The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

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  • Chicago Tribune -- April 15, 1901
    Kiss Away Their Past Sins. Unique Feature of the Easter Celebration by the Greek Orthodox Church of the Holy Trinity.

    P. 20 Greeks from stores and fruit stands, Russians from the sweat shops and factories, swarthy Syrians and even Arabians crowded the Greek Orthodox Church of Holy Trinity, 34 Johnson Street, yesterday to observe the Easter services of their church. Six thousand turned out in holiday attire and spent the day, from midnight until midnight, in feasting, festivities and worship. Bananas, sweat shops and peddling were forgotten, for it was the one great religious celebration of the year.

    During the last week services similar to those of the Roman Catholic Church during holy week were observed, but they culminated at midnight on Saturday, when the mass which ushers in Easter was celebrated. Promptly at midnight Dorotheos Vacaliaros, the archimandrite, or priest, of the Holy Trinity Church, arrayed in all the glory of a Jewish Levite, appeared at the vestry entrance of the church. Large chandeliers, each carrying hundreds of pure honeycomb wax tapers, were lighted, and lamps, with pure olive oil from Palestine, added to the brilliancy of the scene. Into this burst of light the priest stepped, with 2with bowed head, and as he passed under a picture of the Virgin Mother he tipped a banner, depicting the resurrection, which he carried.

    He was followed by two assistants, who carried Greek and American flags, for the Greeks worship for both nations. They passed around the church, through long aisles made in the dense crowd that filled the auditorium, which never has known a seat. When they had passed around they then entered the altar space between two chairs of twenty-four voices, which intoned a portion of the liturgy. When the priest had reached thd altar he took from it a large pure wax candle, lit it from one of the lamps and then intoned: -

    "Come and take your light from everlasting light, and worship Christ arising from the dead."

    Stepping to the chairs, he then lit the candle of the man nearest the altar, who passed his light to the one next, and thus around the church, for all who worshipped bore candles, which they obtained at the door as they entered. The church, already bright with thousands of flames, became a mass of lights, and the worshippers chanted:-


    "Christ is rising from the dead and stepping over the dead and giving the ones in the grave everlasting hope."

    This intonation was the signal for the setting of fireworks in the streets surrounding the church. Skyrockets, Roman candles and firecrackers were used as symbols of glory for all believers of the Orthodox religion. Inside the church, the service continued with the liturgy and the sprinkling of holy water on the congregation and the reading of the resurrection, in the Greek, Russian, Syrian and Arabic languages.

    When this was done, and the priest had so commanded all true believers in the orthodox faith, he turned to those near him and kissed them, thus signifying that all past sins were forgiven and forgotten. It was the closing feature of the strange service and was participated in by the people with all the enthusiasm of the southern races.

    The exercises were over at 1:30 A:M and until 2 P:M the bands of worshippers made merry in their homes, where whole lambs and sheep were broiled and elaborate feasts spread. At 2 P:M the same service was performed and again the church was crowded, contributions were taken at the doors, for which candles were given out.


    At the midnight service $900 was taken and in the afternoon $700.

    The services were observed yesterday because the Greeks use the Julian calendar under which yesterday was April. Their Easter falls between March 21 and April 18, being the first Sunday when there is a full moon. Should the day fall on the Hebrew Easter the Greeks postpone it until the following week.

    P. 20 Greeks from stores and fruit stands, Russians from the sweat shops and factories, swarthy Syrians and even Arabians crowded the Greek Orthodox Church of Holy Trinity, 34 Johnson ...

    I B 4, III C, IV
  • Greek Star -- May 05, 1905
    Greek Easter Raises the Price of Lamb

    p. 2- Chicagoans who prefer lamb for Sunday dinner were very much agitated last Sunday on account of the rise in the price of lamb. They generally pay $5.40 for a lamb, but last Sunday the price was $7.75.

    This sudden rise in price was attributed by Chicago newspapers to the Greek Easter. One of the papers in a long article, among other things concerning the Greek Easter, said: "All the Greeks in Chicago, rich and poor alike, must have their barbecued lamb for Easter Sunday; hence the high price of lamb in the market."

    People who previously enjoyed low-priced lamb undoubtedly anathematized the Greeks and their traditions.

    p. 2- Chicagoans who prefer lamb for Sunday dinner were very much agitated last Sunday on account of the rise in the price of lamb. They generally pay $5.40 for ...

