The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

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  • Greek Star -- December 14, 1906

    Our house, which is the oldest Greek establishment in Chicago, with a large clientele spread over three-fourths of the United States, announces that the following imports have been received by us and can be shipped to any part of the continent upon request. Our prices cannot be beaten. Our accuracy, methodical efficiency, and prompt service are of the best. And our reputation is the symbol of our success.

    The newly received imports are: pure butter from Chalcis; white (feta) cheese from Parnassus; olives from Salona and Kalamas; olive oil, pure and genuine, from Kardamyle; sardines, the finest obtainable from the firm of papaleonardov, the largest and best house in Greece; Myzethra and other cheeses from Kosma.


    Those who have not tried our goods are requested to give us a trial with the specific guarantee that if they are not satisfactory, no payment need be made. Our merchandise is shipped by railway express for quick and safe delivery.

    John Gianna Kopoulos,

    15 Dearborn Street,

    Chicago, Illinois

    Our house, which is the oldest Greek establishment in Chicago, with a large clientele spread over three-fourths of the United States, announces that the following imports have been received by ...

    I D 1 a, III H
  • Greek Star -- January 11, 1907
    Greek Confectioners' Night.

    The Greek confectioners of Chicago, doubtless because they deal in sweets, know how to attract people, and this is revealed by the crowd which attended their dance last Sunday, given for the benefit of the national defense fund of Greece.

    The dance attracted not only Greeks but also hundreds of Americans with their families. Wholesalers and other merchants who do business with the Greek candymen came to the ball with relatives and friends to enjoy an evening with the Greeks.

    Black-eyed beauties distributed costly flowers to all comers, and especial attention was given to the American ladies, who were charmed by Greek hospitality. The proceeds of the dance were six thousand dollars or more.

    The Greek confectioners of Chicago, doubtless because they deal in sweets, know how to attract people, and this is revealed by the crowd which attended their dance last Sunday, given ...

    III B 2, I D 1 a, II D 10, III H, I C
  • Greek Star -- March 01, 1907
    The Crusade against Chicago Greeks - Our Protests Heeded Mass-meeting of the Greek Confectioners Brings Results - Judge Recants his Animadversions against Greeks (Editorial)

    When a single Greek goes astray and violates a law of the land, the whole community and the entire race are condemned, and the populace raises a hue and cry against Greeks in general, innocent and guilty alike. Unfortunately, not only are these unjust and loudly uttered accusations against all Greeks promulgated by ignorant and misinformed people, who may be pardoned because they do not know any better, but some educated people, some judges, and practically the entire press also participate in the outcry.

    It is really a paradoxical situation.

    Race hatred and other destructive emotions are natural to the ignorant, the uncultivated, and the unenlightened.

    Does such an attitude against Greeks or against those of any other race 2conform to the spirit of Americanism?

    Because of one or two rotten apples shall we condemn the whole crop and the tree which has produced for us an abundance of good fruit?

    Justice, logic, and the spirit of America blush with shame at such actions. Righteousness and the slow upward movement of humanity are imperiled by outbursts of fanaticism, which are the relics of the age of barbarism.

    Is it so shocking that once in a while a Greek should go wrong? Are Greeks supposed to be angels immune to evil impulses? When one of them happens to entertain unangelic desires and displays the weakness of a human being, popular clamor demands that the Greeks be burned lest they contaminate the purity of others.

    Our courts of justice and other law-enforcing agencies lose their significance when the mind of the populace reverts to mob-violence, which is kindled by ignorance and barbarism.


    Were not the courts created to punish culprits and to protect the innocent? Why then are innocent Greeks in the present case accused and condemned, especially by a judge on the bench?

    The city press in big letters took up the hue and cry against the Greeks and aggravated the evil.

    The guilty Greek confectioner who forced his attentions upon a young woman in his employ has been sent to prison to pay the penalty of his wrong-doing, but the accusation delivered from the bench that "all you Greek confectioners lead our girls astray" has left its stigma upon innocent Greeks.

