The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

Filter by Date

  • Greek Star -- March 18, 1904
    Chicago Greeks in Night Schools

    p. 2- The twenty-four night schools of Chicago, which closed for the season last Friday, report the number of students attending classes and their various nationalities. In the school at Monroe and Morgan Streets, 325 of 723 students were Greeks. In the Jones School at Harrison Street and Plymouth Court, 192 of 500 students were Greeks.

    The new term begins on October 3, and it is believed that the number of Greeks attending classes will be much larger than in the past because many Greeks have an idea of going into business for themselves.

    p. 2- The twenty-four night schools of Chicago, which closed for the season last Friday, report the number of students attending classes and their various nationalities. In the school at ...

    I A 1 a, I A 3
  • Greek Star -- August 05, 1904
    Educating the Greek Immigrant to Be Good and Useful Citizen-Americanization and the Lynch Law International Melting Pot (Editorial)

    Good is made and not born. When we explore the universe to discover and define good and evil, we are confronted with this immutable and infallible natural truth, that good and evil are the result of wisdom or of the want of it. Both good and evil serve the interests of mankind. Individuals, tribes, and nations have their own particular standards of good and evil. No universal standard exists. Many things which in one place are considered to be good are in another place not so considered. The morals, the laws, and many other things in one country may be the extreme opposites of the same things in another country. And the good citizen of one country might not be a good citizen in another country.


    Now when to this land of the free and the prosperous, this land of the best civilized of peoples, the Greek immigrant comes to make his living, he may be and is a good citizen in his own environment, and his character to a great degree has already been molded. In the small village where he was reared he was taught not to steal, not to get drunk, to honor and revere family life, to obey the laws of his country, and to work hard at any kind of job in order to make his living. He was taught that work is not a disgrace, but that idleness is. His religion is part of his being. In the very little schooling which he received he was fanatically taught to defend his country and everything Greek. His etiquette and every other constituent element of his life have been made and molded to fit his narrow, limited circle. Living and functioning in his own country and in his own particular environment, he unquestionably is a good citizen.

    And when he arrives in America he naturally attempts to function, with certain reservations, in his own accustomed way. Is he to blame for this? By no means! He came here to earn some American dollars at any kind of job because he has had no training and has no vocation.


    He resides with other Greeks of his kind because like attracts like, and he begins to learn a few words of English in order to apply for a job. Many unpleasant incidents take place when the poor, ignorant immigrant Greek attempts to use his first acquirements in the language of the land. The rascality of his mischievous compatriots in teaching him ("just for fun," as they say) the wrong words leads the blind bundle of humanity astray. Many improper and indecent words are unconsciously spoken by the ABC pupil in American life and environment.

    Where are our societies to educate and look after the newcomer who by his ignorance may cause unpleasant occurrences which reflect upon Greek businessmen, upon the Greek name, and upon the Greek nation? We have to educate the newcomer and adjust him to American life and enlightenment. Why, not very long ago three hundred Greeks, like a flock of sheep, were huddled by their crooked leaders into the packing-houses to break a strike!


    Are the ignorant un-Americanized Greeks to blame? They do not know what a strike is, and above all they were not told that this was a strike undertaken by fellow-workers to improve conditions. The crooked agents took advantage of the Greeks' necessity, ignorance, and eagerness to earn money to take care of their poor families in Greece and caused them to be stigmatized as strike-breakers and consequently to become hated by the populace, which does not stop to weigh evidence impartially. The Greek was offered a job, a chance to earn money to feed his needy family. He trusted his compatriots, the agents, who in their greed exploited him, forgetting the high principles of the race. Can any sane and impartial observer blame these three hundred Greeks, who were thrown out of a job when the strike ended? No! But nevertheless all these Greeks were stigmatized, and many unjust and inexcusable expressions of hatred, mockery, and ridicule were printed in the dailies.

    The necessity for such a society to Americanize the newcomer is imperative. It is not only beneficial to the individual to be educated in Americanism, but it is beneficial to us all, to our race, to our Mother-Greece, and above all to the American commonwealth. Have we such a society? Unfortunately, no.


    It is about time, if the Greeks in America wish to become distinguished, prosperous, and really good citizens and to live in harmony with their American environment, to begin to educate and look after the uninitiated - the Greek newcomers.