    I B 4
  • Greek Star -- December 22, 1905
    The Garb of the Greek Priest The Star Is Criticized

    P. 4 - Understanding brings individuals and nations together, reveals the workings of nature, and assists us to come nearer to God and to attain universal peace and harmony. As long as there is understanding, there can be no quarrels, no antagonism, no war in community, city, nation, or universe. Understanding comes from the sincere desire for knowledge, and knowledge, which a noted person said is the "breath of gods," is the result of man's ability to think. It is the germ of man's conscious evolution.

    The Star, a Greek newspaper in Chicago, is always striving, as a guardian of Greeks and of the reputation of Greeks, to promote understanding, which will render the relationship between Greece and America mutually beneficial to these countries. Greeks and Americans and others in order to get along together must have an appreciative understanding of one another. Habits, 2traditions, and superstitious beliefs must be taken into consideration in order to acquire mutual understanding. A universal standard does not exist; therefore the psychology of the old proverb, "When in Rome, do as the Romans do," is always applicable, useful, and safe.

    Greek ecclesiastical traditions require Greek Orthodox priests to attire themselves in long, wide black robes and a head-gear which is really very odd and of no especial significance. Such religious frocks and apparel may be proper and useful in countries where they originated, and where people are used to them, but here in America they are out of place. And not only urchins and hoodlums are curious and ready to ridicule such apparel but others also who are not familiar with these ecclesiastical robes.

    Many unpleasant incidents have taken place when our priests have been seen on the streets. Boys will be boys the world over, and curious things attract the attention not only of boys but of many grown-ups as well, in 3America and everywhere. Our clergy have been ridiculed, insulted, stoned, and outrageously humiliated by groups of boys who, lacking understanding, have thought that it was fun to treat the curious-looking foreign priests as objects of merriment, curiosity, and mockery.

    Our priests, because of their broad-mindedness, the result of their ecclesiastical training, have graciously smiled and taken it on the chin, saying,

    "The boys are not to blame. Let them get it out of their systems."

    But narrow-minded and hot-headed Greeks have resented it very much, calling it "uncivilized, irreligious, and unjust." and adding that it is very unbecoming to the authorities to tolerate things of that kind.

    The Star has again and again suggested that the remedy lies with our Church; that the Church alone can stop these unpleasant occurrences and remove these 4misunderstandings with the people of our adopted country. Undoubtedly the hot-headed Greeks who have raised an appalling storm of criticism against the Star for suggesting a change in our priests' apparel can submit valid arguments against the plan suggested, but Mother Church knows better, and their appeals and petitions to the Holy Synod not to change the priests' vesture will be of no avail. The Church has already taken the matter under serious consideration, and the time is not far off when our priests, being in Rome, will attire themselves as the Romans do. Right and wrong, good and evil, are just degrees of understanding. When we all possess an appreciable degree of understanding, then we shall be able to realize that Greek priests and priests of other faiths may wear the same frock so far as Christianity is concerned.

    As to our critics, they have every right to adhere to our traditions as long as our traditions do not jeopardize our compatriots nor affect the welfare and the progress of our communities in Chicago and elsewhere. Let us be sensible and endeavor to understand our neighbors as we expect our 5neighbors to understand us.

    And in order to appease those hot-headed, old-fashioned Greeks who are supposedly true to all traditions, I am compelled to quote the statement of a mayor of Chicago, made when a Greek bishop, as representative of the Church and State of Greece, visited the Columbian Exposition and became the center of attraction and an object of curiosity and ridicule. In fact, a bodyguard was required for his personal safety. The Greek hierarch, tall, hand-some, dignified, with his long beard, attired in complete ecclesiastical accoutrements, of the significance of which the majority of the people have no understanding, was surrounded and followed by jeering crowds whenever he dared to walk the streets of our city. The learned and well-trained servant of the Greek Church, who had anticipated such treatment, since he was aware of the ignorance and the curiosity of the masses, refused to sanction a petition of complaint to the municipal authorities, advocated by hot-headed Greeks.


    "The people are right," said the prelate. "My apparel is wrong, and no complaint shall be made."

    But some narrow-minded persons among his fellow-Greeks, who resented the ridicule and the humiliation, went to the mayor with their complaints. The mayor said,

    "Our American people are peaceable and never would have annoyed your bishop if he had complied with the habits and the customs of our country and had attired himself accordingly."

    And that is tantamount to saying, "When in Rome, do as the Romans do."

    P. 4 - Understanding brings individuals and nations together, reveals the workings of nature, and assists us to come nearer to God and to attain universal peace and harmony. As ...

