples of civil strife, discord, and personal hatreds. From ancient times until this very day, civil strife and discord are playing a major role in the otherwise glorious and brilliant history of our nation.

    Had it not been for continual and unremitting civil wars and civil strife the Greek city-states of old would never have been subjugated by the Roman conqueror in 146 B. C. The Greek nation would have been much different today were it not for these serious national defects and its inability to strengthen and preserve its internal political unity.

    This serious Greek defect is an ancestral and a hereditary evil, it seems. Even in their early years, our fathers witnessed the curse of discord bore into the vitals of Greek society. There were seven major Greek cities in ancient times under individual kings rivaling each other in the acquisition of more power and influence at the expense of people of the same nationality and the 3same race. Many more Greek city-states which were under democratic rule spent most of their energy in violent civil strife. Ancient Sparta was suspicious of Athens; Athens in turn was envious of Thebes, and so the story went. Thus, the Greek race was weakening and inevitably defeated and crushed by other more powerful and barbarous peoples.

    Indeed, no one can tell how great the Greek nation would have been if such great men as Themistocles, Miltiadis, Socrates, Pericles, and so many other eminent Greek leaders throughout the history of our people, had not been persecuted, exiled, forced to drink the hemlock, and discredited by the very people whom they sought to serve.

    This catastrophic national shortcoming called discord is transmitted from generation to generation. So, we too have inherited it. Instead of eradicating this evil, however, we try to perfect it, and thus improved upon, we hand it down to our descendants.

    4

    As we said above, all peoples strive to correct their defects little by little. Daily they cleanse their souls from such corroding evils. That is why they progress while we are retrogressing. No doubt, we have noticed ourselves that while we claim to be progressive, in reality we remain far behind in the ways of progress. Unfortunately, this strange phenomenon of civil strife and discord has been widely spread among the Greek people of America. Especially do we notice this destructive spirit of discord and civil disorder in the Greek community of Chicago and particularly among the various classes of our people from the professional and businessman to the lowliest laborer.

    We are forced to confess--and let us keep this confession to ourselves--that in many respects we are far behind many other nationalities in America in civilized living, in social attainments. We ourselves know that we are rated very low in social prestige when compared to many other nationalities living in America. Why is this so? The answer is very simple and can be found in ourselves. Evidently, discord is responsible for our downfall. Just as the 5well-known adage says "that the Greek can tolerate no oppression" so do discord and our personal sense of superiority and importance tell us that we must not recognize anyone else as superior or abler than ourselves.

    That is why we see many great patriotic and national causes being condemned, not because they are bad or harmful, but because we have not been asked, because he who conceived the idea or who promoted a certain cause did not ask our "authoritative and weighty" opinion. That is why all our efforts and undertakings have failed. This can be attributed to the prevalent spirit of discord and refusal to accept any sort of discipline. Evidently without these characteristics, we can neither breathe nor live. For the thrill of discord and disobedience, we sacrifice the most precious things; we do not hesitate to forget our conscience and thus destroy or work against some cause which would benefit both our fatherland and our own personal interests.

    Wherever you go, you will find the Greeks quarreling with each other about 6some trivial and insignificant matter. Every Greek differs with other Greeks about a particular subject. Every Greek tries to assert himself regardless of his extrinsic value. Put two Greeks together and on the next day they will break their partnership, because within them lives the germ of discord which, to our misfortune, is very noticeable among our businessmen; that is, among the class in whose work and activities rest the hopes of every nation for its indispensable material prosperity. It is not exaggerating to say that the businessman is one of the most important factors in any nation.

    We here give a vivid example of discord and destructive rivalry among our businessmen.

    On the day before yesterday a Greek came to our office; his appearance and gestures showed that the man was in a highly nervous state. Without delay, this businessman informed us that he wanted his partner's name to be published in the newspaper because he was cheating and stealing the business' profits. In vain did we attempt to calm him and dissuade him from attempting to force 7us to do such a foolish thing. We told him that he was not doing the right thing in wanting to expose the dishonesty of his partner.

    Incidentally, we took the opportunity to expound to him the advantages which can be gained through co-operation and by working patiently and harmoniously together. On the other hand, we cited the evils that can result from discord. Our visitor was not convinced by us. He departed in anger saying that we Greeks have never wanted to help one another by exposing the worst types of criminals and frauds. He added that he was determined to take legal action against his partner and would engage an American lawyer. In addition, he threatened to bring a charge against another Greek through the American press.