    The newcomer's first and second year in America under the guiding hand of the proposed society would have a great influence upon his future life.

    It is the duty of businessmen, of professional men, and of the Church to form such societies, at first in big cities and in great industrial centers and later everywhere.

    The American type, in my opinion, is the best type in political and social life the world over. But in spite of my love for this country and my devotion to it I am not satisfied with the ways and means employed to Americanize immigrants.


    Giving correct answers to the naturalization examiner's questions and raising the hand to take an oath are not all that constitutes Americanization. The four-year period is not enough to mold the individuals of the heterogeneous mass of immigrants into a new type of man.

    "America the Great" is not a homogeneous mass but a conglomeration, an international melting-pot. The habits, the traditions, the creeds, the national fanaticism, and the standards of life of all this heterogeneous mass cannot be changed and altered into Americanism by the simple acquisition of the first and second papers of naturalization any more than a pagan could become a Christian by simply being baptized and hearing a few words mumbled by the officiating priest. The first and the second, the newly-made American and the newly-made Christian, are so in name only.

    In my opinion a man should be honored with the name "American" who truly loves America and American idealism,and who is therefore ready to defend this country with the sacrifice of his life. Anything short of that, in my opinion, is balderdash, mockery, exploitation, forgery, and deception.


    He who is "American" and does not salute the Stars and Stripes because of religious scruples is not truly an American. He who is not willing to fight for America because of religious scruples or for any other reason is not a true American. He has become naturalized not for love of America and of the great American idealism but with some other motive.

    Why should America shed her blood to protect him if he does not stand ready to defend America when there is need? If America were invaded and enslaved by an oppressor, would he continue to be an "American?" No! By the name of Zeus, no! He will change color, nationality, and religion as quickly as he changes his shirt.

    This type of person, in my opinion, is not included in the glorious register of Americans. He is "American" (qualified by his naturalization papers) in name only, not in body and soul. Americanism is composed of noble and lofty ideals and principles. It is not an empty appellation without life, vitality, and force but on the contrary the living substance of the best and the loftiest thoughts of mankind.


    We have thousands upon thousands of citizens - naturalized citizens - who are opposed, and very much opposed, to patriotism, advocating in colleges and universities "cosmopolitanism." This philosophic doctrine may be right, and it is right in the last analysis, but the world in general is not yet ripe for cosmopolitanism. And since this delicious fruit of Utopia is not yet developed and ripe, it is not wise nor safe nor beneficial to the world to pluck it for consumption. Therefore patriotism at all costs must be maintained as the fundamental base, pillar, and structure of a nation. In the present stage of our evolution, while my next-door neighbor has the manners of a Turk, it would be folly and treason to disarm the patriotic citizen. And those in America to-day who do not advocate and encourage patriotism are, in my opinion, Americans in name only.

    Those uninformed three hundred Greeks who recently accepted jobs as strikebreakers may be and are greenhorns, very, very far from measuring up to the standard of American life, political and social, but they are imbued body and soul with patriotism; and time will show, when America calls them 9to protect her, that in spite of all their shortcomings they will be in the country's first line of defense. The integrity, prestige, honor, and safety of the country depend absolutely on citizens who are patriots.

    Fortunately for America, the mother of a new race under the sun, and fortunately for the world in general, we have many true American patriots who will guide this country in attaining the heights of its destiny.

    One blemish still remains to mar the perfection of American progress, civilization, and justice, and that is the lynch law.

    In my opinion this is an outworn and out-of-date tradition. Lynching, in the past, was absolutely necessary. Established authority and courts, in the times when lynching originated, were far apart, and naturally it was necessary to administer justice where the culprit committed his crime. The spirited and law-loving citizens of those districts where lynching prevailed, since there were many impediments to legal procedure, took 10the trouble to administer justice by applying the lynch law; and indeed it was the quickest and the most effective way to punish the perpetrator of a crime against society. In those times they did not hang an innocent person; they hanged those who defied society and its established laws. All very well; the South was rid of law-breakers. But the necessity which existed at that time exists no longer. The country is developed; in all parts of it there are courts and authority legally established, and such law enforcement is not necessary to-day. The legalized justice of the courts must be supreme in the United States. Any other justice is contrary to the dignity and integrity of the courts and the people of the Republic.