    I B 4, III A, III C, III H, I C
  • Greek Star -- April 20, 1906
    Easter Services Draw Thousands of Greeks--Elaborate Ceremonies.

    p.3-The supreme drama of all times, the Resurrection of our Savior from death, was celebrated this year by the Greek community of Chicago with elaborate ceremonies.

    Thousands of worshippers crowded the two Greek churches and filled the air with the greatest of triumphal cries: "Christos anesti (Christ is risen)!"

    Every face in the crowds within the churches and without shone with joy and reverence when the traditional lighting of the candles began. Every mouth of the thousands sang, "Christos anesti! I am the resurrection and the life!" And every heart, young and old, was filled with pure thoughts of goodness, kindness, and charity.

    Greek Orthodox Easter ceremonies are magnificent and awe-inspiring. On Easter Sunday the hearts of worshipers are lifted to their highest level, and the soul rejoices in sublime peace,tranquillity, and love.


    The divine words of the Greek language uttered by the officiating priests and the hymns sung by the choirs are the forces which unite mind, body, and soul. Every Greek soul on Easter Sunday communes with the Savior. "Christos anesti" is not spoken by the mouth only; it is spoken by the full consciousness of the immortal soul, proclaiming to the world the great truth of the mystery.

    During the ceremony of the "Agapi," which enjoins the worshippers to love one another as they love themselves; friends and enemies, strangers and relatives, young and old kiss one another not with the mouth but with the purity and the nobility of the soul.

    Every Sunday the two Greek churches of the South Side are packed, and people are compelled to stand outside. Why this negligence in establishing the North Side church, which has been under consideration for a long time? It is advisable to increase the number of churches as the community increases.


    There is no excuse for the delay. Worshippers are flocking to the churches, and the funds necessary to establish new churches could be raised in the twinkling of an eye. Why then inconvenience people by delaying to build new churches? The Greek community is scattered throughout the three sections of the city, North Side, South Side and West Side, and it is increasing rapidly.

    One or two more churches will not be sufficient to accommodate all the communicants.

    Let us hope that the newly-created council of the Greek community will take serious steps to remedy our lack of churches.

    p.3-The supreme drama of all times, the Resurrection of our Savior from death, was celebrated this year by the Greek community of Chicago with elaborate ceremonies. Thousands of worshippers crowded ...

    III B 3 b, I B 4, III C
  • Greek Star -- May 10, 1907
    The Celebration of the Greek Easter - Christos Anesti - Are We Real Christians? (Editorial)

    During the Holy Week and on Easter Sunday the name of the Savior was on the lips of all the subjects of that Holy institution, the Greek Orthodox Church. Young and old, rich and poor, laborers and professional men and women, all spoke of Christ. And on Easter Sunday the three Greek churches in Chicago and every Greek home were reverberating with "Christos Anesti" (Christ Arose)

    Thousands of people, comprising the Greek community in Chicago, with shining, smiling, clean faces and immaculately attired went to the Temples of God to declare and affirm the defeat of nature and the glory of the Savior with "Christ Arose" and "Indeed the Lord has Arisen." What a glory to Judea, and what salvation to the world! The Heavens and the Earth in unison proclaim the victory of the Lord, whose blood was given for the purification of our souls.


    Christendom, with its millions of Christians the world over, rejoices over the resurrection of Christ, and each year, in magnificence and glory, celebrates, in churches and in homes, the salvation of mankind.

    The celebration of the Greek Easter in Chicago this year was a brilliant event. The Savior's epitaph was carried around the streets accompanied by hymns of worshiping, hymns of praise and glory, and hymns of devotion and invocation. They, the Greeks, were telling the world that Christ arose. They, as well as other Christians, were telling the world that they are Christians, true followers of Christ.

    Are we really Christians? Can any one of us Christians, with the exception of a handful, raise his hand and say; "I am a real Christian?"

    When the world is in doubt it always looks to the Greeks either for good or for bad, and the writer of this article will do likewise and take the Greeks as the thesis of our inquiry. Are we real Christians? What a perplexing and delicate question!

    In order to avoid a storm of protests from non-Greek Christians we declare 3that this article is written for Greeks and Greeks only. And as it may be possible that brother-Greeks in other parts of this country or the world declare a Peloponnesian war against us, the inquiry is directed and effects the Greeks of Chicago alone. If our assertion that we are brothers in Christ was true,then killings, hatred, untruthfulness, litigations and all that which falls in the category of vice and evil would not have been with us.

