The Chicago Foreign Language Press Survey was published in 1942 by the Chicago Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration of Illinois. The purpose of the project was to translate and classify selected news articles that appeared in the foreign language press from 1855 to 1938. The project consists of 120,000 typewritten pages translated from newspapers of 22 different foreign language communities of Chicago.

Read more about this historic project.

Filter by Date

  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- March 26, 1881
    Friedrich Hecker

    The robust health of Friedrich Hecker was indicative of a long life, but a stroke of paralysis a few days ago ended the colorful career of this fighter for liberty.

    Hecker was born on September 28, 1811, at Eichtersheim, in Baden. He received an excellent education, and became a very successful lawyer in the city of Mannheim.... His political career began in 1842, when he was elected representative to the Parliament of Baden. Be immediately became one of the most prominent leaders of the opposition party, defending the rights of the people. He also fought for a united Germany, this at a time when Prissia and Austria were still absolutist countries. He thus commanded the attention of all the German people.

    At the outbreak of the revolution in 1848, Hecker became the leader of the 2Republican Party of South Germany. He engaged in a combat with the regular Baden and Hessian troops at Constans, on April 12, 1848, but was defeated at Kamden, on April 20. Hecker then became a political refugee in Switzerland, with hardly any friends. While in exile, he was repeatedlly elected by the district of Thiengen, in Baden, as representative to the parliament in Frankfurt, although the majority declared the election of one guilty of high treason to be null and void.

    In September of the same year, having lost faith in the progress of the cause of liberty in Germany, he emigrated to America, where he was received most enthusiastically. He came to Illinois and bought a farm in St. Claire's County, which remained his residence throughout his life....

    Hecker joined the yet young Republican party in the fight against slavery, and 3toured the East and the West in 1856, giving enthusiastic speeches in favor or Mr. Fremont, the Republican presidential condidate.

    Immediately after the outbreak of the Civil War, he enlisted as common soldier in the Regiment of Volunteers, formed in St. Louis by Franz Sigel, his countryman. While there he was appointed Commander of the 24th Infantry Regiment of Volunteers of Illinois. With this German regiment he went into the field of action. Nevertheless, the discord among his officers resulted in his early resignation. German patriotism was not dead, however, and the German citizens of Chicago, assisted by the Staats-Zeitung, formed in 1862 another German regiment, known as the 82nd Infantry Regiment of the Volunteers of Illinois, standing under Hecker's command. As a constituent to the Eleventh Army Corps of the Potomac 4army, this regiment fought under Hooker the battle of Virginia against Gerneral Lee in 1863, and was also engaged in the bloody combat at Chancellorsville. There Colonel Hecker received a serious injury to his leg on May 3, while repelling Stonewall Jackson's forces. It was then that our troops suffered heavily, and nothing could have saved Hecker from being captured if it were not for his presence of mind. With supernatural will-power, disregarding the dangerous wound, he dragged himself into safety, behind trees and shrubs. He was taken to the home of his brother-in-law, Doctor Tiedemann, in Philadelphia, as soon as his condition permitted him to travel. At the end of convalescence he returned to the command of his regiment, which together with the Eleventh corps was transferred to the Western front. Hecker thus fought the battle of Chattanooga culminating in victory under General Grant. Not yet fully recovered from the war injury he resigned and returned to his farm in Illinois.

    5

    Although retired from the army, Hecker's interest in public affairs did not diminish. And once again, during the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71, he showed that his love for Germany was not extinct and that he remained a patriot of that country just as much as he proved an ardent Republican here. This he demonstrated in a magnificent speech delivered in St. Louis on the occasion of the victory of the German army. But he delivered an equally excellent fourth of July address the same year, at a Turner festival in Indiana, glorifying the American Republican Fatherland. He participated in the National Convention of the Liberals in Cincinnati, in May 1872. However, after the appointment of Greeley, he had become thoroughly disgusted with the Liberal movement and displayed a neutrality with almost a friendly attitude toward Grant. Nevertheless he supported the Democratic party at the election of members of Congress in 1874, which however was a manoenvre in order to bring about the unity of the 6corrupt Republican Party. But during the last two presidential elections he had resumed his old associations with the Republican Party. He was well-known for his excellent character and for his quick temper. He had been a correspondent for the Illinois Staats-Zeitung for many years, although he occasionally disagreed with the publisher over the "struggle between the state and the church in Prussia."

    Nevertheless, his articles have been published by this newspaper without any interruption and only the other day we published his noble protest against the persecution of Jews in Germany. As a foe of the Temperance movement, he has written many a word with a dynamic force behind it against the ill doings of fanatics.