    The Star, which like Cerberus guards the good name of Greeks in America, entered the battle and with practical common sense protested that the spirit of Americanism is grossly violated and offended by unjust accusations against all Greeks.


    A mass-meeting of Greek confectioners was assembled last week at which eighteen hundred businessmen were present. A resolution was passed condemning the actions of the convicted Greek, and a committee was appointed to use all legitimate means to dispel the clouds of prejudice and restore the light of common sense.

    A common-sense talk was delivered by the publisher and editor of the Star; the president of the Greek Confectioners' Association and the president of the Greek community also addressed the mass-meeting,at which by prearrangement many prominent Americans and the representatives of the city press were also present.

    The result of this agitation is that the honorable judge who set this fire blazing has beautifully retracted his utterances against Greeks, and the city press in flattering terms has covered up the black paint with which it had daubed us.

    In order to avoid a repetition of this incident, the Star urgently appeals 5to all Greek confectioners, restaurant-keepers, and others who employ young women to bear in mind for their own interest and for the interest of the entire Greek community that if any one is known to be indecently inclined, as the convicted Greek was, he should immediately be reported to the authorities. By so doing we shall not only protect society in general against creatures of this kind; we shall also protect our own good name.

    When a single Greek goes astray and violates a law of the land, the whole community and the entire race are condemned, and the populace raises a hue and cry ...

    II E 2, I D 1 a, III B 2, II A 2, I C
  • Greek Star -- May 24, 1907
    Steamship Agents and the Immigrants (Editorial)

    Greenhorn fellow Greeks arriving in Chicago, or other parts of the United States, from Greece are complaining against the exploitation practiced upon them by steamship agents in Greece.

    The Star, as guardian of the Greeks arriving in Chicago and elsewhere, cannot overlook the injustice just because it is committed on the other side of the ocean, but will take up the battle and protect future citizens of Uncle Sam. The greenhorn immigrant of today is a prospective member of our community and a future citizen of the United States, and any injustice done to him reflects upon our future relations and friendship with Mother Greece.


    That is their reason The Star wants to remedy the situation so not only the exploitation will cease to exist, but also the actual friendship and sentiment of the Greeks and both sides of the ocean will be of the best.

    It is common knowledge to all of us that the fish begins to smell from the head, so in this case the unscrupulous agents are only the tail of the smelling fish, the head is the Greek government.

    The responsibility of the fraud, graft and thievery rests squarely with the Greek government which abandons its protection to the departing immigrant, who through ignorance becomes a prey of the highway agent.

    Greeks of America are always responsive to Mother-Greece's voice, and always ready to assist, and assist generously, when need be. Is the Greek immigrant protected from the sharks when he buys a ticket for his journey of adventure, prosperity and colonization? No! He is left to his fate, to be robbed, and to carry with him the unpleasant and unhealthy memory 3of his treatment at the hands of blood-sucking leeches. His government, apparently, has no use for him. But as soon as he is established in the new world and by the sweat of his brow accumulates a few dollars, sweet songs solicit his generous contributions.

    Who, if not the government, could be responsible for this thievery? Who is the one to prosecute dishonesty, if not the government?

    Our appeal is directed to the Greek government, the immediately responsible party to push the prosecution of the guilty and if this fails The Star, unwillingly, will appeal to the good name of the Steamship companies in Greece, to take measures and clean the rank and file of dishonest and unscrupulous agents, a disgrace to the companies.

    Undoubtedly the Steamship companies will be more interested than the Greek government in stopping this unhealthy practice, because it not only reflects 4upon the integrity and good name of the companies, but also is injurious from a commercial point of view.

    Let us hope that the situation will be remedied either one way or the other.

    But the real object of this article is to interest the Greek government in taking a hand against the abuse of the greenhorn and prove to all of us that Mother-Greece is interested in her sons, whether living in Greece or going abroad.