    The soul of the man which needs purification of all the evils and vices and through which we become brothers in Christ remains unclean; only our clothes, faces, and bodies we clean when we go to churches for worship. The connecting link of brotherhood in Christ, the soul of man, is neglected, and consequently throttled by the rapidly grown-thorns of vices and evil.

    Can any one become a real Christian by only accepting Christianity, by only attending churches, and by holding the title as Christian without purification of the soul? Indeed not!

    Are we Christians then in reality or in name only?

    The answer belongs to each and every one of us Christians, who with our magnificent Churches of Christ, our immaculate clothes, and smiling faces of hypocrisy 4make a mockery of religion and who for the sake of sociability and by imitation, year after year celebrate the resurrection of Christ.

    Real Christianity depends not upon beautiful and expensive institutions of worship, not upon beautiful clothes and ornaments, but upon the purity of the soul.

    As this article was written for Chicago Greeks alone the millions of Christians the world over are exempted from this unpleasant question.

    Let us begin to purify our souls day after day and then we shall see the magnificence, the glory, and the real resurrection of Christ.

    During the Holy Week and on Easter Sunday the name of the Savior was on the lips of all the subjects of that Holy institution, the Greek Orthodox Church. Young ...

    I B 4, III C
  • Greek Star -- June 07, 1907
    The Victim: Orthodoxy and the Greek Communities in America by S. A. Kotakis, Attorney and Journalist

    The much-discussed question of the Holy Synod of Greece and the recalled priest of the Chicago Greek Community is at last settled, and Reverend Cyrill Georgeadis is found guilty by default by the mother church, the Holy Synod of Greece.

    Civil and religious laws, whether they are right or wrong, must be accepted and respected by the people whom they govern. Disregard or disobedience of the laws endangers the very foundations of society. But laws are administered by human beings, and, therefore, since the human mind is not free from error, these laws are bound to do injustice instead of justice. There are many instances in which an innocent person has been found guilty.


    And one of these victims of our imperfection is Reverend Cyrill Georgeadis, priest of the Greek Orthodox Church in Chicago.

    The aim of this article is not to criticize the Holy Synod and its decision in the case of Reverend Georgeadis, but simply to state the facts, as they are, to the mother church and to the Ecumenical Patriarchate, because, from all indications, neither the Partiarchate nor the Holy Synod is familiar with the Greek communities in America.

    As a close observer of what is going on in the Chicago Greek community, as well as elsewhere in the United States where Greek communities are established, I hasten, with reverence, to bring to the attention of the mother church the fact that the integrity, dignity, and holiness of the Greek Church are being undermined by the Greeks in America.

    The Holy Fathers of the Greek Church are delighted to hear that pious 3subjects of the church in faraway America are establishing Temples of God, and that they are requesting the mother church to send her religious servants to preach the Divine Logos and the Holy Gospel, and keep us Greeks of America under the wings of Orthodoxy. Noted priests of demonstrated integrity, outstanding ability, and long and faithful service to the Greek Church are chosen by the Holy Synod, and sent to us in America to minister to our religious needs. The hearts of those Holy Fathers of the Church are full of joy and thanksgiving that the Greeks in America are not lost sheep of Orthodoxy, but true and staunch followers of the Greek Church, the Ark of true Christianity, which for centuries has withstood the brutal attacks of so-called Christians as well as non-Christians--an unsinkable boat, she has sailed in all the turbulent seas of the religious world, and emerged scot-free from adulteration, evil, and falsehood.

    Are we really as pious and blessed as our church takes us to be? Do we establish shrines of worship because of religious devotion? Are we performing 4our duty as brothers in Christ? Is there any piety and reverence in us toward the holiness of our church? The answers to these questions are all in the negative.

    The dignity, purity, and grandeur of that holiest institution, the Greek Church, is undermined, not from without by its admitted enemies, but from within by its so-called followers--the Greek communities in America.

    Here is the danger and the underground work of the Greek-American communities. We establish churches simply in order to create an opportunity for ourselves to become presidents, secretaries, treasurers, and so forth. We establish patriotic societies because we crave titles. Where are our religious and patriotic activities and deeds?

    We request the mother church to send us priests, and we want these priests to be our tools, to dance to our whip, and woe to them if they dare to disobey our command. We load their backs with various unfounded charges, 5and, for ornament, we throw upon their character and good name a basketful of slurs.

    We do not expect our priests to do only their religious duties, but we want them to go begging from door to door, to raise money for our mortgaged churches, which we have built without consideration of our financial powers. The president of the church and his cohorts, in order to pull the wool over the peoples' eyes, and make it appear that they are capable administrators of the church's affairs, command the priest to become collector, solicitor, and beggar, telling him, "Go ahead, Father, and raise money before we lose our church."