    Naturally, it is very difficult to discontinue a practice which has become part of some of us. However, we contend that it can be done gradually. We have much to learn in this country where we live and work. Let us observe how the American does things and how he conducts himself towards his clients, his friends, his fellow citizens. By emulating him, we may be forced to adopt his 8ways and abandon our disgusting methods of dealing with each other.

    No matter in what direction you turn your eye in these United States, you will see thousands of business signs in commerce, industry, and finance with the word "company" or "corporation" on them. We should be reminded then that by these companies, corporations, and accumulations of capitalistic and business interests, the Americans have been able to organize a highly efficient financial and commercial system. They have thus been able to win the world's markets in a very short time. That is why they prosper and succeed in almost everything they undertake. Besides this, let us consider the great influence of the United States trade unions and other workers' organizations on the employers and managers of industry and business in the United States. This successful organization and collective representation of labor makes for higher and more adequate wages. Consequently, the worker enjoys a higher standard of living; he works with more zeal and enthusiasm; and, finally, he becomes more interested in the union or trade organization to which he belongs. He knows that a well-organized and unified union will promote his interests.

    9

    Cannot we, the Greek workers of America, the Greek workers of Chicago, organize ourselves and form powerful labor organizations? Are our businessmen, large and small, incapable of pooling their business and financial resources to establish partnerships, large companies, and corporations? It is time the Greek businessman looked forward to something bigger and more promising. Limited businesses run on a small, individual scale can bring no great profits or expansion of capital and resources.

    In a new world with new business methods and different forms of financial organization, co-operation is an absolute necessity for material success.

    Strangely enough, in an environment with so many examples of the wonders accomplished by co-operation, our "enterprising and ambitions" businessmen and workers are floundering in disastrous strife and petty quarrels.

    It is not too late for us to stop playing childish games and stop the practice of flying at each other's throats in order to satisfy our personal ambitions 10and selfish ends. Only a little patience, will power, and the desire to work for the common good are necessary.

    Let us see whether the Greek is willing to go forward instead of backward. Let him profit by the disastrous results of discord and strife in our national affairs as well as in our communities.

    Every nation on earth--whether it be large or small--has its failings. As time goes on, however, it must endeavor constantly to get rid of any destructive failing. This is the ...

    Greek
    I C, I D 1 a, I D 1 b, III A
  • Loxias -- April 14, 1909
    Our Duty

    P. 1.- There are twenty thousand Greeks in Chicago today, ready to argue with their neighbor, ready to curse one another, ready to ruin the competitor's business instead of helping him. Why is this? Because there are twenty thousand Greeks in Chicago and each of the twenty thousand considers himself "boss." There should be 30 or 40 prominent Greek men to act as leaders for our community, not twenty thousand. Can't the Greek community of Chicago realize that it is not getting anywhere by this? Don't they see that no organization can move forward if those in its own rank do not agree? We have written on this subject many times, but to no avail. This attitude of the Greeks must be replaced by another one of friendliness and cooperation if they wish to survive as a race in Chicago and all other parts of America, as a matter of fact.

    There is an old saying that fits in here, "Let those who have ears, listen."

    P. 1.- There are twenty thousand Greeks in Chicago today, ready to argue with their neighbor, ready to curse one another, ready to ruin the competitor's business instead of helping ...

    Greek
    I C, I D 1 b
  • Loxias -- April 23, 1910
    In Union There Is Strength

    p. 1.- The American unions are the most powerful in the entire world. They are all well off and everyone is satisfied because they cooperate with one another. When a Greek opens a store he does it to take business away from another Greek or else the second Greek opens one to take it away from the first Greek. How do the Greeks expect to progress by doing business this way? They will never get anywhere at the rate they are going. The American firms are progressing because they are united and powerful. They all reap the same profits instead of ruining one another's chances. Why can't the Greeks profit by the example of the Americans? When they are busy quarreling with one another, how can they escape being crushed by American businessmen who are powerfully united? The Greeks must wake up to the fact that "in union there is strength".

    p. 1.- The American unions are the most powerful in the entire world. They are all well off and everyone is satisfied because they cooperate with one another. When a ...

    Greek
    II A 2, I D 1 b
  • Saloniki-Greek Press -- August 08, 1914
    The Greek Coffee Shops (Editorial)

    We are not going to discuss those few Greek cafes that have brought unfavorable criticism upon the Greek community of Chicago. Certain cafes have become gambling centers instead of social centers. We are sworn foes of this type of coffee shop or cafe, and will do everything in our power to have them closed.