    Every nation on earth has had a lynch law and still has one, but only in time of war; and the law is executed not by the populace but by the military authorities. These facts are familiar to us all.

    I doubt very much that real and true Americans to-day take part in lynchings. In the South I must admit that lynchings are performed by genuine Americans, for tradition is still very strong among those law-abiding, 11law-respecting, honest-to-goodness Southerners; but in the North it seems to me that it is a different story. Some would-be Americans abuse the Southern tradition and incite riots which are very detrimental to the nation's good name. For instance, not very long ago a Greek immigrant on the West Side was almost lynched by an infuriated mob of what appeared to be American people. Our correspondent, who was present at the scene of the outrage, emphatically stated that the majority of the would-be lynchers were unable to speak English. For the sake of decency I refrain from mentioning of what races they were who took part in the attack on the Greek. Are these Americans? If they have their naturalization papers, to be sure, they are Americans, but, in my opinion, Americans in name only.

    Let us hope that this stain upon the brightness of American civilization will be wiped away, and that due respect and honor will be accorded to American jurisprudence and to the American people in general. Very many distinguished Americans all over the country share the same opinion, and I am certain that the time is near at hand when the whole country will agree with these great and far-sighted American patriots.


    The melting-pot of America the Great, which receives, holds, transforms, and molds the heterogeneous masses of mankind, will continue to do its God-given duty for the benefit of humanity, and in the years to come the Greek, the Jew, and many other peoples with deep-rooted traditions, racial and religious, will face one another with souls reborn. And out of this ever-active America God has predestined that a new type of mankind shall be produced, a type that will enlighten all the world.

    Greece, in the past, civilized the barbarians. America, the daughter of ancient Greece, to-day is civilizing the civilized people, and the America of to-morrow will lead all the world to unimagined heights of civilization and enlightenment.

    Good is made and not born. When we explore the universe to discover and define good and evil, we are confronted with this immutable and infallible natural truth, that good ...

    III A, I D 2 a 4, I A 1 a, III G, III H, I C, I G, I H, I J
  • Greek Star -- October 21, 1904
    The Public Schools Are the Bulwark of the Nation Schools Independent of the Church Are the Best

    p. 1- With our Greek schools in America springing up like mushrooms beside Greek churches, the Greeks of Chicago and elsewhere are warned to bear in mind the futile efforts of the Church in the past to dominate public instruction. History tells us that the Church for many centuries took to itself the role of guardian of the entire education of youth. In Spain, Italy, Austria, Greece, and the other countries where the Church exercised such influence, and its superstitions flourished unchecked, the result was an increase in those dubious theories which are the precursors of sciolism. This happened simply because the complete education of youth was left in the hands of the Church, or rather the Church succeeded in dominating the education of youth.

    Under so superstitious an education ignorance, antagonism to science, and intolerable nonsense reached such heights that history records no other characteristic products of this theocratic education than religious dogmas, letters of blood, and the resigned submission of the populace.


    The real educational system, under which the human mind expands cosmologically, and by which false theories and superstitions are routed, is to be found here in America. And we Greeks of America, for our own interest, the interest of coming generations, the interest of our adopted country, and the interest of the Church itself must accept this great American educational system, which is free from any ecclesaistical domination. Church is an imperative necessity for a nation, but School is the nation's whole life, and public schools, which are free from theocracy, are the real bulwarks of the country. Let us profit by the pitfalls into which others have fallen and maintain freedom of education if we wish to produce good, useful, broad-minded citizens whose knowledge and enlightenment will promote and protect the welfare of the Church.

    p. 1- With our Greek schools in America springing up like mushrooms beside Greek churches, the Greeks of Chicago and elsewhere are warned to bear in mind the futile efforts ...

    I A 1 a, I A 2 a, III C
  • Greek Star -- December 22, 1905
    Philomaths' Fraternity

    p. 4- Forty young Greeks attending colleges and universities in Chicago met last week and after exchanging views and ideas decided to form a fraternity of their own, which will be known as the Philomaths' Fraternity.

    The aim of the newly-formed circle is to provide mutual cooperation and mutual assistance in spreading scientific knowledge by lectures, debates, and other similar affairs, thus disabusing the superstitious minds of the misinformed and ignorant public.