    The good and efficient servant of the church, not being trained in these vocations of collector, solicitor, and beggar, becomes a tool for the wiles and intrigues of the former sheepherders and mountaineers, who, because of their money, aspire to high positions and titles.


    We have our political factions and fights, and woe to the priest who desires to stay neutral in our combats. He is immediately thrown out of the parish with a great list of incapabilities pinned upon his ecclesiastical frock.

    And who are we? We, the judges and the critics of these noted and tried servants of the church, are farm hands and shepherds of yesterday, uneducated, uncultured, rustic people. But our dollars and our extravagant love of titles, coupled with the Holy Synod's unfamiliarity with the fabrications of the Greek communities, has given us the power and the inclination to compel our priests to follow a course of hypocrisy, indignity, and, eventually, unfaithfulness to the mother church, whose holiness depends upon the purity of her ministers.

    Some of us want our priest to be attired in traditional garb--that is, with the long and loose black robe, the chimney-like head dress, and, above all, the long beard and mustaches. Some of us, who desire to be 7called progressives, want the priest to go along with the times and be modern, not ancient or medieval.

    However, regardless of how the priest dresses himself, the following accusations will be hurled at him: "hypocrite, pharisee, dissembler, rebel, unorthodox, apostate, dance-hall gigolo." We want our priest to drink with us in the saloons. If he does not do so, he is unsociable and stingy; if he does, he is a drunkard and unfit to be a priest. In our vanity and pride we want our priest to wear expensive clothes and to live, he and his family, in a sumptuous building where rents are high, but we raise a storm of protest when mention is made of increasing his salary. Because of our audacity and the power we wield over the meek servants of the church, we dare to meddle even in the priest's religious work, we say for instance, "The priest did not hold the baby right at the christening"; "The priest did not say such and such a prayer"; and many other things shameful enough to move even a stone to tears.

    In a certain community, which is known to us all, a faithful servant of 8Orthodoxy has lost his job because he dared to rebuke the godfather in a christening for his inability to say the "Pistevo". The cultured and highly-educated priest, in a mild rebuke, said to the godfather, "It is the duty of all Christians in general, and of godfathers in particular, to know the 'Pistevo', the symbol of Christianity."

    Improper language was the charge upon which this faithful servant of Christianity was discharged from his position. No stone was left unturned in the effort to dismiss the priest who had dared to utter such an insulting remark against this godfather, who happened also to be a member of the council which controls the church and its minister.

    This incident of the priest's dismissal has rocked the foundations of that community. But the worst is yet to come. This member of the church's council, after persuading his colleagues to dismiss the offending priest, requested them to authorize him to deliver the dismissal document in person. Undoubtedly, this arrogant and touchy Greek must have planned to 9say to the priest, "I will show you how to say the 'Pistevo' now."

    When the facts are as I have stated, can it be said that we establish churches for piety? Do we call priests to preach the gospel and keep us under the shelter of Orthodoxy? If we have an iota of decency we must admit our sins to the mother church; we are unworthy of the good thoughts that the mother church has for us. We are unworthy to have priests, since we dismiss them as easily as we fire a porter or dishwasher. We are unworthy of ourselves, when we demand that the Ecumenical Patriarch recall such and such a priest, with the threat that if he does not do so, we will accept Protestantism as our religion.....

    This is a nice attitude to assume toward Orthodoxy and the mother church. Religious followers of this type are useless in any denomination, are, in fact, a danger to the very foundations of any religious creed. It is about time that the mother church discovers what kind of Christians we are, why we establish churches, and why her ministers are not suitable 10to us. The mother church must bear in mind that when her ministers are treated by us as ordinary domestics, as old shoes to be discarded at will, her dignity, sanctity, and safety are in danger.

    Methods must be found to bring the recalcitrant Greeks of America under control of Orthodoxy. Yielding to our offensiveness and permitting the ministers to become victims of our impiety will eventually lead the whole church into moral destruction.

    One of the many victims of our impiety is Reverend Cyrill Georgeadis, who, in spite of his thirty-four years of faithful service to the church, and in spite of his being the choice of the venerable body that sent him to Chicago to perpetuate his splendid work, goes down in the archives of the Holy Synod of Greece as a condemned minister of the Greek Church.