    Greenhorn fellow Greeks arriving in Chicago, or other parts of the United States, from Greece are complaining against the exploitation practiced upon them by steamship agents in Greece. The Star, ...

    III G, I D 1 a, III H, I C
  • Greek Star -- November 20, 1908
    [The Result of Strife] (Editorial)

    Every nation on earth--whether it be large or small--has its failings. As time goes on, however, it must endeavor constantly to get rid of any destructive failing. This is the only way a nation can advance itself and secure its economic, political, and social life. Let us leave aside the failings of other nations and deal with those of our own nation. There is no doubt, of course, that all failings, whether they be of a personal or collective nature, are bad, but there is no greater evil than civil strife and discord. All other evils and calamities have their origin in that deadly social disease. National disunity, social degeneration, economic disorganization, and political disorders all have their origin in civil strife, antagonism, and discord. Retrogression and backwardness are the direct result of failure to keep united and become accustomed to the great traits of tolerance, patience, mutual respect, and cooperation.


    If we review the long history of Greece, our Fatherland, we shall see that in a great many instances it is marred by examples of civil strife, discord, and personal hatreds. From ancient times until this very day, civil strife and discord are playing a major role in the otherwise glorious and brilliant history of our nation.

    Had it not been for continual and unremitting civil wars and civil strife the Greek city-states of old would never have been subjugated by the Roman conqueror in 146 B. C. The Greek nation would have been much different today were it not for these serious national defects and its inability to strengthen and preserve its internal political unity.

    This serious Greek defect is an ancestral and a hereditary evil, it seems. Even in their early years, our fathers witnessed the curse of discord bore into the vitals of Greek society. There were seven major Greek cities in ancient times under individual kings rivaling each other in the acquisition of more power and influence at the expense of people of the same nationality and the 3same race. Many more Greek city-states which were under democratic rule spent most of their energy in violent civil strife. Ancient Sparta was suspicious of Athens; Athens in turn was envious of Thebes, and so the story went. Thus, the Greek race was weakening and inevitably defeated and crushed by other more powerful and barbarous peoples.

    Indeed, no one can tell how great the Greek nation would have been if such great men as Themistocles, Miltiadis, Socrates, Pericles, and so many other eminent Greek leaders throughout the history of our people, had not been persecuted, exiled, forced to drink the hemlock, and discredited by the very people whom they sought to serve.

    This catastrophic national shortcoming called discord is transmitted from generation to generation. So, we too have inherited it. Instead of eradicating this evil, however, we try to perfect it, and thus improved upon, we hand it down to our descendants.


    As we said above, all peoples strive to correct their defects little by little. Daily they cleanse their souls from such corroding evils. That is why they progress while we are retrogressing. No doubt, we have noticed ourselves that while we claim to be progressive, in reality we remain far behind in the ways of progress. Unfortunately, this strange phenomenon of civil strife and discord has been widely spread among the Greek people of America. Especially do we notice this destructive spirit of discord and civil disorder in the Greek community of Chicago and particularly among the various classes of our people from the professional and businessman to the lowliest laborer.

    We are forced to confess--and let us keep this confession to ourselves--that in many respects we are far behind many other nationalities in America in civilized living, in social attainments. We ourselves know that we are rated very low in social prestige when compared to many other nationalities living in America. Why is this so? The answer is very simple and can be found in ourselves. Evidently, discord is responsible for our downfall. Just as the 5well-known adage says "that the Greek can tolerate no oppression" so do discord and our personal sense of superiority and importance tell us that we must not recognize anyone else as superior or abler than ourselves.

    That is why we see many great patriotic and national causes being condemned, not because they are bad or harmful, but because we have not been asked, because he who conceived the idea or who promoted a certain cause did not ask our "authoritative and weighty" opinion. That is why all our efforts and undertakings have failed. This can be attributed to the prevalent spirit of discord and refusal to accept any sort of discipline. Evidently without these characteristics, we can neither breathe nor live. For the thrill of discord and disobedience, we sacrifice the most precious things; we do not hesitate to forget our conscience and thus destroy or work against some cause which would benefit both our fatherland and our own personal interests.