    Credit and honor are due to these young philomaths, and their title is correct, for their inclination for learning and their love of it will eventually open for them the door into that hall of polymathy which they aspire to enter. Although the newly-founded fraternity is unique in the life of the Greek community in Chicago, it has nevertheless had predecessors in Greece.

    p. 4- Forty young Greeks attending colleges and universities in Chicago met last week and after exchanging views and ideas decided to form a fraternity of their own, which will ...

    II B 1 d, I A 1 a, III E
  • Greek Star -- November 08, 1907
    Chicago's First Greek Lawyers (Editorial)

    The awarding of a license to practice law is an unusual and important occasion to our professional men. All Greeks in this city must greet this news with enthusiasm and congratulate the brilliant young initiate of Themis, the Goddess of Justice.

    Mr. Nicholas Kyriacopoulos is the pride of the Greeks of Chicago and we all know that he will go far in the legal profession.

    The notorious lack of university trained and competent Greek lawyers, doctors, teachers, engineers, priests, etc., not only in Chicago, but in the entire United States has been acutely felt, because almost all the Greeks that established themselves in this country did not have the opportunity or the good fortune to acquire even the rudiments of an elementary education.


    Nevertheless, they deserve the highest praise for the amazing progress which they have made thus far in the world of industry and trade. Notwithstanding their lack of the proper intellectual equipment and training, our people have made considerable progress in types of work on a higher level than ordinary labor and menial tasks. It is only natural that our people should be handicapped by the lack of an elementary education since they left their homes and fatherland when they were young.

    Whatever the Greeks have accomplished in America they owe to the innate and characteristic Greek desire to progress and strive for a better life. But, when natural gifts are not developed and properly exploited by education and thorough schooling, never can our people reap the rich fruits which the constant toil and labor of the Greeks throughout America should have produced.

    But even our ablest community leaders are unable to show any important results in relation to the general life and affairs of our communities, while those Greeks who make up the hundreds of Greek quarters in America are illiterate and 3uneducated. That is the reason why we see so many evils and faults among the numerous Greek communities and organizations in the United States. Because the Greeks in Chicago and throughout America are sailing without a helm, and because they do not have the necessary educational background, a complete equalizing of our intellectual forces is quite noticeable. As yet not many individuals have been discovered who can rise above the station and social rank of the businessman.

    Fortunately, during the last few years, a small number of professional men have been arriving in America, and particularly in Chicago; but they constitute a small minority, struggling against countless obstacles and infinite difficulties. More often than not their voice is a cry in the wilderness. These men have to contend with all sorts of prejudices. They are almost always misunderstood. In spite of the eagerness of the great masses of our people to listen to them and profit by their experience and wisdom, half-baked intellectuals intervene and separate the real intellectuals and the people. These half-baked intellectuals by any and various means fearlessly exploit the people.


    It is to the interest of the pseudo-philosophers and the supposedly wise men to distort the truth and attack anyone who is really in position to enlighten and educate.

    Our half-baked semi-intellectuals are those that seek to occupy the most important official and public positions. It is they who want to control our common affairs in order to bolster their vanity and foolish pride. It is these bold pretenders to knowledge and wisdom who establish and organize groups of all sorts for the sole purpose of assuming the title of president or secretary. It is these same characters that sow the seeds of discord and disunion--provoking serious episodes and violent wrangling. The most regrettable part of all is that the great masses of our people cannot perceive their semi-ignorance, and very frequently the people confuse them with those who are truly educated. This is where the self-styled, self-appointed teacher is confused with the high-calibred professor, the horse doctor with the capable doctor, and the puffed-up law student with the accomplished lawyer.

    There are scores of doctors who have immigrated to and established themselves in 5Chicago as well as throughout the United States; there is yet a great and broad opportunity for still more. It is of no great difficulty for the immigrant doctor to become established; by taking his practical examinations in medicine with the help of an interpreter, he has no indispensable need of the English language. Especially is this true since the clientele of a Greek doctor are mostly Greeks.