    Just because a few cafes have become gambling houses is no indication that all the cafes are undesirable and should be closed. The cafes are important to the very existence of the average Greek man. They are places where he can debate and converse on each and every possible subject.

    The Greek Kafenion or cafe is analogous to an American club. It would be very unjust if the government were to impose a tax upon the cafes, since the clubs are not restricted and are even given special privileges. If a five hundred dollar tax is imposed upon each Greek cafe, they will all be forced to close their doors.

    2

    This tax has been suggested by one of the members of the Chicago City Council.

    Such a course will lead to many evils. The coffee shops will be replaced by illegal gambling houses and by even worse places. Anyone who is going to take a stand on this matter, must take certain things into consideration. It is not only that eighty or a hundred men will be forced into bankruptcy and ruin; the matter is far more comprehensive than that. Thousands of Greek men find companionship and enlightenment in these cafes. Intelligent conversations are heard on all sides, which at least, cause individuals to think seriously. There, old acquaintances are renewed, and experiences exchanged. In many cases, it is the first place to which an unemployed man will go in his search for a job.

    A Greek immigrant finds haven in the cafe. He goes there to seek information about his friends and relatives. Sometimes he learns his first English sentences from some kindly customer in the cafe. Such a man would be lost if he were to lose the help of the cafe. He would fall prey to racketeers and cheats, and would probably end in jail or die of loneliness and fear.

    3

    If you ask any man where he went when he first arrived in Chicago, nine cases out of ten he will name a Greek cafe, and he will bestow a blessing upon the patriotic proprietor.

    The undesirable cafes are very few. Must the whole group be penalized and abolished for the sake of a few?

    Another aspect of the problem is this: if the Greek cafes are closed, the Greek communities will dissolve. If there are Greek communities on Halsted Street or on Grand Avenue, it is because of the existence of the cafes. In the evening, all the workingmen stroll over to the cafe to talk, and they do not even have to spend a penny of their hard-earned money. If the cafes are closed, these communities will disperse and be lost within other groups.

    The closed cafes will cause the taverns and the liquor stores to be crowded to overflowing, and the Greeks who are not yet known to be drunkards--because only coffee is sold in the cafes--will acquire the habit of drinking strong liquor. Let the gambling houses be closed--but not the Kafenia!

    4

    Our mayor Mr. Harrison, condemns the cafes as centers of ill repute which add to the demoralization of minors. However, they must recognize the great difference between the two types of Greek cafes. We agree that the places which contribute to juvenile delinquency should be closed. But there are very few of them.....

    The Saloniki asks all respectable cafe owners to unite and sign a petition to be presented to the City Council. They must protest against this unfair discrimination.....The whole Greek community must protest against the proposed fine. We can and must restore dignity and respect to the Greek name.....

    If we allow this matter to drift, the shame will be ours. The American people will receive the impression that every Greek who has ever spent an hour in a cafe is a gambler, or a no-good. We must explain the true purpose of the Kafenion to the American public. We are sure that a different attitude will be taken when the true facts are known.

    We are not going to discuss those few Greek cafes that have brought unfavorable criticism upon the Greek community of Chicago. Certain cafes have become gambling centers instead of social ...

    Greek
    I D 1 b, III B 1, II A 2, III G, III A
  • Saloniki-Greek Press -- August 22, 1914
    [Safety of Investments]

    The Chicago Greeks have for, the moment, lost all interest in the European war. Their minds are filled with thoughts of their lost savings.

    The Saloniki has repeatedly printed articles which have advised the Greek people where and how to invest their money. Great care has always been exercised in order that these [recommended] investments should be made in reliable concerns. We have never accepted the advertisements of dubious or untrust-worthy banks. This care has been taken because we earnestly try to help our fellow citizens. For that reason, we have never accepted misleading advertisements which would fool the public.....However, we are not supposed to be writing eulogies about ourselves.

    We are publishing this article for all the Greeks of America--not just for those in Chicago. The Greeks are advised to make haste and to put their savings into secure banking houses. The United States Postal Savings Bank is an 2especially safe place to bank your money. Use this bank so that no more of you will lose your hard-earned money in banks run by thieves.

    Statistics show that Greek people have deposited over $500,000 in banks that have a capital of only $20,000. That is a peculiar situation. It seems our advice goes to waste. Greek people always listen to the one who tells them fancy stories. They are never impressed by plain, simple truths.