    Wherever you go, you will find the Greeks quarreling with each other about 6some trivial and insignificant matter. Every Greek differs with other Greeks about a particular subject. Every Greek tries to assert himself regardless of his extrinsic value. Put two Greeks together and on the next day they will break their partnership, because within them lives the germ of discord which, to our misfortune, is very noticeable among our businessmen; that is, among the class in whose work and activities rest the hopes of every nation for its indispensable material prosperity. It is not exaggerating to say that the businessman is one of the most important factors in any nation.

    We here give a vivid example of discord and destructive rivalry among our businessmen.

    On the day before yesterday a Greek came to our office; his appearance and gestures showed that the man was in a highly nervous state. Without delay, this businessman informed us that he wanted his partner's name to be published in the newspaper because he was cheating and stealing the business' profits. In vain did we attempt to calm him and dissuade him from attempting to force 7us to do such a foolish thing. We told him that he was not doing the right thing in wanting to expose the dishonesty of his partner.

    Incidentally, we took the opportunity to expound to him the advantages which can be gained through co-operation and by working patiently and harmoniously together. On the other hand, we cited the evils that can result from discord. Our visitor was not convinced by us. He departed in anger saying that we Greeks have never wanted to help one another by exposing the worst types of criminals and frauds. He added that he was determined to take legal action against his partner and would engage an American lawyer. In addition, he threatened to bring a charge against another Greek through the American press.

    Naturally, it is very difficult to discontinue a practice which has become part of some of us. However, we contend that it can be done gradually. We have much to learn in this country where we live and work. Let us observe how the American does things and how he conducts himself towards his clients, his friends, his fellow citizens. By emulating him, we may be forced to adopt his 8ways and abandon our disgusting methods of dealing with each other.

    No matter in what direction you turn your eye in these United States, you will see thousands of business signs in commerce, industry, and finance with the word "company" or "corporation" on them. We should be reminded then that by these companies, corporations, and accumulations of capitalistic and business interests, the Americans have been able to organize a highly efficient financial and commercial system. They have thus been able to win the world's markets in a very short time. That is why they prosper and succeed in almost everything they undertake. Besides this, let us consider the great influence of the United States trade unions and other workers' organizations on the employers and managers of industry and business in the United States. This successful organization and collective representation of labor makes for higher and more adequate wages. Consequently, the worker enjoys a higher standard of living; he works with more zeal and enthusiasm; and, finally, he becomes more interested in the union or trade organization to which he belongs. He knows that a well-organized and unified union will promote his interests.


    Cannot we, the Greek workers of America, the Greek workers of Chicago, organize ourselves and form powerful labor organizations? Are our businessmen, large and small, incapable of pooling their business and financial resources to establish partnerships, large companies, and corporations? It is time the Greek businessman looked forward to something bigger and more promising. Limited businesses run on a small, individual scale can bring no great profits or expansion of capital and resources.

    In a new world with new business methods and different forms of financial organization, co-operation is an absolute necessity for material success.

    Strangely enough, in an environment with so many examples of the wonders accomplished by co-operation, our "enterprising and ambitions" businessmen and workers are floundering in disastrous strife and petty quarrels.

    It is not too late for us to stop playing childish games and stop the practice of flying at each other's throats in order to satisfy our personal ambitions 10and selfish ends. Only a little patience, will power, and the desire to work for the common good are necessary.

    Let us see whether the Greek is willing to go forward instead of backward. Let him profit by the disastrous results of discord and strife in our national affairs as well as in our communities.

    Every nation on earth--whether it be large or small--has its failings. As time goes on, however, it must endeavor constantly to get rid of any destructive failing. This is the ...

    I C, I D 1 a, I D 1 b, III A
  • Saloniki-Greek Press -- October 25, 1913
    Our Laboring Class

    With the first snow flakes of the cold winter which have visited us so early this year, many thousands of Greek laborers will be released from hard, dangerous work on the railroads. Hundreds of them will swarm into the Greek quarter this winter, as usual. A month hence there will be thousands of workers arriving in Chicago.