    This is not the case with the lawyers, for, if the Greek lawyer and jurist has not completely mastered the English language, and without having previously studied the American system of laws and without being able to bring a case before an American court, he cannot successfully pass the stiff bar examinations. These difficulties cannot be easily overcome. That is why, although there is a broad field open to Greek lawyers, Mr. Nicholas Kyriacopoulos was the first Greek lawyer that had the courage and initiative to submit to the practical bar examinations; he came through successfully, and was granted his license to practise law in the American courts. His success is attributed first to his thorough liberal educational background,and second,to the all-important fact 6that he has been able to master the English language.

    Our new lawyer is a judge's son. He was only a young man when he completed his studies in the Law School of the National University at Athens. In taking his doctorate in jurisprudence, he won outstanding distinction among the hundreds of students. Afterwards, he was sent to England where he studied political economy as a graduate student at the University of Oxford, receiving another doctor's degree at that University. Returning to Greece he practiced law there for some time. Only two years ago he arrived in America, coming directly to Chicago where he took several law courses at the University of Chicago under some of the most distinguished professors. Mr. Kyriacopoulos studied at Chicago for a comparatively short period of time before he took the Illinois bar examination at Springfield, and was consequently awarded his license to practice law. So, this brilliant young attorney has been accorded the signal honor of becoming a full-fledged Greek-American lawyer in the State of Illinois.

    May I express the wish that the splendid and meteoric career of our new attorney 7serve as an example for others who should emulate Mr. Kyriacopoulos's magnificent accomplishment.

    There is indeed the greatest need for Greek professional men in Chicago and in America generally. Undoubtedly such men will increase the prestige of the Greek people as well as contribute to the general well-being of our people in this great country.

    Spiros A. Kotakis,

    Attorney and Journalist.

    The awarding of a license to practice law is an unusual and important occasion to our professional men. All Greeks in this city must greet this news with enthusiasm and ...

    II A 1, I A 1 a, III A, III G, IV
  • Greek Star -- June 05, 1908
    Our Fatherland's Blessing (Editorial)

    Just as the child recognizes the mother who has weaned it and thus is thereafter obligated to the parent, so does every civilized people and even a few semibarbarous peoples recognize their common mother, the land of their birth. There is no doubt that the children have diverse important obligations to their mother who has suffered and toiled for them. To a greater degree, however, higher and nobler obligations must be accepted for the land of ones birth, for there is no greater ideal than genuine filial devotion to one's country. Even as a mother, it rears and cares for its children, always according to its means and abilities. The state and the national government assume the responsibility for educating the young in public educational institutions and upon completion of their formal education trains them in civic and military matters, that they may become useful and productive citizens.


    We want to say, here, that family organization and management is on a small scale and roughly comparable to the methods and pattern of the national government or state. Education within the family, for example, parallels and to some extent precedes the education which is offered in public educational institutions. So, we notice that the family supplements the work of the state in many important ways. There never has been a sound national structure where the national character has not been firmly molded by the family as the first firm foundation.

    But, specifically, where should the young be trained physically and mentally and exactly where is their character to be formed? It is a repetition, we know, but we emphasize that the country's sacred temples, the churches, and above all the traditional, patriarchal family organization are its small and large educational institutions. So, in state, church, and the family institution, we find the foundries where the state's citizens are educated and trained; where national character is molded; and where individuals willing to sacrifice their wealth, their lives, and their souls for the sacred ideals and cherished 3dreams of the fatherland are created.

    In these sacred national tabernacles and in the various educational institutions, resides the great national Greek spirit which is a most precious treasure for those men who derive strength, pride, and inspiration whenever they are called upon to fulfill the national historic destiny of a reborn Greece.

    Greek citizens and patriots who have been reared with the blessings of their fatherland and who have been inspired by its spirit, possess the means to contribute to the glory and greatness of their country. Today, we, the Greek-American immigrants who are so for away from home have a common mother, that is our glorious and beloved Hellas. As far as we know, there is no Greek in Chicago who is not devoted to Mother Hellas, body and soul. We are demonstrating here the ways and means whereby the future of our country may be enhanced and insured. On every given occasion we always contribute in proportion to our material means towards the needs of the homeland. While it is true that we have never denied our help and support to our country, it is equally 4true that we have never acted in a spirit of concord and harmony to demonstrate our loyalty and devotion to it. Especially here in Chicago has there been no important concerted action, no wholehearted co-operation amongst us when we were called upon to support some great national cause. We can show only individual accomplishments. We can claim rightfully that we have submitted to numerous sacrifices in money, sweat, and blood which are indeed proof of "patriotic spirit and a high sense of personal honor," but we have never agreed to unite, to act together, to work harmoniously for the promotion of our common cause. This never happens because our vanities, hatreds, personal rancors, blind ambitions, and passions for position and power are chronic diseases with our people which have seriously and tragically interfered with the progress and welfare of our nation as well as of our Chicago community.