    When the mother church crucifies its ministers to appease our wrath and thus keep us under the wing of Orthodoxy, the sacrifice is too great for 11such unworthy subjects, who threaten to become Protestants if iniquity, impiety, and rascality are not condoned. If the mother church wishes to prevent our pollution from rotting out her holiness, purity, dignity, and very foundations, the best thing to do is to know us as we are. I believe that persecution of the ministers will then cease.

    These are the facts which I solemnly present to the mother church for consideration.

    The much-discussed question of the Holy Synod of Greece and the recalled priest of the Chicago Greek Community is at last settled, and Reverend Cyrill Georgeadis is found guilty by ...

    III C, I B 4, III H, IV
  • Greek Star -- February 07, 1908
    Open Letter to Consul Nicholas Salopoulos Concerning Our Greek Church Music

    Dear Sir: [This letter is] in regard to the communication of the head of the Greek Orthodox Church of America, His Grace the Archbishop of Athens, Theocletos, regarding the propriety of permitting modern choral music to be sung and played in our two churches, the Greek Orthodox Church of the Holy Trinity and the Greek Orthodox Church of the Assumption of the Holy Virgin: We beg you to take action in this matter and enforce the ecclesiastical laws and age-long customs of the Holy Greek Orthodox Churches in this city.

    The Right Reverend Theocletos has spoken and written repeatedly about the use of a quartet or [any] modern innovations in the composition and music of the church choir.

    As a result of his strict supervision of the Church of Greece, he has succeeded 2in banning the use of the organ as well as of the modern European quartet in all the churches of free and liberated Greece. He has succeeded in reintroducing the traditional practice of using Greek Byzantine music in the Church.

    Our committee, which voices the desires and wishes of the majority of the Greek people of Chicago, resents and rebels at the unorthodox, unconventional, and blasphemous use of the European and American church quartet in the liturgies and masses of the Greek Orthodox Church of the Holy Trinity of Chicago.

    We beg you to prohibit the use of this sort of strange chanting and singing in our churches. Will you ask the priest and board [of directors] of the above-mentioned Church to continue using the Byzantine chants and hymns, sung on the Byzantine scale? Our church has not deviated from this ecclesiastical music in all the centuries of our church's existence. This is the 3the only type of music which can interpret the inspired ideas and divine principles of our church. It is the only music which can properly make the old hymns and old church songs of the Orthodox Church perfectly understood and thoroughly enjoyed. It is the only music that brings serenity to the soul, and makes possible the glorification and supplication of God and all the saints.

    We ask you to use your authority to put an end to these new innovations, which, if allowed to develop and spread, may undermine and imperil our church. Be assured that you will be fulfilling the desire of our souls; being Greeks and devoted Orthodox Christians, we will never forget your great service in behalf of the preservation of our most sacred and cherished institutions.

    In the event that you do not heed our request and urgent appeal, however, we wish to inform you that the people of the Greek community of Chicago will not consider you fit to represent the Greek government, and to protect and promote the interests of the Greek people. We will rise in protest and raise a voice so powerful that it will travel over oceans and seas until it reaches the ears 4of His Grace the Archbishop of Athens, Theocletos.

    We have the honor to remain respectfully yours, The Committee of Protest.

    [Translator's note: Long list of signatures omitted in translation.]

    Dear Sir: [This letter is] in regard to the communication of the head of the Greek Orthodox Church of America, His Grace the Archbishop of Athens, Theocletos, regarding the propriety ...

    III C, I B 4, III H
  • Greek Star -- April 17, 1908
    The Greek Orthodox Church and Community of Chicago Program of the Greek Orthodox Church's Services During Passion Week (Special Announcement)

    [Translator's note: This special announcement includes a rather detailed description of the beautiful services of the Greek Orthodox church during Passion Week, that is, from Palm Sunday through Easter Sunday. It would take many articles to give a full account of the re-enactment of the martyrdom, persecution, crucifixion and the glorious resurrection of Our Lord Jesus Christ.]

    The hierarchy of the Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church of the Greek community of Chicago has sent The Greek Star the official program of the high masses and daily religious services which are to be held throughout Passion Week, which begins Palm Sunday and ends with the Love Feast on Easter Sunday.

    Throughout Passion Week all the evening services, (most of the services in 2this week start in the evening) begin at 7:30 P. M.

    During the morning service on Palm Sunday the triumphant entry of the Saviour, Jesus Christ, into Jerusalem as King of Israel will be re-enacted in a magnificent and most elaborate church ceremony.