    7

    In tribute to the memory of Friedrich Heckner we again publish these excellent words, an extract from a letter written by him to his Chicago companions in arms, four months ago.

    "The warm invitation from you, my courageous brothers in arms, who were among the first to offer yourselves at the altar of the great union, now leading the march of nations, perplexing thereby the entire world, was for me a panacea which rendered me oblivious to my suffering. All the struggles and disappointments of life diminish for each of us at the mere thought, that we too have helped with manly loyalty and devotion in building this great structure of Democracy, watching and guarding that precious institution. Especially now, since the ship of this mighty nation is piloted by our genial citizen-soldier, I would appreciate to meet you, old and loyal comrades, to recall with you the 8past and make plans for the future. But advancing years and poor health forbid me this happy reunion.... Convey, please, to each comrade my brotherly salute and my deepest appreciation for the high honor and the preservation of kind memories for their old commander."

    The robust health of Friedrich Hecker was indicative of a long life, but a stroke of paralysis a few days ago ended the colorful career of this fighter for liberty. ...

    German
    IV, II B 1 c 3, II B 2 d 1, II B 3, I B 1, I F 3, III D, III F, I C, I G
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- July 01, 1887
    Music in Chicago. Hans Balatka's Lecture Delivered at the Music Teachers' Convention.

    The Music Teachers' Convention was resumed, yesterday, with many speakers on the program......Hans Balatka delivered a very interesting lecture at the afternoon session, on: "What is the Outlook for the Organizing of a Permanent Orchestra for Chicago?" Mr. Balatka's creative work in the field of music is known throughout America and he is one of the leading musicians of this country. He said: "In contrast to the speakers preceding me who spoke of singing lessons, technique in piano playing, and philosophy of the fine arts, I wish to speak of musical local history, and of the creations of our musical pioneers. The first move for an orchestra in Chicago was made in 1853-1854, when Julius Dyrhenfurth brought with him twelve men from New York, giving Chicago a regular concert season during that winter.

    2

    Through lack of interest shown by the Chicago public, the company was forced to dissolve at the end of the season. Shortly afterwards, some of our music enthusiasts invited C. Bergmann, former conductor of the recently dissolved Germania Orchestra of Boston, to come to Chicago putting great hopes in his ability to form a society of musicians. But this project failed to be realized. It was in 1885 when under H. Ahner, a former member of the Germania Orchestra, the first orchestra concerts were given in Chicago. They continued this work through several seasons when they also were forced to dissolve for lack of financial support. This was the indirect cause of Mr. Ahner's death...........In 1860 I was requested to direct Mozart's Requiem at the Holy Name Cathedral which performance was repeated at Bryan Hall. This great success inspired a large number of music lovers to form a Philharmonic Society which then worked for several years with a marked success.

    3

    The new Crosby's opera house and the Italian operas performed there dealt again a death blow to our orchestra concerts and the Philharmonic Society. Not discouraged by these adverse conditions I decided to become the leader of my own orchestra, when, in the middle of the third season I found that I had sacrificed $2,000 of my own money, thus becoming convinced that Chicago was not interested in the concerts. The "Great Fire" and the business depression of 1873 -1876 added only to the indifference towards symphonic music. Another attempt was made in 1879 to reorganize the Philharmonic Society, but in vain. One reason why all attempts to give Chicago orchestra music failed is because there is a lack of appreciation. The second reason is the inefficacy of conductors and their friends.

    What I mean to say is, that the conductor of a singing society is not a fit person to conduct the performance of difficult compositions. Contrary to the belief of Europeans we have here exceedingly well trained musicians, who are well qualified to be members of any orchestra. How is it possible, then, that Chicago in spite of the high class professional musicians can not call a permanent orchestra its own?

    4

    The answer is simple: "Because an orchestra is not wanted." There are rumors that Chicago will have symphony concerts during the winter season. Let them come here, they will find numerous tombstones under which the ashes of many ambitious undertakings repose and if this does not scare them, then we say, "Come along, you gentlemen. In this little musical cemetery is always room for one more, just as it is in an omnibus; always room for one more passenger."

    The Music Teachers' Convention was resumed, yesterday, with many speakers on the program......Hans Balatka delivered a very interesting lecture at the afternoon session, on: "What is the Outlook for the ...

    German
    II A 3 b, IV, III F
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- June 06, 1888
    Lutheran Wartburg Synod.