    But, for once, take our counsel. See that your money is safely invested, or you will weep bitter tears later on.

    The Chicago Greeks have for, the moment, lost all interest in the European war. Their minds are filled with thoughts of their lost savings. The Saloniki has repeatedly printed articles ...

    Greek
    II B 2 d 1, I D 1 b
  • Saloniki-Greek Press -- June 05, 1915
    A Confectioners Corporation (Editorial)

    It is generally admitted that the Spartans were the first to take up the confectioner's trade. By Spartans, we mean all the inhabitants of the province of Laconia--that is, the Lacedaemonians, the Epidaurians, and even the Cynourians, who,although they are from the central province of Arcadia, are closely connected with the Spartans by commerce and trade.

    Among the thirty thousand Greeks in Chicago today, one can find a representative of almost every village and town in Greece. In the confectionery line, however, the majority are from Sparta and the province of Laconia.

    On every great business corner in Chicago you will find the brightly lighted, clean, neat, and attractive Greek confectionery store. You cannot help but be impressed by the shining soda fountains, the multi-colored and bright marble 2plates, and the beautiful glass showcases full of a great variety of candy and delicatessen products. Almost two thirds of the confectionery business of Chicago is in the hands of Greeks. Besides candies, refreshing drinks, and ice cream, one will find cigars, cigarettes, and fresh fruit in our confectionery stores. Thus, the great tobacco, beverage, and fruit concerns are dependent to a very great extent on the Greeks.

    The annual sales made by Greek candy stores amount to many millions of dollars. Business conditions in Chicago are determined, to a large extent, by the progress and prosperity of our many enterprises, especially of the Greek-owned confectionery and restaurant businesses.

    When the Greeks of Chicago entered the candy store business fifteen years ago, all our present great soda fountain, fixture, furniture, candy and beverage manufacturing concerns were in a stage of infancy. With the development of Greek confectioneries, many great and powerful American industries came into being, with great plants and huge capital. These companies became prosperous 3because of their business connections with our people. Unfortunately, however, we are not given due recognition.

    The Greek's greatest fault is his egoism and intense individualism. You hear him say: This is I! Do you know who I am? This selfish, egocentrism is our people's greatest drawback, our most fateful disease.

    In its desire to offer its best services for the good of all, Saloniki will not unduly praise nor maliciously condemn any of our businessmen, irrespective of occupation or calling, as many other newspapers do. We do not believe in flattery, nor in inflating the ego of our fellow countrymen by printing their names and parading their virtues and "titles of nobility" with no practical or good end in mind.

    No! In America there are as yet no Greek tycoons of commerce and industry as there are in Egypt. The Greeks of Chicago, and of America in general, have worked long and hard in every kind of business, particularly in the confectionery 4line. Unfortunately, they did not work and create in a systematic and well-planned way. Instead of grasping the opportunity of becoming rich themselves, they have given that opportunity to the companies and manufacturing concerns they were dealing with.

    We are firmly convinced that a powerful and harmoniously functioning corporation of even a thousand Greek confectioners could lay the foundation for large and prosperous companies manufacturing soda-fountain installation systems, beverages, candies, and tobacco. An all-powerful confectioners corporation could regulate the wholesale prices of the foregoing commodities and manufactures as if it were a monopoly exchange. As things are today, our Greek confectioners buy their candy-store commodities at a very high price, and we might say that they are working for the great companies.

    If only five or ten confectioners would agree to make their purchases jointly, they undoubtedly would be able to obtain more reasonable and greatly reduced prices. They could thus effect a considerable saving on their purchases.

    5

    But if a thousand Greek confectioners would unite and form a corporation or a union of some sort, they could 1) make their purchases collectively; 2) save much by the substantial discount; 3) organize a first-class corporation, or, let us say, a chamber of commerce, by which all wholesale as well as retail prices could be fixed and regulated. This would be a veritable price-fixing "Greek exchange".

    Such a corporation, such a union, would elevate and give great prestige to the Greek businessman in the American market, for he would have to be considered an important business and financial factor. This miracle could be easily performed if our blind egotism and selfish individualism did not stand in the way. The disunion and disorganization within our community have contributed much to accentuate our selfishness, suspicion, fear, and distrust. For this very reason, Saloniki believes that the consolidation of our institutions and forces within our community will, as a matter of course, bring about co-operation and united action in the entire confectionery business, a development which will give us great national prestige.