    On Sunday evening, the religious dramatization of the Saviour's life and teachings will begin. This service is of especial interest and beauty because a memorable scene from the Book of Exodus, in the Old Testament, is re-enacted. The church honors Joseph, the all-beautiful, who leaves his cloak in the hands of the Egyptian woman and thus avoids the commission of sin. For this virtuous act of his, God glorifies him and makes him viceroy of Egypt.

    On the day following, which is Good Monday, the parable of the Ten Virgins is read and some beautiful chants and hymns are sung very beautifully by the church choir. The church adopted this service in order to exhort her children 3to avoid the indifference and laziness of the five foolish virgins. To the contrary, the faithful are urged to imitate the other five virgins who were prudent and ready to participate in the sacred marriage, the eternal joy of heaven, with Jesus as the divine groom.

    On Good Tuesday evening, the service has as its main theme, the life of the prostitute, who foregoes the sinful life and pleasures of the flesh, remembering the pains of purgatory which await all prostitutes and prodigals. On this evening the excellent church choir will sing the exalted and magnificent chant of Kassiani, the repentent woman, which is one of the most moving and best-known church chants, beginning with the verse, "Lord, the woman who submitted to many deadly sins begs you in full contrition for absolution....etc."

    Wednesday evening, at 6 P. M., the holy liturgy of the Divine Unction takes place at the church for all those who cannot receive the anointing at home. At the usual time, the service of the last Supper is held, during which Jesus prophesies that one of the twelve disciples will betray him. The washing 4of the disciples' feet by Jesus is also re-enacted.

    On Good Thursday, at 10 A. M. Saint Basil's divine service is held. The reading of the life and divine works of Christ on earth is very impressive. The minister reads about the life of Jesus Christ from the New Testament and from the Four Gospels twelve times with regular intermissions, during which appropriate chants are sung by the chanter deacon or choir.

    The Holy Cross is brought out from the Holy of Holies and then the crucifixion of Christ is re-enacted in a small but very moving ceremony with the famous chant, "This day Christ is being raised on the cross....etc."

    On Good Friday at 10 A. M. the divine service of the Holy Hours is sung and soon afterward the sacred cenotaph of Christ is beautifully decorated with flowers and wreaths. In the evening the soul-stirring funeral lamentations are sung by the choir.


    The elaborate and lengthy morning services on Good Saturday which bear the name of Saint Basil's High Mass precedes the grand and magnificent service which announces the victory of Christ over death. The candlelighting and magnificent ceremony which constitutes the climax of all the religious services of Passion Week is a vivid and highly dramatic re-enactment of the Glorious Resurrection of Christ. Exactly at midnight and as the final moment of the midnight mass is drawing near the priest comes out of the Holy of Holies singing, "Come, receive the unfailing light of salvation." The congregation then receives the light, with their candles, which symbolizes divine and spiritual enlightenment. All the faithful greet each other from then on for forty days, that is, until the Feast of the Ascension, with Christ is Risen and the response is, Truly, He is Risen.

    Easter Sunday is a day of great rejoicing in all Christendom, but, especially among the Greek Orthodox adherents. From 8-10 A.M. the High Mass in commemoration of the Risen Christ is held, especially for those who are living out-of-town and who did not have the opportunity to witness the ceremony of the 6Resurrection of Christ the previous midnight.

    At 3 P. M. the service of the Second Rising of Christ is held which is usually called Agape, or the Love Feast, during which the gospel of the day is read in various languages and the faithful embrace each other.

    Special notice of The Greek Star: We observe that a funeral procession around the Greek quarter is not being held as was the case last year. Serious trouble and fights took place last year while the holy procession of Christ's holy cenotaph passed through the Jewish and Italian quarters on the night of Good Friday.

    Let us worship God and hold our church services and ceremonies of the Passion in our church. There is no use transforming our services to noisy public spectacles on the streets of the city. God can be best worshipped in quiet and humility without exhibitions and demonstrations. We hope to see all the Greeks 7of Chicago take part in the ceremonies and services of Passion Week.

    We are sure that this program and announcement of the Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church will be read with great interest.

    [Translator's note: This special announcement includes a rather detailed description of the beautiful services of the Greek Orthodox church during Passion Week, that is, from Palm Sunday through Easter Sunday. ...

    III B 3 b, I B 4, III C
  • Greek Star -- March 05, 1909
    Widespread Protestant Propaganda in Our Community (Editorial)

    In the last issue of The Greek Star, we dealt with the subject of Protestant propaganda which is being used to proselytize members of the Greek Community. Time and again, this newspaper has warned our people against such propagandistic campaigns which attempt to disorganize the Greek Orthodox Church. Our innocent and unsuspecting people should know that there are such propagandists going about; they have taken advantage of religious freedom and tolerance in the United States to put up churches and organizations of their own.