    It seems that these diseases must be eradicated by death.

    To the Greek people of America, there now has been tossed the idea of ordering, financing, and building a Greek battleship in the United States, as a gift to 5Mother Hellas. This is indeed a most praiseworthy and daring act of patriotism and genuine devotion. Those who conceived the idea and who are working for its fulfillment must be highly commended for their noble sentiments. However, the question arises: Will the great and sacred objective materialize?

    The Greeks of Chicago know the state of our affairs. Because of conditions in the Greek communities particularly, and the economic crisis with attendant unemployment generally prevailing in America at this time, it seems that the project has been hastily and prematurely conceived. However, I think that under certain conditions it is not difficult to accomplish the task of building a Greek man-of-war. And this is the way in which it can be done: First, get rid of envy and hatred. Let there be peace. Get rid of our violent Greek stubbornness and poisonous enmity. A general spirit of love must prevail. Lovers of true patriotism must unite. Perfect harmony must prevail and must be established among all classes of our nationals in America.


    How can this be accomplished? Is it impossible? In the final analysis we think that it is not as hard a job as many of us are inclined to think it is. Those of us who are leading the campaign for the great cause must seek the sympathy and support of those who have, until now, been opposed to many causes which are beneficial to Hellas, because they did not think of the ideas first and because they were not offered a position of leadership and responsibility.

    The prominent Greek leaders of New York City especially, and the old vanguard of the Panhellenic League particularly, must be appeased and won over. Let them join with each other, not as friends, but at least as patriots, thus contributing to the full realization of our sacred cause. From New York City itself, next to Chicago, Philadelphia, and Boston, must come the warmth of concord if our cause is to succeed. As our elders and first immigrants let them set the example. The work which they will do toward unifying and reconciling the Greeks of New York City will do much to influence the internal affairs and the welfare of all the Greek communities throughout the United States. For 7this effort the invaluable support of New York's metropolitan Greek press is urgently needed. These two important factors--the Greek element of New York and its powerful press--will be the two great pillars of Hellenic strength in this country.

    Now, then,with the individual co-operation of our people and in a spirit of self-sacrifice for our homeland, the Greeks of New York will have a direct effect on our own great community here in Chicago. There is no doubt that all other Greek communities will follow in their footsteps and emulate their good example. All of us would like to see Mr. Vlastos [Translator's Note: Great pioneer Greek newspaper publisher in New York] and Mr. Botasis [Translator's Note: Distinguished Greek diplomat and acting Greek consul-general in New York] work in harmony and for common purposes. The great Rallis family [Translator's Note: A prominent family of politicians and businessmen] as well as the many other outstanding leaders of New York will set the pace for the Greek press, the clergy, the consulor staffs, teachers, professionals, businessmen, and laborers. Then, united under their inspired leadership, we will work 8constructively for the high purposes which we shall set before us.

    The newly appointed Greek Ambassador to the United States, His Excellency, Mr. Lambros Kobomizas, will receive with great joy the news that the Greeks in America are working harmoniously and enthusiastically together. His word and his benevolent influence will do much to spur our people to work together. So, old enemies will meet in New York City; Themistocles will meet Aristides [Translator's Note: Two great Athenians who forgot their personal hatreds and animosities in a critical moment before the Battle of Salamis which was waged against the Persians and which saved Athens and Greece from slavery and subjugation], and after a short while with the help of God we expect to send a battleship as a gift to the waters of famed Salamis under the shadow of the ancient temples of Athens. The ship will greet the spirits of the great heroes of Greece; it will cause us to recall the heroic naval exploits of Kanaris, Miaoulis, Bouboulina, etc. [Translator's Note: These were great admirals during the Greek War of Liberation, 1821-1829.]


    It was these heroes of modern Greece who made the Greek world shine with their great acts of heroism, reckless bravery, and self-sacrifice.