    Thus, Saloniki will grasp the opportunity to study and make an investigation of our labor problem, on which so much has been written in the past.

    Chicago is pre-eminently a great railroad center, and, as such, it is also a great labor center. No one can find a better place in which to study this vital labor problem.

    We are at present restricting the scope of our study to the railroad industry, without intending to underestimate the importance of the manufacturing centers 2of New England, where thousands of Greeks are working in the cotton mills. Nor do we want to overlook the mining industry in Utah, where thousands of Greeks are digging in the depths of the earth.

    Saloniki is happy because the return of the workers' caravans to Chicago will afford the opportunity to make an analysis and intimate study of labor conditions in railroad construction companies, where more than fifty thousand Greeks are employed. Only a few of us know of their toil and their hardships, of the hard labor in the scorching heat of the desert, of the blood and sweat which they shed.

    Blood! Yes, plenty of blood!

    There are hundreds of accidents and deaths among Greek railroad workers every year. Many hundreds are maimed and crippled. That is why the termination of these men's employment is likened to the demobilization of our troops in Greece.


    Both these armies have shed their blood, both have worked hard, both have been engaging in a desperate struggle: the one to defend and protect the fatherland, the other to support and sustain the poor families on the farms and in the villages of Greece.

    Hundreds of thousands of dollars are being sent to their families in Greece every year by the sturdy railroad workers. Thousands of wives, parents, sisters, and children are given a new lease on life with the sweat of the far-away immigrant, who for this very reason must be called a national benefactor. Then, he should have the absolute right to full protection by the government.

    As a newspaper which fulfills its program, Saloniki will examine all aspects of the labor question, especially at this time when the streets of the Greek quarter are filled with many idle workers.

    The laborers themselves will be asked by Saloniki to give an account of their life, their conditions of work, and their problems. Thus, we will learn about 4those notorious bosses and hiring agents of labor, about the exploiters and parasites amongst our laborers.

    But even the life of our workers in the city, in our Greek social centers, in the traditional coffee houses during the winter months, will be of great interest to our community. Saloniki will undertake to study this problem impartially, and will disregard any misunderstanding that may arise.

    This newspaper is pleased to greet the arrival of thousands of Greek workers in Chicago. It will listen to and publish all the complaints and demands of labor, in order to correct many evils and to improve labor's status.

    The struggle of Saloniki in behalf of labor will of necessity be restricted to the journalistic field. The workers who are in any way wronged or mistreated will find this paper on their side in our common effort to obtain justice and fair treatment. The government, which is always willing to support the just 5demands of labor, is welcomed to obtain all the information which it desires from the offices of Saloniki.

    A newspaper established in a labor market and industrial city such as Chicago will have compromised its principles and purposes, if it did not gladly undertake to fight for and protect the interests of the sweating, toiling, and unfairly treated worker.

    With the first snow flakes of the cold winter which have visited us so early this year, many thousands of Greek laborers will be released from hard, dangerous work on ...

    II A 2, II B 2 d 1, I D 1 a, I H
  • Saloniki-Greek Press -- June 05, 1915
    A Confectioners Corporation (Editorial)

    It is generally admitted that the Spartans were the first to take up the confectioner's trade. By Spartans, we mean all the inhabitants of the province of Laconia--that is, the Lacedaemonians, the Epidaurians, and even the Cynourians, who,although they are from the central province of Arcadia, are closely connected with the Spartans by commerce and trade.

    Among the thirty thousand Greeks in Chicago today, one can find a representative of almost every village and town in Greece. In the confectionery line, however, the majority are from Sparta and the province of Laconia.