    6

    The opinions of interested and loyal Greeks on this problem will be published very soon. It is the duty of every good and progressive confectionery store owner to discuss his problems and freely express his opinion on the whole confectionery question. This must be for the common good.

    There are many who think that nothing can be done. However, we must work on and attempt to accomplish something, because we know that much can be done. We must not relapse into inert resignation, and say that it is a good and a worthy cause, but that nothing can be done about it.

    It is generally admitted that the Spartans were the first to take up the confectioner's trade. By Spartans, we mean all the inhabitants of the province of Laconia--that is, the ...

    Greek
    II A 2, I D 1 a, I D 1 b
  • Saloniki-Greek Press -- October 02, 1915
    A Step Forward

    There are, at present, at least fifty Greek representatives of American business, banking, and manufacturing concerns, who by their personal endeavor have created a harmonious and beneficial co-operation between the American concerns and their Greek customers.

    These fifty Greek men are all well educated and proficient in both Greek and English, and are entirely familiar with all precepts of business and commerce. They dignify the Greek name and uphold the national reputation; because, after all, a group is judged more by its accomplishments in the business world than by anything else.

    The fact that large American business concerns see fit to hire Greek salesmen indicates that they respect the various Greek enterprises. Further proof of 2their respect for Greek integrity is the fact that they extend credit to these salesmen, having only their written promise as security.

    The Greek salesman, having complete knowledge of both Greek and English, can explain all financial and commercial relationships, in detail, to his Greek customers. Therefore, he serves the community in an educational sense as well as in a material way. The services afforded the Greek community by these enterprising young businessmen must be recognized and appreciated. Not only must we appreciate what they have already done, but we must make it possible for them to achieve even greater success. We can, if we wish, have a Greek representative in every large concern that trades with the Greek people.

    Saloniki desires to see these men progress. It recommends, as a step up the ladder of success, the formation of an organization or club to be composed of Greek-American representatives. These representatives are the only ones capable of forming such a club, having for its purpose the raising of the business 3standards of Greek enterprises, and creating a more harmonious spirit between them and the purchasing public.

    The patriotism and ability of these men will undoubtedly have a great bearing upon the status of the Greeks in the future.

    Saloniki, in future articles, will make the Greeks of Chicago familiar with the careers of these progressive salesmen.

    There are, at present, at least fifty Greek representatives of American business, banking, and manufacturing concerns, who by their personal endeavor have created a harmonious and beneficial co-operation between the ...

    Greek
    II A 2, I D 1 b
  • Saloniki-Greek Press -- December 18, 1915
    Shoe-Shine Boys (Editorial)

    "Those boys are accustomed to a hard life, and pay no attention to it," we heard the proprietor of a shoe-shine parlor say; when we complained to him about his harsh treatment of his employees.

    He forced seven Greek youths, in his employ, to sleep upon the bare floor in the damp basement of his establishment. "Those children are little peasants," said this conscienceless boss, whose teeth glittered with numerous gold fillings as he adjusted his diamont tie pin, which was worth four hundred dollars. Then he added: "If you allow peasants to sleep in beds they become lazy and worthless."

    The skin of these boys is as yellow as faded autumn leaves. They are bent crooked and resemble the weak little trees that are bent under a furious mountain gale. Unwashed, and black from the polishes and dyes, with sunken eyes resulting from sleeplessness and continual overwork, these boys are wrecked and ruined for life, 2at an age when they are really just budding and ready to bloom.

    Behold! the pitiful picture of thousands of small Greek boys, enslaved in Greek-American cleaning and shoe-shine establishments. Behold! the fate of these poor waifs, who are ignored and unprotected.

    These boys are the innocent offspring of honest villagers and shepherds in Greece. They were entrusted to the boss,--with the mouth full of gold teeth--who promised to pay their passage fare and to give the parents the big sum of one hundred and fifty drachmas. The boys were to serve one year as apprentices, and receive a salary as soon as they knew the trade.

    This is the indecent exploitation indulged in by various heartless bosses, who wear diamonds bought with the lives of little boys.

    This condition must not be allowed to continue. The Saloniki, will excercise all its powers to punish those who exploit human beings in this most bestial manner.

    "Those boys are accustomed to a hard life, and pay no attention to it," we heard the proprietor of a shoe-shine parlor say; when we complained to him about his ...

    Greek
    I D 1 b, I B 3 b, I B 3 c, II A 2, III G, III H, I H