    The ship which we, the long-absent children of Greece, will send to those distant shores will greet the great historic monuments which have been put up in commemoration of those who gave their lives that Greece might remain free. It will greet both our liberated and unredeemed brothers in the Fatherland. It will give the latter courage and strength to overthrow the tyrant and effect the future resurrection of our country.

    If we so succeed in co-operating with each other, great sums of money will be collected. Let every patriot imagine the thrills of joy that will course through his body. Let every genuine Greek in America imagine the great honor that will be attached to our name by offering this important naval unit to our country.


    We, who live among many foreign communities in Chicago and in America generally, separated by thousands of miles from our land of birth, are not forgetting the most urgent needs of our Fatherland in spite of the fact that most of us have been thrown into the hard struggle for existence in a new type of world. Today, more than ever before, we are remembering our country with the deepest sense of obligation to it; especially, because Greece's naval power and superiority will decide its destiny and national aspirations.

    So, may Almighty God keep our leaders here in America united so that the noble work which we have undertaken may be completed. May the wishes of our fellow-countrymen be fulfilled; and may the Holy Church of Christ grant us her divine grace during the progress of our work. May the hopes and aspirations of those of our brothers who are under foreign domination help us destroy the tyranny, barbarism, and oppression. We will thus be worthy of the confidence which our brothers and our beloved Fatherland have in us.

    Just as the child recognizes the mother who has weaned it and thus is thereafter obligated to the parent, so does every civilized people and even a few semibarbarous peoples ...

    III H, I A 1 a, I B 3 b, II D 10, I C
  • [Correspondence] -- June 22, 1914
    Correspondence of Mr. A. A. Pantelis

    Mr. A. A. Pantelis

    816 Ashland Block.

    Chicago, Illinois

    My dear Sir:

    I have the letter of your committee in regard to the reception and dinner to Captain Colliopoulos, a graduate this school of the Class of 1911.

    It will give me pleasure to be present with the members of the class (though I shall have to come late), to testify to my respect and regard for the man you intend to honor.

    Very truly yours,

    Edward T. Lee,

    Dean of the

    John Marshall Law School

    Mr. A. A. Pantelis 816 Ashland Block. Chicago, Illinois My dear Sir: I have the letter of your committee in regard to the reception and dinner to Captain Colliopoulos, a ...

    I A 1 a, IV
  • Saloniki-Greek Press -- October 10, 1914
    Greek Schools

    Two new Greek schools have recently opened in Chicago. One is on the West Side and the other on the South Side of the city. Each school has accomodations for two hundred children.

    It is a thrilling sensation to go to one of these schools and see two hundred heads bent over the pages of a Greek history book. Our children are being taught the glorious history of their country in this foreign land. However, there is another, less thrilling side to this matter. The school records show that five hundred Greek children are now enrolled in American schools. This makes our two hundred look insignificant.

    The size of this enrollment--five hundred--should shock every Greek who prides himself on this patriotism. He should realize the magnitude of our patriotic apathy. The children themselves are not responsible. How can they help it if they were born in a strange land among people who do not speak the Greek language? .... The parents are to be blamed if Greek children are forgetting the language 2of our fathers and are losing their religion.

    This problem is a very serious one. Our priests and leaders must face facts. If we continue at the present rate, there will be no Greeks in America after two generations! These leaders must take immediate and drastic action to create schools. The clergy can make appeals from the pulpit. They can use their influence on the good people in the community. The parents must be persuaded to send their children to Greek schools instead of American schools.

    Our patriotic and benevolent clubs must raise funds for the benefit of the schools in order that they may be worthy of the name "school". We have been informed that the two Greek schools are not yet properly equipped with desks and materials, and for this reason some of the children have been withdrawn and placed in the public schools.

    The parish treasuries are not adequate to do very much more unaided. Therefore, the clubs must come to their assistance. The Greek Women's Club has always been 3a faithful supporter of the Greek schools. Unfortunately, however, this club lost all of its capital in the bankrupt Greek-American Bank; therefore, the charitable acts of these ladies have been curtailed. This does not mean, however, that the mothers of Greek children should remain with folded hands.

    Greek mothers must help the schools in every possible manner. It is their responsibility to keep their children familiar with the Greek language.

    Saloniki pledges its co-operation with all groups that are making plans for the benefit of the Greek schools.