    Every Greek who happens to be proselytized by such Protestant groups becomes a most fanatic missionary for the spreading of their novel ideas. These renegade Greeks who have not only renounced their religion and particular 2faith, which are the main characteristics of a true Greek, but they are also waging war against the creed, the doctrine, the practices, and traditions of our Church.

    Any Greek who denies his religion must not be called a Greek, but a traitor. He should not be allowed to associate or even to speak to other Greeks. The self-appointed and self-ordained priest of this Protestant sect, Dan Adalis, who, we are grieved to say, is or rather was a Greek, has been defaming our Church publicly and, in addition, has spread his propagandistic nets to catch as many dissatisfied Greeks as possible. We cannot promise Adalis that he will not be able to induce some fools to follow him and his employers, but we can assure him that no Greek in his right mind will leave the sanctuary of the Greek Church, without which no Greek can live decently and happily.


    Those who had the misfortune to know such a debased character as Adalis, know that while he was unemployed some months ago, he was willing to take any job--even the job of injuring his own people and harming our institutions so long as there was something in it.

    The disgraceful name of Dan Adalis is known to many Greeks, but, in order to make it known to all for their protection, The Greek Star wishes to inform all that this man is a vagabond and a fake. He has been engaged in so many illegal activities that if the law should catch up with him he would be put in jail for life.

    It would be doing our people a service if we suggested that he be prosecuted and driven out of Chicago, if he continues annoying our fellow countrymen.

    This is what we have to say about Adalis; as far as the other propagandists are concerned, we warn them to seek new converts among their own people.


    Other nationalities may become Protestants, Mohammedans, Jews, and Buddhists, but the great majority of the Greek people will remain Greeks and Orthodox Christians, adhering devotedly to an age-old doctrine and Church that have supported and saved the Greek nation in its long and adventurous history. So, our enemies are warned to keep away from our people.

    We are forced not only to call the attention of our people to these new forms of foreign religious propaganda, but also to ask our clergy, especially, to attack those who would weaken their authority and destroy the Church. Let our priests, that is, those who, before anyone else, are expected to fight for Orthodoxy, seek out those who wish to corrupt our faithful, poison their minds, and eventually draw them away from the fold. Let our clergy emulate the struggle of Saint Louis's Reverend Fiabolis who was outstanding as a valiant defender of the Greek Church during the religious controversies and proselytizing attempts in New England.


    From the columns of this paper, we wish to sound the call of salvation. We wish to warn the good and patriotic Greeks of our settlement to beware of treacherous Greeks who are agents of foreign interests and who work smoothly and surreptitiously among our people. Our Community has been infected by them and the resulting disgrace to the Greeks of Chicago is reflected on all the Hellenic element in America.

    In the name of our honor and sacred Church, we raise a protesting voice. We appeal to the press, the clergy, the heads of our various institutions and organizations, businessmen, and every patriot to co-operate with each other to enlighten the people in the face of the many threats that are confronting us. First, then, we must educate our people and strengthen their moral stamina and, secondly, we must exterminate those countrymen of ours who are a disgrace both to themselves and to the Greek name.

    In the last issue of The Greek Star, we dealt with the subject of Protestant propaganda which is being used to proselytize members of the Greek Community. Time and again, ...

    III C, I B 4, III A, I C
  • Loxias -- December 11, 1909
    The Priesthood

    p. 1.- Since the Athenian army has decided to rid Greece of all undesirable elements, it is not a bad idea for the Greeks of America to follow the example. Our undesirables are non other than the priests, who hide behind the cloaks of holiness.

    The duty of a priest is to look after the spiritual needs of his flock. This does not mean that he must be present at every social gathering of the city, eating and drinking till early in the morning. Nor does it mean that he must eat chicken on Wednesday and Fridays, while he preaches that these should be fast days.


    He collects a monthly salary from the church but thinks nothing of charging heavily for extra service such as weddings, funerals, and so forth.

    We believe in priests, but we want our priests to be clean and honest as their profession denotes. We want them to help the sick and poor. We want them to be less mercenary and more priestly. In other words we want them to "practice what they preach."

    p. 1.- Since the Athenian army has decided to rid Greece of all undesirable elements, it is not a bad idea for the Greeks of America to follow the example. ...

    III C, I B 4