    The German Lutheran Wartburg Synod, established twelve years ago in Chicago have today begun their annual conference at the St. Petri church. During the Sunday afternoon four graduates from the Chicago Preacher Seminary shall be ordained. The Wartburg Synod whose members live in the states of Illinois, Missouri, and Iowa is closely associated with the "General Synod" which comprises twenty three districts. The General Synod of the Evangelical-Lutheran church of the United States was founded in 1821.

    The German Lutheran Wartburg Synod, established twelve years ago in Chicago have today begun their annual conference at the St. Petri church. During the Sunday afternoon four graduates from the ...

    German
    III C, III F, III A
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- April 20, 1891
    The German American Library.

    The "Germania Male Chorus", which has done much in the last year to further German interests, now appears with a new plan, which is so exceptionally laudable, that it will not fail to arouse lively interest throughout all German-American circles. The association proposes nothing less, than the founding of a German-American library. However, as the following two letters give full details about this splendid idea, we publish them herewith, without comment.

    "Germania Male Chorus. Chicago, April 15, 1891. To Messrs. Joseph Baucker, Washington Hesing and Frederick Hild. Gentlemen! The club's secretary will probably have given you notice in regard to your nomination as members of the Library Committee, so it may not be necessary to recapitualte here, except that I had a special purpose in mind, when I suggested your names to the Board of Executives of the Germania Maennerchor (Male Chorus).

    As you know, for a year the Germania has subscribed to the principle, that a powerful, German-American club like ours, has a higher task to fulfill, than to function merely as an assembly which satisfies the social demands of its members, 2and this motto is not only found in our support of art during the grand artistic club productions, but includes our participation in all branches of the club's activity. According to my opinion, we now have an exceptional opportunity, by founding a club library. It is evident of course, that our goal cannot be a general race with the large book collections of the land. However, we have a good chance in achieving something, in so far as we may try to fill the large gaps in the American libraries and, at the same time, we function in conformance with the ideal sense of a German-American club.

    I need not tell you, that in the history of the Germans in the United States, from the very first period of its colonization until the present day, many a pearl of intellectuality lays scattered about, which will be doomed to oblivion if not properly gathered and preserved. As far as I know, no such attempt has ever been made, namely, to make a collection of all the literature in our language, which has been published in the United States, from the first days of the German immigration to the present era; at least in the west, no such work has ever been performed, or satisfactorily accomplished. In regard to the attainments of the German daily newspapers, all their noteworthy deeds for the perpetuation of our customs and language, however valuable they have been and always will be, such an edition we 3cannot include at present at least, because of its voluminous size. But it is within the realm of possibility to procure everything, which the German mind has conceived in this land and put into book form, this we may gather little by little and so preserve it for posterity. Aside from the great historical value of such a collection, it has a tendency to convince the German-American about the spiritual importance of his element, it will strengthen him in his competitive endeavors with other people, by giving him that necessary self respect.

    The administration is prepared to supply you with the necessary means for the realization of this work, and awaits your valued reply, whether you consider this briefly described plan as feasible and desirable, also, if you are willing to participate in your capacity as member of the committee.

    Very respectfully, Harry Rubens, President."

    To this communication the following reply was received: "Chicago, Ill. April 16, 1891. To the President of the Germania Maennerchor, Harry Rubens. Esteemed Sir! Your valuable letter reached me, today, and I hasten to inform you, that I am not only 4pleasedto co-operate, as befits the duties of the chairman of the library committee concerning which I have notified the club's secretary, but it gives me extraordinary pleasure to do my very best, to help realize your idea, the procurement of a specifically German-American library in our club.

    The German-American is unaware of his full importance regarding the past and is not sufficiently conversant with his cultural political problems of the present. The latter belongs to the German-American press. In order to bring the glorious past to his knowledge, he will find it is imperative to peruse history, but to successfully conclude such a study without the help of a large library is unthinkable. The accomplished German-American historian, H. A. Rattermann (German-American Magazine, folio 4, page 515) remarks: "To speak is silver, but silence is golden!" A well known proverb..... We have been silent until all the gold and silver in history has been distributed to all the others and we remain with empty hands. Yet, golden were the German deeds when the cultural development of this land is considered.... It is time.... we should speak of our achievements as German-Americans....until history gives us our deserved recognition...