    On every great business corner in Chicago you will find the brightly lighted, clean, neat, and attractive Greek confectionery store. You cannot help but be impressed by the shining soda fountains, the multi-colored and bright marble 2plates, and the beautiful glass showcases full of a great variety of candy and delicatessen products. Almost two thirds of the confectionery business of Chicago is in the hands of Greeks. Besides candies, refreshing drinks, and ice cream, one will find cigars, cigarettes, and fresh fruit in our confectionery stores. Thus, the great tobacco, beverage, and fruit concerns are dependent to a very great extent on the Greeks.

    The annual sales made by Greek candy stores amount to many millions of dollars. Business conditions in Chicago are determined, to a large extent, by the progress and prosperity of our many enterprises, especially of the Greek-owned confectionery and restaurant businesses.

    When the Greeks of Chicago entered the candy store business fifteen years ago, all our present great soda fountain, fixture, furniture, candy and beverage manufacturing concerns were in a stage of infancy. With the development of Greek confectioneries, many great and powerful American industries came into being, with great plants and huge capital. These companies became prosperous 3because of their business connections with our people. Unfortunately, however, we are not given due recognition.

    The Greek's greatest fault is his egoism and intense individualism. You hear him say: This is I! Do you know who I am? This selfish, egocentrism is our people's greatest drawback, our most fateful disease.

    In its desire to offer its best services for the good of all, Saloniki will not unduly praise nor maliciously condemn any of our businessmen, irrespective of occupation or calling, as many other newspapers do. We do not believe in flattery, nor in inflating the ego of our fellow countrymen by printing their names and parading their virtues and "titles of nobility" with no practical or good end in mind.

    No! In America there are as yet no Greek tycoons of commerce and industry as there are in Egypt. The Greeks of Chicago, and of America in general, have worked long and hard in every kind of business, particularly in the confectionery 4line. Unfortunately, they did not work and create in a systematic and well-planned way. Instead of grasping the opportunity of becoming rich themselves, they have given that opportunity to the companies and manufacturing concerns they were dealing with.

    We are firmly convinced that a powerful and harmoniously functioning corporation of even a thousand Greek confectioners could lay the foundation for large and prosperous companies manufacturing soda-fountain installation systems, beverages, candies, and tobacco. An all-powerful confectioners corporation could regulate the wholesale prices of the foregoing commodities and manufactures as if it were a monopoly exchange. As things are today, our Greek confectioners buy their candy-store commodities at a very high price, and we might say that they are working for the great companies.

    If only five or ten confectioners would agree to make their purchases jointly, they undoubtedly would be able to obtain more reasonable and greatly reduced prices. They could thus effect a considerable saving on their purchases.


    But if a thousand Greek confectioners would unite and form a corporation or a union of some sort, they could 1) make their purchases collectively; 2) save much by the substantial discount; 3) organize a first-class corporation, or, let us say, a chamber of commerce, by which all wholesale as well as retail prices could be fixed and regulated. This would be a veritable price-fixing "Greek exchange".

    Such a corporation, such a union, would elevate and give great prestige to the Greek businessman in the American market, for he would have to be considered an important business and financial factor. This miracle could be easily performed if our blind egotism and selfish individualism did not stand in the way. The disunion and disorganization within our community have contributed much to accentuate our selfishness, suspicion, fear, and distrust. For this very reason, Saloniki believes that the consolidation of our institutions and forces within our community will, as a matter of course, bring about co-operation and united action in the entire confectionery business, a development which will give us great national prestige.


    The opinions of interested and loyal Greeks on this problem will be published very soon. It is the duty of every good and progressive confectionery store owner to discuss his problems and freely express his opinion on the whole confectionery question. This must be for the common good.

    There are many who think that nothing can be done. However, we must work on and attempt to accomplish something, because we know that much can be done. We must not relapse into inert resignation, and say that it is a good and a worthy cause, but that nothing can be done about it.

    It is generally admitted that the Spartans were the first to take up the confectioner's trade. By Spartans, we mean all the inhabitants of the province of Laconia--that is, the ...

    II A 2, I D 1 a, I D 1 b
  • Loxias -- August 18, 1915
    Atlas Exchange National Bank.