    Two new Greek schools have recently opened in Chicago. One is on the West Side and the other on the South Side of the city. Each school has accomodations for ...

    I A 2 a, I A 1 a, I A 2 c, I B 3 b, III A
  • Saloniki-Greek Press -- August 21, 1915
    The Greek Youth

    How many Greek children are there in the United States at the present time? Perhaps this question could be answered more easily if our priests kept birth and baptism records in some semblance of order. Roughly, we estimate that there are 300,000 Greeks in America, and about 15,000 of them are children.

    It is highly improbable that more than 2000 of these children attended Greek schools or classes. Most of these children attend the American public schools, even in districts where Greek schools are located. This is due, very often, to the poor organization and facilities of the [Greek] school. Sometimes it is the parents who are responsible for the low attendance of the school in their locality, because they do not take proper interest in their childrens' education.

    As yet, there is no real understanding of the position of the Greek school and its influence on the future of the Greeks in America.


    We have built impressive churches and have created highly complex social organizations; but we have completely overlooked, or deliberately ignored, our Greek schools. Of course, we do not belittle the efforts made in New York, Chicago or Lowell or....But even in those cities the schools are run so badly and the teachers are of such low calibre, that the schools are not very highly regarded by the parents in the community.

    Our first duty is toward our youth and their education; that is, if we want our language and religion to survive.

    How many Greek children are there in the United States at the present time? Perhaps this question could be answered more easily if our priests kept birth and baptism records ...

    I A 2 a, I A 1 a
  • Saloniki-Greek Press -- September 18, 1915
    The Greek Schools of Chicago

    The most important problem facing the Greek people of Chicago today is the one concerning the education of their children in the Greek schools.

    The members of the central committee of the unified church parishes of Chicago are faced with the solution of this important problem.

    Statistics issued by the Board of Education of Chicago, reveal that over one thousand Greek children graduated from the grammar schools last year. Only two hundred of these graduated from the two Greek schools of the Holy Trinity Church and the St. Constantine Church. The other eight hundred attended the American public schools.

    These are absolute facts. Only a complete knowledge of the actual truth can help us win our fight--a fight which shall enable our children to learn our mother tongue and the glorious history of our motherland.


    While our various organizations and patriotic clubs compete with one another to get more members;while our parishes are continually fighting over election results or church affairs, while the Greeks of the business world are working day and night in order to get rich, while our priests--without any exception--are expending all their energy and time seeking to officiate at funerals and weddings in order to receive fees, while the Greek newspapers devote their columns to denunciations and shameless name-calling, the innocent Greek children are being raised and educated--not in the Greek customs and language, not in the undying history of our country, not in our sacred Orthodox religion--but in a strange language, strange customs, strange background and strange mores. When these students finish their educations, then goodbye to Hellenism!

    This phenomenon is a brutally true one. It means murder of our nationality, and we, the supposedly patriotic people, are accomplices in this murder.

    While the Greek Church parish of Chicago was still undivided, a large lot on Sibley Street was purchased as the site for a fine school building and 3cafeteria for Greek children. This location was chosen because it was conveniently located for the entire Greek community. However, the division of the parish into three smaller ones played havoc with the plans for the school building. Stables were erected upon this lot, and sadly enough, they are still there.

    The central committee of the three parishes must make it their business to see that the school is built and properly equipped, in order that next year all of the thousand Greek children may attend a Greek school.

    The organization of the school and the proper type of teaching staff must be the concern of every Greek in Chicago, from the priests to the humblest and most ignorant laborer. Every Greek, regardless of whether he is rich or poor, employer or employee, professional man or a common uneducated worker, must concern himself with the important problem facing the Greeks--not only in Chicago, but in the entire United States. The uneducated, in fact, should be even more interested than others who were fortunate enough to receive good educations, since they are the ones who feel the lack of a Greek education and 4who appreciate the benefits derived from learning. No one should be criticized because he is uneducated--unless he deliberately avoided going to school since this is the fault of our social system and not the fault of any individual.

    The entire Greek community must give serious thought and consideration to the improvement of this condition.

    The most important problem facing the Greek people of Chicago today is the one concerning the education of their children in the Greek schools. The members of the central committee ...

    I A 2 a, I A 2 b, I A 1 a, III B 1, III A