    5

    Very well, we shall not only speak of the accomplishments of our forefathers, we shall garner them for the present and preserve them for the future.....From private collections....among dealers of antiquities...from publishers.... by appeals to the German press to support our cause,.... with the assistance of Mr. Hesing nad Mr. Hild as committee members,.... by asking for advice and suggestions of such eminent German-American historians as Oswald, Seidensticker, Rattermann, G. Koerner, just to mention a few,....we gladly labor for the beginning of the great work which you visualized and created.... Very respectfully Joseph Brucker."

    The "Germania Male Chorus", which has done much in the last year to further German interests, now appears with a new plan, which is so exceptionally laudable, that it will ...

    German
    II B 2 a, II B 2 d 1, II B 2 d 2, II B 2 d 3, II B 1 a, III A, III F
  • Abendpost -- July 13, 1891
    Exceedingly Kind

    The Germans of Chicago have decided to celebrate "German Day" but to compare this day with the "St. Patricks Day" of the Irish, as is being done by the Daily News, can be prompted only by malicious intent. St. Patricks Day is not a historical day and has nothing whatsoever in common with any event important in the history of the United States. St. Patricks Day can be more fittingly compared to a German "Harvest Feast." As a rule there is much drunkenness and misdemeanors. Quite to the contrary, the "German Day" will be celebrated in commemoration of those courageous pioneers who established the first German Colony more than 200 years ago. This day shall remind the English and Irish Americans, that they have not been the only nation to build up and develop the United States.

    Another reason for the celebration of "German Day" is to convince the young generation of German-Americans that they can be just as proud of their forebears and kinsmen as other nations are. Above all, this day shall help to 2stimulate the devotion of the German-Americans towards this country, for whose development German heads and hands have worked for hundreds of years. In this sense it shall be a genuine German-American holiday.

    The Germans are tired of being treated as of no account. They recognize the fact that others have no appreciation for the virtue of humility and contentment. They cannot be satisfied any more with empty phrases and they have decided to give a public demonstration of their power, as nothing else will attract the attention and admiration of the public effectively. Such a demonstration in Chicago would be of great benefit in many respects. Even the Germans would gain more self-confidence if they realize to the full extent their numerical strength. It is also certain that other nationalities will treat them with more respect after seeing a public demonstration of their legions.

    3

    A year ago the Abendpost tried in vain to get the celebration of the "German Day" started. However, this year we have to same extent at least started the ball rolling, and should it be too late this season to properly prepare for a dignified celebration then it should be postponed. Nevertheless, the Daily News and similar institutions can depend upon our determination, that we refuse to accept or consider any of their plans as a substitute for the proposed great public demonstration.

    The Germans of Chicago have decided to celebrate "German Day" but to compare this day with the "St. Patricks Day" of the Irish, as is being done by the Daily ...

    German
    II B 1 c 3, II B 2 d 1, III F, I C
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- September 18, 1891
    Lorenz Brentano Died

    Lorenz Brentano, at one time one of the most famous Germans, and German-Americans, died here last night at the age of 78 years.

    He was born in Mannheim, Germany, and studied jurisprudence at the universities of Heidelberg and Freiburg. As an excellent jurist he soon gained the respect and esteem of people, and became one of the most outstanding members of the House of Commons of the Grand Duchy of Baden, where he belonged to the Opposition Party, fighting for a free and united Germany....

    In 1850 he started a new life in the United States. At first he was the publisher of a country paper, "The Lighthouse at Pottsville, Pennsylvania, but his articles against slavery enraged the old German Democrats there. He left therefore, and went to Michigan, where he purchased a farm near Kalamazoo, and remained there the following years.

    At the time the Douglas Bill created the movement for liberty, Brentano again appeared in public life. In 1859 he became one of the editors of the Illinois Staats Zeitung, and in the spring of 1862 he became one of its owners and editor 2in chief. In this position he rendered the cause of the union during the Civil War very valuable services. He also was a member of the Illinois State Legislature at this time.

    At the close of the Civil War he was elected a member of the Chicago School Board, and later became its chairman. In this capacity he, with his colleague, H. Felsenthal, contributed his greatest efforts towards the introduction of instruction in German in our public schools.

    He sold his share of the Illinois Staats Zeitung in 1867 to A. C. Hesing and in 1869 he went to Europe, where he represented the just cause of the U. S. during the court proceedings at Gent about the Alabama question.

    President Grant appointed Brentano in 1872 as consul of the United States at Dresden, Germany. After his return to the United States he was elected to Congress....

    At a later period he left the Republican Party and became an independent Democrat....

    3

    Among his survivors are his widow, his son, Theodore Brentano, the present Judge of the Superior Court, his daughter, and a step daughter....