    Last Monday the inaugural ceremony of the Atlas Exchange National Bank took place and $18,000 of Greek money was depositied in a few hours. The bank's capital is $230,000. Half the stock is in Greek hands.

    The officers of the bank are D. M. Healy, president, C. L. Caswell, vice-president, Attorney N. Kyriakopoulos, treasurer and John N. Varellas, cashier.

    Last Monday the inaugural ceremony of the Atlas Exchange National Bank took place and $18,000 of Greek money was depositied in a few hours. The bank's capital is $230,000. Half ...

    II A 2, IV, I D 1 a
  • Saloniki-Greek Press -- December 25, 1915
    Child Labor A Letter from Mr. Prasinos

    Dear Editor of the Saloniki: First of all, I want to heartily congratulate you for having enough courage to take up the cudgels in behalf of these poor unfortunates who are at the mercy of their heartless employers.

    You have proved to the Greeks in America that a Greek paper with a social conscience and social awareness does exist. Since you have demonstrated that you are anxious to defend the working classes--especially children that are exploited by the bosses--I take this opportunity to give you more information on the plight of the poor shoe-shine boys.

    These boys work at least sixteen hours a day. Why shouldn't they at least be free to rest or attend church on Sunday? Why shouldn't they get a chance to breathe a little fresh air in instead of the dust and dirt they 2inhale the rest of the week? This is exactly why all the boys are unhealthy, shrunken, and sallow. I will wager that not one is in completely good health.

    The employers justify themselves by saying that their busiest day is Sunday; and that if they close on that day, they will lose a lot of money. But the American does not say that. He tells you to do your shopping or to have your shoes shined on Saturday night. Why can't the Greeks do the same thing? Let the shoes be shined on Saturday evening, in order that the little shoeblacks may be free to attend church on Sundays and all holidays, as is the case in Boston, Massachusetts.

    I also desire to answer the letter of Mr. C. G., who declares that I have slandered the members of my profession, since I, too, am the owner of a shoe-shine establishment.

    No! I am not raising my voice to cast aspersions on my fellow craftsmen.


    I am seeking a day of rest for young boys. This is not asking very much, for it is the inalienable right of all men to rest one day in the week. Mr. C. G. is not performing a charitable act when he feeds his employees a bit of dry bread, for they have labored and earned it many times over. When an individual works sixteen hours a day, seven days a week, he has earned any amount you could give him.

    The people who believe they are doing these boys a favor by treating them as slaves are the same ones that were thrown out of Greece by Venizelos. Now they are here in America, and continue certain inhumane practices that caused them to be persecuted in their own land.

    Mr. Editor, I appeal to you. Invite all the Greek boys working as shoeblacks to come to the offices of the Saloniki and report their working conditions. If they do not have enough free time to come in person, ask them to write a letter stating that they want to rest on Sundays.


    In this way we can reveal the true conditions to the City Council of Chicago; and we can also ask the State Legislature to pass laws regulating the number of working days of these children.

    Tell the boys that their names will not be revealed, so that they need not fear the wrath of their bosses.

    Sincerely yours,

    George Prasinos

    Dear Editor of the Saloniki: First of all, I want to heartily congratulate you for having enough courage to take up the cudgels in behalf of these poor unfortunates who ...

    I H, I D 1 a, II A 2
  • Saloniki-Greek Press -- June 03, 1916
    The Confectioners

    "Give me a lever long enough and I can move the world," said the philosopher and engineer Archimedes. The Greek immigrant, who has come to America, says: "Give me an opportunity and I will become a successful businessman". This is unquestionably a true assertion. The Greeks have taken advantage of every opportunity offered them, and have become owners of fine and successful enterprises. One of the most successful of these enterprises is the confectionery business.

    A Greek confectionery store will be found wherever one goes in America. It is easily recognized by its white marble soda fountain and its immaculately clean interior. The Greek boys usually employed in such stores are pleasant and attractive in appearance. Their willing service attracts a great number of American customers.