    Lorenz Brentano, at one time one of the most famous Germans, and German-Americans, died here last night at the age of 78 years. He was born in Mannheim, Germany, and ...

    German
    IV, II B 2 d 1, I F 5, III A, III F, III D, I H
  • Abendpost -- October 05, 1891
    "German" Day

    It can no longer be claimed, that in a large city like Chicago a getting together of all"Germans" for the celebration of the "German" Day is impossible since such a celebration has taken place recently even in New York. "Germanism" is far more influential in Chicago than New York, However, the "Germans" in Chicago have not been sufficiently aroused to be fully aware of their own importance. They seem to have no desire for politics and even along other lines they do not play the role in public life which they should due to their numerical strength and intellectual culture. They do not assert themselves and hence they are overlooked. Perhaps it is rather a lack of knowledge, that the "German-Americans" fail to understand the importance of "Germanism" in the development of this country. This can only be remedied, if the "Germans" themselves show up these facts in their real significance. A demonstration showing the arrival of "German" pilgrims 200 years ago, will accomplish much. It will remind the Americans that the "Germans" have their pioneers in this country as well as the "Anglo-Saxons." Other ways and means must be used besides this demonstration. The proposition to organize a club for historical research of "Germanism" in the United States, is worthy of 2serious condideration. This research Society should then find entrance into the new Chicago University. Another suggestion that should not be ignored is the erection of monuments for real outstanding great "German-Americans."

    It can no longer be claimed, that in a large city like Chicago a getting together of all"Germans" for the celebration of the "German" Day is impossible since such a ...

    German
    III B 2, II B 1 c 3, II B 2 c, III A, III F, III H, I J, I C
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- June 30, 1892
    Philipp Groll.

    Philipp Groll, a former bakery owner, died at his home yesterday at the age of over 74 years. Our German citizens lost in him one of those pioneers, who knew Chicago since its beginning, and who helped to lay the foundation for the Western metropolis and its glory and fame. Mr. Groll lived in Chicago for forty-four years, and contributed his share in promoting the development and success of the city. When Groll came to Chicago it had less than 8,000 inhabitants.

    The famous Groll's bakery was located on La Salle Street, between Randolph and Lake Streets. Mr. Groll was also a member of the volunteer fire department, 2and served with the present chief of the fire department, Sweeney, in the same company. When he opened his bakery in 1848, he was, as a German baker, the first of his trade in Chicago.

    Philipp Groll, a former bakery owner, died at his home yesterday at the age of over 74 years. Our German citizens lost in him one of those pioneers, who knew ...

    German
    IV, II A 2, III F
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- August 13, 1893
    The Cannstadter Festival. German-American Historical Play Featured.

    The Swabians will give their 16th annual folk festival at Ogden's Grove today and next week, on Sunday the 20th, and on Monday, the 21st. The festivities this year will be held in honor of the World's Fair and its visitors... The main feature of the program will be an historical performance, the product of the genial Louis Kindt who functions in the dual role of author and director.

    The cast includes more than one hundred men and women. The play in four acts depicts the experiences and struggles of the early Swabians who settled on American soil. The main characters, Conrad Weiser, and his son-in-law, Muehlenberger, are genuine historical figures.

    Their names go back to the time when our adopted Fatherland was still a British Colonial possession. The first scene shows the arrival of the Swabians and of the Pfaelzer under the leadership of the senior Weiser, a native of Wuerttemberg. The environment is the Schohane Valley in New York state.

    2

    They were employed by the English Government. The English governor of New York, Mr. Hunter, let them suffer from hunger and privations so they decided to settle in the Schohane Valley and eke out an independent existence among the Indians. The latter were exceptionally friendly.

    The second act shows the fight with the sheriff from Albany and a detachment of soldiers. The governor had maliciously deeded the land to a Dutch corporation, after the Germans succeeded in converting the wilderness into farms. Now they were to be evicted from their homes by means of military force.

    Mr. Weiser, the elder, even went to London to obtain justice for the German settlement, but the corporation won and the Germans, deprived of their possessions,sought a new home in the land of liberty, Pennsylvania, where the great Quaker, William Penn, had created a haven of refuge for all the oppressed.

    The third scene shows the exodus, and the fourth portrays the first festival in the thriving village, Wommelsdorf, which was founded by Weiser and his followers. Weiser's son was only a child when he came to America with his 3father and while living among the Indians he learned their language thoroughly.

    He became famous in the political life of the Colonies, - New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and particularly as mediator between the territories and the various Indian tribes. This then constitutes the historical backbone of the play and it provides a most timely addition to the Columbian festivities of the World's Fair.

    But the Swabians also will provide other entertainments. There will be acrobatics, concerts, a race, and marionette theater. Of special interest to those who appreciate choice vintages is the announcement that Neckar wine has been imported for this occasion - six barrels from the Stuttgart imperial cellars.

    There are also five barrels of Elfingen Riesling of 1886 vintage, and one barrel of red Mundelsheimer, anno 1889. These wines enjoy high repute in Swabia.... Let's go to the festival for a few hours of clean fun.

    The Swabians will give their 16th annual folk festival at Ogden's Grove today and next week, on Sunday the 20th, and on Monday, the 21st. The festivities this year will ...

    German
    II B 1 c 3, III B 2, II D 1, III F, V A 1
  • Illinois Staats-Zeitung -- October 10, 1893
    The German Floats on Chicago Day

    [A lengthy account published on Oct. 9, contained the following figures: one-half million people visited Chicago.... 300,000 persons came to see the World's Fair during the last forty-eight hours..... More than 400 railroad trains of double capacity were pressed into service..... A computation of the total number of tickets sold cannot be made at this late hour..... An item to appear on Oct. 11, says there was an unprecedented attendance of 718,526 for the World's Fair on Chicago Day..... A list of large figures and dates is to be appended for comparison...... The next largest attendance ever had was for the "Revue of the Union Armies," in 1865, estimated at 500,000. Transl.]

    The first float of the German group represented Germany; its art, 2science, and industry. Both floats used the pyramidal arrangement to display the various figures. They were designed by Louis Kindt and Louis Kurz. The actual reproduction was entrusted to Mr. Adolph Steidle, who created a dramatic and effective ensemble with pleasing color combinations. The apex of the pyramidal display was formed by the living figure of Germania standing atop the triumphal arch; apparel, arms, and position reminiscent of the Niederwald monument. Underneath this arch, or rather in the pergola formed by its four square pillars, stands "J. Gutenberg," inventor of the printing process and his compatriot "Johann Fust." "Gutenberg" is shown reading the first proof which "Fust" had just taken from the press. To one side of this archway stands "John Kepler," discoverer of the cosmic laws that rule our planetary system. He is shown viewing the heavens through a telescope. The following 3great men, who brought fame to Germany were also represented: Sebastian Bach, the master of music; Immanuel Kant, Germany's greatest philosopher; Justus Liebig, the chemist; Alexander von Humbolt, the naturalist; as well as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich von Schiller, the poets.

    A good contrast was formed by the powerful blacksmith standing next to his forge, symbolical of Germany's industry that supplies world markets. All the models, by their costumes and general appearance were so authentic and so effectively presented that the subjects personified, such as Bachus and the wine industry, became immediately apparent.

    Education was represented by Miss Lina Schaible, drama by Mrs. W. Fabian, natural history by Miss M. Schuhmann, music by Miss A. Fabian, domestic arts by Miss F. Mueller. Miss Bertha Fabian played the part of "Electra," 4the goddess of electricity, a science which plays a prominent part in the technical sciences of Germany at the present time. Indicative of the future development and importance of electricity, the winged figure stood on an elevation. The task of the Chicago Turngemeinde was to procure actors for the German floats, and one of their officials, A. G. Hambrock, superintendent of gymnastics, complied in a splendid manner.....

    The second float was provided through the contributions of the German residents. It showed how our German-born American citizens helped create and defend freedom. Under the protection of the "Goddess of Liberty," leaning against a shield and upholding the American flag in her right hand, stand the German generals Steuben, Muehlenberg, De Kalb, von Herkheiner, Siegel, the heroes of Valley Forge in 1776 and the Civil war, 5with their Pennsylvanian - German soldiers who fought on American soil, and the Chicago Turner regiments. Needless to say, historically accurate costumes and uniforms were used. In the center of this group was a large, open book with the years 1776 and 1861 printed on its pages; the eventful years of glory so significant in our German-American history. Surmounting this book, one perceives the American eagle hemmed in by a huge forest of flags. Near the "Goddess of Liberty" is "Abraham Lincoln," calling the people to arms. The friends of free institutions gather for the defence, the German Turners in the vanguard.

    The "Goddess of Liberty" was enacted by Miss Ella Schultz.....

    [A lengthy account published on Oct. 9, contained the following figures: one-half million people visited Chicago.... 300,000 persons came to see the World's Fair during the last forty-eight hours..... More ...

    German
    II B 1 c 3, III B 2, III D, III F, III H, I C