    Every Greek should be proud of the progress made by these confectioners. They 2not only keep their stores clean in appearance, but, what is more important, they also keep the moral atmosphere clean, and thus hold the respect and trust of the community. There have been very few instances where a crime or a misdemeanor has occurred in a Greek confectionery store. For this reason they are approved of and supported by the parents of young boys and girls.

    As an example of this support, we cite the following incident: The owners of drug stores in the city tried to have a law passed forcing the candy stores to close on Sundays, in order that they might have a monopoly on the Sunday trade. Immediately, the citizens of the community came to the defense of the candy stores. They felt that their children were in better surroundings in a Greek store than in a drug store where whiskey, cigarettes, and other harmful articles were sold.

    The Greek confectioners of America have proven themselves to be intelligent, industrious, courageous, and far-sighted businessmen. By their own industry and enterprise, they succeeded in opening thirty thousand stores in America, employing at least one hundred thousand people.


    The confectionary business represents a large potential fortune to the Greeks of America who control it. Therefore, we consider it our duty to clarify certain problems, the solutions of which are pertinent to the realization of our dreams. The first step to strengthen the power of the Greek stores should be unification. In this country, especially, co-operation and unity are absolutely necessary to insure steady and safe progress. Of course, the Greek businessmen are to be commended for their success as individuals. Without any help other than their own ability, they are engaged in enterprises that bring honor and respect to the Greek name.

    In America, however, individualism in business is not beneficial. This is the land of the trust and the corporation, and even the simple partnership. By having organized itself, American business is in a position to dictate to the Greek merchants. Greek men are forced to buy their supplies from highly organized concerns that can charge very high prices, and in many ways exploit the small merchant. The strength of these large concerns is doubled because of the lack of unity among the small businessmen.


    Therefore, it is necessary that the Greek merchants form companies or partnerships in order to protect themselves against exploitation. At present, they are losing business because the five-and-ten-cent stores are selling cheap candies and chocolates. If the Greeks were organized, they could conduct an advertising campaign and inform the public of the finer and healthier ingredients used in the making of Greek candy, in contrast to the impure, but cheap dime-store candy.

    If fifty Greek merchants were to form a buying syndicate, they would be able to purchase large quantities of supplies at much lower prices. Such a course would enable them to make more profits on their sales, and would also make them more influential than they are as single units. This subject has many aspects which we have discussed at length in previous articles; therefore, we will say no more about it. The point we wanted to make was the immediate need for co-operation among Greek confectioners.

    We frankly admit our bewilderment and surprise at the various types of advertising 5material that Greek confectioners allow on their display windows. We are bewildered because in most instances the very things advertised in the windows are not even sold in the store. For instance, you will see large signs advertising Fan Fizz in a store that does not carry it. Elsewhere immense Coca Cola signs are hung over the door of a candy shop that has no soda fountain.

    Even stranger are the posters advertising the Fatima or Mecca cigarettes. These signs take up a great deal of valuable space in candy stores that do not sell any kind of tobacco. The United Cigar Stores sell their tobacco at cut-rate prices in order to keep the Greek candy stores from becoming formidable rivals. When the Greek stores devote space to advertise commodities sold by their rivals, they are helping them make profits; and at the same time, they are cluttering up their stores with posters and displays.

    We are very proud of the success of our Greek businessmen, and we are not afraid of giving them some needed advice, in order that they may be even more successful. Therefore, we ask that all advertising material be removed and forever banished 6from the display windows of Greek candy stores.

    The windowpanes should gleam with cleanliness; instead of displays of Turkish cigarettes with half-nude figures on them, we suggest slogans or mottoes, such as "Homemade Candies". Tell the world that your candies are made in accordance with the requirements of the pure food laws.

    The suggestions we have made are excellent, and we hope they will be accepted as such.

    "Give me a lever long enough and I can move the world," said the philosopher and engineer Archimedes. The Greek immigrant, who has come to America, says: "Give me an ...

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